1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 2 The Earth

Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 2 The Earth

You can Download Chapter 2 The Earth Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

1st PUC Geography The Earth One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is the approximate age of the Earth? (T.B.Q)
Answer:
4.6 Billion years

Question 2.
What is antipodal balance?
Answer:
The arrangement of land and water bodies on the earth is called ‘Antipodal balance’.

Question 3.
Name a unique planet in the solar system.
Answer:
Earth is a unique planet in the solar system.

Question 4.
At what distance is the Earth situated from sun?
Answer:
Earth is situated at a distance of about 150 million kms from the sun.

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Question 5.
Where does the orbit of Earth lie in solar system?
Answer:
The orbit of Earth lies between Venus and Mars.

Question 6.
Where does Earth stand among the planets?
Answer:
The earth is the fifth largest planet in terms of size.

Question 7.
Why Earth is called a ‘Watery planet’.
Answer:
Earth is called a ‘Watery Planet’ due to abundance of water which covers about 71% of the surface of the Earth.

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Question 8.
What are the three important realms of the Earth?
Answer:
Lithosphere, Hydrosphere and Atmosphere are the three important realms of the Earth.

Question 9.
What is Equator?
Answer:
Equator is an imaginary line that divides the Earth into two hemispheres.

Question 10.
What are antipodes?
Answer:
Two places situated geometrically on opposite sides of the earth.

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Question 11.
Which is the largest and smallest continent in the world?
Answer:
Asia & Australia.

Question 12.
Name the oldest proof in respect of shape of the Earth. (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
Aristotle proves that the circular shadow of the Earth during a lunar eclipse on the moon . proves that Earth is spherical.

Question 13.
Who conducted Bed Ford Experiment? (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace conducted Bed ford level Experiment in 1956, along the Bed ford level canal area in Britain.

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Question 14.
What is the total geographical area of the earth? (T. B. Qn)
Answer: 510Millionsq.km

Question 15.
Who was the first person to calculate the distance between places? (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
The distance between places on the Earth was first calculated by Greek Philosopher Eratosthenes.

Question 16.
What Is the shape of the earth?
Answer:
The shape of the Earth Spherical Shape or Geoid in Shape

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Question 17.
What is the equatorial circumference of the Earth?
Answer:
The equatorial circumference of the Earth 40,076km

Question 18.
What is the polar circumference of the earth?
Answer:
The polar circumference of the Earth is 40,006km

Question 19.
What is antipodal balance?
Answer:
The arangement of land and water bodies on (be earth is catted ‘Antipodal balance’.

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Question 20.
What is the total area of land in the earth?
Answer:
149.1 sq.km (29.1%)

Question 21.
What is the total area of water in the earth?
Answer:
The total area of water 368sq.km (70.9%)

Question 22.
What percent of the total land area is in the northern hemisphere?
Answer:
60% of land area

Question 23.
What is the average density of the Earth?
Answer:
5.517gcm

Question 24.
What is the velocity of the earth at the eqoator?
Answer:
The velocity of die earth at the equator 1600km per hour

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Question 25.
What is the velocity of the earth at the polar?
Answer:
The velocity of the earth at the polar is zero.

Question 26.
What amount of time does the Earth take to complete one rotation? (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
The actual period of one Rotation is 23hr 56 min and 4.09 sec or 24 hours.

Question 27.
Define Orbit. (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
The fixed path on which the Earth revolves round the Sun is known as Orbit.

Question 28.
On what date does the Summer Solstice occur? (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
Summer Solstice occur on June 21st, due to the Earth’s inclination.

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Question 29.
How many temperature zones are there on the globe? (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
There are three temperature zones, a) Torrid zone b) Temperate zone and c) Frigid zone.

Question 30.
Who proposed geocentric theory?
Answer:
Claudius Ptolemy proposed geocentric theory.

Question 31.
Who proposed sun centric theory?
Answer:
Nicolaus Copernicus was proposed sun-centric theory.

Question 32.
Which continent is called as ‘Ice Continent’?
Answer:
Antarctica is located entirely in the southern hemisphere covered with ice. This is called ‘Ice Continent’.

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Question 33.
What is the length of Equator?
Answer:
The length of Equator is 40,076 km.

Question 34.
Which line divides the Earth into two hemispheres? Name the hemispheres?
Answer:
The equator divides the Earth into two hemispheres known as Northern hemisphere and Southern hemisphere.

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Question 35.
What is rotation?
Answer:
The earth rotates or spins over its axis from west to east. This movement of the earth on its own axis is called rotation.

Question 36.
What is Sidereal Day?
Answer:
The period of rotation 23hours, 56 minutes and 4.09 seconds is known as “Sidereal Day”.

Question 37.
What is Revolution?
Answer:
The movement of the earth along its orbit around the Sun is called Revolution.

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Question 38.
What is circle of illumination?
Answer:
A line that bisects areas on the earth receiving sunlight and those areas in darkness cuts the spherical earth into lighted and dark halves.

Question 39.
What are the two types of earth movements?
Answer:
The two types of earth movements are Rotation and Revolution.

Question 40.
Mention the average speed of the rotation.
Answer:
Average speed of the rotation of earth near equator is 1670 km/hr.

Question 41.
What is parallelism of the earth’s axis?
Answer:
The earth maintained 23 degree to its perpendicular throughout the orbit of the earth. This feature is described as parallelism of earth’s axis.

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Question 42.
Which experiment has proved the rotation of the earth?
Answer:
Foucault’s Experiment

Question 43.
Which movement causes seasons?
Answer:
Revolution, Causes Seasons.

Question 44.
Which country is called the land of midnight sun?
Answer:
Norway is called the land of midnight sun.

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Question 45.
What is an ‘Axis’?
Answer:
The axis is an imaginary line joining the north and South Pole of the globe.

Question 46.
What is Prime meridian?
Answer:
Prime meridian is an imaginary line passing through Greenwich near London.

Question 47.
What is diurnal motion of Earth?
Answer:
Rotation of Earth is from west to east and rising of Sun from east then settling in the west is diurnal motion of Earth.

Question 48.
What causes unequal day and night?
Answer:
Inclination of Earth’s axis causes unequal day and night.

Question 49.
Which is the longest and shortest day in southern hemisphere?
Answer:
22nd December is the longest and 21st June is the shortest day.

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1st PUC Geography The Earth Two Marks Questions And Answers

Question 1.
Why Northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere are called land and Water hemisphere?(T.B.Q)
Answer:
The Northern Hemisphere has 60% of land and 40% of water. Therefore it is called the ‘Land Hemisphere. The Southern hemisphere has 81% of water and 19 % of land in the Southern hemisphere. So it is called the ‘Water Hemisphere’.

Question 2.
Why is the Earth known as a unique planet?
Answer:
Earth is a unique planet because it has large variety of life forms ranging from microscopic plant and animal organism to the largest of trees and animals.

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Question 3.
What is lunar Eclipse?
Answer:
A lunar Eclipse occurs when the moon passes directly behind the earth while rotating when the earth comes in between the sun and the moon and its shadow falls on the moon.

Question 4.
Why the Earth is called ‘Living Planet’?
Answer:
The Earth is the home for all forms of life like plants, animals and human beings because of its suitable distance from the Sun, range of temperature, life supporting gases, atmosphere water cycle etc. It is the only planet that supports life, that is why it is called ‘Living Planet’.

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Question 5.
What is Earth’s axis?
Answer:
An imaginary line passing through the centre of the earth and joining the North Pole with South Pole is called axis.

Question 6.
How many planets are larger than the earth?
Answer:
Four planets are larger than the earth i. e Jupiter Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

Question 7.
Mention the major continent in the world.
Answer:
A continent is a large continuous mass of land that exists above sea level. There are seven, major continents Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe and Australia.

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Question 8.
Mention the major ocean in the world.
Answer:
Oceans are the large expanse of water covering large area of the earth’s surface. There are four major oceans namely, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Arctic Ocean.

Question 9.
What is Geoid? (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
The hypothetical shape of the earth, coinciding with mean sea level and its imagined extension under land areas. The earth is not a complete sphere, but is slightly flattened at the poles and bul ging the equator. So die shape of the earth is called ‘Geoid’.

Question 10.
Mention the Equatorial and polar diameter of the Earth? (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
Equatorial diameter of the Earth is 12,75tton and Polar diameter of the Earth is 12,714km

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Question 11.
Name the highest and lowest points on the land. (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
Mount Everest (8850 mtr-Nepal) is the tallest mountain in die world. The challenger deep in the Marina trench (10898 mtr) near the Philippine Island in the Pacific Ocean is the deepest part of the ocean in the world.

Question 12.
Mention the fonr evidences of spherical shape of Me Earth?
Answer:
Circum navigation, Sunrise and Sunset, The Bradford experiment and the circular horizon are the evidences of spherical shape of the earth.

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Question 13.
What is Bed ford level canal Experiment?
Answer:
The Bedford level canal Experiment conducted by Dr. A.R. Wallace, also proves that the earth is spherical in shape, in this experiment three poles of equal height Were fixed in a straight line at an equal distance of one mile from one another over a stretch of water in a canal. When the poles observed through a telescope, the middle pole appeared to be higher then the other two poles because of the curved surface.

Question 14.
What is Circum Navigation?
Answer:
If a ship starts sailing from a point, moving constantly in the same direction, it reaches the same point form where it has started its journey. This shows that the earth is spherical in shape.

Question 15.
What is circular Horizon?
Answer:
When we observe the horizon from a hill top or from the deck of a ship, it is always circular in shape. It widens with increasing altitude. This could be so only in a spherical body.

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Question 16.
What is deflection of Winds? (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
As a result of the earth’s rotation from west to east cause change in the direction of winds. The direction of the winds is deflected towards their right in the northern hemisphere and towards their left the southern hemisphere.

Question 17.
What is inclination of the Earth? (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
The Earth’s axis is not at right angle (perpendicular) to the plane of the elliptical orbit. The axis is inclined at an angle of 66 1/2° to the plane of the orbit. This is known as ‘Inclination of the Earth’s axis’.

Question 18.
Distinguish between Perihelion and Aphelion. (T. B. Qn)
Answer:

  • Aphelion: July 4th the earth is far from the sun and is said to be in Aphelion position. Aph means away and hellion means Sun. At this point the distance between the sun and the earth is 152 million km.
  • Perihelion: Jan 3rd the earth is nearest to the sun and is said to be in Perihelion position Peri means near, hellion means sun. At this point the distance between the sun and the earth is 147 million km.

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Question 19.
State the difference between Autumn Equinox and Spring Equinox. (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
On two days in a year, the sun shines vertically over the Equator i.e., at an angle of 90°. This angle decreases as one moves away from the equator.
Autumn Equinox refers to, On September 23rd, the vertical rays of the Sun falls on the Equator, Therefore, the days and nights are equal in both the hemispheres. On 21st March, the vertical rays of the sun fall son the Equator, therefore, the duration of days and nights are equal in both the hemispheres.

Question 20.
Why Norway is called ‘Land of Mid-night Sun’? (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
Norway is known as the ‘Land of the Mid-night Sun’ because Sun does not go below the horizon or come above it on 21st June. It moves at a low elevation from horizon-to-horizon. Although its altitude is very low, it continues shinning longer for all the 24 hours.

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Question 21.
Mention the difference between Torrid and Temperate zones. (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
The Torrid Zone The zone stretches between 23’/2°N and south latitudes and more or less receives the vertical rays of the sun. As a result, this region experiences moderately warm climate throughout the year.
The Temperate zone: In between the Torrid and the frigid zones i.e., between 23!/2°N and South and 66’/2°N and S lies the Temperate Zone. In this zone the sun’s rays fall obliquely and hence the region experiences a moderate climate.

Question 22.
What is ‘Perihelion’?
Answer:
Jan 3rd the earth is nearest to the sun and is said to be in Perihelion position. Peri means near, hellion means sun. At this point the distance between the sun and the earth is 147 million km.

Question 23.
What is ‘Aphelion’?
Answer:
July 4th the earth is far from the sun and is said to be in Aphelion position. Aph means away and hellion means Sun. At this point the distance between the sun and the earth is 152 million km.

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Question 24.
What is meant by local and standard time?
Answer:
The lime calculated from the local noon of a place is called the local time. The time of the standard meridian is called standard time.

Question 25.
What is Sidereal year?
Answer:
The Earth takes 365 days, 6hours 9 minutes and 9.5 seconds to complete one revolution. This period is known as Sidereal Year.

Question 26.
What is Solar Year?
Answer:
The average duration to complete one revolution requires 365 days and 6 hours. It is known as Solar Year.

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Question 27.
What is Equinox?
Answer:
The various positions of earth on its orbit in a year, in between these two positions, on March 21st and Sept 23rd, the earth has two other important positions. During these two positions the rays of the Sun are vertical over the equator. Therefore, the days and nights are equal all over the world. These two positions are known as ‘Equinox’.

Question 28.
What is Leap year?
Answer:
The earth requires 365 1/4 days to complete one revolution round the sun. But, for practical purposes, a year is taken as 365 days. The difference of 1/4 day in each year is adjusted once in four year and that year is taken 366 days. That year is called a leap year.

Question 29.
Mention four effects of Rotation of Earth?
Answer:

  • Occurrence of day and night.
  • Tides and currents.
  • Polar flattening and equatorial bulging
  • Deflection in the direction of winds.

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Question 30.
What are the effects of revolution of Earth?
Answer:

  • Inequality of day and night.
  • Occurrence of seasons.
  • Distribution of important lines of latitude.
  • Different climatic zones

Question 31.
What is Coriolis force?
Answer:
An apparent force caused by the earth’s rotation. The coriolis force is responsible for deflecting winds towards the right in the northern hemisphere and towards the left in the southern hemisphere. This is also known as ‘Ferrel’s law’.

Question 32.
What are seasons? How they are caused?
Answer:
Seasons refer to periods of a year which have some peculiar climatic conditions. They are caused due to the revolution of the earth.

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1st PUC Geography The Earth Five Marks Questions And Answers

Question 1.
Describe the size of the Earth. (T.B. Qn).
Answer:
The ancient people made attempts to determine the size of the Earth. About 2,000 years ago a Greek astronomer, Eratosthenes, who lived In Alexandria in Egypt succeeded in calculating the size of the earth almost accurately, according to him, the earth’s circumference at the equator was 41,140kms. It was very close to the actual circumference of the earth, as known today.

The actual equatorial circumference of the earth is 40,076km, where as the polar circumference is 40,006km. The difference between the two is 70km. The earth’s equatorial diameter is 12,757km and the polar diameter is 12,714km. The difference is 43km. The geoids shape of the earth makes the circumference through the poles little less than that along the equator. The total surface area of the earth is 510. 9 million sq kms of the surface area, 71 % is covered by water mass and 29% is covered by landmass. The water mass is 361 million sq.kms and the land area is 149 million sq.kms. The land area is divided into seven continents and many island. The continents are Asia, Africa, and North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe and Australia.

The water area consist of five ocean, namely, the pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Antarctic ocean and the Arctic Ocean and many gulfs, bays and seas. The globe is divided into two hemispheres, namely the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere, by the equator. The northern hemisphere contains 2/3 of the land and the southern hemisphere contains 1/3 of the land. The zero degree meridians decide the globe into two hemispheres, namely, the eastern hemisphere and the western hemisphere.

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Question 2.
Name and explain the proofs in support of the spherical shape of the Earth. (T.B. Qn)
Answer:
There are several proofs to regard the earth as a spherical shape of the Earth.
a. Heavenly bodies appear to be spherical: The Sun, the Moon and other heavenly bodies appear to be spherical when viewed from different position. The earth is one of them and hence it must also be spherical in shape.

b. The Lunar Eclipse: The lunar eclipse proves that the Earth is in spherical shape. During lunar eclipse when the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon, the shadow of the Earth falls on the Moon. Aristotle was the first scholar to show this by looking at the shadow of the Earth on the lunar surface. Later, this was ascertained by Ptolemy. This is considered to be the oldest proof in respect of the shape of the Earth.

c. Sunrise and Sunset: The time of Sunrise and Sunset is not the same everywhere in the world. This is due to spherical shape of the Earth. If the Earth were to be flat all places on the Earth would have had sunrise and sunset at the same time everywhere in the world.

d. Circumnavigation: Circumnavigation of the world can only be possible when the Earth is in spherical shape. If one start on a sea voyage towards the east, by moving constantly in the same direction, he would be able to complete a circle of the world and reach the original point form where he had started.

e. The Bed Ford level experiment: Dr.Alfred Russel Wallace conducted an experiment in 1956, along the Bed Ford level canal area in Britain. It is the most convincing proof of the curvature of the Earth. He fixed three poles of same height at an interval of about mile apart and observed through a telescope. It was found that the pole in the middle was higher than other two poles. It is due to the curvature of the Earth. If the Earth were to be flat all the poles would have the same horizontal level.

f. Sighting a ship: A ship on the sea approaching the coast, when seen from the short does not come into view all at once. The observer first sees the mast and then the hull and finally the whole ship. A ship moving away from the coast disappears gradually and finally out of view. If the Earth were to be flat the whole ship would have come into view.

g. Aerial and Satellite Photographs: The photographs taken by the cosmonauts in the recent decades and satellites have provided ample proof to show that the earth is spherical in shape.

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Question 3.
Explain the effects of the rotation of the Earth. (T.B. Qn)
Answer:
Rotation of the Earth causes various effects. They are:
a. Day and night caused by the rotation of the earth on its axis. This is because parts of the earth which face the sun have day and the parts which do not face the sun have night. This happen with precision and progression and not suddenly – The time when the sun beings to cast its light in the sky is known as dawn. At noon. The sun is overhead. At dusk, it is twilight and the sun is seen disappearing in the sky. At night, it is completely dark.

b. The duration of the day and night is not equal at all places on the earth because of the inclined axis. The length of days varies with respect to the seasons as well as latitude

c. The sun, the moon and the stars seem to move from east to west. This is because the earth spins from west to east. This effect is similar to what one experiences while looking at trees from a moving train.

d. The speed of rotation has created a centrifugal force resulting in a bulge in the middle portion of the earth and flattened top at the poles.

e. The earth’s rotation affects the movement of water in the oceans. The tides are deflected because of the rotation of the earth.

f. Rotation causes difference in time over various places on the earth.

g. The Earth acts as huge magnet: The one end of the needle of the compass always points towards the north magnetic pole. That means, the earth acts as a magnet. The rotation . of the earth causes the earth to act as a magnet.

h. Rotation of the Earth influences the movement of ocean water, particularly ocean currents.

i. The rise and fall in the sea level is called tides. Rotation of the Earth causes the lacing of water bodies to the Moon. The gravitational attraction of the Moon and position of the water bodies cause tides. This is a regular phenomenon due to Earth’s rotation.

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Question 4.
Describe the special latitudes and temperature zones of the globe with a neat diagram. (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
Due to the Earth’s inclination at 66 1/2°and revolution, we recognize a few special latitudes on the globe. The vertical rays of the Sun strike the Earth at different points at different times of the year. On March 21st and September 23rd it falls on the middle of the Earth i.e., Equator. On June 21st the vertical rays fall on 23 1/2° North – Tropic of Cancer and on December 22nd it falls on 23 1/2° South- Tropic of Capricorn. On June 21st the Sun’s rays reach 66 1/2° South Antarctic circle. The North Pole (90° south) is the two ends of the Earth’s axis.

On the basis of special latitudes the globe may be divided into ‘Temperature zones’ or ‘ Heat zones’. Direct rays of the sun produce more heat than the slanting rays. The region near the equator receives more direct rays of the Sun. These rays are intense over smaller areas and so it heats up the Earth more. As we go away from the equator, the sun’s rays strike the Earth’s surface with slanting rays, spreading over a larger area so, they do not heat as intensely as the direct rays. Therefore, when we go from the equator to the poles, we come across zones with varying temperatures.

1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 2 The Earth 1

The Torrid Zone The zone stretches between 231/2°N and south latitudes and more or less receives the vertical rays of the sun. As a result, this region experiences moderately warm climate throughout the year.

The Temperate zone: In between the Torrid and the frigid zones i.e., between 23 1/2°N and South and 66 1/2°N and S lies the Temperate Zone. In this zone the sun’s rays fall obliquely and hence the region experiences a moderate climate.

The Frigid Zone: This zone extends from Arctic Circle to North Pole (66 1/2°N to 90°N) in the Northern Hemisphere and the Antarctic circle to South Pole (66 1/2° S to 90° S) is known as ‘Frigid Zone’. Since the sun’s rays fall extremely obliquely in this region, the region experience extremely cold climate.

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1st PUC Geography The Earth Ten Marks Questions And Answers

Question 1.
How do seasons occur? Explain with a neat diagram. (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
Seasons occurs as an effect of earth’s revolution. Seasons refers to periods of a year which have some peculiar climatic conditions. Seasons are caused due to the following.

  1. The inclination of the earth’s axis.
  2. The parallelism of the earth’s axis
  3. Revolution of the earth.

There are four seasons in a year. They are:
1.Summer 2. Autumn 3. Winter 4. Spring. As per the international Calendar, the four seasons have a period of 3 months. From the point of view of the earth’s indication, there are four positions of solstices and equinoxes. So, there are four seasons according to the positions of the earth in one complete revolution around the sun. Those four seasons are:

1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 2 The Earth 2

a. Summer Season: On June 21st the northern hemisphere is tilted towards the sun while the southern hemisphere is tilted away from the sun. The rays of the sun fall vertically on the Tropic Cancer and the areas within the Artistic circle remain in sunlight for all 24 hours. The northern hemisphere has longer days and shorter night. At this time the northern hemisphere has longer days and shorter night. At this time the northern hemisphere enjoys summer season and this portion is called “summer solstice”. Solstice means sun stops.

b. Autumnal Season: On 23rd September the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere are equally inclined or tilted towards the sun. The sun rays are vertical at the equator. As a result, the days and night are equal all over the world. At this time, in the northern hemisphere the season is neither hot nor cold. It is a situation between summer and winter seasons. It is called autumn season. At this time in the southern hemisphere, there is spring season. This position of the earth on 23rd September is known as autumnal equinox.

c. Winter Season: On 22nd December the southern hemisphere is inclined or tilted towards the sun, and northern hemisphere is inclined or tilted away from the sun. The sun is vertical at the Tropic of Capricorn, i.e. at 23 lA°S. At this time there is winter season in the northern hemisphere, and summer season in the southern hemisphere. This position is known as winter solstice.

d. Spring Season: On 21st March the northern and southern hemisphere are equally inclined towards the sun. The conditions are similar to those of autumnal equinox. From 21st March to 21st June, the earth is moving on its northern limits. During this period, there is spring season in the northern hemisphere and autumn season in the southern hemisphere. This season lasts for three months and continues with fresh cycle of summer. In India, the beginning of the spring is considered very auspicious and is celebrated as the first day of the year.

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