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Karnataka 1st PUC Economics Question Bank Chapter 9 Environment Sustainable Development
1st PUC Economics Environment Sustainable Development TextBook Questions and Answers
What is meant by Environment?
Environment is defined as the total planetary inheritance and the totality of all resources.
What happens when the rate of resource extraction exceeds that of their regeneration?
When the rate of resource extraction exceeds that of their regeneration, the function, i.e it fails to prefer an important junction ie it fails to sustain life by providing genetic and biodiversity, this results in an environmental crisis. Presently the entire world is facing this situation.
The rising population of the developing countries and affluent consumption and production standards of the developed world have placed a huge stress on the environment. Many resources have become extinct and the wastes generated are beyond the absorptive capacity of the environment.
Classify the following into renewable and non-renewable resources?
1. Renewable resources: Trees, Fish, Water.
2. Non-renewable resources: Petroleum, Coal, Iron-ore
Two major environmental issues facing the world are and?
Two major environmental issue facing the world today are global warming and ozone depletion.
How do the following factor contribute to the environment crisis in india? What problem do they pose for the government?
- Rising population
- Air pollution
- Water pollution or contamination
- Affluconsumption standards
- Reduction of forest coverage
- Global warming.
How are the following factors responsible to environment crisis in india.
- Rising population
- Air pollution. (Annual exam 2010)
1. Rising Population:
India supports app 16% of the world’s human and 20% of livestock population on a mere 2.5% of the world’s geographical area. The high density of popu¬lation and livestock and the competing uses of land for forestry, agriculture, pastures, human settlement and industries exert an enormous pressure on the country’s finite land resource. Hence it becomes very difficult for the govt to provide all types of facilities to such a huge population.
All the measures adopted by the government cannot become fruitful unless we adopt a path of sustainable development. Development to enhance our current living styples. without concern for other factors will deplete resources and degrade environment at a speed that is bound to result in both environmental and economic crisis.
2. Air Pollution:
In india air pollution is widespread in urban aereas because of vehicles, factories and other reasons. Air pollution is a great concern because it has serious harmful effects on the general population, for example, the number of motor vehicles has increased from 3 lakhs in 1957 to 67 crores to 2003. In 2003, personal transport vehicles (two wheelers vehicles and car only) constituted vehicles this growth directly contributed to air pollution.
3. Water Contamination:
Life depends to a great extent on water however, Increase in population, waste disposal from factories etc. contaminate water the development process has also polluted water and it is responsible for the decreasing level of water that is harmful for animals living in the government has taken many steps to slow the problem of water contamination but it had failed to achieve desired success.
4. Affluent consumption standards:
The affluent consumption and production standards used by developed countries have placed a huge stress on the environment. In developed countries, the government exerts less strictness on society because they have small amount of population and abundant resources. Hence, they try to make affluent society.
But in this way sometimes the resources remain unutilised or sometimes they are overutilised. Hither the resources are underutilised or overutilised, they generally lead to wastage of resources.
5. Affluent consumption standards:
The affluent consumption and production standards used by developed countries have placed a huge stress on the environment exerts less strictness on society because they have small amount of population and abundant resources. Hence, they have try to make affluent society.
But in this way, sometimes the resources remain unutilised or sometimes they are overutilised. Either the resources are underutilised or over utilised, they generally lead to wastage of resources.
Illitracy is a serious hurdle in the development process. The government has taken a number of measures to tackle the problem of illistracy, but it has failed to give desired results and has lead to deforestation, pollution, shortage of basic necessities like health sanitation, etc.
The cost of industrialization is environment degradation The result of indus- trializationisthat the demand for resources for both production and consumption has gone beyond the rate of regeneration of the resources. Hence, problems have started taking place.
Urbanisation has resulted in environmental degradation. The result of industrialization is that the demand for resources for both production and consumption has .gone beyond the rate of regeneration of the resources. Hence, problems has started taking place.
9. Reduction of forest coverage:
Increasing population requires food, shelter clothing. To meet these necessities of society, the government itself or businessmen or builders clear the forests. Clearance of forests have serious repercussions on the ecological balance and lead to ozone depletion.
Destroying wildlife is termed as poaching or entering into others field forcefully is known as poaching. Preservation of wild life is essential to maintain ecological balance. The government Is very much worried about the killing of animals at massive scale and it has taken stem measures against the criminals.
11. Global warming:
It is gradual increase in the average temperature of the earth’s lower atmosphere as a result of the increase in greenhouse gases since the industrial revolution much of the recent observed and projected global warming is human induced. It is caused by man made increases in carbon dioxide and other green house gases through the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation.
A U N. conference on climate change, held in Kyoto, Japan in 1997, resulted in an international agreement to fight warming which called for reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases by industrialised nations.
What are the functions of environment ?
State the functions of environment ?
There are four important function of environment:
- It supplies resources (both renewable and nonrenewable)
- It assimilates waste
- It sustain life by providing genetic and bio-diversity
- It provides aesthetic services like scenery.
Identify six factors contributing to land degradation in India.
Land degradation means toss of fertility of land, six of the factors responsible for land degradation are:
- Loss of vegetation occuring due to deforestation.
- Unsustainable fuelwood and fodder extinction.
- Extraction of groundwater in excess of the recharge capacity.
- Non-adoption of adequate soil conservation measures.
- Improper crop rotation.
- Indiscriminate use of agrochemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides.
Explain how the opportunity costs of negative environmental impact are high.
To solve the problem of environmental degradation global warming and one depletion etc. The government has to make extra efforts and expenditure. These expenditures are known as opportunity cost of those useful projects which had to be left because of finite resources and diversion of these resources towards resolving the above mentioned problem.
This opportunity cost is very high because the development process has ignored the environment and ecological balance. The rectify this more efforts are needed involving heavy expenditures.
Outline the steps involved in attaining sustainable development in India.
Steps involved in attaining sustainable development in India are outlined below:
1. Population Control:
Limiting the human population to a level within the carrying capacity of the environment is the first step to be followed for attaining sustainable development as population is exerting tremendous pressure in terms of demand for resources which is more than the absorptive capacity of the environment leading to environmental crisis.
2. Efficient Utilization of Resources:
Technological progress and industrialization should be input efficient and wastage of resources should be minimised by proper utilization. This will help to produce more with lesser amount ofresources and thus depletion of resources will be slower.
3. Control of Over Extraction:
Rate of extraction of renewable resources should not exceed the rate of regeneration so that they are extracted on a sustainable basis.
4. Control of Depletion:
Rate of depletion of non – renewable resources should not exceed the rate of creation of renewable substitutes so that environmental risis does not emerg and resources are availabe for future generations.
5. Pollution Control:
Pollution in all forms has negative environmental impact which has high opportunity cost. Hence, control of pollution is a must to maintaintain the quality of natural resources such as air and water for sustainable development.
6. Use of Non – Conventional Energy:
India is hugely dependent on thermal and hydropower plants to meet its power needs which have adverse environment impacts. Wind power and solar rays are cleaner and greener energy sources which shold be explored on a large scale by developing technological devices along with non – conventional sources like nuclear energy.
India has abundant natural resources substantiate the statement.
India has abundant natural resources in terms of rich quality of soil, hundred of rivers and tributaries, lost green forests, plenty of mineral deposits beneath the land surface, vast stretch of the indian ocean, ranges of mountains, etc.
The black soil of the Deccan plateau is particularly suitable for cultivation of cotton, leading to concentration of textile industries in this region. The Indo-Gangetic plains-spread from the Arabian sea to the Bay of Bengal are one of the most fertile intensively cultivated and densly populated regions in the world. India’s forest, through unevenly distributed provide green cover for its wildlife large deposit of iron-ore coal and natural gas are found in the country.
India alone accounts for nearly 20% of the world’s total iron- ore reserve, bauxite, copper, chromite, diamonds, gold, lead, lignite, manganese, zinc, uranium, etc. are also available in different parts of the country. However, the developmental activities in india have resulted in pressure on its finite natural resources besides creating impacts on human health and well being.
Is environmental crisis a recent phenomenon? If so, why? Yes, environmental crisis is a recent phenomenon.
The Environment has been able to perfom its functions without any interrruption till the resource extraction was not above the rate of regeneration of the resource and the wastes generated were within the assimilating capacity of the environment. But today, environment fails to perform its third and vital function of life sustenance resulting in an environmental crisis.
The rising population of the developing countries and the affluent consumption and production standards of the developed world have placed a huge stress on the environment in terms of its first two functions. Many resources have become extinct and the wastes generated are beyond the absorptive capacity of the environment. As a result we are today at the threshold of environmental crisis.
Give two instances of
- Overuse of environmental resources,
- Misuse of environmental resources.
1. Overuse of environmental resources:
- Soil degradation due to improper crop rotation and crop shifting. .
- Drying up of rivers due to overuse of water from them though dams and reservoirs.
2. Misuse of environemtal resources.
- Excess use of electricity leads to depletion of resources like coal and water from which electricity is generated.
- Excess use of petrol and diesel in vehicles.
State any four pressing environmental concerns of India, correction for environmental damages involves opportunity costs. Explain.
Four pressing environment concerns of India are
- Land degradation.
- Biodiversity loss
- Air population with special reference to vehicular pollution in urban cities.
- Management of fresh water and solid waste management.
Correction for environmental damages involves opportunity costs as explained below.
a. The industrial development in past has polluted and dried up rivers and other aquifers making water an economic good, cleaning up of polluted rivers and replenishing water resources require huge investments.
b. The intensive and extensive extraction of both renewable and non – renewable resources has exhausted some of these vital resources and huge amount of funds need to be spent of technology and reserach to explore new resources.
c. The health costs of degraded environmental quality are also present as decline in air and water quality have resulted in increased incidence of respiratory and water – borne diseases.
d. Global environmental issues such as global warming and ozone depletion also contribute to increased financial commitments for the government.
Explain the supply demand reversal of environmental resources.
In earlier days when civilization just began or before the increase in population and or before countries took to industrialization, the demand for environment resources was much less than their supply.
But with population explosion and with the advent of industrial revolution, the demand for resources both production and consumption became more than the supply. It is known as supply demand reversal of environment. This is one if the reasons of the degradation of the environment.
Account for the current environmental crisis.
Environment performs four-function namely supplies resources, assimilates wastes, sustains life by providing genetic and biodiversity and provides aesthetic services. But the rising populations of the developing countries, the affluent consumption and production standards of the developed countries and industrial revolution have brought the situation of environmental crisis, i.e. at all had put great pressure on the first two functions of the environment.
Many resources have become extinct and the waste generated are beyond the absorptive capacity of the environment.The environmental crisis has worsened by the drying up of rivers and other aquifers making water an economic good besides.
The intensive and extensive extraction of both renewable and non-renewable resources has exhausted some of these vital resources and thus, we are compelled to spend huge resources on technology and research to explore new resources.
Along with this one more important cost of the degraded environmental quality decline in the air and water quality. Hence the expenditure on health is rising the situation become more worsen with the current isues of global warming and ozone depletion. They also put great strain on government’s finite financial resources.
Highlight any two serious adverse environmental consequences of development in india.
India’s environmental problems pose a dichotomy-they are poverty induced and at the same time due to affluence in living standards – is this true?
Explain how india’s environmental problems are both poverty indirect as well as consequence of affluence?
Two serious problem caused by environmental degradation in india are:
- Water contamination
1. Water contamination:
Development in India has taken a heavy price from the Indian society. In a hurry to develop the industrial sector, the businessmen and the govt has forgotten to take the preventive measures for the waste disposal.
The government has made rules and regulations but in the absence of their stricter implementation, our country has to face many environmental problems, water contamination has not only given birth to many water born diseases but also has affected actual animals adversly.
The industrial revolution has made the rich more richer and poor poorer. The reason behind this situation is poverty, unemployment and illiteracy, we are one of the ten most industrilised nations of the world but this situation has brought with it unplanned, urbanisation, pollution, poverty, increasing level of under unemployment and disguised unemployment.
Yes, this statement rightly shows the picture of Indian economy and the problems faced by it. The government has taken various measure to safeguard the environment but it has become necessary to adopt the path of sustainable development.
What is sustainable development ?
Explain the concept of sustainable development?
Sustainable development is development that meets the need of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs. Non-renewable resources: Petroleum, Coal, Iron-ore
Keeping in view your locality describe any four strategies of sustainable development.
Four strategies required for sustainable development are:
- Promotion of natural resources like planting of trees etc.
- Preserving regenerative capacity of ecological system
- Conservation of natural resources.
- Try to maintain the environment pollution free and free from other diseases so that safe environment can be handed over to the future generation.
Explain the relevance of inter-generational equity in the context of sustainable development.
Explain the concept of intergenerational equity in the context of sustainable development.
Development that ignores its repercussions on the environment will has to face the bumps of nature and other factors like global warming, ozone depletion, pollution, water contamination, poverty, etc.
Hence the development process should take care of its adversities i. e it must of emphasise on sustainable development, development that allows not only the development of present generation in a safe and comfortable manner but also the growth of future generation in the best way.
Thus, sustainable development emphasises intergenerational equity that shows the develoment of present generations without compromising the ability of the future gneration to meet their requirements sustainable dvelopment aims at redistributing resourcesuch a manner that the benefits of growth can reach to the poor at the grassroot level and also these can be carried forward to next generation safely.
Sustainable development aims at decreasing the absolute poverty of the poor by providing lasting and secure livelihoods that minimise resource depletion, environmental, degradation, cultural disruption and social instability. It enable the poor to get equal chances of meeting the basic needs like employment, food, energy, water, housing, etc.
1st PUC Economics Environment Sustainable Development Additional Questions and Answers
1st PUC Economics Environment Sustainable Development Very Short Answer Type Questions
Give the two instances of:
- overuse of environmental resources
- misuse of environmental resources
1. Overuse of environmental resources:
2. Misuse of environmental resources:
How development can be termed as leading to unsustainable development?
Fuller or excessive utilisation of the resources may lead to their depletion so fast that it will reduce the production capacity of the future generation as it reduces production capacity for them.
Explain in brief supply demand relationship between development and environment?
When the population increases and the industrialization takes places the demand for re¬sources increases but the environment with its finite resources fails to supply these resources.
Explain CHIPKO Movement?
This movement aims at protecting forests in the Himalayas.
What is Appiko movement ?
Started on the pattern of Chipko movement. This movement was started in Karnataka to save trees ‘Appiko’ means to hug. On 8 September, 1983, 160 men. Women and children hugged the trees in Salkani forest in sirsi and forced the woodcutters to leave.
The “ carrying capacity ” of the environment is like a “ plimsll line “ of the ship Explain.
The carrying capacity of the environment is like a “ plimsoll line” of the ship which is its load limit mark. In the absence of the Plimsol line for the economy, human scale grows beyond the carrying capacity of the earth and deviates from sustainable development.
Make a list of items that can be recycled.
Following are the things that can be recycled.
- Certain categories of waste of industries
Define “ Dual Pricing”.
It means charging the prices in two ways. Farmers and industrial units were required to buy and sell fixed quantities of input and output on the basis of prices fixed by the government and the rest were purchased and sold at market price.
What are renewable resources ?
Renewable resources are those resources which can be used without the possibility of the resources becoming depleted or exhausted. Trees in the forests and the fishes in the ocean are renewable sources.
What are non-renewable resources?
Non-renewable resources are tho se resources which get exhausted with extraction and use.
Which factors have placed a huge stress on the environment interms of its first in function?
The rising population of the developing countries and the affluent consumption and production standards of the developed world have placed a huge stress on the environment in terms of its first two functions.
Which type of soil is particulars suitable for the cultivation of cotton?
The black soil of the Deccan plateau in particularly suitable for the cultivation of cotton.
Name the plains in india which are one of the most fertile intensively cultivated and densely populated regions in the world.
The indo-Gangetic Plains.
Name the minerals available in the different parts of india?
Bauxite, copper, chromite, diamonds, gold, lead, lignite, manganese, zinc, uranium are main minerals available in the different parts of india.
What is the per capita forest land in india?
The per capita forest land in india is 0.08 hectare.
What does sustainable development aim at?
Sustainable development aims at decreasing the absolute poverty of the poor by providing lasting and secure livelihood that minimizes resource depletion, environment degradation, cultural disruption and social instability.
Give two examples of biotic components of environment?
Give two examples of abiotic components of environment?
Define economic growth?
Economic growth may be defined as a long-term increase in real per capita income leading to rise in the standard of living of people.
Define Economic Development?
Economic Development may be defined as a long-term increase in real per capital income and economic welfare.
Give two examples of misuse of resources and the over-use of resources.
1. Two examples of misuse of resources:
- Use of wood as a household fuel.
- Use of rivers to absord industrial effluents.
2. Two examples of overuse of resources:
- Excessive exploitation of fossil fuel
- Excessive tree felling.
When and why was the central pollution control board set up?
Central pollution control board was set up in 1974 to address to major environment pollution problem in India viz water and air pollution.
What does ozone depletion refer to?
Ozone depletion refers to the phenomenon of reduction in the amount of ozone in the stratosphere.
How is the problem of ozone depletion caused?
The problem of ozone depletion is caused by high levels of chlorine and bromine compounds in the stratosphere.
What adverse effects of green revolution were noticed?
Soil, water bodies, and even groundwater was polluted with pesticides milk and fishes were also found to be contaminated.
What causes air pollution? Write down diseases that are caused due to air pollution?
Causes of air pollution:
- Emission of poisonous gases by the industries.
- Vehicular emissions.
- Thermal power plants.
Air pollution cause following diseases:
What is bio composting?
It is the compost made from cattle dung human waste and plant residue. It is used as fertilizers.
1st PUC Economics Environment Sustainable Development Short Answer Type Questions
Is environmental crisis a recent phenomenon? If so, why?
Yes, environmental crisis is a recent phenomenon. In early days, when civilisation just began, before the phenomenal increase in population and growth of industrialisation, the demand for environmental resources was within the carrying capacity of the environment and so the pollution was also within the absorptive capacity of the environment.
Therefore environmental problems did not arise. But with the advent of the industrialisation and out break of the population, environmental problems arisen and the resources for both production and consumption proved to be beyond the rate of regeneration of the resources and the absorptive capacity of the environment.
Identify six factors contributing to land degradation in india?
Following are the factors responsible for land degradation are:
- Loss of vegetation occurring due to deforestation
- Unsustainable fuelwood and fodder extraction
- Shifting cultivation
- Encroachment into forest lands
- Forest fires and overgrazing.
- non-adoption of adequate soil conservation measure.
Outline the steps involved in attaining sustain development in india?
Steps involved in attaining sustainable development in india are:
- Decreasing the absolute poverty of the poor by providing employment opportunities.
- Provoding livelihood in such a manner that can minimize resource deletion, environmental degradation, cultural disruption, cultural disruption and social instability.
What should be done to acheive sustainable development according herman Daly leading environmental economists.
According to Herman Daly – a leading environmental economist the following needs should be done to achieve sustainable development.
- Limiting the human population to a level within the carrying capacity of the environment.
- Technological progress should be input efficient and not input consuming.
- Renewable resources should be extracted on a sustainable basis.
- for non-renewable resources, rate of depletion should not exceed the rate of creation of
renewable substitution. .
- Inefficiencies arising from pollution should be corrected.
In order to avoid deforestation, reduction in green cover, wastage of dung and air pollution, what are being provided by the govt?
In order to avoid the deforestation reducton in green cover etc. LPG and globar gas plants are being provided by the governments.
It is a clean fuel. It reduces household pollution to a large extent. Also, energy wastage is minimised.
2. Provision of gobar gas plant:
The government in providing gobar gas plants through easy loan and subsidy for gobar gas plant to function, cattle dung is fed to the plant and gas is produced which is used as fuel while the slurry which is leftover a Very good organic fertilizer and soil conditioner.
Write a short note on wind power?
Wind power is generated by windmills. In those areas where speed of wind is usually high. Genertions of electricity by windmills does not have adverse impact on the environment wind turbines move with the wind and electricity is generated. The initial cost is high, but the benefits are such that the high cost gets easily absorbed.
Write a short note on mini-hydel plant?
Mini-hydel plants generate electricity with the help of water of stream following in the mountainous region. Large percentage of stream following in the mountainous regions are perennial. So the energy of such streams can be used for the whole year to move or less environment-friendly. They do not change the land use pattern in areas where they are located they generate enough power to meet local demands.
What steps have been taken to bring in better method of pest control?
Better method of pest control: many steps have been taken to bring in better method of pest control.
- Pesticides based on plant products are being used neem trees are proving to be quite useful several types of pest control chemicals have been isolated from neem and these are being used.
- Mixed cropping has been adopted.
- Different crops are being grown in consecutive years.
- Awareness 15 being awakened about various animals and birds which help controlling pets.
Why have farmers in large numbers all over the country again started using compost made of organic waste of different types?
Due to neglecting the use of compost and completely switching over to chemical fertilizers, large tracts of productive land have been adversly affected, water bodies including groundwater system have suffered due to chemical contamination and the demand for irrigation has been growing up.
forever earthworms can convert organic matter to compost faster than the normal process. So the farmers in large number all over the country have been again started using compost made from organic wastes of different types.
What causes water pollution? Write down the diseases caused by water pollution?
Following are the causes of water pollution.
- Domestic sewarge which flows into Dallas.
- Dangerous chemicals emitted by industries that fall into rivers.
- Ash of thermal power plants.
Diseases caused by water pollution are :
- Diphtheria etc.
Fill the following table with some common types of diseases and illnesses that are caused due to air, water and noise pollution.
Air pollution water pollution Noise pollution Asthma, Typhoid fever, Cholera Cancer, High blood pressure(hypertension), e-coli infection, PSA infection Emphysema respiratory diseases coronary artery diseases(heart diseases) Diphtheria, enteric fever, dengue
What are the effects of ozone depletion?
Effects of ozone depletion:
- It causes skin cancer in human beings.
- It lowers the growth of terrestrial plants
- It lowers the production of phytoplankton and other aquantic organisms.
In which terms has india abundant natural resources?
India has abundant resources in terms of:
- Rich quality of soil
- Hundreds of rivers and tributaries
- Plenty of mineral deposits beneath the landsurface
- Lush green forest
- Vast stretch of the Indian ocean
- Ranges of mountain
- The black soil of the Deccan plateau etc.
1st PUC Economics Environment Sustainable Development Long Answer Type Questions
State any four pressing environmental concern of india. Correction for environmental damage involves opportunity costs explain.
Four pressing environmental concerns of india is:
1. Land degradation :
Land in India suffers from varying degrees and types of degradation stemming. Mainly from unsuitable use and inapproprite management practices.
2. Bio-iversity loss:
In India, the per capita forest land is only 0.08 hectare against the requirement of 0.47 hectare to meet basic needs resulting in an excess feeling of about 15 million cubic meters forests over the permissible limits similarly with soil, soil is being eroded at a rate of 5.3 billion tonnes a year for the entire country as a result of which the country losses 0.8 million tonnes of nitrogen 1.8 millions tonnes of potassium every year.
3. Management of fresh water:
In our country management of freshwater is altogether faulty. Unplanned urbanization, loss of rainwater cast seeps into the earth faulty system of waste disposal are responsible for polluted water.
4. Air pollution:
Air pollution is very dangerous for plant, animals and human beings. It is a serious concern mainly in urban areas. Where the dust and smoke emitted by factories, vehicles, etc. Pollute the environment very badly.
Explain the features of sustainable development.
Main features of sustainable development are as under:
1. Sustained rise in real per capita income and economic welfare :
There should be a sustained rise in real per capita income and economic welfare over time.
2. Rational use of the natural resources:
Sustainable development does not mean that natural resources should not be used at all. It simply means that natural resources be rationally used in a manner such that they are not excessively exploited.
3. No reduction in the ability of future generation to meet their own needs:
Sustainable development aims at making of natural resource and environments for asking or raising the existing standard of living in such a way as not to reduce ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.
4. No increase in pollution :
Sustainable development discards those activities which in order to maintain existing high standard of living, prove determental to nature resources and environment. According to the concept, one should dirist from undertaking such activities as may increase pollution and decrease quality of life of future generations.
How measurement of sustainable development is done through green net na tional income and genuine saving?
1. Green net national income:
Green net national income is the difference between Net national income and Depreciation of natural capital. It involves the knowledge of following concepts.
a. Net national income:
It is the market value of the final goods and services pro¬duced by the residents of the counting duming of period of the year.
b. Depreciation of natural capital:
Depreciation refers to loss of value of the capital because of its continuous use. Natural resources including environment. Accordingly, Depredation of natural capital refers to the loss of value of natural resources of a country because of their continous use, as well as environmental degradation.
Green national Income = Net national income – Depletion of natural resources – environmental degradation.
2. Genuine Savings :
Another measure of sustainable development is genuine sav¬ings the genuine saving is the rate of saving adjusted not only for depreciation of man made capital but also for loss of value of the natural capital.
Genuine savings = Rate of savings – Depreciation of man made capital – Depreciation natural capital.
Distinguised b/w economic growth, economic development, and sustainable development.
- It refers to long term increase in real per capita income
- This concept is generally used with reference to developed economics.
- It ignores protection of income.
- It ignores protection of environment.
- It does not account for the exploitation of natural capital.
- It refers to long term increase in real per capita income and economic welfare.
- It is generally used in the context of under developed economics.
- It does not ignore distribution of income.
- It lays no special emphasis on environmental protection.
- It does not account for the exploitation of natural capital.
- It refers to increase in real per capita income, and economic welfare of both the present and future generations. It is used for both developed and underdeveloped economies.
- It does not ignore distribution of income.
- It lays special emphasis on environmental protection.
- lt emphasises rational utilisation of natural capital to safeguard the interest of future generations.
How economic development causes environmental degradation ? Explain.
1. Air Pollution :
It occurs when greater reliance is placed on mechanisation and automation greater use of energy like coal, keroscene oil and diesel causes greater emission of smoke in the air. It causes a serious damages to public health expenditure on public health owing to environmental pollution is becoming an alarming component of social cost of development.
2. Water pollution:
Process of development has shown a phenomenal rise in industrial production. In the context of environment pollution, growth of textile industry merits a special mention the process of bleaching and dying in the textile industry is passed on intensive use of chemicals.
Industrial waters are often channelised into rivers and canals of the adjoining areas. It causes water pollution. The consequences is obvious spread of water-borne diseases implying damage to human life as well as animal life, particularly the sign, the services largerly on water.
3. Noise pollution :
The process of mechanisation and automation (which is the hub of production activity these days) is well known for noise pollution. Machines must produce noise and greater the horsepower greater the noise factor. Unwanted noise is a greater noise factor. In the unorganised sector of iron and steel production, one often encounters deafening sounds which indeed are injurious to public death.
Explain the strategies for sustainable development.
Explain any four strategies for sustainable development. (Annual exam 2010)
1. Use of nonconventional sources of energy:
India is hugely dependent on thermal and hydro power plants to meet its power needs both of these have adverse environmental impacts, thermal powerplants emit large quantities of carbon dioxide which is a green house gas. Hydroelectric project inundate forests and interfere with the natural flow of water in catchment areas and the river basins.
2. LPG, Gobar gas in rural areas:
Households in rural areas generally use wood, dung cake or other biomass as fuel. This practice has several adverse implication like deforestation reduction in green cover, wastage cattle dung and air pollution. To rectify the situation subsidised LPG is provided and gobargas plants are provided. LPG is a cleanfiiel it reduces household pollution to a largeextent. Also, energy wastage is minimised.
3. CNG in urban areas:
In Delhi, the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport system has significally lowered airport and the air has become cleaner in the last year.
4. Wind power:
In areas where speed of wind is usually high. Windmills can provide electricity without any adverse impact on the environment. Wind turbines move with the wind and electricity is generated. No doubt, the initial cost is high. But the benefits are such that the high costs get easily absorbed.
5. Solar power through photovoice cells:
India is naturally endowed with a large quantity of solar energy in the form of solar energy in the form of sunlight. We use it in different way. eg. we use sunlight. We use sunlight to get the clothes grains dried to keep our body warm in winter with the help of photovaUic cells. Solar energy can be converted into electricity.
These cells use special kind of materials to capture solar energy and then convert the energy into electricity. This energy is extremely useful for remote area and for place where supply of power through grid or power lines is either not possible or powers very costly.
6. Mini – hydel plants:
Mountainous regions, stream can be found almost everywhere. A large percentage of such streams are perennial. Mini hydel plants use to energy of such streams to move smaU turbines the turbines generate electricity which can be used locally, such power plants are more or less environment-friendly as they do not use pattern in areas where they are located, they generate enough power to meet local demands.
This shows that they can reduce the requirement of large scale transmission tower and cables and avoid transmission loss.
7. Traditional knowledge and practices :
TraditionaUy, Indian people have been close to their environment. They have been move a component of environment and not its controUer. With the sudden onslaught of the western system of treatment.
We were ignoring our traditional system such as Ayurveda, Unani, Tibetan and folk systems. Nowadays every cosmetic produce, hair oU, toothpaste, body lotion, face cream and what not is herbal in composition, not only are these products environment-friendly, they are relatively free from side effects and do not large scale industrial and chemical processing.
In our quest to increase agricultural production during the last five decades or so, we almost totally neglected the use of compost and competely switched our to chemical fertilisers. The result is that large tracts of productive land have been adversly affected.
Water bodies including groundwater system have suffered due to chemical contamination and demand for irrigation has been going up year after year. In certain parts of the country, cattle are maintained only because they produce dung which is an important fertilizer and soil conditioner earthworms can convert organic matter into compost faster than the normal composting process. This process is now being willdely used.
9. Bio pest control:
With the advent of green revolution, the entire country entered into a frenzy to use more and more chemical pesticides for higher yield. soon, the adverse impacts began to show food products were contaminated, soil, water bodies and even groundwater.
Water was polluted with pesticides, even milk, meat and fishes were found to be contaminated. To meet his challenge efforts are on to bring better method of post control with use of pesticides like neem are proving to be quite useful. Mixed cropping and growing different crops in consecutive years on the same land have also helped farmers.