1st PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2018 (North)

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Karnataka 1st PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2018 (North)

Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100

Note :

  1. Write SI. No’s of questions correctly
  2. Visually challenged students need to answer questions No. 31 ‘B’ instead of Map question No. 31 ‘A ’ in Part – D
  3. Answer the questions according to the instructions given for the questions.

Part – A

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each. ( 10 × 1 = 10 )

Question 1.
What is the definition of Jawaharlal Nehru about history?
Answer:
According to Nehru “History is a story of man from Barbarism to civilization.

Question 2.
What is bipedalism?
Answer:
Bipedalism means walking or running on two feet.

Question 3.
Which is the biggest pyramid in the world?
Answer:
The pyramid of Giza is the biggest pyramid in the world.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Who wrote the book “The Republic”?
Answer:
Plato wrote the book‘The Republic’.

Question 5.
Whose famous words are Vini-Vidi-Vici?
Answer:
Julius Caesar.

Question 6.
Which is the holy book of Islam?
Answer:
The Quran is the holy book of Islam.

Question 7.
Who is the author of “Divine Comedy”?
Answer:
Dante is the author of “Divine Comedy”.

Question 8.
Who was known as the “Father of Renaissance”?
Answer:
Petrarch was known as the “Father of renaissance”.

Question 9.
In which year did the French Revolution begin?
Answer:
The French Revolution began in 1789.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Expand SALT?
Answer:
SALT: Strategic Arms Limitations Talks.

Part – B

II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )

Question 11.
Mention any two professional uses of history?
Answer:
Politicians need historical knowledge in implementing administrative reforms. There are plenty of job opportunities at Museums, Archives and Tourism development related fields.

Question 12.
Which were the two theories proposed by Charles Darwin?
Answer:
‘The theory of Natural Selection’ and ‘Survival of the fittest’ were his theories.

Question 13.
Name any two ancient Civilizations.
Answer:
Egyptian and Indus valley civilizations were two ancient civilizations.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 14.
Name any two reforms introduced by Julius Caesar.
Answer:

  1. He increased the strength of the Senate and reduced its power.
  2. He distributed public lands and provided employment to the poor.
  3. He extended citizenship rights to provincial subjects.

Question 15.
Which are the two sects of Islam?
Answer:
The two sects of Islam are the Sunnis and Shias.

Question 16.
Which are the styles of architecture found in the Medieval Europe?
Answer:
The Medieval period had buildings and monuments in the Romanesque and Gothic styles. Romanesque style had rounded arches, small windows, massive walls of stone and the predominance of horizontal lines. Main features of the Gothic style were pointed arches, ribbed vaulting and buttress.

Question 17.
Name any two paintings of leonard-da-vinci.
Answer:
The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, Virgin of the Rocks, Adoration of the Magi.

Question 18.
Mention any two Chemical invented during the industrial Revolution.
Answer:
The two major chemicals invented during the Industrial Revolution were Sodium carbonate and Sulphuric Acid.

Question 19.
What are the principles or watch words of the French Revolution?
Answer:
Liberty, Equality and Fraternity are the watch words of French Revolution.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 20.
What are the aims of Young Italy?
Answer:
The aim of young Italy Was to train the Italians and make them aware of their great past. It stood for unity and independence and wanted liberty, equality and humanity.

Question 21.
Write any two principles of Nazism.
Answer:
The main principles of Nazism

  1. One party rule
  2. Nazification
  3. Racial Supremacy
  4. Anti-Jewish and anti – religious sentiments
  5. Importance to State.

Question 22.
Where and when was the 7th Summit of Non-Aligned Countries held?
Answer:
The 7th summit of the Non-Aligned countries was held at Delhi, India’s Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi president over the conference.

Part – C

III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each. ( 6 × 5 = 30 )

Question 23.
Write the definitions of History.
Answer:
According to Herodotus, “History is a record of great heroes and unique events to be remembered by the future generations”. St. Augustine says that “History is the story of the struggle between God and Satan, which would ultimately end in the victory of God (good) over Satan (evil)”. According to the German Philosopher and Economist Karl Marx, “History is a story of the struggle between the haves and have nots”.

According to J.B. Bury, “History is a science; no less and no more”. Thomas Carlyle says “Great personalities are no more, but, history and autobiography of such personalities are still there”. According to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, “Those who forget history cannot create history”. In general, history is understood as a record of past events.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 24.
Write about the life history of Jesus.
Answer:
Jesus Christ was born on 25th December 4 B.C.E at Bethlehem in Judea. Joseph and Virgin Mary were his parents. His father was a carpenter by profession at Nazareth. The birth of Jesus and the simultaneous appearance of the Easter star made the priests to believe that Jesus was a Divine Entity.

He led a simple life and was associated with the poor. Jesus, at the age of 12 went to a Jewish synagogue and surprised the people by expounding the meaning of the Jewish religious texts. He was profoundly influenced by John the Baptist and at the age of 30 was baptized by him.

He became a wandering preacher and his simple teachings gathered people around him. He travelled in and around Judea with his 12 disciples and conveyed his messages in the form of parables. His disciples recognized him as the Messiah. Jesus called himself as ‘Son of God’, which enraged the orthodox Jews. He was crucified on Friday the 3rd April 30 C.E at Mount Calvary at Golgotha, a hill near Jerusalem. His resurrection took place on the third day and he remained with his disciples for 40 days and then ascended into heaven.

Question 25.
Describe the results of the American War of Independence.
Answer:
Emergence of the USA: A new nation called the ‘United States of America’ was born. They adopted the Republican type of government. In 1787, America adopted a republican form of Government with a federal structural. It became the first country in the world to adopt a written constitution. George Washington became the first president of USA.

Loss to England: According to the Paris treaty concluded in 1783, Britain suffered heavily in terms of economy and lost 13 resourceful colonies.

Triumph of Democracy: Victory of the Americans strengthened the democratic ideologies and principles all over the world. It inspired patriots, who fought against imperialism in several other countries.

A lesson to England: After losing the 13 colonies in the war, England changed its attitude towards its other colonies. The belief that the Sun never sets in their Empire received a deathblow.

Inspiration for French Revolution: The French soldiers, who participated in the American Revolution, were inspired by the revolutionary slogans of the Americans. This resulted in the outbreak of the French revolution in 1789.

End of the monarchy in England: After being defeated in the American war of independence, the English King Charles III lost his prestige and popularity. He was subjected to come under the rule of the Parliament. This led to the constitutional Kingship.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 26.
Explain the social and economic factor for the Russian revolution.
Answer:
Social and Economic Causes: The Russian Society was divided into two categories as the privileged and the unprivileged. The privileged class included the Royals, the land lords and the capitalists (factory owners). They were rich and also had a high status in the society. Civil, administrative and military posts were reserved for them.

The unprivileged class mainly consisted of the peasants and the workers. It formed the majority population. They were living in poverty and also were exploited by the privileged classes. Serfdom was abolished in 1861, but the condition of the peasants did not change for the better.

The Russian economy before the Revolution was primarily agricultural. The Industrial Revolution created a large working class. These workers worked for long hours for low wages and they worked in dangerous and unhygienic conditions. Accidents and deaths were not adequately compensated.

The Russian Industries created wealth for the owners but affected the agriculturists. As most of the industrialists were land lords, they neglected agriculture and forced agricultural workers to work in their industries. As agricultural production decreased, inflation set in. People were pushed to hardships.

Question 27.
Describe the role of Count Cavour in the Unification of Italy.
Answer:
Count de Cavour was born in 1810 at Piedmont, and received military education. He served in military for some time. He had studied history and culture of Italy and had developed a patriotic spirit. He advocated the English Constitutional System. In 1847, he started a newspaper called ‘Risorgimento’ (Rebirth). As the editor of the paper, he mobilized public opinion to unite Italy.

His political career began when he was elected to the Parliament of Piedmont in 1850. He was appointed as the Prime Minister in 1852 by Victor Emmanuel II. He served as Prime Minister from 1852 to 1861. He had the dream of uniting Italy under the leadership of Sardinia. But before taking up that task, he undertook many reforms to make Sardinia strong. Economy was reformed. Commercial taxes were reduced. He. encouraged education and industries. He thus developed the State and it became a‘Model State’.

He Relieved in the policy of war and diplomacy to unite Italy. Cavour believed that Italian Unification could be achieved only with the help of other European countries. Hence, he took part in the Crimean war. This war, fought between England and France 1854-1856, on the side of Turkey against Russia had no reason for Cavour to take part.

But with a foresight to create an image about his State before England and France, he made this move. He remarked ‘Out of the mud of Crimea, Italy will be made’. After the war, in the Paris Peace Congress, he put forth the problems of Italy before the leaders.

Napoleon III, the ruler of France was very sympathetic to the cause of Italian Unification. Cavour signed an agreement with Napoleon III at Plombieres in 1858. Napoleon promised to help Cavour against Austria in return for Which Cavour had to give Savoy and Nice. Cavour built his army. Austria was suspicious of the meeting between Cavour and Napoleon and the militarization of Sardinia and ordered Sardinia to disarm. When Sardinia refused, the war began in 1859. This war lasted for two months.

The Austrians were defeated at Magenta and Salfereno. But Napoleon stopped the war without giving a clue to Sardinia, concluded the treaty of ‘Villa Franca’ with Austria. According to this treaty, Austrian troops were evacuated from Lombardy and it was ceded to Victor Emmanuel II. Thus, the first stage of unification was set in. Napoleon received Nice and Savoy.

The abrupt end of the war disappointed Cavour. He forced King Victor Emmanuel II not to accept the treaty of Villa Franca. But when Victor Emmanuel refused, he resigned. But soon he was re-elected and took over as the Prime Minister. In 1860 Modena, Parma, Tuscany, Romagna, Umbria and Marches voted to merge with Sardinia.

This led to the second step in the unification. Considered ‘the Brain of Italian Unification’ he died in 1861. He died almost a decade before the Unification of Italy. His last words were “Italy is made, all is safe’. It was indeed an optimistic quote.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 28.
Write a note on the main organs of the U.N.O
Answer:
The U.N.O. consists of six principal organs. They are General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and Secretariat.

General Assembly: It is a consultative body of U.N.O. It consists of representatives of all member nations. Each member nation has one vote, but may send five representatives. It is empowered to discuss any matter relating to the maintenance of international peace and security. The Assembly meets once in a year in September. But special sessions can be held at the request of majority of the members of the Security Council. Its resolutions require 2/3 majority.

It elects the Secretary General, non permanent members of the Security Council, members of Economic and Social Council and Judges of International Court of Justice, and also discusses budgetary questions. Entry of any new members requires 2/3 majority of the General Assembly.

Security Council: The Security Council is the executive body. It consists of 15 members 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent. The permanent members are U.S.A., England, France, Russia and China. The non-permanent members are elected for a term of two years. Any measure to be carried out in the Security Council has to be accepted by 9 members including all the 5 permanent members.

Any permanent member can ‘Veto’ any decision of the Security Council. ‘Veto’is a special power given to the five permanent members to negate any resolution of the United Nations. The Security Council is responsible for the prevention of aggression and to the maintenance of international peace and security.

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC): The Economic and Social Council consists of 54 members, who are elected by the General Assembly for 3 years, i/3 of them retire every year. The Council meets at least twice in a year. Its main function is to promote welfare around the world, and to improve the economic, social, cultural, educational, health and other related matters.

Trusteeship Council: The Trusteeship Council consists of 14 members. All permanent members of the Security Council are the members of Trusteeship Council. Its duty is to investigate the conditions of Trust Territories and to advice the General Assembly. In 1994 all the Trust territories were detached from Japan and Italy and became independent. Since then, its operations are formally suspended and will meet as and when required.

International Court of Justice: The International Court of Justice is located at The Hague in Netherlands. It consists of 15 Judges, who are elected by the General Assembly. Its main function is to settle the international disputes and to act as an advisory body. The tenure is 9 years and no country can have more than one representative at a time.

Secretariat: It is headed by the Secretary General. It carries on the day-to-day administration of the U.N.O. Its headquarters is in New York. The term of the Secretary general is five years. It is the duty of the Secretary General to ensure that all the branches function properly, and to submit annual reports.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 29.
What were the effects of cold war?
Answer:
The effects of the Cold War are:

  • Both the United States of America and the Soviet Union built up huge arsenals of atomic weapons and ballistic missiles.
  • The military blocs NATO and the Warsaw Pact were formed.
  • It led to destructive conflicts like the Vietnam War and the Korean War.
  • Soviet Union collapsed due to economic weaknesses.
  • The demolition of the Berlin Wall unified the East Germany and the West Germany.
  • The Warsaw Pact was dissolved.
  • The Baltic States and some former Soviet Republics achieved independence.
  • America became the sole super power of the world.
  • Communism received a setback worldwide.

Question 30.
Describe the objectives of non-aligned movement.
Answer:
The objectives of Non-Aligned Movements are as follows:

  • To reduce the intensity of Cold War between the two powerful military blocs of America and Soviet Union and keep away from the two blocs.
  • To settle international disputes through peaceful dialogues.
  • To oppose colonialism and Imperialism and support movements against them.
  • To support Atomic Weapon reduction agreement and come out of military agreements.
  • To oppose racial conflicts, class discrimination and Apartheid and to stage a fight against them.
  • To condemn the acts of aggression, injustice of the power blocks and to take measures to stop them.
  • To safeguard the weaker countries from the Economic Exploitation by the developed countries. To give financial assistance to developing countries.
  • To protect the fundamental human rights.
  • To solve problems like poverty, hunger and illiteracy faced by Non-Aligned Nations.
  • To support the programmes undertaken by the United Nations Organization.
  • To remove Economic dependence and build self dependence.
  • To uphold democratic principles and popularize them.

Part – D

IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. ( 5 + 5 = 10 )

Question 31.
(A) Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of the world provided to you and write an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences
(a) Babylonia
(b) Mecca
(c) Constantinople
(d) Cape of Good hope
(e) London
(f) Paris
(g) Warterloo
(h) Hiroshima
Answer:
(a) Babylonia: It is in present Iraq. It was the capital of Mesopotamian Civilization. The famous law-giver Hammurabi ruled from here. Nebuchadnezzar built the ‘ Hanging Gardens’, which was one of the Wonders of the Ancient World.

(b) Mecca: It is in Saudi Arabia. Prophet Mohammad, the founder of Islam was born here. It is regarded as the holiest city of Islam.

(c) Constantinople: Presently called as Istanbul is in Turkey. Its original name was Byzantium, which was founded in 7th Century B.C.E. by a Greek King Byzas. Constantine the Great, made it the new capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in 4th century C.E. Then it came to be known as Constantinople which means ‘The City of Constantine’. Ottoman Turks captured it in 1453, which led to the need to discover new sea routes to India.

(d) Cape of Good Hope: It is at the southern tip of South Africa. Bartholomew Diaz called it ‘Cape of Storms’. Later, Vasco – da- Gama renamed it as ‘Cape of Good Hope’ under the direction of King John of Portugal, since it gave hope for further explorations to reach India.

(e) London: It is the capital of U.K located on the banks of the river Thames. It was the main centre of Industrial Revolution. It is the famous centre of learning.

According to one origin, London meant the place belonging to a man called ‘Londinos’. As per another view, it is derived from the word ‘Lowonida’ meaning ‘river too wide to ford’ referring to river Thames, which flows through London.

(f) Paris: It is the capital of France. The Bourbon family ruled over France from here, till the French Revolution of 1789. In modern times, many historical treaties have been signed here.

The name Paris is derived from that of its earliest inhabitants, known as the ‘Parissi’ meaning ‘The working People’ or ‘The Craftsmen’. Paris is also known as ‘The City of Light’, due to its fame as a centre of education and ‘Paradise of Travellers’. The famous Eiffel Tower is here.

KSEEB Solutions

(g) Waterloo: It is in Belgium. In 1815. Napoleon after escaping from the Island of Elba, fought his last battle here against the Allied armies of Europe and was defeated.

(h) Hiroshima: It is in Japan. Hiroshima means ‘Wide Island’. During World War II, it had large depots of military supplies. As retaliation for the Pearl Harbour attack, on Monday the 6th August 1945 at 8.15 a.m., the first Atomic Bomb called ‘Little Boy’was dropped on Hiroshima by the US Air force. As a result of this, an estimated 80,000 people were killed.

B. (For Visually Challenged Students only) ( 1 × 10 =10 )

Question 31.
Describe the contributions of Chinese.
Answer:
Art of painting:- Chinese had developed wonderful painting. They painted on silk cloth, tomb walls, pots and papers. They believed that tomb painting were means to protect the dead and help their souls to go to heaven.

Sculpture:- Chinese developed the art of casting bronze statues of animals and monsters. This art developed during Shangs and Chous. Buddhism influenced their sculpture and the statues of Bodhisatwa carved in stone are found in large numbers. The Terracotta army assembled in the tomb of the first Kin Emperor consists of life size images of more than 8000 – warriors and horses. Chinese were massive builders.

The Great Wall of China is one of their most impressive and everlasting architectural accomplishment. It was purely built for the ’ utilitarian purpose of protecting the country from Mongolian invasions. They also built Buddhist temples called Pagodas, important among them are the ‘Giant Wild Goose Pagoda’, ‘Jade Pagoda’, ‘Flask Pagoda’ and the ‘Temple of Sleeping Buddha’ outside Peking, the present Beijing.

Writing and Literature:- Chinese had developed the art of writing during Shang period. Chinese script was standardized during Chin Rulers. They have no alphabets and parts of speech. It consists of only characters which are more than 40,000. It started as pictograph and later they developed Characters or Logograms. Chinese characters constitute the oldest continuously used systems of writing in the world. Their writing played an important role in cultural unification. Chinese script also influenced Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese scripts. It is written from top to bottom.

The invention of paper, silk and ink for writing helped the growth of writing and literature. The practice of writing history was also popular in China. The Chinese literature comprised of prose, poetry, philosophy and history. During Han and Tong dynasties, Chinese poetry reached great heights.

Chinese had developed Geography, Geometry, Arithmetic, Calendars, Astronomy and they could predict eclipses accurately. The important inventions of the Chinese are the following. Silk, Tea, Ink, Brushes for painting and writing, Abacus, Acupuncture, Rudder, Gun powder, Glass, Pottery, Porcelain, Rockets, Umbrella, Seismograph and Mariner Compass.

Philosophy and Religion:- Lao tse, Confucius and Mencius were three great Philosophers who influenced the religious ideas of Chinese to a great extent. Lao tse’s philosophy is known . as Taoism. He preached non violence, not to be conservative, to respect the wise, do one’s duty with sincerity and honesty etc., The philosophy of Confucius is known as ‘Confucianism’.

The principles of Confucius had basis in common Chinese traditions and beliefs. He taught loyalty towards family, worship of ancestors, respect to elders and unity among the people of China.

OR

Describe the role of Martin Luther in the Reformation Movement.
Answer:
Reformation began in Germany and its leader Martin Luther was born at Eiselben in 1483 A.D in a poor German peasant family. Luther studied theology, law and humanism at the University of Erfurt in 1508 A.D. He was always haunted with the question, “how to please God?”.

He seriously studied the Bible and the works of St. Paul and St. Augustine. He became a Professor of Theology in the University of Wittenberg. Luther strongly believed that man could get salvation only through God’s mercy but the Church preached that it possessed the means of salvation. He rejected the doctrine of good work.

He visited Rome in 1511 A.D and was shocked at the worldliness of the Pope and the corrupt and immoral life led by the clergy. He did not to tolerate the corrupt practices of the Church. In 1517, Pope Leo-X sent out several agents to dispense indulgences in order to collect funds to complete St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. They spread the belief that indulgences were passports to heaven. One of these agents, John Tetzel was selling indulgences as passports to Heaven.

KSEEB Solutions

Luther’s opposition: Luther wrote his objection against the Church practices and Pope’s authority in Latin. He prepared his objections in the form of ‘95 Theses’ and posted them on the door of the Church in Wittenberg. Thereupon Luther started a rebellious Movement against the abuses of the Church. This popular revolt came to be known as Protestant Movement. Luther questioned the authority of Pope and challenged the concept of infallibility. As a result of these activities, the Pope ordered Emperor Charles-V to take action against Luther.

In 1521 Charles-V summoned the Diet of Worms and ordered Luther to appear before the Diet to justify the charges made against the Pope. In the Diet of Worms, Luther was excommunicated by’the Pope. He was expelled from the Church and was branded a heretic.

Martin Luther established the ‘Lutheran National Church’ which rejected indulgences and worship of Saints. Bible was regarded as the sole source of religion. The struggle between Catholics and Protestants ended with the ‘Peace of Augsburg’ treaty in 1555. Lutheranism spread to many countries of Europe and Calvinism and Anglicanism also rose against Roman catholic Church.

Spread of Protestant (Lutheranism) faith.
1. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531): He was an eminent Protestant Reformer and leader of the movement in Switzerland. He was called as the Swiss Luther. He also denied Papal authority and insisted that the Bible was the only guide to faith and morals, he popularized Protestantism in Switzerland.

2. John Calvin (1509-1564) and Calvinism: John Calvin was a French reformer. His teachings are to be found in his book ‘Institutes of the Christian Religion’. He popularized the ideas of Luther. In Geneva, he set up the Calvinist Church and insisted on the strict enforcement of moral discipline. He advocated that the Church and the State must be separated. His followers in France came to be called Huguenots.

3. King Henry-Vin (1509-1547) and Anglicanism: He established an independent Church in England. He became the head of both the Church and the State. He proclaimed himself as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.

Part – E

V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )

Question 32.
Discuss the important factors of Human Evolution.
Answer:
The changing cycles of climate and weather have greatly affected the human evolution to a very large extent. The last 6 to 8 million years have generally seen cooling trends marked by recurring ice ages. The onset of ice age around 2.5 million years ago covered most parts of’ Earth with snow and there were major changes in climate and vegetation. The species which could adapt better to the climatic changes and procure food survived and the others became extinct.

The ice age or glacial age induced the early humans to wear animal skins to keep themselves warm. Many times, new species originated, which adapted better than the earlier ones. The early species Australopithecus faced gradual extinction and genus Homo (early man) which was better adapted to drier conditions survived. The last ice age witnessed by earth was about 20,000 years ago. Today, we are living in a time that is relatively warm compared to the last 6 to 8 million years. The weather and climate of the earth has played an important role in the origin, evolution and existence of various species.

Human species evolved larger and complex brains to overcome the environmental challenges and survive against physically powerful animals. The size of the brain in the Homo habilis was 600 cubic centimeters, which was only slightly larger than that of Chimpanzees. The Homo erectus had a brain size of 800 – 1100 cc, the Neanderthal 1200-1900 cc and the Homo sapiens (wise man) of today about 1400 cc. It is more than twice the size of the brains of Chimpanzees or Gorillas. The growth in the brain size induced many activities like improved vision, upright posture, bipedalism, tool making, use of fire, planned and skilled hunting, storing food and language.

KSEEB Solutions

These activities helped in the development of the brain. Hominoids lived on trees which provided them protection from the predators. The Hominoids were food gatherers and not meat eaters. Then, they adapted to land dwelling. They began to use caves and extended stone boulders as shelters. The Neanderthal man was the earliest cave dweller. The shortage of food made them to scavenge for food. The above activities made them gradually develop an upright posture and consequently the bipedal motion. This was required for survival.

Hominines and the archaic human species added planned hunting and fishing to the already existing gathering, foraging and scavenging techniques. The earliest evidence of planned hunting and butchery of large animals is traced to two sites. (1) Box grove in England dated to about 50,0000 years ago and (2) Schoningen in Germany dated to about 4,00,000 years ago.

The Hominoids were quadrupeds. They walked on all four limbs, but, their forelimbs were flexible. The Hominids gradually adapted an upright posture. Hominines further adapted to bipedalism.

The skeletal structure and the muscles also adjusted over a period of time to the upright posture and the bipedal motion, which freed the forelimbs. The forelimbs developed precision grip and power grip and evolved into hands. This greatly helped in hunting and defending from predators as hands could be used to make tools and also use them. Walking on two legs also provided a greater long distance vision and helped them to cover long distances without spending much energy.

The use of tools is not confined to only humans. For e.g. some monkeys and apes use stones as tools to break nuts. But use of tools by humans is far more advanced compared to the monkeys and apes. Wood, bones and stones were used to make tools. They were mainly used for hunting or defending from predators. The use of stone tools is studied as the Stone Age in history. The making and use of stones tools were responsible to the evolution of forelimbs into hands and also the growth in brain size.

As planned hunting required co-operation and communication between the hunters, signalling and creating sounds evolved, which slowly developed into languages. Domestication of animals _ and commencement of agriculture were other major factors in the human evolution.

Question 33.
Describe the contribution of Greeks.
Answer:
Cultural Contributions: The Greeks contributed to human civilization immensely. They believed in the principles of a sound mind in a sound body. They imagined the human body as a thing of beauty and had great curiosity and thirst for knowledge. They made great contributions to Literature, Sports, Philosophy, Politics, Ethics, Science, Music, Drama, . Religion, Art and Architecture. Greek ideology so completely dominated European culture that, the western culture today is predominantly Hellenic in its inspiration and ideals. So the legacy of Greece is vital and universal.

Literature: In the field of literature, Greeks contributed to Epics, Poetry, Drama and History. ‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’ are the two works of Homer. These epics give us a fairly faithful account of the social, economic and political conditions of early Greek culture. The shorter Greek poems were called Lyrics, as they were primarily sung to the music of lyres. Pindar and Sappo the poetess were two great lyric poets of Greek Civilization.

The drama is the most familiar of the Greek forms of literature. The founder of Greek tragedy – was Aeschylus, author of‘Prometheus Bound’ and ‘Agamemnon’. Sophocles, the greatest of the Greek tragedians, wrote ‘Oedipus Rex’, ‘Antigone’ and ‘Electra’. These plays are admired all over the world even today.

Euripides the third of the great tragic poets, believed that, in life people were more important than Gods. Hence he concerned himself with the passions and. emotions of human beings. One of his best known plays is the ‘Trojan women’. Aristophanes was the greatest comic poet. Famous historians of the period were Herodotus, Thucydides and Plutarch. Demosthenes was famous for his oratory skills, the art of making public speeches.

Science: Greek philosophers furnished the impetus for the beginning of the study of science. Aristotle laid the foundation for the study of natural science. Theophrastus, established Botany as a recognized science. Hippocrates known as the ‘Father of Medicine’ laid the foundations of modern medicine. He taught that diseases have a natural origin and not caused by evil spirits. Herophilus is called as the ‘Father of Anatomy’.

KSEEB Solutions

Atonomy believed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe. But Aristarchus propounded the theory that Earth and other Planets, revolved around the Sun. Eratosthenes calculated the approximate circumference of earth within a small error of 320 Kilometers. He also prepared a fairly accurate map of the world and he was the first to suggest that one could reach India from Europe by sailing westwards. Pythagoras and Euclid made many contributions to mathematics, especially to Geometry. Archimedes was also a famous scientist of ancient Greece.

Art and architecture: In the early times, the Greeks used wood, and later they used sun dried bricks and marbles to build their temples. The Greek architecture consists of three styles viz., Doric, Ionic and the Corinthian styles. The Parthenon is said to be the most beautiful temple ever built out of the colored marble stones. A tall marble statue of Goddess Athena carved by Phidias is inside the temple.

The temple consists of 46 Doric columns, each 34 feet high. Actinus, the famous architect of this temple blended Doric, Ionian and Corinthian styles to make this temple a wonder of the world. It was built by King Pericles. Alexander’s conquest initiated several centuries of cultural exchange between Greece and Central Asia. The Gandhara art in Ancient India developed due to the Greek influence.

The Greeks expressed the human values like beauty and courage in their sculptures. They portrayed naked, well built and muscular bodies. Even Gods were portrayed as human beings. Myron and Philidias were the best known sculptors. Greeks also excelled in Paintings on vases.

Question 34.
Discuss in detail the different stages of Unification of Germany.
Answer:
Edward Leopold Otto von Bismarck was born in 1815 in an aristocratic Prussian family. He was well educated and when he was appointed as the Prussian Ambassador to Russia and later to France, he gained first-hand knowledge and experience about the European politics. He was appointed as Chancellor of Prussia in 1862 by King William I.

He made up his mind to unify Germany under the monarchy of Prussia as he believed that Prussia alone had the ability to lead the German States. He also knew that Austria was to be defeated to achieve this goal. So he began to re-organize the Prussian military with the help of General Roon and . General Moltke. Very soon, the Prussian army was among the best in Europe.

War with Denmark:
The King of Denmark was also the Duke of the German provinces of Schleswig and Holstein. They were declared to be part of Denmark by Christian IX of Denmark. The people of these provinces and other German states were unhappy at this move. In 1864, Bismarck made an alliance with Austria, attacked and defeated Denmark and captured these provinces back. The Peace Treaty of Vienna was signed in Oct 1864. Later on, Prussia and Austria agreed to administer Schleswig and Holstein respectively according to the Convention of Gastein.

Austro – Prussian war (1866) Bismarck promised compensation to Napoleon III, the Emperor of France for the French neutrality, in case of a war with Austria. Prussia and Italy also came to a secret understanding to militarily help each other. Prussia proposed a National Constitution and a National Diet for the German States for which some of the States were reluctant to be part of. Prussia and Italy started troop movements near the Austrian borders. Austria responded by full scale mobilization of troops.

The troop movements of the Prussian army near the Austrian borders arranged by Bismarck, made Austria declare war on Prussia and appear as the aggressor. The hitherto reluctant States joined Prussia and the well prepared Prussian army with the support of Italy and the States defeated Austria and in 1866 annexed Scheleswig and Holstein. The decisive battle was fought at Koniggratz near Sadowa, in which Austria was completely routed. This war is also called as ‘Seven Weeks War’. The Austro Prussian war of 1866 ended with the Treaty of Prague. The formation of the North German Confederation resulted in a partial Unification of Germany.

Franco-Prussian war (1870-71)
Bismarck did not keep up the promise of compensation to France for its neutrality. He desired a war with France to complete his scheme of unification. He knew that a war with France would make the remaining German states join the north German confederation. The dispute for the Spanish throne offered a pretext for war. Bismarck supported the claims of Prince Leopold, a relative of the Prussian King. The French were alarmed at the growth of the Prussian power.

The French opposed the claims and were successful in pressurizing Leopold to decline the offer. Bismarck diplomatically managed the situation in such a way that Napoleon III of France declared war on Prussia. France was alone and the South German States also joined hands with Prussia and the French forces were defeated at different fronts and even Paris was captured. The unification of Germany was complete. The Prussian King William was crowned as the Emperor of United Germany with the title ‘Kaiser’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 35.
Explain the causes and results of First World War.
Answer:
Introduction: World War I was one of the greatest, largest and most destructive events in the history of the modern world. It was the first time when such a large number of countries from Europe and other parts of the world were involved in conflict and affected either directly or indirectly. It destroyed more human lives and material than ever before. It broke out in 1914 and came to an end in 1918. Nearly 30 countries participated in this conflict between highly organised and well armed countries with modem weaponry.

Causes of world war:
1. Aggressive Nationalism: Nationalistic aspirations have always led to political rivalries. The narrow nationalism which always meant love of their own people, their own nation and culture became a predominant feature. As a result, there began to develop among the Europeans a kind of negligence towards other countries e.g., William-Il the King of Germany declared that “Germany should either rule the world or perish”. Even England was not free from this self- exaltation. This competitive patriotism forced them to jump into military and naval competitions.

2. Economic and Military imperialism: The European powers competed with each other for commercial and colonial expansion in the non-European world. The launching of industrial schemes on a large scale needed raw material and also a ready market for their finished goods. This led to colonial competition among the European countries, which was carried on to other fields as well. Commercial competition led to mutual jealousy and tension.

3. Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente: Bismarck achieved the unification of Germany in 1871 A.D. He fought many wars with the neighbouring countries. He’sought to give the Empire stability and security and to achieve that end, formed a Triple Alliance with Austria and Italy. In 1907 A.D, alarmed by the formation of this Triple Alliance, Russia, France and England came together and formed an alliance called the Triple Entente. Thus Europe came to be divided into two hostile blocks.

4. The Arms Race: Triple Alliance and Triple Entente led to a keen competition of manufacturing war materials. Germany had made tremendous progress in the military to produce tanks, machine guns, and submarines etc., Greater number of soldiers Were recruited and equipped with modern weapons. Kaiser William-II of Germany glorified war. He wished to make Germany a world power. His belief that “The German race alone should rule the world” greatly alarmed England.

5. England also began to invest more on Navy and greater effort was undertaken to preserve the title “Queen of Seas” and that “Sun never sets on British Empire”. The militaristic attitude of Germany roused the fear in France which began to strengthen her military. Many European nations introduced compulsory military training. Further, the arms race created fear, suspicion tension and distrust between each other. All the nations of Europe were preparing for war.

6. Attitude of France: France had never forgotten her defeat at the hands of Bismarck in the Franco-Prussian war in 1871. After the war, she had also ceded the Alsace and Lorraine provinces to Germany. France was eagerly waiting for an opportunity to take revenge against Germany besides getting back those provinces.

7. Immediate cause: The Austrian Crown Prince, Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated in the streets of Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia on 28th June 1914. So Austria felt that the Serbian Government was responsible for that and sent an ultimatum to Serbia demanding to handover the perpetrators within 48 hours. Serbia rejected the ultimatum. Austria backed by Germany, declared war on Serbia on 28th July 1914. Russia coming to the help of Serbia, entered the fray and other countries followed suit.

Results of the First World War:
1. Loss of life: The horrors and miseries of the war were plentiful. The total loss of life of all nations put together was some 10 million killed in action, more than 1 crore people wounded and millions permanently disabled. As they were incapable of self support, they remained a burden on their family and their nations.

2. Economic dislocation: A large number of people lost their property (186 billion dollars), millions of civilians died of diseases and starvation. The national loan of the participants in the war was enormous. This financial disorder and widespread suffering led to violent social and political changes.

3. The First World War ended with the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. The prominent delegates who represented the different nations in the Peace Conference were Woodrow Wilson, the President of U.S.A., Lloyd George, the Prime Minister of England, Cietnenceau, the Prime Minister of France and Orlando, the Prime Minister of Italy.

4. The victors sought to brand Germany as responsible for the war and all the consequences of the war. It had to give up a lot of its territories and colonies. It was imposed a huge war indemnity and its military strength was reduced.

KSEEB Solutions

5. The war created a demand for an international organization to protect world peace. As a result, the League of Nations came into existence on 1st of January 1929.

6. France reoccupied Alsace and Lorraine, the two provisions from Germany. Besides, France gained the Saar coal basin.

7. The great Empires of Austria, Hungary, Russia, Germany and Ottoman Turkey came to an end. These were replaced by republics. Poland, Belgium and Czechoslovakia became independent.

Part – F

VI. 36. Match the following : ( 05 )

1st PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2018 (North) 1
Answer:
1st PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2018 (North) 2

KSEEB Solutions

37. Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. ( 05 )

  1. Belgrade Conference
  2. The First World War
  3. Society of Jesus established
  4. Hejira Era
  5. Roma Republic was established

Answer:

  1. Roma Republic was established
  2. Hejira Era
  3. The First World War
  4. Belgrade Conference
  5. Society of Jesus established

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