1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 (North)

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Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 (North)

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each:  ( 10 × 1 = 10 )

Question 1.
In which year the term sociology was introduced?
Answer:
The word Sociology was introduced in the year 1839.

Question 2.
Who said man is social animal?
Answer:
Aristotle was the first person to say “Man is social animal”.

Question 3.
Give an example for Primary institution.
Answer:
Religious, Morality, Family Kinship, Marriage etc.

Question 4.
Mention any one feature of Co-operation.
Answer:
Contact and communication.

Question 5.
Mention any one feature of Co-operation.
Answer:

  1. Co-operation is universal and continuous.
  2. Perception of common goals.

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Question 6.
Is culture an acquired trait.
Answer:
Yes, Culture an acquired or learnt.

Question 7.
State any one primary function of the family.
Answer:

  1. Member replacement and physical maintenance.
  2. Status transmission.

Question 8.
Who is the author of the book The Origin of Species?
Answer:
Charles Darwin is the author of the book “the origin of species”.

Question 9.
What is Questionaire?
Answer:
According to Goode and Hatt “Questionnaire as a device for securing answers to question using a form which the respondent fills in himself’.

Question 10.
What is Environment?
Answer:
Environment means “That which surrounded us “or “environus” which is helpful to man’s existence and progress has been divided into physical, biological and social environments.

II. Answer any Ten of the following questions in Two sentences each. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )

Question 11.
Mention any two characteristics of Society.
Answer:

  1. Society is the group of groups
  2. Society is a web of Social Relations
  3. Similarity or Likeness
  4. Differences in Society.

Question 12.
Mention two types of Social control.
Answer:

  1. InformaI control
  2. Formal control.

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Question 13.
Mention any two characteristics of Secondary groups.
Answer:

  1. Dominance of Secondary Relations
  2. Large in size
  3. No physical basis
  4. Nature of Membership.

Question 14.
Mention any two types of competition.
Answer:

  1. Social competition
  2. Economic competition
  3. Political competition
  4. Cultural competition.

Question 15.
Mention any two features of assimilation.
Answer:

  1. Assimilation is not confined to single field only
  2. Assimilation is a slow and gradual process

Question 16.
Name the informal agents of socialization.
Answer:
Family, schools, Peers and Media.

Question 17.
Mention any two functions of Education.
Answer:
The two characteristics of education are:

  1. Preservative function
  2. Al locative function
  3. Reformative function

Question 18.
Write any two characteristics of social change.
Answer:
The two characteristics of social change are

  1. Social change is universal
  2. Complex phenomenon
  3. Social change is change in community
  4. Social change is continuous and temporal

Question 19.
Give two examples for Natural change.
Answer:
Food habits, Human activities.

Question 20.
Mention two types of interviews.
Answer:
Secured interview / Unstructured interview.

Question 21.
What are the types of Environment.
Answer:
They are four types of environment they are:

  1. Physical environment
  2. Biological environment
  3. Social environment
  4. The science of ecology

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Question 22.
What are the sources of pollution?
Answer:
The sources of pollution are:

  1. Air pollution
  2. Water pollution
  3. Solid pollution.

III. Answer any Four question in Fifteen sentences each: ( 4 × 5 = 20 )

Question 23.
Explain briefly the nature and characteristics of Sociology.
Answer:
The nature and characteristics of sociology can be summarised in the following way :
Sociology is an Independent Science: Sociology is not treated and studied as a branch of any other Science like philosophy or political philosophy. As an independent science it has its own subject matter, theories and method of approach.

Sociology is a Social Science not a physical Science: Sociology belongs to the Social Science and not to the physical science. As a Social Science it concentrates its attention on man, his Social behaviour, Social activities and Social life. It is intimately related to other social Sciences like anthropology, Political Science, economics, and Psychology, etc.

Sociology is a categorical not a Normative Discipline: Sociology Studies things “as it is” and “not as they ought to be”. As a Science, Sociology is necessarily silent about the questions of value. It does not make any kind of value-judgements. Its approaches neither moral nor immoral but amoral. It is ethically neutral. It cannot decide the directions in which Sociology ought to go. Sociology is a pure Science not an Applied science: Sociology is a pure science, because the immediate aim of Sociology is the acquisition of knowledge.

On the contrary an applied science is interested in the application or utilization of that knowledge. Sociologists never determine questions of public policy and do not recommend legislators what laws should be passed or repealed. But the knowledge acquired by a Sociologist is of great help to the administrator, legislators, diplomats, teachers, Social workers, & citizens, Sociology is relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science Sociology does not confine itself to the study of particular or concrete instances of human events.

But it. studies the abstract forms of human events and their patterns. For example, it does not limit ‘ itself to the Study of any particular war or revolution. On the contrary it deals with them in a I general or abstract manner, as Social phenomena, i.e., as types of Social conflict. In a similar manner, it makes such generalized Studies of marriage, religion, family, group, etc.

Sociology is a Generalising and not a particularising science: Sociology tries to make generalisations on the basis of the study of some selected events. For example, a Sociologist make generalizations on the following:

  1. Joint families are more stable than the nuclear families.
  2. Social changes tale place with greater rapidity in urban communities than in tribal or rural communities.

Sociology is a General Social Science and not a special Social Science: The area of enquiry of Sociology is general and not specialized. It is concerned with human activities whether they are political, economic, religious, social, etc., in a general way.

Finally Sociology is both an Empirical and a Rational Science: Sociology is an empirical science because it emphasises the facts that result from observation and experimentation, it rests on trial, or experiment or experience. It is a rational Science because it stresses the role of reasoning and logical inferences. An empiricist collects facts where as a rationalist co-ordinates and arranges them. All modem science including Sociology avail themselves of both empirical and rational resources.

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Question 24.
Explain the characteristics of association.
Answer:
Characteristics of Association.

(a) Association – A Human Group: An association is formed by people. It is basically a social group. Without people there can be no association. However all groups are not associations. Because an association is basically an organized group. An unorganized group like a crowd or a mob cannot be an association.

(b) Specific Interest or Interests: An association is not only collection of individuals. But also consists of those individuals who have more or less the same interests. According those who have political interests may join political parties and those who have sports interest may join sports association and so on.

(c) Co-operative Spirit: An association is based on the co-operative spirit of its members. People work together to achieve common purpose. For example: Workers to work together on a co-operative basis in order to fulfill their objective of getting good working conditions.

(d) Organized Group: Association is not just a collection of individuals. It is an organized collections for some specific ends. Organization gives stability and proper shape to an association. Organization refers to the way in which the status and roles are distributed among its members.

(e) Regulation of Relations: Every association has its own rules and regulation applicable to its members. These are called associational norms. Organization depends on this elements of regulation. Association reports to formal or informal means to regulate the relations of its members. For Example: Family through the institution of marriage controls the sexual behavior of its members, professional organization have formal norms to control members.

(f) Element of Stability: An association may be permanent or temporary. There are some long standing association like the political parties, trade union etc. Some associations may be purely temporary in nature, Example: Association that are established to felicitate some great writers, scientists and religious leaders.

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Question 25.
Describe the two types of classification of Co-operation.
Answer:
Types of Co-operation:
The types of co-operation can be discussed in the following ways:

1. Direct Co-operation: In the direct cooperation action the individual involved to do the identical function. Ex. Playing together worshiping together, tilling the field together, taking out a cut from the mud, etc., people do work in company with other members, performance of a common task with joint efforts brings them social satisfaction.

2. Indirect Co-operation: In this case people work individually for the attainment of a common end. People do tasks towards a similar end. This is based on the principle of division of labor and specialization. For ex. Farmers, spinners, weavers, dyers, tailors are different and engaged in different activities. But their end remains the same, that of producing clothes. The modem technological age requires specialization of skill and functions, hence it depends on Co-operation.

Sociologi st have also spoken of three other types of Co-operation, namely Primary Co¬operation Secondary Co-operation and tertiary Co-operation. These types are witnessed in primary groups, secondary groups and between two or more groups respectively.

Question 26.
Briefly explain the types of marriage.
Answer:

  1. Monogamy refers to a marriage of one are man with one woman at a time.
  2. Serial Monogamy
    In serial monogamous marriage the possibility of remarriage exists in case of divorce or death.
  3. Polyandry : Polyandry is the marriage of one woman with several men
  4. Polygamy : Polygamy is type of manage in which a mana time x
  5. Polyandry : Polyandry is a very rate type of marriage a woman marriage several men at a
    time .

Question 27.
Explain the role, of Biological factors for social change.
Answer:
Biological factor: It indicates two types (A) One is non human biological factor and (B) Second is human biological factor. It is true that both constitute total life on earth.

Mclver and page are the opinion that demographic or biological factors involves (1)size of population (2) structure of population (3) Heredity (4) race (5) Birth rate (6)Death rate (7) fertility (8)sex ratio

Six of population: People are assets, without men and women this society is useless. But the size of population is to balanced. We know that according to Malthus, more population leads to poverty. Similarly optimum size of population, theory explains that there should be balance between population and production of food. It fails we find change in society. To maintain balanced society we want population.

Birth rate and death rate: A high birth rate and low death rate leads to population increase. This brings various problems, like poverty, unemployment, housing problems etc Similar lower birth rate and higher death rate brings changes in society like that of scarcity of human resources, decrease in efficiently. This may create defense r blem in nation.

Migration: It is one of the most influential activities which brings changes in society. Migration means movements of population from one area to another. There are two types of migration (1) Urban rural migration (2) Rural urban migration.

Age and sex ratio: Population constitutes three elements in its structure children, youth and old. In every society the members of below fourteen years and more. But in china due to strick’ One child norm,’ there is decrease in 0-14 years age children ratio. If youth population low economic development.

Question 28.
Explain types of Environment.
Answer:

The word Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means all that surrounds us.
Environment which is helpful to man’s existence and progress has been divided into physical, biological and social environments

Physical Environment: It consists of earth, water, mountains and hills, forests, planets, stars, lakes, minerals sources etc., This is called Physical or Natural Environment. The Physical Environment is not created by man: hence it is called the Natural environment.

Biological Environment: This category of environment includes all living things on • earth. For the production and growth of all living creatures, environment is complimentary and protecting.

Social Environment: Social Environment is man-made. Social environment is nothing but the collective and cooperative life of human beings. Sociologists feel that “man is a social animal and one cannot live without society”. For the survival of mankind there must be a cordial relationship with environment.

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IV. Answer the Four questions in 15 sentences each: ( 4 x 5 = 20 )

Question 29.
Explain the role of Auguste comte in the development of Sociology.
Answer:
Being one of the pioneers of Sociology, August Comte is the first who introduced the term “Sociology”. Therefore the credit of calling “Father of Sociology” goes to him. August Comte was the first to introduced a new science called “Sociology” and a brief note of his contribution Confirms a new era for the study of sociology. He used the word “Sociology” for the first time in his famous work “positive philosophy” during 1839.

He called sociology as the scientific study of society. He wanted that this science of society should explain the laws of the social world like natural sciences explain the laws of the physical world. August Comte insisted that, study of society needs scientific method with objectivity. He believed that theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behaviour were needed to improve society.

August Comte divided sociology into two parts. They are : (1) social statics and (2) social dynamics. “Social statics” deals with major Institutions such as family, economy, religion, etc. “Social Dynamics” deals with the issue of social change and social progress. Now these words are called in the name of social structure and social change respectively.

According to August Comte, there is a direct relation between intellectuality and social progress. Related to this he explains law of three stages. They are:

(i) The Theological stage: During this stage all human thoughts were guided by religious ideas and faith in the supernatural powers. It emphasizes the belief that everything is attributed to a particular God.

(ii) The metaphysical stage: During this stage, all human thought were guided by “abstract forces” like nature. It is almost like philosophical inquiry into the nature.

(iii) The positive or scientific stage: This is what the stage that everything based on intellectual way of thinking, looking the world. Through this theory Comte tried to establish the fact that man became more and more rational and scientific in his approach. Comte introduced a theory of classification of sciences. Through this theory he emphasized that there is interrelation and interdependence of social sciences.

August Comte as a supporter of the moral order in the society says that sociologists have to taken responsibility of “priesthood of humanity” and should solve the problems of the society. August Comte’s contribution to sociological literature are “Positive Philosophy” and “Positive Polity”.

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Question 30.
Explain the characteristics of primary groups.
Answer:
The concept of ‘primary groups’ is a significant of C.H. Cooley to the social thought. Building black of human societies throughout the world history.
Characteristics of primary groups.

(a) Dominance of primary or face-to-face relationships: Primary groups are characterized by close and intimate relationships. These exists a face-to-face relationship among the members. In primary groups everyone knows everyone else; one’s name and fame, one’s status, wealth, occupation, level of education etc.

(b) Small in size: Primary groups are generally small in size, because its consists of few members. Size of primary groups should be small if the relations among members are to be close personal and intimate.

(c) Physical Proximity or Nearness: Face-to-face relations can be found only when members reside in particular area more or less permanently. Seeing and talking with each other facilitates the exchange of ideas, opinions and sentiments.

(d) Durability of the groups: Primary groups are relatively a permanent groups. Other
things equal, the longer the groups remains together, the more numerous and deeper are the contacts between its members.

(e) Similarity of Background: The members of the primary groups may have more or less the same background, these must be some approximations in their levels of experience. Each must have something to contribute to give as well as to take.

(f) Shared Interest: The shared interests of the groups also hold them together. Any interest becomes focused and enriched in the group process. Since all are working for a common cause each acquires stimulation and a heightening of the emotional significance of the interest.

Question 31.
Explain the typology of Accomodation.
Answer:
Methods of Accommodations:
Accommodation arrangements between groups or individuals take variety of forms, Gillin and Gillin have mentioned. They are:

1. Yielding to coercion: Coercion involves the use of force or the threat of force for making the weaker party to accept the conditions of agreement. This can take place when the parties are of unequal strength in wars the victorious nation imposes its will on the vanquished. Various political dictatorship are also instances of coercive accommodation in which a strong minority group which seizes political power imposes its will on the masses.

2. Compromise: When the contending parties are almost equal in power they attain accommodation by means of compromise. In compromise each party to the dispute makes some concessions dnd yields to some demand of the other. The “all or nothing” attitudes gives way to willingness to give up certain points in order to gain others. Certain international agreements and management labour agreements on wages, hours of work are example of compromise.

The role of third party in compromise:

1. Arbitration: When the contending parties themselves are not able to resolve their differences they may resort to arbitration. Arbitration is a device for bringing about compromise in which a third party tries to bring about an end to the conflict. Here the decision of the third party is binding on both the parties. Labour management disputes some political disputes are often resolved in this way.

2. Mediation: Mediation is more a kin to arbitration. This involves the introduction into the conflict of a neutral agent whose efforts are directed towards bringing about a peaceful settlements. But the mediator has no power to settle the conflict as but the mediator has no power to settle the conflict as such for his decisions are not binding on the parties.

3. Conciliation: Closely related to compromise is conciliation. This is an attempt to persuade the disputants to develop friendship and come to an agreement. Conciliation has been used in industrial, racial and religious struggles. Conciliation implies a milder response to an opponent than coercion. In the end conciliation, like toleration opens the door to assimilation.

Question 32.
Briefly explain the secondary functions of family.
Answer:
The secondary function are:
Economic function: Family an important unit of both production and consumption, but today, modem families mainly earn incomes. Thus, their principles function is that of the consumption of goods and services which they purchase. Because of income the provision of economic support for family members is a major function of the modem family.

Educational function: In the modem world child learns basic skills at formal school and colleges. At the same time child learn its mother tongue and traditions skills and talents at home. Traditions families were associated with vocational education because families were associated with a particular task.

Religious function: Family is the centre for the Religious training of the children who learn various religious virtues from their parents. Rituals, ceremonies and worship are carried out on which made the outlook of children.

Recreational function: Family provides Recreation to its members. It may be day today interaction among the members in several occasion such as feasting, gathering, marriage, festival enhances happiness.

Thus family is a school of civil virtues. The virtues of love, co-operati

Inter-institutional linkage: Each baby is a potential participant in the group life of the society. Family relationship with other institutions like religious, political, economic, recreational and other kinds of organizations typically gives individuals an opportunity to participate in these activities. The family, then, not only prepares the individual to play social roles and occupy a status in the community, but also provides the opportunities for such activity.

Question 33.
Explain the role of cultural factors for social change.
Answer:
Cultural factor: Man is a social human being. Also man is a cultural being, the term society itself express that, it is a cultural phenomenon. Without culture it is difficult to understand social life.
Mainly three process can be observed which bring change:

  • Discovery, discovery is the perception which unfold a reality that already exists, for egg. Vasco- D-Gama discovered way to India by sea.
  • Invention: invention is use of existing knowledge to produce something that did not exist before
  • Diffusion: diffusion is the spread of cultural elements from one culture to another. For egg. Western culture is spreading in east. Buddhism and its culture spread in China and Shri Lanka.

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Question 34.
Write-a note on types fo pollution.
Answer:
The types of environment pollution are:
Air PollutionrAir pollution is caused by unwanted and rejected things in the atmosphere around us. According to Oxford dictionary air pollution means “The compound’s that get mixed with the atmosphere causes dangerous effects on useful plants, animals and human being.

Water Pollution: Water is essemial for all living things 2/3 portion on the earth is covered by watei, 97.2% of water on earth is mixed with solids and rest 2.8% only is left for drinking purpose Watei pollution occurs in three different forms

  • Inland pollution.
  • Underground pollution
  • Sea pollution.

Noise Pollution: Intolerable sound is considered as sound pollution, because intense sound result in physical and mental stress and also irritation. Sound pollution is also result due to various activities of human begins. Intensity of sound is measured in decibels while talking usual intensity of sound is 60 decibels.

Soil Pollution: The upper most layer of the earth is consisted of “Soil” This soil layer is * formed by the natural processes from millions of years. This layer supplies the necessary nutrients essential for the growth of the plants. The soil which feeds the plants is the reason for the existence of all biological system.

The decrease in the quality of the soil and changes in it due to various activities of the humans is called as soil pollution. Soil pollution lessens the productive nature of the soil and destroys the living beings in it and also its rejuvinable process.

V. Answer any Two of the following in 25 sentences each: ( 2 × 10 = 20 )

Question 35.
Explain the uses of sociology.
Answer:
a. Development of Personality : Man is fundamentally a social being. He has to adjust to the changing conditions of the society. Sociology gives a scientific and a comprehensive knowledge of human society. The scientific knowledge about the structure of society, its development, change, problems, individual rights and obligations, etc., makes not only individual an enlighten member of the society, but also leads to the development of his personality in a proper manner.

b. Change in attitudes: Sociology is useful in developing rational attitude towards society, religion, customs, mores, institutions, values, ideologies, etc. Sociology plays an important role in changing the attitudes towards others. The study of Sociology helps us to overcome prejudices about others people, class, caste, religious hatredness, misconceptions ambitions. Totally Sociology helps us to develop a critical approach towards the ‘ Social World’, So that, we can have better relations with the people of not only our society but also with the people of other societies.

c. Solutions of Social Problems: Every society is facing its own problems. For example, India is facing so many problems like poverty, unemployment, terrorism, corruption, untouchability, prostitution, gambling, over population, beggary, etc. The deep study of these problems is necessary to solve them. Sociology helps us to make an objective study of social problems. It also gives valuable suggestions to solve.

d. Social Planning and Policy Making: Sociology is playing a key role in social planning and policy making. Sociological knowledge is very much useful and the service and suggestions of expert sociologists are sought even in the formulations of Government Policies, Social Legislations regarding family, population control, child labour, environment pollution, beggary, etc.

e. To promote welfare of the backward and weaker section of the society: In India, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other weaker sections are exploited in social, economic, and political fields for centuries. To promote welfare programmes for these groups sociological knowledge is necessary.

f. Sociology as a Attractive Teaching Subject: Sociology is gaining importance as a popular teaching subject. Careers apart from teaching are now possible in Sociology. Sociology is introduced as one of the subj ect to be studied in many colleges and Universities. Sociology is also included in the subjects to be offered by candidates taking completive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS and KES, etc. There are many employment opportunities in many fields like Education, Social Welfare, Family Welfare, Public Administration, Women and Child Welfare Development, etc.

g. Role of Sociology in developing countries: Social factors are also responsible for the economic backwardness particularly in under developed countries. Economists have now realized the importance of sociological information and knowledge in analyzing the economic life of their countries. So, it has been said that “Economist should be Sociologist also”.

h. Sociological knowledge about modern situations and developments: Sociology always gives information about the recent changes and developments that takes place in and around us. So that we can act according to the changes. The knowledge about these things makes us conscious about our responsibilities towards society.

Question 36.
What is Mores? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
According to Maclver and Page “When the folkways have added to them conceptions of groups welfare, standards of right and wrong are converted into mores”.

Characteristics of Mores are:

1. More are the regulators of social life: Mores represent the living character of the group or community. They are always considered right by the people who share them. They are morally right and their violation morally wrong. Hence they are more compulsive in nature. They put restrictions on our behavior.

2. Mores are relatively more persistent: More are relatively long lasting than ordinary folkways. In fact, they even become conservative elements in society. They also put up resistance to change.

3. Mores vary from group to group or time to time: What is prescribed in one group is prohibited in another Eskimos for example: often practice female infanticide, whereas such a practice is strictly forbidden in the modern societies. Mores not only differ with culture but also with time. What is right at one time may be wrong at another and vice versa. Ex; the practice of “Sat” was “moral” then, but today it is illegal and immoral.

4. Mores are often backed by values and religion: More normally receive the sanction and backing of values and religion. When this occurs they become still more powerful and binding. Mores backed by religious sanctions are strongly justified people.

Question 37.
Define culture and discuss its main characteristics.
Answer:
Culture and human society are the two faces of the same coin. They always go hand-in-hand. Culture is a unique feature that differentiates human society from animals. Man is not only a social animal, but also a cultural animal, every man can be considered as a representative of the culture. Therefore culture can also be considered an important agency of social change. According to Robert Bierstedt “ Culture is the Complex whole that consists of everything we think and do and have as members of society”.

According to Malinowski: “culture is the handiwork of man and the medium through which he achieves his ends”.
According to Edward B.Tylor, “Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge beliefs, arts, morals, law, custom, language and any other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society”.

According to Robert Bierstedt “ Culture is the Complex whole that consists of everything we think and do and have as members of society.

Characteristics of culture are:

Culture is learnt: Culture is often understood as learned ways of behaviors. Culture is not an inborn tendency. It is acquired or learnt. It includes those learned patterns for thinking, feeling and acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next. Therefore what is learned through socialization and are acquired in group life are what is called culture.

Culture is Social: Culture is not the property of any individual. It is the social heritage of man. It is a way of group life. It originates in and develops through social interaction.

It consists of a number of behavior patterns that are common to a group of people. It is the inclusive of all expectation of the members of the groups. Thus culture is a social products shared by most of the members of the group.

Culture is Shared: Culture is a social property. It belongs to the group. The elements of culture such as customs beliefs, idea, folkways, mores, and language are all belonged to the people of a group. These are commonly shared by the members of a group. So culture is the product of groups life. Culture cannot be hidden and used by one individual.

According to Robert Bierstadt. “Culture is something adopted, used believed, practiced or possessed by more than one person”.

Culture is Transmissive: Culture is the total social heritage. It is linked with the past. The past continues because it lives in culture. Culture is something that can be transmitted 1 from one generation to the next. Culture is passed through language. Language is the chief vehicles of culture. Culture is also passed from one generation to another through traditions and customs. It is a product of human experience.

Culture is Relative: All societies are not uniform. Hence all culture are also not uniform. They are vary and differ from time to time and place to place. There may be common elements such as customs, mores, folkways, art forms, dietary habits, value systems, institutions etc,, may be seen everywhere culture is also related to time. It varies from time to time. History of every society is the history of change in culture from – time to time.

Culture is Dynamic: Culture is not a static phenomena. It is a Dynamic entity. Changes in society implies changes in its culture; Culture simply means a way of life. It is nothing ” but a total “design for living”. Factors like inventions, problems, plans and policies etc.

have a drastic effect on culture. As society changes a new way of life in evolved and . adopted to adjust with the changing circumstances. Every factor that during changes in society will also being changes in the culture. Thus culture is dynamic.

Culture is Gratifying: Culture is the pilot of every human activity. Culture provides the necessary environment for the satisfaction of human wants. It shows the way for getting the work done. Culture determines and guides the activities of men.

Culture is continuous and cumulative: Culture is an growing phenomenon. It includes the glory of the past and the achievements present. Eg: Bullock carts, train, Aero planes etc., achievements. It is always cumulative.

Culture is Idea national: It is not merely material and non material culture. One cannot confine the culture as an objects which satisfies different goals of life. The members of society provides a psychological meanings to their own cultural traits. They attach the I sentiments to their cultural elements. In this regard Herbert Spencer considers culture is neither organic, nor inorganic but it is super organic. It is commonly witnessed that people, never tolerate any condemnation of their culture.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 38.
Describe the merits and demerits of interview.
Answer:
Interview: The very term implies “Interviewing is an interactional process, it is a mutual view of each other”.

Structured Interview : has predetermined questions and standard techniques. The number * of questions is also fixed. In this method of interview, number and nature of questions, order of asking them, wording of questions, recording system and everything in the interview process is standardized.

Merits of structured Interview:

  • It provides safe basis for the generalization
  • In this method, interview’s bias can be restricted
  • It is more methodical and easy to administer

Demerits.

  • The rigid and mechanical process, sometimes defeat the purpose of interview. It lacks the flexible nature and personal touch in interview
  • In this method, there is a possibility that substances of interview obtain less importance . than formal process and set up.

Unstructured (Oral) Interview: It is not rigid type of interview. In this method, there is flexibility in the entire process of interview. The interview has greater freedom to choose the form depending on situations. The flexibility nature of interview allows the interview to ask number, sequence, and method of questions according to requirements of situations.

Merits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview creates a congenial atmosphere for effective communication
  • In a highly diverse society of India, the formal set up interview imposes sei ve limitations on interview. Unstructured interview is the only remedy for this problem

Demerits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview provides respondents to answer differently, this is difficult in analysis of data
  • To administer this type of interview, well trained and skilled persons are required
  • The more number of personal bias and prejudices may be the part of this method.

IV. Answer any Two of the following in 15 sentences each: ( 2 × 5 = 10 )

Question 39.
Explain the factors that is favourable of assimilation.
Answer:
According to Young and Mack: “Assimilation is the fusion or blending of two previously distinct groups into one”.

Characteristics of Assimilation:

Assimilation is not confined to single field only: The term assimilation is generally applied to explain the fusion of two distinct cultural group. Thus, it is an universal process. The process occurs in every walks of Human life ex: social, economic, political, art, music, agriculture, food and dress, habit etc. But this process is by notifications limited to any single field. In the religious field, assimilation may take place when an individual or a group of individuals or a particular religious background get converted into some other religious sect or group. As a process assimilation encompasses life in general.

Assimilation is a slow and gradual process: Assimilation cannot take place all of a sudden it takes. Fusion of personalities and groups usually takes time. It occurs only when there is relatively continuous and direct contact. The speed of the process of assimilation depends on the nature of contacts. If the contacts are primary then assimilation occurs naturally and rapid. On the contrary, if the contracts are Secondary assimilation takes place very slowly. The formation of American Culture due to the assimilation of British, Scottish, German and other European Cultures also has taken several decades and centuries.

Assimilation is an unconscious process: In the process of assimilation the individual or group is usually unconscious of what is taking place. Mostly it occurs in an unconscious manner individual and groups discard cultural heritage and substitute it with the new one.

Assimilation is a two-way process: Assimilation involves the principle of give and take. It is normally preceded by another process called ‘acculturation’ Acculturation is a preliminary and necessary step towards assimilation. It takes place when one cultural group which is in contact with another borrows from it certain cultural elements and incorporate them into its own culture. Contact between two groups essentially affects into its own culture. Contact between two groups essentially affects both. Usually the culturally ‘weaker’ group borrows must of the trails from the culturally ‘stronger’ group.

Factors Favoring Assimilation:

Toleration: assimilation is possible only when individual and groups are tolerated towards cultural differences of others. Tolerance helps people to come together, to develop contacts and to participate in common social and cultural activities. When the majority group or the dominant group itself is secure.

Intimate social relationships: Assimilation is the final product of social contacts. The relative speed in which it is achieved depends on the nature of the contacts. It takes place naturally in primary groups such as family and friendship groups.

Amalgamation or intermarriage: It is an effective favoring assimilation process. It does not combine two opposite sexes but also two different families, castes, religious and regional groups together. A factor which helps complete assimilation is amalgamation which refers to the intermarriage of different groups without biological amalgamation complete assimilation is not possible.

Mere intermixture of the groups to a limited degree does not guarantee assimilation but intermarriage or amalgamation must be accepted in the mores and become a part of the institutional; structure, before assimilation exists.

Cultural similarity: If there are striking similarities between them an constituents of cultures of groups assimilation is quick to take place. In America, for example English – speaking protestants are assimilated with greater aped than non-Christians who do not speak English.

Education: Education is another conductive factor for assimilation. For immigrant people public education has played a prominent role in providing culture contact. Maurice R Davis has pointed out in his “world immigration” that in American public schools has been playing the vital role in the process of Americanizing the children of foreign born parents.

Equal Social and economic opportunity: Public education alone is not enough. People of all groups must have equal access to socio-economic opportunities. Only then, they can come closer and establish relations among themselves with mutual trust. As it has been observed in the case of America, full assimilation is possible only when full participation in social, cultural and economic life is allowed.

Assimilation is a two way process when it happens between two culture groups. Each group contributing varying proportions of the eventual blend.
Forms of assimilation The process of assimilation takes place mainly at three levels:

  • Individual level
  • Group level
  • Culture level.

Individual level: A social individual when enters or joins a new patterns of different cultural patterns, he or she has to adopt new patterns of values, habits, customs and beliefs of the other group in order to be fully accepted by new group. In course of time, he or she becomes assimilated into the second group. An Indian woman after marriage starts with dissimilar backgrounds and develops a surprising unity of interests and identifies herself with the family of her husband. The tendency is to conform to other’s behaviors pattern and differences in the time may largely disappear.

Group level: When two groups with dissimilar patterns of behavior come in close contact, – they inevitably affect each other. In this process, it is generally seen that the weaker group would do more of the borrowing from and would give very little to a stronger group. For instance, when we came in contact with Britishers, being a weaker group, we have adopted many cultural elements of Britishers but they have adopted many cultural elements from Indian society. The adoption of elements of dominant cultural paves the way for total absorption, if not checked, of the new culture group with the dominant culture.

Cultural level: When two cultures merge to produce a third culture which, while somewhat distinct, has features of both merging cultures. In western countries to some extent, rural and urban cultures which were radically different are, with rapidly increasing communication, merging as differences continue to disappear although they still exist.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 40.
Distinguish between material and non material culture.
Answer:
Material culture: according to Ogbum material culture includes all the man made concrete, tangible, visible things. They include for example the house, buildings, furniture, automobiles, machines, dams, locomotives etc. it also includes the printing press, banks, money and the like. Material culture is also referred to as “Civilization”. The material culture is undergoing rapid changes within a short period of time.

Non Material Culture: it includes all the abstracts intangible invisible elements. The beliefs, tradition, habits, values, rituals etc. are the examples for non material culture. Ogburn includes . languages and ideologies, all the contributions such as family, marriage and religion in non¬material culture. It is said that the non material culture changes slowly and does not adjust itself to the changes in material culture.

Question 41.
Explain in brief the function of Education.
Answer:
The educational system tries to embrace almost all people where they are young and equip them with at least the minimum skills of literacy and numeracy education.
Following are the important functions of Education.

Preservative function: As the transmission of culture is needed for the preservation of social order, it is also called the preservation function of education. Social structure persists only with the aid certain values and these values have to be handed down to the next generation. When the values and skills become absolute with the passage of time replacing them with new vistas is also a major function of education.

With the growth of modern economy and the complexity of socio-economic structure. This is usually achieved through the political and administrative apparatus. The knowledge, skill and values acquired through education not only meet the economic needs of society, but also permeated with a social ‘content corresponding to the existing socio-economic and political structure and the consequent social stratification and distribution of power in society.

Allocative function:The education process, with its different specialization, different levels and certification process which goes along with it, allocates the younger generation to various roles in society according to their possession of or lack of appropriate diplomas and degree, specifying particular skills, abilities and values. Thus it legitimizes the existing distribution of position of socio-economic gains and power by convincing the losers or relative loss that their failure in life is due to their failure in education, which interim is due to their lack of abilities.

Moreover, this a locative function induces greater demands for more and more education and thus contributes to the expansion of education system and increase the common people’s dependence on and subjugation to, it is that some of the so called universal goals of education in a society articulate the thinking of philosophers and social reformers of the times.

Reformative function: Education is of fundamental significance to the development and progress of human society. Although education as a process of socialization. Education has also the capacity to liberate the human mind from shackles of the pass and the present. It has the potential to make men question the ruling values and norms in society, to make them rebel-against the existing social constraints and to solutions to the developed „ social contradiction and constraints outside the frame work of he established system. This we call the transformative, progressive or reformative function of education.

The American sociologists Bowles and Gintis argues that the major role of education in modem world is the reproduction of labor power. The education system helps to achieve these objectives largely through the hidden curriculum. It is not the content of lessons and the examinations that pupils take which are important, but the form that teaching and learning take and the way that schools are organized. The hidden curriculum consists of those things that pupils learn through the experience of attending school, rather than the stated educational objectives of such institutions.

According to Bowles and Gintis, the hidden curriculum shapes the future workforce in the following ways:

  • it helps to produce a subservient workforce of uncritical, passive and docile workers. Far from living up to liberal ideal of encouraging self-development.
  • Bowles and Gintis claim that the hidden curriculum encourages an acceptance of hierarchy. Schools are organized on a hierarchical principle of authority and control.
  • At school, pupils learn to be motivated by external rewards, just as the workforce in a capitalist society is motivated by external rewards. Because students have so little control over, and little feeling of involvement in, their school work, they get little satisfaction from studying.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 42.
Discuss briefly the technique of quation method
Answer:
Techique include a set of questions which are not structured in advice and which may be adjusted according to need during the question period it is in flexible nature. It is used to collect data pertaining to personal experience opinions, attitudes etc.

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