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Karnataka 1st PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers
Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100
Part – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)
Who wrote the book ‘The City of God’?
Name the ruler who started the construction of the Great Wall of China.
Shih Hu Wang Ti.
Who was Gaius Julius Caesar?
Great general, dictator, reformer and the symbol of Ancient Rome.
What is Hejira?
The secret journey of Prophet Mohammed from Mecca to Medina.
When did the Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople?
Who was the King ruling over Russia on the eve of Russian Revolution?
Tsar Nicholas II.
Which was the last Battle of Napoleon Bonaparte?
The battle of Waterloo.
Which treaty ended the World War I?
Treaty of Paris in 1919.
Which is the famous book of Hitler?
Mein Kampf or My Struggle.
Who used the term Non-Aligned Movement for the first time?
V.K. Krishna Menon of India.
Part – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
Mention any two theories of ‘Origin of the Earth’.
Steady Earth Theory, Pulsating Theory, the Big Bang Theory, etc.,
Write any two factors that helped the growth of civilization.
Deposition of fertile soil, supply of water, favourable climate, plenty of food and river valleyshelped the growth of civilization.
Name any two City-States of the ancient Greeks.
Athens, Sparta, Corinth and Thebes.
Write any two festivals of the Christians.
Christmas, Good Friday, Easter Sunday.
Who were the major intellectual personalities of the Higher Middle Ages?
Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, Peter Abelard and St. Thomas Aquinas.
What is Revolution?
It is a term derived from Latin ‘revolutio’ which means turnaround. It inconponates fundamental change in governance or organizational structures within a short period.
Name any two British Colonies in America.
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Mary Land, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Delaware, Pennsylvania and Georgia, (any two).
Which are the two important books of Karl Marx?
‘Communist Manifesto’ and ‘Das Capital’.
Who was the architect of unification of Germany? What was his policy?
Bismarck-Blood and iron Policy.
Who was Truman? What was the Provision of Truman Doctrine?
Harry S-Truman was the president of America at the time of the ending of second world war. This was aimed at US support to the people of the nations who were resisting subjugation by armed minorities and external pressones. By this, he provided Greece and Turkey Economic and military aid to the tune of 400 million dollars.
Expand: CIS. Where is its Headquarters located?
Common Wealth of Independent States. It is at Minsk in Belarvs.
Who were called as the ‘Trio’ (Three Stalwarts) of the Non-Aligned Movement Bloc?
Josip Broz Tito, Jawaharlal Nehru and Gamal Abdel Nasser.
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (6 × 5 = 30)
Write any five uses of the study of History.
History is the memory of the ancient past, teaches religious tolerance, is a source of inspiration, promotes patriotism, a laboratory of social sciences, infuses noble ideals, helps to broaden one’s outlook, has professional uses and removes prejudices.
1. History is the memory of the past events: The study of history gives us information about the biographies of great men and a record of major events of the world. According to Will Durant, “A country’s past is like an individual’s memory. If memory goes, sanity goes with it”. Hayes and Moon wrote “As memory is to man, History is to mankind”.
2. History helps to broaden our outlook: The study of history helps us to get knowledge about the people of different countries, traditions, customs, cultures, and civilizations. Thus it broadens the outlook of mankind. The details recorded in history relating to Art, Architecture, Literature, and Religion expands one’s horizon of knowledge.
3. History promotes international peace: The world has already witnessed the misgivings of the two World Wars, ff another war takes place in the future, it would destroy the whole world. History has pointed out that unawareness of the culture of other countries and narrow nationalism has lead to such wars. Today, there is a great deal of competition among different countries in possessing nuclear weapons and war equipment’s. For the development of cordial relations between nations, the study of world history is the need of the hour.
4. History nurtures and instills nationalistic feelings: (in every nation has a past and ‘ there definitely would have been a golden era under some enlightened ruler in-the part. Knowing about that makes the people of a nation to be proud of their ancestors and spun them on to regain the part glory, (e.g) Mussolini could unite the warring Italian states by highlighting the roman empire and its glory.
5. History has Professional uses: It is a competitive world. History is the main core-subject for the competitive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS, etc. Historical knowledge is a matter of necessity for Students, Teachers, Lawyers, Journalists, Administrators, and Statesmen. Thousands of historians are working in the Department of Archaeological survey of India under central and state governments. New job opportunities have opened up for the students of history at Museums, Archives, Tourism development, and related fields.
Explain any two factors of Human Evolution.
The study of human evolution is complicated. It involves many disciplines including Anthropology, Primatology, Archaeology, Linguistics, Embryology, and Genetics.
Hominoids lived on tress and were only food gatherers. Hominids adapted to land dwelling. They began to use caves and extended stone boulders as shelters. The shortage of food made them to scavenge for food. They covered long distances to forage or scavenge for naturally dead animals or leftovers of animals killed by predators. The above activities made them gradually develop an upright posture and consequently the bipedal motion. Planned hunting and making tools stimulated the growth in the brain size. The growth in brain size in turn helped them to plan and make better tools.
Domestication of animals was followed by the commencement of agriculture. Humans became food growers. They overcame the effects of the climate changes like the ice age by adapting to domestication of animals and agriculture. Dogs were domesticated first followed by sheep, goat, cow, cat, camel, and horse. The rearing of animals made humans, nomads. Commencement of agriculture is considered as a revolutionary change in the history of human evolution. This was an important aspect of the Neolithic age. Humans began to grow various crops like wheat, rice, millets etc. It made them lead a settled life. This resulted in the formation of human settlements termed villages and later towns which were the foundations of civilizations.
The Hominoids were quadrupeds. The Hominids adapted an upright posture. Hominines further adapted to bipedalism. The skeletal structure and the muscles also adjusted over a period of time to the upright posture and the bipedal motion, which freed-the forelimbs. The forelimbs developed precision grip and power grip and evolved into hands. This greatly helped in hunting and defending from predators as hands could be used to make tools and also use them. Walking on two legs also provided a greater long distance vision and helped them to cover long distances without spending much energy.
The use of tools by humans was another remarkable progress. Wood, bones and stones were used to make tools. They were mainly used for hunting or defending from predators. The making and use of stones tools were responsible to the evolution of forelimbs into hands and also the growth in brain size. In course of time, humans began to,produce metals from ores and make copper, bronze and iron tools which are studied in history as the respective metal ages. The making of stone tools from naturally available stones and using them is positively identified to have begun with Homo habilis. (Any two in 8 to 10 sentences each)
Briefly explain the teachings of Prophet Mohammad.
Prophet Mohammad declared “There is no God but Allah and Mohammad is his Prophet”. He criticized the meaningless ceremonials like Idol worship, polytheism and superstitions among Arabs. He preached purity of life, truth and faith in Allah. He preached that Allah would reward the just and punish the wicked. He said “Allah is all merciful, all wise and all powerful”. The new faith that Mohammad preached was called ‘Islam’ which means “Submission to God Allah’. Islam preaches to be truthful, be faithful and to have good conduct. It preaches equality and condemns slavery. Mohammad advocated the following five pillars or Principles of Islam to be followed by all Muslims.
Kalima – It means faith. Every Muslim should profess his faith in Allah and Mohammad.
Namaz – It means prayer. Every Muslim has to pray five times a day. Prayer is the best method to please God and get one’s sins pardoned.
Zaqqat- It means alms giving. Muslims should be honest and sincere. They should give 2.5 % of what they earn in charity. The purpose is to bring economic equality between the rich and the poor.
Roza – It means fasting. Every Muslim should fast in the month of Ramzan, from morning to dusk. Fasting brings purity of heart. It balances the desires, controls one’s habits and creates confidence towards deliverance. It is a proper training to acquire good character.
Hajj – It is the holy pilgrimage to Mecca. True Muslims should undertake Hajj at least once in their life time.
He prohibited gambling, drinking, adultery and use of pork. He preached the democratic principles of equality and universal brotherhood. He also advocated important moral values like respect for women, parents, and kindness to slaves and animals.
Give an account of the causes for the decline of Feudalism.
There were several reasons for the decline of feudalism. The major ones are given here under.
1. Rise of strong Monarchies: Europe saw the growth of many strong monarchies, where the Kings suppressed the feudal Lords which led to the decline of feudalism.
2. Shifting of loyalty: Common people and serfs were unhappy as they were heavily taxed and neglected. So, they shifted their faith and loyalty towards their Kings. This weakened the hold of the feudal Lords. So, the system collapsed.
3. Growth of commerce and industry: With the growth in commerce and industry, people found new ways for livelihood and left their lands. The rise of the independent middle class took place, which was a lethal blow to the feudal Lords.
4. Dominance of money Economy: Payment in the form of services was replaced by money. Commoners and serfs stopped giving military services to Lords, which further depleted their power and dominance.
5. Building of strong armies by the Kings: The use of gun powder and well organised armies resulted in the weakening of feudalism. Commoners and serfs under the protection of l Kings felt more secure.
6. Scarcity of labourers: The growth of industries and commerce provided alternate I employment and depleted the labour strength. Spread of epidemics like plague reduced the number of workers. Demand for workers and their increased wages brought down the importance of the feudal Lords.
7. Struggle between the feudal Lords: The feudal Lords were troublesome to the serfs and commoners pd fighting among themselves for control. These infernal wars further decreased their number and the Church also put many restrictions on their functioning.
Write a note on the development of Literature during Renaissance.
1. Humanism: The renaissance scholars began to take deep interest in the study of man and his achievements. The humanists promoted rational and humanistic approach, They tried to bring learning into close relation with life. The main idea of this movement was the cultivation of the human personality. Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Cicero, Cervantes and other humanists promoted classical literature. They were called the ‘Morning Stars’.
2. Classicism: A very important feature in Europe during Renaissance was the revival of interest in ancient Greek and Latin classics. This manifested as an expression of classism in Literature along with Art and Architecture. A classical culture developed Europe.
3. Vernacular languages: Renaissance in Europe resulted in the development of vernacular languages like English, German, Spanish and Italian as well. Classical literature in Latin and Greek were translated or written in the vernacular languages. This activity popularised classical literature and developed the vernacular languages also.
4. Renaissance scholars or Rise of new ideas: The teachings of the medieval age were not progressive and the church controlled all the activities of the people. Religious beliefs, political principles, and social standards were all stagnant in this period. The invention of the printing press made it very convenient and easy to spread the new ideas and thoughts to all the nooks and corners of the world. People became enlightened and progressive. The major literary works of this period were the following: Dante’s Divine Comedy. Machiavelli’s The Prince, Sir Thomas More’s Utopia, John Milton’s Paradise Lost, and Paradise Regained, Shakespeare’s numerous Comedies, Tragedies, and Plays, Cervantes’ Don Quixote, etc.,
Explain the results of World War II.
The main results of the Second World War were as follows:
1. The Second World War was the most destructive of all the wars fought until then. About 25 million people were killed and 50 million were disabled. Millions of people later died of starvation and diseases. There was a large scale destruction of houses, industries and, communication and transport systems. The destruction of agricultural land led to the shortage of food. After the war, most of the countries faced the problems of post war reconstructions.
2. The World War II ended the dictatorships in Italy and Germany. Italy was declared a Republic under Badogli, and Germany was divided into four zones under U.S.A., U.S.S.R., Britain and France. A Tribunal was set up at Nuremberg to conduct trials of leading Nazis. Japan gave up all its rights on China. Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers.( U.S.A)
3. European domination of the world ended after this war. After the Second World War, U.S.A, and U.S.S.R emerged as two super powers.
4. The distrust between U.S.A and U.S.S.R increased after the war. This led to what is known as the ‘Cold War’. The rivalry of these two super powers had been the most important feature of international relations since 1945. As a result, world peace was constantly threatened.
5. The World War resulted in the victory of the principle of Nationalism and the liquidation of Colonialism. The colonial Empires of European powers in Asia, Africa and Latin America came to an end. India, Ceylon, Indonesia and other countries became independent after the war.
6. The Jews had become homeless during the Nazi regime in Germany. About six million . Jews perished in the concentration camps. After the war, with the help of U.S.A., a new home land (Israel) for the Jews was created in 1948.
7. Japan experienced disastrous effects of atomic weapons. The entire atmosphere became , poisonous. Most of the new born children suffered from serve deformities.
8. The most important result of the World War Second was the birth of United Nations Organization with the object of preventing further wars and maintaining peace in future.
Give an account of the Regional Military Pacts of the Cold War.
1. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): NATO was established in 1949 at Washington. This was a military pact formed by 15 European countries under the leadership of America against Russia. The initial members were America, Britain, France, Belgium, Canada, Portugal, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Later, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Turkey also became members. Hungary and Poland joined NATO in 1999. NATO members passed a resolution to help the members if attacked by any foreign power and fight the enemy together. NATO has a contributory military unit and its Headquarters is in Paris.
2. SEATO (The South East Asia Treaty Organization): SEATO was born due to the fear created by the spread of communism. The establishment of communist rule in China further enhanced the fear of the spread of communism in South East Asia and Pacific regions. The United States and Western Powers decided to establish a regional collective defence system.
After many discussions at various places, England, America, France, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Philippines and Pakistan met at Manila, the capital of Philippines in 1954 and signed a pact, in the interest of South East Asia.The chief purpose of the SEATO was to forestall the communist aggression. This was put to test in the Vietnam War. After a prolonged war America lost her prestige and consequently the SEATO agreement was dissolved in 1975.
3. ANZUS Pact: It was established in 1951. It was a military pact between Australia, New Zealand and America. By this pact, the signatory nations agreed to help each other in case of aggression on any member in the Pacific region.
4. CENTO or the Baghdad Pact: CENTO was signed in 1955. England took the initiative in organizing this but it did not join initially. It was an Anti Soviet Militaiy Bloc in the Middle East. England joined later along with Pakistan and Iran. In 1958, Karim Kaseem, the President of Iraq flouted the Baghdad Pact, and CENTO failed to contain communist expansion in the Middle East.
5. WARSAW Pact: In 1955, USSR formed the Warsaw pact with the East European countries like Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Rumania and Poland against NATO. This intensified the rivalry between USA and USSR. The Pact came to an end in 1991 with the disintegration of USSR.
Explain the role of India in Non-Aligned Movement.
India has played an important role in the formation of Non-Aligned Movement. Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India is called the Architect of Non-Aligned Movement. His ‘Panchasheela’ formed the important principles of Non-Aligned Movement. India has not only coined the word‘Non-Aligned’, but has inspired others about it.
The following facts show the relationship between India and NAM.
1. India has good relations with the other Non-Aligned countries. Nehru’s principles got world recognition in the Bandung conference, which officially declared the Non-Aligned policy.
2. The 7th summit of Non-Aligned countries was held at Delhi and India’s Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi presided over the conference. She said we should become a united voice in the international organizations. Disarmament, Economic development, technical help were some of the issues that were discussed in this summit. India insisted Israel to withdraw her troops from Palestine.
3. At the 8th summit of Non-Aligned countries in Harare, the then Indian Prime Minister . Rajeev Gandhi demanded the release of Nelson Mandela of South Africa. He also established the ‘African Fund’ to support the blacks who were fighting for their Rights and Freedom.
4. The summit of Non-Aligned countries was held at Belgrade the capital of Yugoslavia. In this summit, Rajeev Gandhi gave a call for establishing ‘Global Protection Fund’ for the protection of the Environment.
5. At the 12th and 13th summits of Non-Aligned countries, Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee gave a call to take a firm decision to combat international Terrorism. India also supported nuclear disarmament.
6. At the 14th summit, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh spoke about international terrorism and nuclear disarmament. At the 15th summit he brought to the notice of Non-Aligned countries, the Mumbai attacks and terrorism. At the 16th summit held in Iran, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh advocated the need for international action against the spread of nuclear armaments and terrorism. He also gave a call to find a solution to the Syrian problem acceptable to all.
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated:
(A) Mark any five of the following Historical Places on the outline map of the world provided to you and add an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences. (5 + 5 = 10)
- Cape of Good Hope
- New York
Rome: Capital of Italy, Capital of Roman Empire. Vatican City-City of Pope.
Jerusalem: In Israel – holy city of Judaism Christianity and Islam. Jesus crucified here.
Cape of Good Hope: In South Africa. Diaz called it Cape of Storms. Renamed as Cape of Good Hope when Vasco da Gama’s hopes of finding a new sea route to India were revived.
New York: In U.S.A. One of the 13 British Colonies. Head Quarters of U.N.O is located here.
London: Capital of U.K. Centre of Industrial Revolution.
Berlin: Capital of Germany, after World War II divided as East & West Berlin. Reunified in 1990.
Hiroshima: In Japan. Atomic Bomb dropped by USA in 1945. 80000 killed.
Moscow: Capital of Russia, one of the centres of Russian Revolution of 1917.
For visually challenged students only.
(B) Answer the following question in 30 to 40 sentences: (1 x 10=10)
Describe the political, social and economic life of the Egyptian Civilization.
The early Egyptians settled into villages, which developed into cities and later the City States were formed. They were ruled by Kings. This is known as the pre-dynastic period. These Kings were engaged in inter City – State quarrels. Stronger City – States showed their supremacy and started taking over other weaker City – States. This made way to the birth of Kingdoms. Different dynasties ruled these Kingdoms. About 30 dynasties have ruled Egypt for more than 3000 years. No dynasty survived for more then 6-7 generations.
The Egyptian Kings were called ‘Pharaohs’. They were considered as representatives of God on earth, hence enjoyed unlimited power. The Pharaoh ‘Menes’, united south and north Egypt in around 3000 B.C.E and made Memphis as his capital. The strong central government with absolute monarchy, a well controlled administration and strict implementation of laws were the basic features of Egyptian polity.
The rule of dynasties can be divided into 3 phases.
- The Period of Old Kingdom.
- The Period of Middle Kingdom.
- The Period of New Kingdom.
The Period of Old Kingdom: It is also known as the Period of Pyramids. The Pharaohs of this period were very strong. There was a council of elders to advise the King, whose advice was not binding on the King. Pharaohs appointed Vizir, the Prime Minister who headed the Administration, Justice and Treasury. The Local officers maintained the records and the accounts.
The Period of Middle Kingdom: It is also known as the period of Feudal Lords. During this period, Lords became more powerful than the Pharaohs. It led to many internal wars and anarchy. The authority of Pharaohs was restored by Amen Hotep I.
The Period of New Kingdom: During the new Kingdom, the Kings raised a powerful army and built a very strong Empire. Thutmose I conquered new territories and expanded the Empire. His daughter, Hatshepsut succeeded him. She was the first Empress in the history of the world. She ruled for twenty one years.
Egyptians developed pictographic writing. It is one of the earliest forms of writing. Egyptian writing is called Hieroglyphics. Glyph means a sign. Hieroglyphics contains hundreds of signs. Some of them stand for complete words while others represent sounds. Papyrus was used for writing. ‘The Books of Dead’, ‘Coffin Text’, ‘The Story of Ship wrecked Sailor’, ‘The tales of Anupu and Bitiu’, etc., were the important books of that era.
Egyptians had a fair knowledge of Medicine, Geometry, Calendars, Astronomy and Mathematics. Most of the scholars of ancient Egypt belonged to the priestly class. The construction of huge pyramids proves beyond doubt that Egyptians had sound knowledge of Geometry and Arithmetic. They were the first to develop the fraction system. They made a clear distinction between stars and planets. Their calendar was based on sun and known as solar calendar. They developed the calendar of 3 65 days with 12 months in a year and 30 days in a month. They divided the year into three seasons of four months each. About 1500 B.C.E, they invented the Shadow Clock to mark the times of a day. A specimen of such an Egyptian shadow clock is preserved in the Berlin Museum.
Egyptians were great builders. They developed fine arts. Their arts and architecture reflected their culture. They built temples for their Gods and Pyramids to bury their Kings. These are the proofs of a well organized and highly skilled artists, craftsmen and labourers. The Sphinx has the head of a man and body of a lion. Emperor Khaphre got it carved. It is 240 feet long and 66 feet high, carved out of a single stone.
The pyramid of Giza is the tomb of King Khufu. It is one of heaviest structures ever built. It was built by his son and grandson. It is the biggest pyramid, 746 x 746 and 481 ft high 23,00,000 stone blocks of average 2.5 ton weight were used in its construction. It occupies 13 acres of area. A million slaves worked for 20 years to complete it. It had a magnificent entrance. The road in front of it was lined with 365 statues of Sphinxes and two tall Obelisks stood on either side of the main road. During festive seasons the statues of Gods were paraded through the doors into the temple. There are more than 90 smaller Pyramids, still standing after 4000 years of their construction. The Pyramids are fine examples of the outstanding technical knowledge and sound administrative ability of the ancient Egyptians.
( OR )
Write a note on the role played by Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi in the unification of . Italy.
The third stage of Italian Unification was achieved by the great patriot, Garibaldi. He was born in 1807 at Nice. He became a member of ‘Young Italy’ at the age of 24 and took part in the revolutionary activities.
He participated in a revolt organized by Mazzini at Savoy in 1834. But the revolt failed. Because of his nationalistic activities he was given death sentence. He managed to escape to – South America and lived in exile for 14 years. He had a large number of loyal followers prepared for any sacrifice for the sake of their country. They were transformed into an army called ‘Red Shirts’. During the 1848 revolution, he returned to Italy and took part in Italian Nationalist Movement. During the war between Sardinia and Austria, he commanded the Sardinian forces.
In 1860, the people of Sicily sought his help against the Bourbons. Immediately he went with his army of Red Shirts and within two months Francis II was defeated and Sicily was annexed. Then he went to Naples and defeated Francis II there also. He wanted to proceed to Rome, but Cavour did not like his move and prevailed upon Victor Emmanuel II to prevent him from doing so. So an army of Victor Emmanuel II was sent to Rome. Garibaldi, whose main aim was the Unification of Italy, handed over Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel II. Garibaldi is called the ‘Sword of Italian Unification’. A true patriot, he refused to accept titles and honours which were offered to him, went back to his village and lived the life of a peasant. Victor Emmanuel II, the King of Sardinia was a patriot himself and an honest King of Italy.
He achieved the unification through peaceful negotiations. He appointed Count Cavour as his prime minister. By 1861, Cavour had united-most of Italy. On 18th February 1861, a new Parliament was convened at Turin and Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as the King of Italy. But Venetia and Rome were yet to be added. Venetia was under Austria and Rome was under the Pope. In 1866, a war broke out between Austria and Prussia, in which Victor Emmanuel II sided with Prussia. The victory of Prussia over Austria compelled Austria to give Venetia to Italy.
In 1870, when there was a war between Prussia and France. Napoleon III withdraw his forces from Rome which had been kept for the protection of the Pope. Immediately, Victor Emmanuel’s troops occupied Rome. The unification of Italy was completed in 1870. Rome became the capital of United Italy. Thus, the Patriotism of Mazzini, the Wars of Garibaldi, the Diplomacy of Cavour and the Statesmanship of Victor Emmanuel helped the Unification of Italy.
Part – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Explain the contributions of the Greeks in the fields of Literature, Science and Philosophy.
In the field of literature, Greeks contributed to Epics, Poetry, Drama and History. ‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’ are the two famous works of Homer. These Epics give us a fairly faithful account of the social, economic and political conditions of early Greek Culture. The shorter Greek poems were called Lyrics. Pindar and Sappo were the two lyric poets of Greek Civilization.
The drama is the most familiar of the Greek forms of literature. The remains of Greek theatres can be still be seen all over the Aegean region. The founder of Greek tragedy was Aeschylus, author of ‘Prometheus Bound’ and ‘Agamemnon’. Sophocles, the greatest of the Greek, tragedians, wrote ‘Oedipus Rex’, ‘Antigone’ and ‘Electra’. These plays are admired all over the world even today. Euripides the third of the great tragic Poets believed that, in life people were more important than Gods.
Hence he concerned himself with the passions and emotions of human beings. One of his best known plays is the ‘Trojan Women’. Aristophanes was the greatest comic poet! World’s first great historian Herodotus, Thucydides who wrote he ‘Peloponnesian Wars’ and Plutarch known for his biographies- ‘Lives of illustrious men’ all lived during this period. Oratory is the art of making public speeches. The most famous orator of that period was Demosthenes.
Greek philosophers furnished the impetus for the beginning of the study of science. Aristotle laid the foundation for the study of natural science. Theophrastus, established Botany as a recognized science. Hippocrates known as the ‘Father of Medicine’ laid the foundations of modern medicine. He taught that diseases have a natural origin and not caused by evil spirits. Herophilus is called as the ‘Father of Anatomy’.
Ptolemy believed that the Earth was the center of the Universe. But Aristarchus propounded the theory that Earth and other Planets, revolved around the Sun. Eratosthenes calculated the approximate circumference of earth within a small error of 320 Kilometers. He also prepared a fairly accurate map of the world and he was the first to suggest that one could reach India from Europe by sailing westwards. Pythagoras and Euclid made many contributions to mathematics, especially to Geometry. Archimedes was also a famous scientist of ancient Greece.
The word Philosophy is derived from the Greek word ‘Philosophia’ which means “Love of Wisdom”. The Sophists believed that there was no absolute truth but looked at every so called truth in relation to its effect on human beings. They taught the techniques of effective speaking, writing, oratory, rhetoric etc. The most famous Philosophers were Socrates, his disciple Plato and Plato’s student Aristotle. Aristotle was the teacher of Alexander the great.
He was both a Philosopher and a Scientist and wrote on many subjects. He is regarded as the father of three branches of knowledge, namely Philosophy, Biology and Political Science. He said that ‘Man is a social animal’. He encouraged constitutional Governments. He classified and organized the different branches of knowledge-segregating Physics, Metaphysics, Logic and Ethics. His important works were ‘The Politics’ and ‘History of Animals’. That is why he is considered as the ‘Walking University’.
Describe the role of Martin Luther in the Reformation Movement.
Reformation began in Germany and its leader Martin Luther was born at Eiselben in 1483 A.D in a poor German peasant family. Luther studied theology, law and humanism at the University of Erfurt in 1508 A.D. He was always haunted with the question, “how to please God?” Lie . seriously studied the Bible and the works of St. Paul and St. Augustine. He became a Professor of Theology in the University of Wittenberg. Luther strongly believed that man could get salvation only through God’s mercy but the Church preached that it possessed the means of salvation. He rejected the doctrine of good work.
He visited Rome in 1511 A.D and was shocked at the worldliness of the Pope and the corrupt and immoral life led by the clergy. He did not to tolerate the corrupt practices of the Church. In 1517, Pope Leo-X sent out several agents to dispense indulgences in order to collect funds to complete St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. They spread the belief that indulgences were passports to heaven. One of these agents, John Tetzel was selling indulgences as passports to Heaven.
Luther’s opposition: Luther wrote his objection against the Church practices and Pope’s authority in Latin. He prepared his objections in the form of ‘95 Theses’ and posted them on the door of the Church in Wittenberg, Thereupon Luther started a rebellious Movement against the abuses of the Church. This popular revolt came to be known as Protestant Movement.
Luther questioned the authority of Pope and challenged the concept of infallibility. As a result of these activities, the Pope ordered Emperor Charles-V to take action against Luther. In 1521 Charles-V summoned the Diet of Worms and ordered Luther to appear before the Diet to justify the charges made against the Pope. In the Diet of Worms, Luther was excommunicated by the Pope. He was expelled from the Church and was branded a heretic.
Briefly write about the causes and result of the French Revolution of 1789.
The various causes for the outbreak of French Revolution of 1789 are as follows.
Social Causes: Social inequality was one of the main causes for French revolution. The first two Estates monopolized all the highest offices in the Army, Church and the Government. They were also exempted from paying taxes and free from the authority of the court. They were the owners of enormous wealth and exploited the peasants and workers. On the other hand, the conditions of the commoners were deplorable. They had to pay all taxes and were not eligible for any higher government services. “The Nobles fight, the Clergy pray and the Commons pay”, was a popular statement in France. Thus the majority of the French people were disgusted owing to their social inferiority and discrimination, which paved the way for the outbreak of this revolution.
Economic Causes: The policy of taxation in France was defective and unfair. The burden of tax mostly fell on the Commoners, because the Clergy and Nobles were exempted from all kind of taxes. Commoners had to pay ‘Taille’ (Property Tax), ‘Gable’ (Salt Tax), ‘Tithe’ (Religious Tax) and other cesses to the Government. This kind of economic exploitation and discontent among the common people made them to revolt against the discriminative taxation policy of the French Government.
Intellectual Causes: Many great Philosophers during.18th century in France, criticized about the political tyranny, social inequality and economic exploitation in France and also insisted for reforms. France was prepared mentally and morally for a revolt against the old regime because of the writings and speeches of these brilliant thinkers of that age. They strongly criticized the Church and social inequality and provided the intellectual justification for the revolution.
Montesquieu advocated the ‘Theory of Separation of Powers’ as per which, Legislative, Executive and Judiciary should function independently to safeguard the liberty of the people. Voltaire asked people to apply ‘Reason’ in every field. Rousseau gave the watch word of the revolution ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’. Diderot condemned the privileged classes.
Political causes: The ‘Bourbon Dynasty’ which ruled France for many centuries neglected the interests of the people and ruled according to their whims and fancies. During Louis XV’s reign, France fought many wars viz., the War of Austrian Succession, the Seven Years War and others. In these wars it was defeated and it was a great financial burden. The administrative system of France was highly flawed and the Rulers neglected their responsibilities and welfare of the people and were addicted to women, wine and wealth. The officials were highly corrupt and there was no uniform legal system. This type of political anarchy, absolutism and misrule increased the dissatisfaction of the people and led to the revolution.
Immediate cause: The financial condition of France was deplorable by about 1789. National debt increased owing to the costly wars and lavish life style of the King and his family. Unprivileged class was paying all the taxes. The Finance Ministers of France suggested the reduction in unnecessary expenditures and to impose some taxes on the privileged classes to solve the financial crisis which was not acceptable to the privileged classes and the deterioration continued.
The results of the French Revolution are:
1. This revolution abolished absolute monarchy and ended the political anarchy and misrule of the French Kings. It paved way for the establishment of a Republican Government in France based on the democratic principles, as propounded by Montesquieu, J.J. Rousseau and others.
2. The French Revolution ended Feudalism and hereditary aristocracy. It proved that suppressed ones can revolt against the oppressive government.
3. It put an end to the special privileges of the Clergy and Nobility and their properties were confiscated. Thus social inequality also ended.
4. The new constitution declared the rights of man, which upheld the ‘Doctrine of popular sovereignty’.
5. This revolution popularized the ideas of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity in other countries of the world.
6. It spread the feeling of unity and taught the principles of Nationalism among the French people. Hence, it became a source of inspiration to the Unification of Italy and Germany and finally freedom movements in other parts of the world including India. H.A.L Fisher says “If cold attacks France, the entire Europe sneezes”.
7. This revolution caused heavy bloodshed. During ‘The Reign of Terror’, nearly 17000 people were killed. Even King Louis XVI, his Queen Marie Antoinette and others were Guillotined.
8. The Directory Government, which came.to power after the revolution, failed to rule properly, Again there was chaos and confusion in France. This gave an opportunity for the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte as the military Dictator of France. He called himself as the ‘Child of Revolution’.
Thus the French Revolution was indeed a’great event in the history of France. The political developments after this revolution greatly changed the course of the History of Europe and also the world.
Describe the achievements of UNO.
Achievements of U.N.O are manifold:
The U.N.O. has carried out several successful programs and operations. The achievements of the U.N.O may be grouped under two headings, namely, political and non-political.
Political: In the political field, the UNO has notable achievements. The foremost achievement of the U.N.O is that there has not been a global war and the use of nuclear weapons since
The first issue that was solved by the U.N.O was the case of Iran. Russian Troops were stationed on the Northern borders of Iran during the Second World War. After the war, Iran complained to the U.N.O. So, U.N.O intervened and made the Russian Troops to withdraw from Iran in 1946.
1. In 1947, a quarrel started in Indonesia between Holland and Indonesia. It was settled by the U.N. in 1948.
2. In September 1948, France, England and U.S.A. complained to the Security Council about the blockade of Berlin by the U.S.S.R. Later, an agreement was reached due to the efforts of U.N.O.
3. U.N.O. was able to stop the fighting between the Israeli Jews and Arabs in Palestine in 1948.
4. The U.N.O ordered cease-fire in Kashmir in 1948.
5. In the Korean crisis when war broke out between North and South Korea, the U.N.O used armed forces to settle the dispute.
6. The Suez Canal and Vietnam problems were solved with the mediation of the U.N.O.
7. It also put an end to the fighting between Iraq and Iran in 1989.
8. Iraq occupied Kuwait in 1990. Immediately, Kuwait approached U.N.O for help. So, the U.N. made Iraq vacate Kuwait in 1991.
9. It has worked to maintain peace in several countries of the world. It has carried out peace . keeping missions in Greece, Lebanon, Cyprus, Congo, Cambodia, Korea, Kosovo, etc.,
10. South Africa was following the Apartheid policy.U.N.O. setup a special committee and imposed sanctions against South Africa in 1954. Ultimately the Apartheid regime came to an end in 1991.
Non-political: A notable achievement of the U.N.O was the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the General Assembly on lOth December 1948. The Declaration included articles like the right to life, liberty and security of person, freedom from slavery, freedom of thought, the right to vote, to work, etc.
1. U.N.O has done excellent work through its specialized agencies. The ILO has made the member nations to improve the conditions of the labourers.
2. FAO has assisted the nations to increase the food production in farms, forests, fisheries and increase nutrition levels. It has also helped to feed millions of hungry children in the third world countries.
3. IMF and IBRD are giving funds for the economic development of different backward countries.
4. UNESCO has done much work in many backward countries in the social, educational, economic, technological and other fields U.N.O. helped the refugees of war, earthquake, tsunami etc. It had arranged for food, shelter and rehabilitation of war victims throughout the world. The U.N.O has helped preserve many cultural sites throughout the world as World Heritage Sites like Hampi, Pattadakal, Konark etc.
Part – F
VI. 36. Match the following: ( 05 )
37. Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. ( 05 )
1. Treaty of Versailles
2. Bandung Conference
3. Construction of Parthenon temple
4. Unification of Germany
5. Invention of Printing Press
1. Construction of Parthenon temple
2. Invention of Printing Press
3. Unification of Germany
4. Treaty of Versailles
5. Bandung Conference.