Students can Download 1st PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper March 2014 (North), Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper March 2014 (North)
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
- Answer All the questions.
- Draw map and diagrams wherever necessary.
- Question No. V is on cartography
- Blind students attempt only VA, 52, 53 and 54 instead of V – B, C and D.
I. Answer the following questions in a word, or a sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)
Who is the father of Geography?
What is the approximate age of the Earth?
4.6, Billion Years.
What is geomorphic process?
The process carried out by Endogenic and Exogenic forces are called as geomorphic process.
What is weathering?
Process of disintegration and decomposition of rocks is known as weathering.
What is denudation?
The wearing away of the surface of the earth by natural agents is known as denudation.
Which is the lowest layer of the atmosphere?
What is Nautical mile?
The length, width and areas of oceans is measured by means of nautical miles.
What is Isohalines?
These are the imaginary lines drawn on the map to show the places having the same amount of salinity.
What are Biomes?
A district group of life forms and the environment in which they are found is called Biomes.
Name strait which separate India and Srilanka
II. Answer any ten of the following in two or three sentence each : (10 × 2 = 20)
Write the composition of Nife.
The inner Core of the barrysphere is called ‘Nife’ as it consists of Nickel and Ferrous (Iron)
Name any two types of weathering.
Physical weathering and chemical weathering are the major types of weathering
What is Ionosphere?
The thin layer extends from the ozonosphere form an altitude of about 80 to 640 km above the earth surface
Mention the four atmospheric pressure belts.
The distribution of pressure is not equal on the earth’s surface. It changes from palace to place and time to time on the basis of air temperature and rotation of the earth. Any area in the atmosphere where air pressure is higher than in the surrounding areas is called “ High pressure”/ Thee are 4 high pressure belts and 3 low pressure belts on the earth’s surface.
Equatorial Low pressure belt: This belt lies between latitudes 5° N and 5° S. The Sun’s rays are almost vertical on the equator throughout the year. As a result, the temperature is uniformly high and pressure is low throughout the year. It is also known as “Doldrums”. The air gets warm and rises upward. Horizontal movement of air is absent and convectional currents occur. This is the zone of convergence of the trade winds.
Sub tropical high pressure belts: The air ascended in the form of convectional currents from the equatorial region partly descends in the between 30 to 40’ latitudes in both the hemispheres. The descending air has thus formed two high pressure zones known as subtropics high pressure belts. It is the zone from which trade and anti-trade winds originate. This belt is also known as “ horse altitudes’. It is dry and quite stable. The name horse latitude is given by the ancient sailors who used to transport horses on ships. Due to absence of strong winds, some times the ship could not move with horses. Hence sailors used to dump horses to make the ship move forward.
Sub Polar low pressure belts: In between polar high pressure knd sub-tropical high pressure belt, the sum-tropical low pressure belts are situated. They lies in between 60’ to 70’ latitudes in both the hemispheres. They are formed with spinning action of rotation of the earth and also uprising air as an effect of incoming cold polar winds.
Polar high pressure belts: The Polar Regions are characterized with low temperature. The air raised at the equator descends around the poles causing high pressure belts. The cold polar winds blow outward from this zone.
How is Mountain Rainfall caused?
During this rain the moisture laden winds are forced to ascend over the mountains in their path. As the wind rises, it expands and looses temperature. This results in condensation, leading to rainfall. This rainfall is found in the windward side of the mountain and is heavy.
What are the factors influences on ocean temperature?
Salinity of ocean water refers to the amount of dissolved solids in the ocean water. Ocean water consists of various kinds of chemical elements and minerals. Of these constituents, sodium chloride is the most important constituent of ocean water. The other constituents or salts like magnesium chloride, magnesium sulphate, calcium sulphate, potassium sulphate, etc. Are also present in the ocean or sea water.
The ocean water is saline by the rivers which bring huge amount of mineral salt dissolved in water. Another reason for salinity is the evaporation of sea water, by which mineral salt in the sea or ocean water increase every year Salinity is measured in gram per kg of sea water and it is expressed as part per thousands for examples: 35% it means 35gram of salt in 1000 gram of sea water.
Factors affecting the salinity in the ocean water are: Evaporation, Precipitation, and Fresh water mixing with ocean water, ground water and glaciers increase the percentage of salt content in the ocean. The trade winds drive away saline water to less saline areas resulting the variation of salt content.
Latitudes, precipitation, mixing of fresh water etc. influence on the horizontal and vertical distribution of salinity. The regions near Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn record high salinity due to high temperature, more evaporation, low rainfall and cxtensive arid and semi-arid areas. While the equatorial region record low sanity because of high temperature and high rainfall.
The polar region record least salinity due to very low temperature, evaporation and less rainfall.
What is a spring tide?
The tides which occur when the earth, sun and moon are more or less in a straight line
Write the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India.
India extends between 8°4’ N to 37°6’ N Latitude and 68° 7’ E to 97°23 E longitude.
How India is a peninsular country?
India is a peninsular country because it has water bodies on its three sides. The Indian ocean lies in the south, Arabian sea lies in the west and Bay of Bengal lies in the east.
Mention any two hill stations of the Himalayas.
The important hills stations are Shimla, Mussorie, Raniket, Nainital, Almora, Chakrata, Darjeling etc.
Mention any four factors that cause floods.
Floods are caused by both natural and man-made factors. They are:
(a) Natural factors
- Continuous rainfall for a long period
- Obstruction on flow of river water.
(b) Man made factors:
- Unscientific Agricultural practice
Mention the important regions of land slides in India.
They are three important region.
- Himalayan Zone
- Western Ghats
- Southern plateau
III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 25 to 30 sentences each. (8 × 5 = 40)
Explain the branches of Geography.
1. Physical Geography.
The field of physical geography is wide as it includes the study of the entire surface of the earth and also its physical and biological process as well as their morphology. Modern geography has witnessed the development of many branches and some of them even grown into separate disciplines.
Some of the important branches of physical geography are as follows:
- Geomorphology: It is a systematic study of landforms, such as mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys, etc.
- Climatology: Climatology encompasses the study of structure of atmosphere and elements of climates and climatic types and regions.
- Meteorology: The scientific study of atmosphere condition is called meteorology.
- Pedology: It is the scientific study of soil formation, structure, texture, chemical composition and their influence on plant growth.
- Hydrology: Hydrology studies the realm of water over the surface of the earth including oceans, lakes, rivers and other water bodies and its effect on different life.
- Seismology: It is the study of Earthquakes, their effects and distribution.
- Astronomical Geography: It is the study of heavenly bodies of the space like planets, satellites, stars etc in relation to the earth.
- Volcanology: It is the scientific study of tectonic process of volcanoes.
- Astronomical geography: It is the study of heavenly bodies of the space like planets, satellites, stars etc in relation to the earth.
- Bio-geography: It is the systematic study of the distribution of plants and animals.
- Hydrology: The study of water on the earth’s land is known as hydrology.
- Oceanography: The study of waves, tides and currents and the other characteristics of oceans, known as oceanography.
2. Human geography: It deals with man and his activities particularly cultural environment factors on man made factors, Important among them are culture, Society, agriculture, mining, industry, transport forming trade population etc.
Some of the important grander of Human geography are as fallows:
1. Political geography: It deals with spatial unit, people distribution, political behavior, political divisions etc.
2. Economic geography: It refers to basic attributes of the economy such as production, distribution exchange of goods and consumption. It deals with the spatial aspects of production, distribution and consumption and also helps on understanding the most proper location for establishing different human activities.
3. Commercial Geography: It deals with the spatial distribution of trade and commercial practices etc.
4. Population Geography: It helps to understand the distribution, growth density, migration and various other components of population.
Describe proofs regarding the spherical shape of the Earth.
There are several proofs to regard the earth as a spherical shape of the Earth.
a. Heavenly bodies appear to be spherical: The Sun, the Moon and other heavenly bodies appear to be spherical when viewed from different position. The earth is one of them and hence it must also be spherical in shape.
b. The Lunar Eclipse: The lunar eclipse proves that the Earth is in spherical shape. During lunar eclipse when the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon, the shadow of the Earth falls on the Moon. Aristotle was the first scholar to show this by looking at the shadow of the Earth on the lunar surface. Later, this was ascertained by Ptolemy. This is considered to be the oldest proof in respect of the shape of the Earth.
c. Sunrise and Sunset: The time of Sunrise and Sunset is not the same everywhere in the world. This is due to spherical shape of the Earth. If the Earth were to be flat all places on the Earth would have had sunrise and sunset at the same time everywhere in the world.
d. Circumnavigation: Circumnavigation of the world can only be possible when the Earth is in spherical shape. If one start on a sea voyage towards the east, by moving constantly in the same direction, he would be able to complete a circle of the world and reach the original point form where he had started.
e. The Bed Ford level experiment: Dr.Alfred Russel Wallace conducted an experiment in 1956, along the Bed Ford level canal area in Britain. It is the most convincing proof of the curvature of the Earth. He fixed three poles of same height at an interval of about mile apart and observed through a telescope. It was found that the pole in the middle was higher than other two poles. It is due to the curvature of the Earth. If the Earth were to be flat all the poles would have the same horizontal level.
f. Sighting a ship: A ship on the sea approaching the coast, when seen from the short does not come into view all at once. The observer first sees the mast and then the hull and finally the whole ship. A ship moving away from the coast disappears gradually and finally out of view. If the Earth were to be flat the whole ship would have come into view.
g. Aerial and Satellite Photographs: The photographs taken by the cosmonauts in the recent decades and satellites have provided ample proof to show that the earth is spherical in shape.
Describe the factors affecting physical weathering.
The disintegration of rocks without any chemical change in their compost in is known as mechanical or physical weathering. The disintegration of rocks occurs mainly due to the influence of temperature variation, frost action, wind action, rainwater, etc.
A. Surface are heated and expand. During the nights the rock surfaces are cooled due to , fall in temperature, rocks contact. The repetition of exemptions and contraction causes tension and stress which leads to cracks in the rocks. Then the rocks disintegrate into i blocks. This process is known as Block disintegration, Rocks are made of different types of minerals.
So the different parts of the same rock mass react differently to temperature. This leads to differential expansion and contraction inside the rocks. The rocks break up into smaller grains. This process of weathering is, called “Granular disintegration”. Due to variat Temperature in the upper and lower layers, the outer layers of rocks peel out into the uric shells. This process of weathering is known as “Exfoliation”.
B. Frost: Rocks are disintegrated due to freezing and thawing of water in the cracks or joints in the rocks. This frost action is more important in the temperate and cold regions. The water present in the cracks of rocks freezes during the night due to fall in temperature below freezing point. When water freezes it expands by 1/10 its volume. It thaws (melts) during the day, due to increase of temperature and it contracts in volume. This alternative freezing and melting of water widens other cracks in the rocks, splits and breaks then into blocks. This is known as frost shattering.
C. Rain: Sometimes, when rain falls suddenly on highly heated rocks in hot desert numerous cracks are developed. This is just like a heated chimney of a lamp, when a drop of water falls on it. The repetition of this mechanism causes disintegration of rocks. In humid region, when torrential rain occurs, the drops strike the rock surface and loosen the particles.
D. Wind: In the deserts the wind blows with greater speed carrying with it sand and rock materials, they collide with each other or strike against the loose rock and cause weathering. In deserts the wind cause this type of weathering on a large scale.
E. Sea waves: Sea waves strike the costal rocks. Repeated striking enlarges the incipient joints. Fractures and cause breaking of rocks into small blocks. Weathering also takes place due to hydraulic pressure, abrasion and attrition caused.
F. Slope: A steep slope helps in weathering. In mountainous and hilly area, sometimes, on account of gravity, blocks of rocks move down the slope while rolling down the slope, they strike against other block and break up into pieces.
G Gravitation: the gravity of Earth makes the huge rocks to roll towards the slope. Rolling rocks strike against each other and break up into pieces.
What is a land form? Explain the different types of geomorphic processes.
A land form is any natural formation of rock and dirt, found on the earth. A landform can be as. large as a mountain range or as small as a hill. Landforms are natural features of the landscape, natural physical features of the earth’s surface eg. Valleys, plateaus, Mountains, plains, hills loess plains. The minor landforms include hills, ridges, valleys, basin etc. According to Geo-scientist the landforms are formed by the forces acting from the interior and on the surface of the Earth.
The processes carried out by Endogenic and Exogenic forces are called geomorphic processes. Endogenic forces: The internal forces are also known as endogenic forces. These are mainly the land building forces. Diastrophism includes all these processes; that move, elevate or build portions of the earth’s crust.
The internal forces are also known as endogenic forces. Exogenic Forces: The external forces are also known as Exogenic forces. These forces are found on the surface of the Earth, Which bring changes through degradation and aggradations process. River, glacier, wind, sea waves are the major sources of external forces.
Briefly explain Bio-weathering.
The disintegration of rocks caused by plants, animals and human beings is called “Biological Weathering”.
(a) Plants: The roots of the plant grow through soil and in the cracks of rocks to find water and minerals. As the roots grow deep in the rock they widen and disintegrate the rocks. This process is most prominent in thick forests and vegetative regions.
(b) Animals: The burrowing animals like rats, rabbits, ants, earthworms and termites influence in the breaking up of rocks and make passages below the ground. The seepage of air and water through these passage results in rapid weathering of rocks.
(c) Human beings: Human beings play an important role weathering of rocks, through activities like agriculture, mining quarrying, oil drilling, deforestation etc.
Explain the structure of the Atmosphere.
The distribution of temperature is not uniform at different height of the atmosphere. Along with the variation of temperature there are unique features at different heights. Based on these characteristics atmosphere is divided into four parallel zones.
1. Troposphere: It is the lowest layer of the atmosphere and les closer to the earth. The word ‘Tropos’ means ‘turn’ It extends up to 18km at the equator and 8km at poles. Thus the average height is about 10-12km. The important feature of the troposphere are:
Hydrological cycle: It is confined to troposphere. The water evaporates and raised up, formation of clouds takes place. Later it is precipitated in various forms like rain, snow and hailstone. These processes are known as evaporation, condensation and precipitation.
Lapse rate: In this layer the temperature decreases at the rate of 6,5’ Celsius per every 1000 meters of height which is known as ‘lapse rate’.
Clouds: It is characterized with formation of clouds, thunder storms and lighting.
Gaseous Mass: The troposphere has about 75 percent of the total gaseous mass, The upper part of troposphere is known ‘Tropopause’.
2. Stratosphere: It lies above the tropo-sphere and extends up to 50km from the earth. The temperature is also most unifonnly distributed. Hence it also known as isothermal zone. At a height of 22kms. There is a thin layer of ozone which absorbs ultraviolet rays of the sun. So it is called as ozonosphere. The name staratopause is given to the upper part of the stratosphere.
3. Mesosphere: It extends from 50 to 80kms. It is an intermediary zone between the lower and upper layers of the atmosphere. A thin layer of air separating mesosphere from the other upper layers in named as‘Mesopause’.
4. Ionosphere: It extends from 90 to 500km. It consists of atoms of air ionized due to intensive temperature. So it is also known as‘Ionosphere’or Thermosphere. The radio waves of different length are reflected back from this layer.
5. Exosphere: The region beyond the Thermosphere is called Exosphere. It extends to about 1,000 km and the gravity of the Earth s too weak in this layer. Magnetosphere is found above this layer. Atmospheric layer in between 500-700kms is known as Exosphere and the atmosphere lying beyond is called‘Magnetosphere’.
Explain the factors influenced on the distribution of temperature.
The distribution of temperature on the surface of the earth is not uniform. It varies from. region to region due to various factors. The various factors affecting the distribution of atmospheric temperature are:
a. Latitude or distance from the equator: Places close to the equator have higher temperature and are warmer than places awaylfom the equator This is because the Sun rays reach the Earth after passing rays reach the Earth after passing through the layers of the atmosphere. In the low latitudes the Sun rays are direct and have to travel a lesser extent through the atmosphere. Hence, the heat of these rays is more intense. But in high latitudes the Sun rays are slanting and have to passes through a greater extent of atmosphere.
b. Altitude: Temperature decreases with altitude. This is because the heat absorbing elements are found in lower altitude. So the places near the Earth’s surface are warmer than places higher up. This is because air near the surface is denser and contains gases like carbon dioxide, water vapour and other gases. Temperature decreases with increase in height at an average rate of l°C/165m or 6.4°C/1000m.
c. Distance from the sea: this factor also influence on the distribution of temperature and differential heating of land and water. Land gets heated faster compared to water. Water takes longer time to get heated and to cool than land. Hence during the day when the land gets heated quickly, water takes longer time and remains cool. Therefore, during the day time a land gets more heat than the surrounding water bodies.
d. Ocean currents: It increase or decrease the temperature of the Earth’s surface. Warm ocean currents along the coast make the coastal areas warmer and cold currents reduce the temperature and cool the coastal areas.’ Warm currents can be noticed on the eastern margins of the continents in the middle latitude, while .it is the concurrents flow at the western margins of the continents. Gulf stream a warm currents increases the temperature in the eastern coast of U.S.A and California bold current decreases the temperature of the western coast of U.S.A.
e. Winds: Winds that blow from the lower latitudes are warm and make the places warmer. On the other hand, winds that blow from the higher latitudes are cold and make the places cooler. Winds that blow from the sea bring plenty of rain especially if they are warm winds. While off shore winds hardly bring any rain.
f. Clouds: During the day clouds prevent Insolation from reaching the Earth’s surface. Clouds also prevent three escape of terrestrial’s radiation during the night. Clear sky Permits insolation readily during the day time and allow the rapid escape of terrestrial radiation during the night.
Explain the topography of the ocean floor with a diagram.
On the basis of the depth, the ocean floor can be divided into four zones, parts or relief features. They are.
1. The continental Shelf: The gently sloping portion of the continent or land that lies submerged below other sea is called the continental shelf. The continental shelf has a very gentle slope. It extends form the shore line to depths between 180 and 200 meters. Average width of the continental shelves is about 48km. The extent of the continental shelf depends on the relief of the broadening land masses.
If the coastal area is a plateau area, the continental shelf will be very broad. On the other hand, if the coastal region is hilly or mountainous, the continental shelf will be very narrow or even absent for example the Atlantic Ocean has 2.3%, the Pacific Ocean has 5.7% and the India Ocean has 4.2%.
2. The continental slope: The zone of steep slope that descends from the edge of the continental shelf to the deep sea plains is called “continental slope”. It is the transitional zone lying between the continental shelf and the deep sea plains. The continental slope is very steep. It extends from 182 meters to 3.600 meters. The angle of the continental slope is 2 to 5 degre3es or even more. It occupies only 8.5% of the total area of the ocean floor. But it varies from ocean to ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has broader continental slopes and accounts for 12.4%. But it is 7% of the Pacific Ocean and 6.5% of the Indian Ocean.
3. The deep sea plains: The level and rolling areas of the ocean floor are generally called deep sea plains or abyssal plains or the ocean plains. They lie between 3,000 and 6,000 meters below other surface of the ocean. They occupy vast area of the ocean floor and account for about 82.7% of the total sea floor. They cover about 90% in the Indian Ocean. Their depth ranges from 5,000 to 6,000 meters. They are covered by oozes, which are the remains of deep sea creatures and plants, and of red volcanic dust.
4. The Ocean Deeps: The long narrow and deep troughs on the ocean floor are known as ‘ocean deep’ or ‘trough’. They cover only 1% of the ocean floor. They are most common neat the coasts where young fold mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes abound. Some they are tectonic in origin. They are the deepest portions of the ocean. Deeps may be caused due to tectonic forces, i.e. faulting earthquakes etc. There are 57known deeps. Of these 32 are found in Pacific Ocean, 19in the Atlantic Ocean and 6 in the Indian Ocean. The deepest trench in the world is Challenger deep located in Mariana Trench to the west of Philippines in the North Pacific Ocean.
Name the important physical divisions of India. Explain the himalayas.
India is characterized by great diversity in its physical features. On the basis of physiography, the country is divided in to four major physical divisions. They are:
- The Northern Mountains
- The Northern Plains
- The Peninsular Plateau
- The Coastal Plains and Islands
The Himalayas: This is loftiest and snow covered mountains in the world. The area occupied by the Himalayas was earlier a part of ‘Tethys Sea’. The formation of this mountain is by tectonic forces of Gondawana land Angara land masses. It is situated to the north of the Indus and Ganga and the Brahmaputra plains.. The slopes of the Himalayas are gentle towards the north and steep towards south.
The Himalayas have distinct characteristics of high relief, snow covered peaks, complex geographical structures, parallel separated by deep valleys and rich temperate vegetation.The Himalayas are classified into three parallel ranges based on altitude and latitude.
The Great Himalayas or Himadri The lesser Himalayas or Himachal The Outer Himalayas or Siwaliks.
a. The Great Himalayas or Himadri: These are the inner most loftiest and continuous ranges of mountains. The average height of the Great Himalayas is 6200 m and the width varies between 120 and 190 km. The important peaks of great Himalayas in India are, Kanchenjunga-8598m in Sikkim, Nanga Prabat-8126m, Nandadevi, Badrinath, Karmet, Trishuletc.
b. The lesser Himalayas or Himachal: These ranges are also known as Inner Himalayas or Himachal ranges. It is situated between great Himalayas inn the north and Outer Himalayas or Siwaliks in the south. Its average height is around 1500-4500m and the width is about 60 to 80 km. These are very rugged and complex ranges due to erosion by rivers. The important ranges in Lesser Himalayas are Pirpanjal, Dhaul Dhar and nag- tiba etc. The important Hill stations are Shimla, Musooire, Ranikeht, Nainital, Almora, Chakrata, Darjeeling etc. Kulu valley, Kangra valley, Spiti valley are the famous valleys ofHimachal.
c. The Outer Himalayas or Siwaliks: These are the outer most ranges situated to the south of Lesser Himalayas, known as Siwaliks. The Siwaliks extend from Jammu & Kashmir in the North West to Arunachal Pradesh in east. The average height of this range is around 600-1500m and its width varies between 15-5Qklm. The siwaliks are formed from the sediments brought down by the rivers of lesser, and Greater Himalayas.
There are flat floored structure valleys between Siwaliks and Lesser Himalayas, Known as Siwaliks. The Siwaliks extend from Jammu&Kashmir in the North West to Arunchal Pradesh in east.
Compare the North Indian rivers with South Indian Rivers.
What is soil? Explain the major types of soils.
Soil is the minute or finer rock particles found on the surface of the Earth. It is formed naturally, due to the weathering of rocks, under the influence of climate.
The main types of soil in India are:
1. Alluvial soil: This soil is formed by depositional work of rivers and they are mainly found in the flood plains and deltas. Alluvial soil covers largest geographical are in the country. They are mainly distributed in the river plains of the Ganga, Brahmaputra and the Indus. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under alluvial soil. It is also found in the deltas of east flowing rivers. Alluvial soils are classified into two types.
- Bhangar: Older alluvium, coarse and pebble like in nature, found at the lower depths of the plain.
- Khadar: New alluvium, finer in nature, found in the low lying flood plains and rich in fertility
2. Black soil: The black soils covered more area in peninsular plateau. This soil is also called ‘Cotton soil’ or “Regur soil”. It is derived from the weathered basalt rocks. This soil holds water from long period and become hard whenever it is dry. It is light-black to dark-black in colour. Maharashtra and Gujarat Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. Black soils are good for Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Pulses, Millets, Citrus fruits, etc.
3. Red soil: This soil is formed by the weathered granite rocks. It is red in colour and rich in ferrous content. Red soil covers the second largest area in the country. Largest parts of peninsular region are covered with red soil. TamilNadu has the largest distribution of this soil in the country. Rice, Ragi, Jowar, Groundnut, Tobacco, Millets are the major crops cultivated in this soil.
4. Laterite soil: The hot and humid tropical regions of India are rich in laterite soil. This soil is derived from the fragmentation and disintegration of rocks in the mountain ranges. It is mainly found in the Western Ghats, parts of Eastern Ghats and Northeastern hills of India. Plantation crops like Tea, coffee, Rubber, Cashew nut are cultivated in this soil.
5. Desert soil: This soil is also called arid soil. They are mainly found in the desert and semi-desert regions of Western and North western parts of India. This soil has the least water holding capacity and humus content. Generally it is not suitable for cultivation of crops. This soil is mainly found in Rajasthan, parts of Gujarat and Haryana. With water facility crops like Bajra, Pulses and Guar ar cultivated in this soil.
6. Mountain Soil: The Himalayan mountain valleys and hill slopes are covered with Mountain or Forest soil. It is found in the mountain slopes of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Utarkhand regions, Crops like Tea, Almond, saffron are cultivated in this soil.
Explain the important measures of conservation of forest.
The conservation of forest is concerned with proper utilization of forest, protection from destructive influences, misuses of forests etc.
The important measures of conservation of forest are:
- Careless felling of tree, over-grazing and shifting cultivation should be avoided. Afforestation should be practiced.
- Forest fires, pests and diseases should be controlled through the scientific methods.
- Encroachers of forest area should be severely punished.
- Forest education, research and training should be expanded through programmes like vanamahotsava, social forestry, and reforestation.
- Industrial and mining activities in the forest regions should be compensated by reforestation.
- Development of Green belts in the urban areas.
- Plantation of trees along the roads, railway lines, river, canal banks, tanks and ponds.
- Use of fuel wood, wood-charcoal by the tribal people must be prohibited.
- Government should promote intensive tree planting programmes in urban centers.
- Massive awareness about the aesthetic of forests should be created through mass media, workshops, live programmes etc.
IV. Answer any one of the following. (1 × 10 = 10)
What is a rock? Describe the different types of rocks.
Rock refers to the hard and resistant materials of the earth’s crust. But scientifically rock includes even soft and loose materials like chalk, clay, etc. So, rock refers to any solid materials, hard or soft of which the crust of the earth is formed. All rocks do not have the same chemical composition. But minerals have their own chemical compost in and physical prosperities. .The earth’s crust is made up of various types of rocks
Types of Rocks: Rocks can be classified into three major groups on the basis of their origin or mode of formation. They are:
A. Igneous rocks: The term Igneous is derived from the Latin word “Ignis”, means lire. Thus the igneous rocks are formed by the cooling and solidification of molten material which is called magma. Igneous rocks are also called primary rocks, because they were the firs to be formed. As they are the rocks from which all other types of rocks are derived, they are also called parent rocks.
Igneous rocks are commonly classified on the basis of mode of formation into two major types.
- Intrusive rocks
- Extrusive rocks.
1. Intrusive rocks: The magma cannpt escape out to the earth’s surface, it cols slowly inside the earth’s crust and hardens into rock. This type of rock is known as Intrusive Igneous rock. E.g. Granite and dolerite. These rocks can be divided into two type’s a. Plutonic rocks and b. Hybabyssal rocks.
a. Plutonic rocks: The rocks which are formed due to cooling of magma at great depth inside the earth are called Plutonic igneous rocks.
b. Hybabyssal rocks: These are intermediate rocks between the extruded volcanic rocks and the deep plutonic rocks. They are formed due to cooling and solidification of magma in cracks, pores, crevices etc.
2. Extrusive rocks: Rocks formed by cooling and solidification of lava on the surface of the Earth is called extrusive igneous rocks. E.g. Basalt.
B. Sedimentary Rocks: These rocks which are formed due to aggregation and compactness
of sediments are known as sedimentary. In other words, sedimentary rocks are formed bye day the deposition of sediments derived form older rocks, planets and animals remains by river, winds, glaciers etc and these sediments are hardened into rocks by pressure. As they are formed by the consolidation of sediments. They are called sedimentary rocks. They are also called stratified rocks,
a. Mechanically-formed rocks: The rock which have been formed form the accumulation of rock materials, derived form other rocks and have been cemented together are known as “ Mechanically formed rocks.” The mechanically formed rocks consist of sediments which have been carried and deposited by rivers, glaciers, winds or waves and cemented together with clay or line. On the basis of rock materials. These rocks can be divided into three main categories. They are: Rudaceous rocks, Arernaceous rocks and Argilious rocks.
b. Chemically formed rocks: The chemical often settle down and hardened to form rocks known as chemically formed rocks. For example: Gypsum and rock salt, running water dissolves and carries chemicals and where evaporation takes place, these chemicals are deposited at the mouth of springs, caves or caverns or in lakes. Rock salt and gypsum are formed form deposit of salt in strata on the beds of lakes.
c. Organically formed rocks: Organic rocks are formed form the remains of organisms, i.e. of animals and plants. Examples: coal, limestone etc. On the basis of lime and carbon content, organically formed rocks can be divided into two kinds, namely.
(i) Calcareous rocks: Calcareous rocks are formed mostly from the remains of living organisms. These rocks contain calcium carbonate or lime. They include limestoneand chalk. They are porous and soluble.
(ii) Carbonaceous rocks: These are formed due to the transformation of vegetative matter. Under the impact of heat and pressure the remains of plants are turned into hard layers. E.g. coal.
C. Metamorphic rocks: Rock which has been changes either in form or in composition without disintegration is called metamorphic rocks. These rocks are metamorphosed from igneous sedimentary rocks. Igneous and sedimentary rocks may undergo chemical and physical changes because of pressure and heat and form metamorphic rocks. The intense heat and pressure in the earth’s curst alters the composition and appearance of rocks completely or partially to produce a new type of rocks. In this manner metamorphic. rocks are formed. Marble, Diamond, Quartzite, Ruby, Emerald are the examples of metamorphic rock.
Describe the landforms associated with river work.
River is an important external agent of denudation on the ever-changing face of the Earth. The work of river is more or less common in all the drainage systems of the world.
The work of river consists of three closely interrelated activities.
1. Erosional work: The process of wearing and taking away the part of rock is known as ‘Erosion’. It depends upon the volume and velocity of water, nature of slope and the nature of rocks. The erosional work of the river is performed in two ways.
a. The Mechanical and b. The Chemical erosion.
There are various Iandforms associated to erosional work of river.
a. ’V’ Shaped valley: In the mountain course the speed of the river is greater and volume is less. As the water rushes down the steep slopes there is maximum vertical , or later erosion. The rapid down cutting or vertical erosion results in the formation of ‘V’shaped valley.
b. Gorge: A deep and narrow valley with steep rocky, sides in the river course is known as ‘Gorge’. They are formed by the regular vertical cutting by the rivers in the valleys eg. Narmada gorge.
c. I shape valley: Avey steep, deep river valley formed by the river, lookinglike T, is called ‘I’ Shaped valley. These are very deep compared to gorges.
d. Canyon: It is a wide, deep and steep valley almost with vertical walls like feature found in the arid or semi arid regions is called ‘Canyon’ eg. Grand Canyon of River Colorado in USA.
e. Potholes: These are the small depressions in the rocky beds of other river valley. They are formed by corrosion. Pebbles, sand and small rocks carried by the river swirled around on the river bed. This action erodes the rock on the river bed forming potholes.
f. Waterfalls: Huge volume of water falling from a great height along the course of a river is called “Waterfalls’. They are formed when the hard and soft rocks come in the way of flowing river. The soft rock gets eroded faster and hard rock does not erode easily. Therefore huge amount of water falls from great height and creates waterfalls. Eg. The Jog falls, The Angel falls, The Victoria falls.
g. River Capture: It is formed mainly due to head-ward erosion by the river near its source. When the source of a river is captured by another major and strong river it is called‘River Capture’.
2. Transportational work: The process of carrying away the eroded materials is known as ‘Transportation’. The rock materials and eroded particles carried by a river is called its Load. The transportation capacity of a river is based on velocity of water, volume of water, load, slope, smooth valley floor etc.
The major landforms associated with the transportational work of the river are:
a. Alluvial fans: The term alluvium refers to the debris transported and deposited by rivers. When the fast flowing river enters the plateau or plain region, it experience sudden decline in gradient and obstruction in its path. Due to obstruction of the river spreads and deposits many of its light materials in fan shape known as ‘alluvial fans’.
b. Alluvial cones: In the plateau and foot hill region when the river spreads out, the eroded materials carried by the river is deposited in conical shape called ‘Alluvial cones’.
3. Depositional work: The process of carrying and accumulating the eroded materials by the river at the lower course is called ‘deposition’. In the lower course due to gentle slope the river slows down and deposits most of its materials on the banks, course and the mouth.
The important landforms resulting from depositional work of the river are:
a. Meanders: In the lower course, river flows slowly in zig zag or curved manner due . to smaller obstruction in its path. A curve or loop formed by the river in its path is called ‘Meander’. When the river course formed by such crescent shaped loops due to continuous lateral deposition it is called meandering course.
b. Ox-bow Lakes: The ox-bow lakes are formed by depositional and erosional actions taking place simultaneously and they are a result of excessive meandering. The River which flows through the shorter route leaving the curve of the meander cut off and crescent shaped lake is formed known as‘Ox-bow lakes’.
c. Flood Plains: When the river is in floods the water overflows on its bank and spreads in the surrounding regions. The silt carried by the water gets deposited in these areas and creates flat plains on both the banks of the rive known as ‘Flood Plains’.
d. Delta: A triangular shaped alluvial deposition forced at the mouth of the river is called ‘Delta’. Important types of deltas are
a. Arcuate or Common delta
b. Bird-foot delta
e. Distributaries: As the river approaches the sea or Ocean, due to reduction in gradient, joining of tributaries, its volume increases, speed decreases hence, the rivet begins to break up into a number of branches from the main river called ‘Distributaries’.
f. Estuary: Estuaries are the tidal mouth of a river having a narrow, gradually widening lay at the mouth. In Estuary River water is mixed with seawater. Eg. The Narmada estuary, The Kali estuary.
V. A. Answer the following in a sentence each : (5 × 1 = 5)
What is Map?
A map is defined as a symbolical and conventional representation of the earth or a portion it drawn to scale on a flat surface and bounded by the geographical co-ordinates as viewed from above.
What is a scale?
A scale is the ratio of the distance between two points on the map and their corresponding distance on the ground.
What is index?
The features show on a map is indicated by a guide called map index.
Give examples for small scale map.
The Maps drawn on the scale below 1cm: 15Km or 1: 15.00,000 eg. Atlas and Wall Maps. These maps show broad physical and cultural features.
What is Topographical map.
To show relief features, forests, land uses, river system, roads, railways, pipelines, distribution of rural and urban settlements etc.
B. Write the latitude and longitude for the given places. (5 × 1 = 5)
12° 18’ N to 76°38’ E
13°20’N to 77°06’E
12° 51’ N to 74°50’ E
14° 48’N to 75°24’E
17° 54’ N to 77°35’ E
C. Draw diagram to the following. (2 × 2 = 4)
Pressure belts of the Earth.
Layers of the Earth’s Interior
D. Draw the outline map of India, mark and name the following (2 × 3 = 6)
Draw outline map of India
Physical divisions of India
Southwest and Northeast monsoon winds.
Forests of India
Great Nicobar and Nanda Devi.
- Nanda Devi Saikhawa
- Dehang Debang
- Gulf of Mannar
- Great Nicobar
- Achanakmari – Amar Kantak