1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers

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Karnataka 1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers

Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100


  1. Write the question numbers legibly in the margin.
  2. Answer for a question should be continuous.

Section – A

I. Choose the correct answers: ( 1 × 5 = 5 )

Question 1.
Alternative uses of resources give rise to the problem of
(a) Rights
(b) Price
(c) Choice
(d) Chance
(c) Choice.

Question 2.
O gives can be helpful in locating graphically.
(a) Mode
(b) Mean
(c) Median
(d) none of these
(C) Median.

Question 3.
Railway transport introduced in India in the year.
(e) 1850.

Question 4.
Poverty line separates
(a) Poor and non-poor
(b) Rich and non-rich
(c) Poor and weak
(d) Non of the above
(a) Poor and non-poor

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Question 5.
GDP stands for
(a) Gross Domestic Product
(b) Gross Domestic price
(c) Dollar price
(d) None f the above
(a) Gross Domestic Product.

II. Fill in the blanks: ( 1 × 5 = 5 )

Question 6.
In tabular presentation, data is presented in ________________.

Question 7.
Inflation affects the _________________ of common people.
Cost of living.

Question 8.
Reforms were introduced during _______________.

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Question 9.
Indian system of Medicine includes __________________ systems.

Question 10.
Forests are ____________________ resources.

III. Match the following: ( 1 × 5 = 5 )

Question 11.

1. Pilot Survey 1. India and the knowledge economy
2. Weighted Arithmetic Mean 2. Fruit Production
3. Prime Minister 3. Pre-testing of questionnaire
4. World Bank 4. Chairperson of the Planning Commission
5. Golden Revolution 5. Weights given to relative importance


IV. Answer the following questions in a word sentence: ( 1 × 5 = 5 )

Question 12.
Give the meaning of Standard deviation.
Standard deviation is the positive square root of the mean of squared deviations from mean.

Question 13.
What is a project?
A project is a well thought out action plan designed to attain predetermined objectives.

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Question 14.
Give the meaning of infant mortality rate.
Infant mortality rate is the death of babies per thousand live births.

Question 15.
Expand I.L.O.
International Labour Organisation.

Question 16.
Which country has the highest life expectancy.

Section – B

V. Answer any four of the following questions in four sentence each. ( 2 × 4 = 8 )

Question 17.
Mention the two sources of data.
Primary data and secondary data are the two sources of data.

Question 18.
Differentiate between inclusive and exclusive methods of classification.
Exclusive method: Under this method. the classes are formed in such a way that the upper class limit of one class will be equal to the lower class limit of the next class. Here the continuity of the data is maintained. This method is most suitable in case of data of a continuous variable. For example, among class intervals 10-20 and 20-30, 20 is included in the next class interval i.e., 20-30 and not in 10-20.

Inclusive method: Under this method, upper class limit is included in a class interval. So here, both upper class limit and lower class limit are parts of the class interval.

In the above example, if we take the class interval 10-19, the lower limit, 10 and the upper 19 are included in the class interval 10-19. If we consider the class intervals as marks of students, the marks scored by students between 10 and 19 falls in this class interval. If a student secures 20, it falls in the next class interval.

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Question 19.
How can you obtain an Arithmetic line graph?
In an arithmetic line graph. time is plotted along the x-axis and the value of the variable is measured in y-axis. A Line graph is constructed by joining the plotted points to get the arithmetic line graph. It helps in understanding the trend, periodicity etc., in a long term time series data.

Question 20.
Calculate the value of Median from the following figures.
X: 5 7 9 12 11 8 7 15 25
We need to put in ascending order
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers img 1

Question 21.
Mention which type of correlation is associated with
(a) Production and Price of Vegetable.
(b) Temperature and sale of ice creams.
(a) There is a negative correlation between production and price of vegetables. If the production of vegetables increases, which leads to increase in supply, it will result in decrease in price of vegetables.

(b) There is a positive correlation between temperature and sale of ice creams. If the temperature increases, there will be an increase in the sales of ice creams and vice versa.

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Question 22.
Mention the name of any four Statistical tools.
Following are the four steps in developing a project:

  1. Identifying a problem or an area of study
  2. Choice of target group
  3. Collection of data
  4. Organisation and presentation of data.

VI. Answer any five of the following questions in four sentence each. ( 2 × 5 = 10 )

Question 23.
List out the important export goods of India before Independence.
The important export goods of India before independence were raw silk, cotton, wool, sugar, indigo, jute. etc.

Question 24.
List out the features of poorest households.
Starvation and hunger are the main features of the poorest households. They do not possess any assets. They live in slums and some sleep in public places. In rural areas, they are landless labourers. Many do not get even two meals a day. They lack basic literacy and skills and have limited economic opportunities.

Question 25.
Bring out the difference between human capital and human development.

Human Capital Human Development
1. It means investing in human beings as we do in physical capital in order to get future returns in the form of higher productivity and earnings. 1. It refers to the overall development of human beings which includes political and economic, social, spiritual aspects of their living.
2. It considers education and health as the means to increase labour productivity. 2. It is based on the idea that education & health are integral to human well being.
3. It treats human beings as a means to an end, the end being the increase in productivity. 3. It treats human beings as ends themselves.
4. It is a narrow concept 4. It is a broader concept.

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Question 26.
Name the institutional sources of rural credit.

  • Commercial Banks
  • Regional Rural Banks (RRBs)
  • Cooperative Societies
  • Land Development Banks.

Question 27.
Who are all included in labour force?
All those who are engaged in economic activities, in what ever capacity-high or low are called workers. Even if some of them temporarily abstain from work due to illness, injury or other physical disability. bad weather, festivals, social or religious functions are also workers. Apart from these, the labour force also consists of those who help the main workers and the self employed workers.

Question 28.
Which are the health indicators?
The main health indicators are as follows:

  • Infant mortality rate.
  • Maternal mortality rate.
  • Life expectancy level.
  • Nutrition level.
  • Incidence of communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Question 29.
Write any two threats to environment in our country.
The major threats of environment in India are as follows:

  1. Threat of poverty induced environmental degradation.
  2. Threat of pollution from the rapidly growing industrial sector. air pollution, water contamination, soil erosion, deforestation and wildlife extinction.

Section – C

VII. Answer any three of the following questions in twelve sentence each. ( 3 × 4 = 12 )

Question 30.
Scarcity is the root of all economic problems explain the statement.
It is true that the scarcity is the root of all economic problems. If there had been no scarcity there would have been no economic problem. This would have not necessitated the study of economics.

In our daily life, we face various forms of scarcity. The queues at the railway booking counters, over crowded buses, heavy traffic on roads, the rush to get a ticket to watch a movie of a popular film actor or actress, are all the manifestations of scarcity. We face scarcity because the things that satisfy our wants are limited in availability.

Further, the resources which the producers have are limited and also have alternative uses. For instance, take the case of food that we eat everyday. It satisfies our want of nourishment. Farmers employed in agriculture grow crops that produce our food. At any point of time, the resources in agriculture like land, labour, water, chemical fertilizers, etc, all these resources have alternative uses.

The same resources can be used in the production of non-food crops. Thus, alternative uses of resources give rise to the problem of choice between different commodities that can be produced by those resources.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 31.
Briefly explain sampling errors.
Sampling error refers to the differences between the sample estimate and the actual value of a characteristic of the population. It is the error that occurs when you make an observation from the samples taken from the population.

Thus, the difference between the actual value of a parameter of the population and its estimate is the sampling error. It is possible to reduce the magnitude of sampling error by taking a larger sample.

For example, suppose the height of 5 students (in inches) are 50, 55, 60, 65, 70. Now, the average height will be calculated by adding all these observations and dividing the sum by 5 . then we get 60 inches. If we select a sample of two students with height of 50 and 60 inches, then average height of sample will be 50 + 60 divided by 2, we get 55 inches. Here the sampling error of the estimate will be 60 (true value) minus 55 (estimate) = 5.

Question 32.
Draw scatter diagram and interpret.
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1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers img 3
Interpretation: There is a perfect positive correlation between X and Y.

Question 33.
Write a note on classification of data.
The raw data is classified in various ways depending on the purpose. Generally data can be classified as follows:

  • Chronological classification: When the data is grouped according to time, it is called as chronological classification, in such a classification, data are classified either in ascending or in descending order with reference to time such as years, quarters, months weeks days, etc.
  • Spatial classification: If the data are classified with reference to geographical locations such as countries, states, cities, districts, etc., it is called spatial classification.
  • Qualitative classification: When the data are classified on the basis of certain attributes or qualities like literacy, religion, gender, marital status etc., then it is called qualitative classification. These attributes can be classified on the basis of either the presence or the absence of a qualitative characteristic.
  • Quantitative classification: If the classification of data is done on the basis of certain characteristics like height, weight. age, income, marks of students etc., it is called as quantitative classification.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 34.
The yield of wheat production per acre for 10 districts of a state is under.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers img 4
Calculate Quartile Deviation (Q.D)
Q.D for Wheat:
First we need to arrange the observations in the ascending order
x: 9 10 10 12 15 16 18 19 21 25
Calculation of lower quartile (Q1):
Q1 = size of \(\left(\frac{N}{4}\right)^{t h}\) item = size of \(\left(\frac{10+1}{4}\right)^{\text {th }}\) item
= The size of \(\left(\frac{11}{4}\right)^{\mathrm{th}}\) item i.e., 2.75th item
The size of 2.75th item is size of 2nd item + 0.75 item
Size of 2nd item = 10
Size of 0.75 item = Size of 3rd item – 2nd item
= 10 – 10 = 0
Q1 = size of 2nd item + 0.75 item is
Q1 = 10 + 0.75 (10 – 10) = 10 + O.75(0)
= 10 + 0
Q1 = 10
Calculation of Upper Quartile (Q3):
Q3 = Size of 3\(\left(\frac{N+1}{4}\right)^{t h}\) item
= Size of (\(\frac{3(10+1)^{\text {th }}}{4}\)) item = Size of \(\left(\frac{3(11)}{4}\right)^{t h}\) item
= Size of \(\left(\frac{33}{4}\right)^{\text {th }}\) item = size of 8.25 item
i.e.. size of 8th item + 0.25 item (size of 9th – 8th item)
Q3 = 19 + 0.25 (21 – 19) = 19 + 0.25(2)
Q3 = 19 + 0.5
Q3 = 19.5
Now QD = \(\frac{\mathrm{Q}_{3}-\mathrm{Q}_{1}}{2}=\frac{19.5-10}{2}=\frac{9.5}{2}=4.75\)
QD = 4.75 tonnes

VIII. Answer any four of the following questions in twelve sentence each. ( 4 × 4 = 16 )

Question 35.
Indicate the volume and direction of foreign trade at the time of Indian Independence.
The volume of foreign trade includes the quantities of goods and services which w ere being exported and imported. The direction of trade refers to the countries which were involved during British rule. The volume and direction of India’s foreign trade at the time of independence is as follows:

During the regime of colonial government, India became an exporter of primary goods like raw silk, cotton, wool, sugar, raw jute etc., and an importer of finished consumer goods like ‘ cotton, silk and woolen clothes and capital goods like light machineries produced by the factories at Britain.

Britain had maintained monopoly over India’s exports and imports. As a result, more than half of India’s foreign trade was restricted to Britain, while the rest was allowed with a few other countries like China, Srilanka, Iran, etc. The opening of the Suez Canal further intensified British control over India’s foreign trade.

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Question 36.
Give the meaning and the importance of Small-scale industries.
A small scale industry is defined with reference to the maximum investment allowed on the assets of a production unit. A small scale industry is one where the investment is less than one crore rupees.

Small scale industries play a very important role in the economic development of India. It is a known fact that small scale industries are more labour intensive i.e., they use more labour than the large scale industries and therefore, generate more employment.

Apart from the above, the small scale industries require less capital as they are small units. They are free from industrial unrest. They also depend on indigenous resources and need not depend on foreign resources. Small scale industries were also given concessions like lower
excise duty and bank loans at lower interest rates.

Question 37.
Briefly explain the background of economic reforms in India.
There was a financial crisis which persisted since 1980. We know that to introduce various policies, the government has to generate funds from various sources like taxation, running public sector enterprises etc. When the expenditure is more than the income, the government takes loans to balance the deficit from banks and also from people within the country and from international banks.

The various development policies require huge finance. But there was scarcity of funds. Even though the revenues were very low, the government had to overshoot its revenue to meet the challenges like unemployment, poverty and population explosion. The continued spending on development programmes of the government did not generate additional revenue.

At the same time, the government could not generate funds internally. When the government was spending a large share of its income on areas which do not provide immediate returns, there was a need to use the rest of its revenue in a highly efficient manner. The income from public sector undertakings was also not very high to meet the growing expenditure.

Further, the foreign exchange, borrowed from other countries and international banks was spent on meeting consumption needs. No sincere efforts were made to reduce expenditure and to increase our exports.

During late 1980’s government expenditure exceeded its income. Prices of many essential goods increased. Imports grew at a very large extent. Foreign exchange reserves declined considerably and the same fall short to finance our imports for more than two weeks. There was shortage of funds even to pay interest to international lenders and at the same time no country or international bank was ready to lend any more to India.

At this situation, India approached the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and International Monetary Fund and received seven billion dollars as loan to manage the crisis. To avail loans, these international banks expected India to liberalise and open up its economy by removing restrictions on the private sector, reduce the role of government in many areas and remove trade restrictions between India and other countries. India had to agree to these conditions of IBRD and IMF and announced the new economic policy which included liberalization, privatization and globalization.

Question 38.
Write a short note on alternative markets.
The examples for emerging alternate marketing channels are as follows:

1. Farmers directly sell their agricultural produce to consumers. Example: Apni Mandi in Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan, Rythu Bazars (vegetables and fruits markets) in Andhra Pradesh, Uzhavar Sandhai – (a farmers market) in Tamil Nadu.

2. Agricultural contracts several domestic and multinational companies entering agreements with Indian farmers in which farmers are encouraged to grow farm products (vegetables and-fruits) of desired quality by providing them with not only seeds and other inputs but also assured procurement of the produce at predecided prices.

The main benefits of alternative agricultural marketing channels are:

  • The farmers get seeds and other agricultural inputs.
  • Farmers are assured of procurement of agricultural products at predecided prices.
  • Help in reducing price risk of farmers.
  • Expansion of markets for farm products in India and abroad.

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Question 39.
Briefly explain the state of infrastructure in rural India.
Majority of people in India live in rural areas. In spite of so much of technological progress in the world, rural women are still using bio-fuels like agricultural waste, dried dung and fire wood to meet their energy requirement. They have to walk long distances to bring fuel, water and other basic needs.

According to the latest estimates, in rural India only 56% of households have electricity connection and 43% still ties kerosene. About 90% of the rural households use bio- fuels for cooking. Tap water availability is limited to only 24 % rural households. About 76 % of the population drinks water from open sources like wells, tanks, ponds, lakes, rivers, canals etc. Access to improved sanitation in rural areas only 20 %.

Question 40.
Write about the various indicators of Human development.
The various indicators of human development are as follows:

  • Human development index: It consists of standard of living index, life expectancy at birth and educational attainment. If the HDI is high it is good indicator of human development.
  • Life expectancy at birth: It is the average number of years a person is expected to live. In other words, it is the longevity of life. A high value of life expectancy better indicates a quality human development.
  • Adult literacy rate: It is the average number of persons who have reading and writing skills with basic local knowledge. It is expressed in percentages. The high literacy rate shows high human development.
  • GDP per capita: The gross domestic product per head is also one of the indicators of human development. The high value of GDP per capita indicates a better human development.
  • Infant mortality rate: It means the death of babies per thousand live births. If the IMR is high it indicates low human development.
  • Maternal mortalit rate: It shows the death of mothers per 1 lakh live births. If MMR is low, it indicates a better human development.
  • Population using improved sanitation: If the percentage of population using improved sanitation is more, it is a good indicator of human development.
  • Population with sustainable access to improved water sources: If the percentage of population using sustainable access to improved source is high, it is a good indicator of human development.
  • People living below poverty line: If less people are living below poverty line, then it is a good indicator of human development.
  • Percentage of children undernourished: If the number of undernourished children is diminishing, then it is a good indicator of human development.

Section – D

IX. Answer any two of the following questions in about twenty sentence each. ( 2 × 6 = 12 )

Question 41.
What is Component Bar Diagram? Draw a component bar diagram with the help of following table. Enrollment by gender at schools (%) of children aged 6-14 years in a District of Bihar.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers img 5
Component bar diagrams or charts also called sub diagrams, are very useful in comparing the sizes of different component parts and also for throwing light on the relationship among these integral parts.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers img 6

KSEEB Solutions

Question 42.
Calculate Q1, Q2, and Q3 from following data.
15, 21, 26, 30, 40, 45, 50, 54, 60, 65, 70
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers img 7

(For blind students only)

What is Tabulation? What are the parts of a table? Explain.
When data is represented in rows and columns, it is called tabulation. To construct a table, it is important to know the different components of a good statistical table. When all the components are put together systematically, they form a table.
Tabulation can be done using one way, two way or three way classification depending upon the number of characteristics involved. A good table should have the following parts:

  • Table number: Table number is given to a table for identification purpose. If more than one table is presented, it is the table number that distinguishes one table from another. It is given at the top or at the beginning of the title of the table.
  • Title: The title of the table gives about the contents of the table. It has to be very clear, brief and carefully worded, so information interpretations made from the table are clear and free from any confusion.
  • Captions: These are the column headings given as designations to explain the figures of the column.
  • Stubs: These are headings given to rows of the table. The designations of the rows are also called stubs or stub items and the left column is known as stub column.
  • Body of the table: It is the main part and it contains the actual data. Location of any one data in the table is fixed and determined by the row and column of the table.
  • Head note/Unit of measurement: The units of measurement of the figures in the table should always be stated along with the title. If figures are large. they should be rounded off and the method of rounding should be indicated.
  • Source: It is a brief statement or phrase indicating the source of data presented in the table. If more than one source is there, all the sources are to be mentioned.
  • Note: It is the last part of the table, It explains the specific feature of the data content of the table which is not self explanatory and has not been explained earlier.

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Question 43.
The yield of wheat per acre for 10 districts of a state is as under.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers img 8
Calculate Standard Deviation and Coefficient Variation.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers img 12
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers img 9

X. Answer any two of the following questions in about twenty sentence each. ( 2 × 6 = 12 )

Question 44.
Briefly explain the important area of liberalization.
Liberalisation was one of the reforms of New Economic Policy of 1991. It was introduced to put an end to the restrictions and open up various sectors of the economy. The following are the important areas of liberalization:

1.  Deregulation of industrial sector: The liberalization policy removed many restrictions enforced on industrial sector. Industrial licensing was abolished for almost all but product categories like alcohol, cigarettes, hazardous chemicals, industrial explosives, electronics, aerospace and drugs and pharmaceuticals.

The only industries which are not reserved for the public sector are defence equipments, atomic energy generation and railway transport. Many goods produced by the small scale industries have now been dereserved.

2. Financial sector reforms: The financial sector consists of financial institutions like commercial banks, investment banks, stock exchange operations and foreign exchange market.

The financial sector in India is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India. The RBI decides the amount of money that the banks can keep with themselves, fixes interest rates, nature of lending to various sectors, etc.

The major objective of financial sector reforms is to reduce the role of RBI from regulator to facilitator of financial sector. That means, the financial sector may be allowed to take decisions on many matters independent of RBI.

The financial sector reform policies led to the establishment of private sector banks both Indian and foreign. Foreign investment limit in banks was raised to around 50%. The banks which fulfill certain conditions have been given freedom to set up new branches without the approval of the RBI. Foreign institutional investors (FIT) like merchant bankers, mutual funds and pension funds are now allowed to invest in Indian financial markets.

3. Tax reforms: These are the reforms which are concerned with government’s taxation and public expenditure policies which are collectively known as its fiscal policy. There are two types of taxes, direct and indirect.

Since 1991, there has been a continuous reduction in the taxes on individual incomes as it was felt that high rates of income tax were an important reason for tax evasion. It is now widely accepted that moderate rates of income tax encourage savings and voluntary disclosure of income.

The rate of corporation tax (tax on income of companies) which was very high earlier has been gradually reduced. A new tax called Goods and Services Tax (GST) has been introduced from 1.7.2017 to bring uniformity in indirect taxes.
In order to encourage better compliance on the part of tax payers, many procedures have been simplified and the rates also substantially lowered.

4. Foreign exchange reforms: During 1991, the Government took an immediate measure to resolve the balance of payments crisis, the rupee was devalued against foreign currencies. This led to an increase in the inflow of foreign exchange. It also set the tone to free the determination of rupee value in the foreign exchange market from government control. At present, the market forces i.e., demand and supply, determine the exchange rates.

5. Trade and investment policy reforms: A new trade and investment policy under liberalization strategy was made to increase international competitiveness of industrial production and a foreign investments and technology into the economy. The aim was also to promote the efficiency of the local industries and the adoption of modem technologies.

To protect Indian industries, the government was following quantitative restrictions on imports which encouraged tight control over imports. At the same time, tariffs were very high. These policies reduced efficiency and competitiveness which led to a slower growth of manufacturing sector.

The main objectives of Trade and Investment Policy were:

  • To remove quantitative restrictions on imports.
  • To reduce quantitative restrictions in exports.
  • Reducing tariff rates.
  • Removal of licensing system.

Import licensing was abolished except in case of hazardous and environmentally sensitive industries. Quantitative restrictions on imports of manufactured consumer goods and agricultural products were also fully removed. Export duties have been removed to increase the competitive position of Indian goods in the international markets. A process of disinvestment was also initiated by selling of part of equity shares of public sector enterprises to the public.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 45.
Examine the role of education in the economic development of a nation.
The education plays a predominant role in economic development of India in the following way:
1.  It modernizes the attitude and behaviour of the people: Education brings favourable changes in the attitude and behaviour of people. It gives inputs like what is right and what is wrong and contributes for taking sound and and able judgments.

2. Promotes science and technology: Education always provides the knowledge about latest technology to people who know reading and writing. It explains the new methods of production through innovations in various sectors of the economy. They providing scope for latest techniques of production, it develops agriculture, industry, transport. power, etc.

3. Increases mobility of labours: Education helps the labourers to search for more re warding employment opportunities all over the world. It helps to chooses a suitable career according to one’s educational qualifications. It makes them to move from country to country or state to state as and when required.

4.  Creates national and developmental consciousness: Education creates civic, national and developmental consciousness among the literates. It provides information about the past events in History and tells about the freedom struggle of great national leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Bhagath Singh, Subhas Chandra Bose and others. It makes people to develop a sense of patriotism and helps them to adopt strategies of progress in life.

5.  Contributes to skilled and trained workers: Education generates skilled and trained labour force needed for the development of the country. Education includes both general and technical education. The general education includes Bachelor of Arts. Bachelor of Commerce.

Bachelor in Business Administration, etc. at the degree level and technical education includes Bachelor in Engineering in different streams like mechanical, civil, electronic, electrical, computer. etc. All these contribute for the supply of skilled labour for the overall development of the country.

6.  Act as source of knowledge: Education is a house of knowledge for all purposes. Anything to know we need to be literate. It helps people to take decisions on the basis of their knowledge gained in different stages while getting education.

7.  Develops moral values: As education provides number of stories and incidents people’s lives, people can definitely develop moral values. These moral values are included in their daily life. Some of the moral values are not to sell adulterated products, in case of seller and in case of buyer, not to create inconvenience for others in their routine life and so on.

8. Creates awareness about culture and politics: Education always provides complete information about cultural heritage of any nation. It explains how they are constructed with the investment of money and human capital. It helps them to preserve the historical monuments, inscriptions and other valuable items. It also provides day-to-day information about politics when the person is literate.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 46.
What are the types of Unemployment in India? Discuss any two.
The kinds of unemployment are as follows:

  1. Disguised unemployment.
  2. Seasonal unemployment.
  3. Open unemployment.
  4. Under employment.
  5. Technical employment.
  6. Frictional employment.

1. Disguised unemployment: It is the of unemployment, where we can come across excess number of workers engaged in the some work hut actually less number of workers required. For instance, suppose a farmer has four acres of land and he actually needs only two workers and half to carry out various operations on his farm in a year, but if he employs five workers and his family members such as his wife and children, this situation is called disguised unemployment.

2. Seasonal unemployment: It is the type of unemployment, where the rural people get employment only during a particular season. We have noticed that many people migrate to urban areas, pick up a job and stay there for some time, but come back to their home villages as soon as the rainy season begins.

This is because work in agriculture is seasonal: there are not many employment opportunities in a village for all the months in a year. When there is no work to do on farms, people go to urban areas and look for temporary jobs. This is one of the instances of seasonal unemployment.

Section – E

XI. Answer any two of the following project oriented questions. ( 2 × 5 = 10 )

Question 47.
Record the daily expenditure quantities bought and prices paid per unit of the daily purchases such as Rice, Toordal, tomato, Onion and milk of your family for two weeks. How has the price change affected your family?
The following table shows the list of items with quantities purchased by a family:
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers img 10
Now we need to calculate CPI by calculating price relative with the help of formulae.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 3 with Answers img 11
Calculation of Living Index or Consumer Price Index is calculated as follows:
\(\mathrm{CPI}=\frac{\Sigma \mathrm{WP}}{\Sigma \mathrm{W}}=\frac{1600}{15}=106.66\)
CPI = 106.66
Comment: It shows that there is an increase in price by 6.66%, which has a little effect on standard of living.

Question 48.
Suppose you are a resident of a village, suggest a few measures to tackle the problem of poverty.
If we support in implementing the following programmes successfully, we can easily eradicate the poverty:

  • Swamajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
  • Swamajayanthi Shahari RozgarYojana (SJSRY)
  • Pradhana Manthri Rozgar Yojana (PMRY)
  • National Food for Work Programme (NFWP)
  • Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (MGNREGP)
  • Public Distribution System (PDS)
  • Integrated Child Development Scheme (LCDS)
  • Mid-day Meals Scheme
  • Pradhana Manthri Gram Sadak Yojana
  • Indira Awas Yojana
  • Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 49.
Prepare a list of causes of land degradation in India.
Land in India suffers from varying degrees and types of degradation. These are increasing mainly due to the factors:

  • Deforestation, i.e. reckless Cutting down of trees resulting in loss of vegetation.
  • Indiscriminate and over exploitation of forest products such as fuel wood and over grazing.
  • Conversion of forest lands into agricultural lands.
  • Forest tire and faulty methods of cultivation.
  • Excessive application of pesticides and insecticides.
  • Disproportionate and excessive use of chemical fertilizers in Indian agriculture.
  • The irrigation systems in India are not properly planned and managed.
  • Over exploitation of ground water for various competing utilities like human settlement, industrialization, etc.
  • No proper introduction of crop rotation techniques and organic farming.

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