You can Download Chapter 8 Agriculture Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 8 Agriculture
2nd PUC Geography Agriculture One Mark Questions with Answers
What is Agriculture?
Agriculture is an the art of tilling the land to raise the crops for the benefit of food for the man and fooder for the animals.
What is Subsistence Farming?
The production of crops for the purpose of Domestic consumption and not for commercial use is called “Subsistence Farming”.
What is Migratory Farming?
It is practised by tribals under this system former clear patches of forest to grow the crops later people migrate to another parts of forest for their activities like cultivation of crops, hunting fishing etc.
Which crops are suitable for dry firming.
Jowar, bajra, ragi, oil seeds are the important dry farming crops.
What is Green Revolution?
Increase in Food production through the introduction of high yield crop varieties and application of modem agricultural techniques is called Green Revolution.
What is “Tissue Culture”?
The growing of a cell or tissue or an organ in an artifical aseptic and nutritive medium is called “Tissue culture”.
Define Organic Farming?
Organic Farming is the form of agriculture that uses green manure, compost and biological pest control by eliminating the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc.
Which states is the largest producer of vegetables?
The West Bengal ranks first with about 15% of the country’s production.
Which is the King of spices?
“Black Pepper” is the King of spices.
What do you mean by “Catch crops”?
In areas supported by the Irrigation vegetables can grow 3 to 4 crops in a year. This source of income is called “Catch crops”.
Which state is popular for the production of Bastmati Rice in India?
Punjab state is popular for the production of Basumati Rice.
What do you mean by Food crops?
The crops which are grown to provide one of the basic essential like food for the people are known as “Food crops”.
Define Plantation crops?
The crops which are grown on plantations covering large estates are known as Plantation crops.
What is Ratooning system?
It is one of popular method of sugarcane cultivation. In which growing of second crop from the roots of the first crop can be called as Ratooning system.
Mention two important beverage crops of India?
Tea and Coffee are important Beverage crops of India.
What is humid farming?
Cultivation of crops, where the areas receiving sufficient rainfall without the help of irrigation is known as Wet farming or Humid farming.
Who is the father of ‘Green revolution’?
‘Norman Ernest Borlaug’.
Who is the father of Green revolution in India. When was it introduced.
‘Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan’ is the father of Green revolution was introduced in 1960’s.
‘Intensive Agricultural Development Programme’.
Which is the first state to introduce policy on Organic farming and When.
Karnataka, On March 24th, 2004.
What is ‘In Vitro’?
‘In Vitro’ literally means ‘In Glass’ taking place in a test tube.
Name the fruit of India which is the largest Producer and Exporter in the world.
Which is the 0ueen of fragrance spices.
Which state is the largest producer of flowers in India.
Which is called as the King of flowers.
What is the Scientific name of rice?
Which state is the largest producer of rice in India.
‘West Bengal, It contributes 14.24% under total production of rice in India.
Which state is known as the Rice Bowl of India.
What is the Scientific name of wheat.
Which state is the largest producer of wheat in India.
‘Uttar Pradesh’ It share is 32.25%.
What is the Scientific name of Sugarcane.
What is the Botanical name of cotton.
Which is called Queen of Beverages.
What is the Botanical name of Tea?
Who introduced coffee in India and when.
Amuslim Fakir, ‘Babadudan Sahib’ in 17th Century.
2nd PUC Geography Agriculture Two Marks Questions with Answers
Mention the different names of Migration farming in India?
(a) Jhumming in Assam
(b) Koman in Odisha
(c) Ponam in Kerala
(d) Podu in Andhra Pradesh.
What is Mixed Farming? When it has been introduced in India?
Raising of food as well as commercial crops and keeping of lives stock is called “Mixed farming”. It has been introduced in 1951.
What are Aus, Aman and Boro?
- Aus : Rice is sown in May-June and harvested in September-October. ,
- Aman : Rice is sown in June-July and harvested in November-December.
- Boro : Rice is sown in November to December and harvested in March-April.
Explain the Lowland Rice?
Growing of rice in the lowlands or marshy areas by transplanting and use of irrigation particularly densely populated lowlands.
Why wheat is Grown as Rabi crop?
- Wheat is basically temperate crop.
- It requires moderate temperature and rainfall that is about 10°C during vegetative period and 15°C at the time of ripening therefore it is grown as rabi crop.
Name the varieties of wheat in India?
The varieties of wheat in India are
- Bread wheat
- Macaroni wheat
- Emmer w’heat
- Indian dwarf wheat.
What are the uses of sugarcane?
- Sugarcane is the main source of Sugar, Gur and Khandsari.
- It provides raw materials for manufacturing Alcohal.
Black Soil is quiet suitable for cotton cultivation, why?
- It keeps the Moisture for the long time.
- This soil is capable of retaining moisture to the crops. Therefore it is quiet suitable for cotton cultivation.
Why tea is considered a labour Intensive crop?
It requires abundant, cheap and skilled labour for Pruning, Plucking, Processing and Packing purpose. Therefore it is called labour intensive crop.
Explain the Coffee Robusta?
- It is the poor in Quality and but high yield variety. .
- It can resists the pest and diseases. About 68.9% of Indian coffee robusta in 2010-11.
Distinguish between Dry farming and Irrigation farming.
- Dry farming : Growing of crops in areas which receive scanty rainfall (i.e less than 50cms) for ex: Jowar, bjara, ragi, oil seeds etc.
- Irrigation farming : Cultivation of crops with the help of irrigation is called ‘Irrigation farming’. ‘ .
Write the four important merits of Green revolution.
- Increase in Agricultural production and yield per hectare.
- Better land use by employing two or three crop pattern.
- Reduction of imports of food grains.
- Improves country’s Economic status.
Mention any four advantages of plant tissue culture in India.
- Freedom from pests and pathogens.
- Rapid Multiplication – Means thousands of plants can be produced with in year starting from a single plant.
- Economy of space and resources and
- Easy transport due to minioturization.
Name the important spices in India.
Black Pepper, chillies, ginger, turmeric, garlic & cardamon etc.
Name the methods of rice cultivation in India.
- Broadcasting method
- Drilling method
- Transplanting method.
Write any four geographical conditions required for the cultivation of sugarcane.
- It required high, temperature & humid climate with average temperature of 27°C to 28°C.
- It requires average rainfall of 100 to 150 cm.
- The alluvial and loamy soil which contain salt and lime is most suitable.
- Cheap means of transport to carry sugarcane to the factory.
What are the uses of Cotton.
- It provides raw material for cotton textlile industry.
- It is used for making of carpets, curtains, ropes and stuffing purposes.
- Seeds are used for Edible oil & Vanaspati.
- Cotton cakes used as a fodder for the animals.
Name the Varieties of tea in India.
- Bohea or Chinese Variety : It grows at an elevation of more than 1500 meters.
- Assamica : It can be grown at higher elevation about 2400 meters.
2nd PUC Geography Chapter 8 Agriculture Five Marks Questions with Answers
What is intensive farming? Explain its main characteristics.
- The land holdings are usually small in a thickly populated area, farming is very intensive
and produced more is known as “Intensive farming”.
- It is a labour and capital Intensive farming.
- Large amount of labour and capital is used on small land holding to get maximum production of crops.
- The available small piece of land is used for cultivation with irrigation facilities through out the year.
- In this system, farmers try to raise two or more crops, with careful tilling of the soil.
- Intensive agriculture is characterized by high yields per unit area and farmers try to get
the maximum production from small land holdings.
- It is common in the fertile and irrigated parts of the country.
- In this type, agricultural operations are carried on by manual labour and animals.
- Rice is the main crop of Intensive farming.
Explain the chief advantage of Plant tissue culture.
The chief advantages of plant tissue culture are as follows:
- Rapid multiplication, means thousands of plants can be produced within a year starting
from a single explant.
- Freedom from pests and pathogens. It refers to the production of disease free plants & production of disease & pest-resistant plants.
- Economy of space & resources, that thousands of plants can be raised in a few square meters of laboratory space.
- Round the year multiplication as per demand.
- Easy transport due to miniaturization.
- Selective multiplication of desired plants.
Write a note on demerits of Green Revolution.
The Demerits of Green Revolution are as follows:
- Degradation of land due to use of heavy chemical fertilizers.
- Weeds have increased, due to more crop rotation pattern.
- Loss of bio-diversity, due to heavy use of pesticides, insecticides and chemical fertilizers.
- Adding chemicals in ground water, will affects our health.
- Excess use of fertilizers has made the soil infertile and may affect human’s health.
- Regional disparities. It means Green Revolution has had an impact on some states. But other states are hardly touched. So far Green Revolution has affected only 40% of the cultivate land in India.
What is Horticulture? Explain its development in India.
The word ‘Horticulture’ is the compound word of two Latin words ‘Hortus’ means garden . and ‘Colere’ means cultivate. The art of systematic growing of fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices,plantation crops, medicinal & aromatic plants in small plots is called ‘Horticulture’. Even till today, the income from the horticultural crops has been more profitable than the incomes from the agricultural crops. Therefore, in recent years, special emphasis is given for growing horticultural crops in India.
Development in India:
- In India geographical as well as socio-economic factors are ideal for the development of horticulture. It has good potential for growing a wide variety of horticultural crops.
- The government of India identified horticultural crops as a means of diversification for making agriculture more profitable.
- There has been an improvement in the adoption of technology for increase in the production of horticultural crops. India is second largest producer of fruits & vegetables in the world next to china.
- India produced 257.3 million tonnes of horticulture products from 23.2 million hectares.
Give an account on floriculture in India.
- Cultivation of different types of flowers for commercial purpose is known as ‘Floriculture’.
- Floriculture has blossomed into a profitable business only in recent years.
- India’s agro climatic conditions are very suitable for the cultivation of high quality flowers.
- Floriculture has plays a significant role in India for following reasons :
- It has a capacity to elevate income of the farmers.
- It engages even the women in this farming and eradicates unemployement to rural people.
- It supports to the export of the country.
- Considering the potentiality of this sector produces an income & employment opportunities, floriculture has been taken up by the Government of India.
- India has been known for growing traditional flowers such as Jasmine, Mari gold, Chrysanthemum, Tuberose,. Crossandra & Aster. Commercial cultivation of tut flowers like roses, orchids, gladious, carnation, gerbera, lilum & anthyrium has become popular in recent years.
- In India the state of Andhra Pradesh has the maximum area under floriculture & followed by TamilNadu, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Haryana & West Bengal.
Give an account of the production & distribution of rice in India.
Rice Cultivation is widely distributed in India. Its cultivation is concentrated in River valleys, deltas, flood plains, low lying coastal areas of North-Eastern & Southern India etc are important rice growing areas.
1. West Bengal : West Bengal is the largest producer of rice in India.
- About three fourth of the Total state’s cropped area is under the rice cultivation.
- Rice is growing in three seasons. They are called in different names.
- (i) Aus
- (ii) Aman and
- (iii) Boro, Medinipur, Bardhaman 24 parganas, Bankura & Cochbehar are important rice producing districts in the state West Bengal producer 14.2% under total production of Rice in India.
2. Uttar Pradesh : This is second largest producer of rice in India.
- The rice cultivated area is concentrated in Gorakhpur, Basti, Varanasi, Allahabad, Shaharanpur, Azamgarh & Shajahanpur etc are important districts & major rice growing areas.
- Uttar Pradesh produces 13.44% of Rice under total production of Rice in India.
3. Andhra Pradesh : It is the third largest producer of rice in India.
- The delta of Godavari-Krishna & coastal plains are suitable for rice cultivation in the state.
- It contributes 12.3 5 % of Rice under total production of rice in India.
4. Punjab : Punjab is the fourth largest producer of rice in India.
- Amritsar, Patiala, Ropar, Firozepur districts are the major produces of rice in Punjab. Its share 10.11% under total production of Rice in India.
5. Bihar : Bihar is fifth leading producer of rice in India.
- Gaya, Rohtas, Bhajpur, Darbhanga, Champaran, Purenea, Bhagalpur & Patna districts.
It produces 6.90% under total output of rice in India.
6. TamilNadu: It is the sixth largest producer of rice in India.
- Tirunelveli, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Madhurai, Coimbatore.
- Its production is 6.61 % under total production of total Rice in India.
7. Chattisgarh : It is the important producer of rice in country.
- Bastar, Bilaspur, Duig, Saiguja, Raipur, Raigarh& Janjgir are the main rice producing districts;
- Its production is 5.78% under total production of Rice in India.
8. Karnataka : Karnataka has rapid progress in rice cultivation during last few years. The important rice producing districts are Raichur, Davangere, Mysore, Bellary, Shimoga, Mandhya & Koppal.
- Its production is 3.87% under total production of Rice.
- Production of rice : India is the second largest producer of rice in the world next to the China. It produceses 104.3 million tonnes of rice during 2011-12, it accounts for 22% of the worlds production. Now India is self sufficient in rice production.
Explain the conditions required for the growth of Wheat & Methods used for wheai cultivation in India.
Conditions required for the growth :
- Wheat is basically temperate crop. It is one of rabi crops of India.
- It requires moderate temperature & rainfall. It requires temperature of 10°C during vegetative period & 15°C at the time of ripening.
- Wheat requires annual rainfall of about 50 to 75 cm. In areas of less than 50 cm annual rainfall, irrigation is necessary for its successful cultivation.
- Wheat can grow in a variety of soils. It is also grown in-alluvial soil.
- Light drizzles & cloudiness at the time of ripening help to the better yield.
- Frost at flowing time & hail storm at the time of ripening is harmful to the crop. Methods used for the wheat cultivation :
There are 3 methods used for wheat cultivation in India they are
- Broad casting method : Scattering of seeds in the prepared hand is called broad casting method.
- Drilling method : Dropping of seeds into the soil is called drilling method.
- Dibbling method : Sowing of seeds by hand in ploughed furrows is known as dibbling method.
Give an account of the Distribution & Production of sugarcane in India.
Distribution of sugarcane in India : The distribution of sugarcane cultivation in India is uneven. Sugarcane is grown in almost in all the stats of the country. But it is mainly concentrated in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, TamilNadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Haryana & Uttaranchal.
1. Uttar Pradesh : Uttar Pradesh occupies first place both in terms of production & area under sugarcane in the country.
- The largest concentration is upper Ganga-Yamuna doab & Rohilkhand areas which together produce about 70% of the sugarcane produced in the state.
- Its share is about 36.02% under total production.
2. Maharashtra : Maharashtra is in second place both in area & production of sugarcane in the country.
- The production of sugarcane comes from Kolhapur, Pune, Ahmednagar, Nasik.
- Its share is about 22.89% under total production.
3. TamilNadu : TamilNadu is the third largest producer of sugarcane in India.
- It has highest yield per hectare in India.
- Arcot, Periyar, Salem, Tiruchirapalli & Coimbatore are thâ important sugarcanc growing districts.
- Its share is about 10.98% under total production.
4. Karnataka: Karnataka is fourth largest sugarcane producing state in India.
- Most of the Sugarcanc is grown with the help of irrigation.
- Belgaum, Mysore, Mandhva, Bijapur, Shimoga & Chitradurga are the important sugarcane producing districts.
- Its share is about 10.85% under total production.
5. Andhra Pradesh : Andhra Pradesh is in fifth place of sugarcane production in India.
- West & East Godavari, Vishakapatnam & Nellore are the important sugarcane producing districts.
- Its share is about 4.68% of total production.
6. Others : Gujarat, Bihar, Haryana etc Production:
- India is second largest produces of Sugarcane next to Brazil. –
- The total cultivated area under sugarcane was reported as 5.09 million hectares in 2011-12.
What are the geographical conditions necessary for the cultivation of Cotton? Explain the varieties of cotton.
Conditions for Cultivation of cotton:
- Cotton is a tropical & Sub-tropical crop. It requires high temperature. At the time of growing it requires 2l°C to 24°C temperature.
- It requires moderate rainfall of 50 cm to 100 cm. However it can cultivate in areas of lesser rainfall with the help of irrigation.
- Deep black soil is well suitable to cotton crop. This soil is commonly known as Black cotton soil. This is capable of retaining moisture.
- Cotton requires the use of Manures & fertilizers crop rotation helps to maintain fertility of the soil & improve the yield.
- Cotton cultivation requires large amount of cheap labours for planting, thinning, seeding, picking of cotton.
- Frosting, Moist weather & heavy rainfall are harmful to the crop.
- Cotton plant is susecptible to disease & pests. Scj’it requires the use of insecticides & pesticides.
The Sunny weather is necessary at the time of harvesting the cotton.
Varieties of Cotton:-
(i) Long Staple Cotton :
- It is the. best variety .
- It has over 3.8 cm in length.
- Because of its length of fibre, fine & shining it is used for making fine & superfine quality of cloth.
- It is largely grown in Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, TamilNadu & MadhyaPradesh etc.
(ii) Medium Staple Cotton :
- The length of cotton fibre is between 2.5 cm to 3.8 cm is known as medium staple cotton.
- It is used for making Medium cloth.
- This is grown in Rajasthan, Punjab, TamilNadu, MadhyaPradesh, UttarPradesh, Karnataka etc. .
(iii) Short Staple Cotton :
- This is inferior variety with fiber length less than 2.5 cm.
- It is used for making inferior quality of cloth, stuffing purpose, blending with synthetic, fibre etc.
- This type of cotton production is reduced in India.
- Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh & Rajasthan etc are growing this type of cotton.
Explain the condition for growth & give reasons for the concentration of coffee cultivation in South India.
Conditions for Growth:
- Coffee is a tropical crop. So, it requires hot & humid climate.
- It requires high temperature ranging from 15°C to 30°C.
- Rainfall varying from 150 to 200 cms is necessary & it should be well distributed throughtout the year.
- Coffee plants require deep fertile soil, humus & nitrogenous contained soils are suitable, so cleared up forest land is most suitable for coffee cultivation.
- Coffee plants require shade, because sunrays & strong winds are harmful to coffee plants.
- Hill slopes are suitable for cultivation of coffee plants to avoid stagnant of water.
- Dry weather is necessary’ at the time of ripening of harries.
- Use of manures and fertilizers are required for coffee cultivation.
- Use of pesticides and insecticides are very essential, because coffee plant is susceptible to pests & diseases.
- It requires abundant supply of cheap & skilled labour for various operations.
Reasons for the concentration of coffee in South India :
The Coffee plant was first introduced in lndia by a muslim Fakir, Bababudan Sahib who brought some seeds from Mecca during 17th Century and planted the seedlings in Chandragiri Hills now. It is called Bababudan Hills in Chikmangalur district of Karnataka. Then it was spread to the neighbouring districts of TamilNadu, Kerala & other parts of the country.
Explain the need of Agriculture in India.
Agriculture is the most important Primary activity and the oldest occupation of human beings in India.
- Main source of livelihood : About 70% of the people directly and indirectly depend on agriculture for their Livelihood.
- Food supply : Agriculture provides food grains, fruits, vegetables, spices etc to the people and fodder for the animals.
- Provides employment facilities : Agriculture is largest sector providing highest employment.
- Source of National income : It contributes to the national income .of the country.
- Source of raw materials for Agro-based-industries ex:
Raw cotton, sugar cane and Jute.
- Source of large amount of revenue to the government.
- Support to tertiary sector like transport, communication, banking, insurance etc.
- Help to internal trade like Agricultural products are transported from the area of surplus production to the area scarcity.
- Support to export, many agricutlural products produced in the country are exported i.e. tea, coffee, Jute, Tobacco etc.
- Political & Social situation in the country is determined by the agricultural production
Explain the important stratergies to achieve Green revolution in India.
The important stratergies are as noted below:
- High yielding varieties : Which results of short maturing period, double cropping, short stems, resistance to wind damage etc.
- Use of Irrigation : An assured and regular supply of water to crops not only adds to production but also assures stability in production.
- Use of chemical fertilizers : The HYV seeds need a heavy dose of fertilizers along with irrigation to give high yield.
- Use of Insecticides & Pesticides : In order to meet the loss of 10% crop. It requires use of proper doses of insecticides, pesticides & weedicides.
- Role of Public institutions : The national seeds corporations have to setup to promote services to the farmers.
- Guaranteed Minimum Prices : Support Price Policy for food grains was adopted in 1964 all over the country.
- Facilities of agricultural credit: Now Co-operatives, Commercial banks, and regional rural banks extend loans to the farmers on easy terms.
- Rural electrification : It is very essential in modem agricultural system to lift water by tubewell, sprinkler, irrigation etc.
- Rural roads and Marketing : These are very important to connect the villages to the neighbouring markets and urban centres.
- Soil testing : Its main purpose is to know what type of fertilizers and seeds will be more fruitful in different regions .
- Multiple cropping programme : It aims at maximizing production per unit of land and per unit of time by taking two or three crops in a year.
- Farm of Mechanization : It saves on human labour & Quickens farm operations, there by adding to efficiency & productivity.
- Agricultural Universities : Engaged in agricultural research and pass on this information to the farmers.
Explain the Production and Distribution of tea in India.
Distribution of Tea in India :
The tea is concentrated largely in Northern part of India. It is mainly grown in Assam.
- Assam : It is the Largest producer of tea in India. Its contribution 53.06% under total output of the country. It stands first in tea area and production of the country. The main tea producing districts are Lakhimpur, Sibsagar, Darrang, Golapar etc.
- West Bengal : It ranks second both interms of area and production. Its share is about 24.57% under the total output. Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri and Coach Bihar are the three important tea producing districts.
- Tamilnadu: It ranks third place of tea production in India. Tamilnadu has the highest yield per hectare in India i.e. 25 quintals. It produces 14.88% under the total production. The Nilgiri and Annamalai hills are the important producers.
- Kerala : It is the fourth largest producer of tea in India and second largest producer in South India. Its share is 5.66% under total output of India. The Kottayam, Kollam, Thiruvanthapuram etc are the leading producer.
- Karnataka : It is also produceses tea in India it share is only 0.46% under the total output. Hassan & Chamrajnagar are important tea producing districts.
- Others : Uttarkhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jarkhand, Manipur, Sikkim etc.
Production and trade of Tea in India :
- India is the second largest producer consumer and exporter of tea in the world.
- It accounts for about 28% of the world production and 15% of the world trade.
- Tea area increased from 3.0 lakh hectares into 5.8 lakh hectares, from 1960-61 to 2011-12.
- Tea production is also increased from 3 lakh tonnes to 10.95 lakh tonnes from 1960-61 to 2011 – 2012