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Karnataka 1st PUC Political Science Model Question Paper 1 with Answers
Time: 3.15 Hours Max.
I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)
Who is the author of the book ‘polities’?
Which is the most populous country win the world?
Which is the root word of law’?
The word law has been derived from the old titanic root‘Lag’.
Give an example of Presidential Government?
Who is the chairman of the drafting committee tell the Indian Constitution?
Which is the upper house of the Parliament?
What is the term of office of the President of India?
Who appoints the Prime Minister?
The President of India.
Who is the present Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India?
Hort’ble Mr. Justice P. Sathasivam
Which state introduced Panchayat Raj System for the first time in India?
II.Answer any Ten of the following question in 2 to 3 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
’Man is a social being’, how?
Man is a social animal by nature. He should continue to live in society. A man who is unable to live in society must be either a beast or god.
Who used the term state for the first time? and in which book?
Machiaveli of Italy has first used the term state in his book “The Prince’’.
Name two aspects of sovereignty.
- Internal Sovereignty.
- External Sovereignty.
What is an unwritten constitution? Give an example.
A constitution which is evolved over a period of time is called unwritten constitution.
Write any two features of dictatorship.
- Concentration of political power in a single person or a party,
- Suppress individual liberty.
Write any two fundamental rights.
- Right to equality.
- Right to culture and education.
What are the qualifications to become a member of Lok Sabha?
- Must be a citizen of India.
- Attained the age of 25 years.
- Must not possess proxieable job.
- Must not be criminal, lunatic or mad.
Define political science.
According to Paul Janet “political science is that part of social science which trats of the foundations of the state and principles of government.
Write any two discretionary powers of the governor.
- Appointment of Chief Minister.
- Dissolution of state legislative assembly.
Name any two writ petitions under act 32.
- Habeas Corpus.
Name any two City Corporations in Karnataka.
Political equality is meaningless without economic equality why?
- Political equality is the basis of democracy and economic equality implies equal distribution of income and
- wealth without producing minimum standard of living to the mass, people cannot think of political equality.
III. Answer any Eight of the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)
Write the meaning and definition of state.
The state is politically organised people in a definite territory. According to Woodrow Wison, the state is people organised for law within a definite territory.
Distinguish between state and society.
|1. State is supreme institution.
2. State originated after the society.
3. Scope of state is limited.
4. Definite Territory is essential for the state.
5. State consists of organized people
6. State has sovereignty.
7. State functions through the government.
8. State is one of the association in the society.
9. Membership of state is compulsory.
10. State Studies about Political system.
11. State controls our external relations.
12. Rules of the state are compulsory.
13. State has the power to punish the people.
14. State has legal system.
|1. Society is not supreme Institution
2. Society originated prior state.
3. Scope of society is wider.
4. Definite territory is not essential for society.
5. Society consists of both organized and unorganized people.
6. Society has no sovereignty.
7. Society has no government
8. Society has many associations of which state is one.
9. Membership of society is obligatory
10. Society studies about social system.
11. Society influences on our internal relations.
12. The rules of society are not compulsory.
13. Society cannot punish the people.
14. Society has no legal system.
Explain the kinds of liberty.
1. National Liberty:
It is associated with french thinker J.J. Rousseau. Access to this type of men in the state of nature were completely free and there were no restrictions. This doesn’t exist in modem social life.
2. Civil liberty:
It is enjoyed by all the individuals in society. It consists of certain rights and privileges created and protected by the state.
3. Political Liberty:
This liberty is available only to the citizen either directly or indirectly participate in the political activities of the state. In short, a person makes or destroys the government.
4. Economic Liberty
Without economic liberty, other liberty, other liberties are meaningless and useless. It means liberty of security and opportunities to find reasonable significance in the livelihood
5. National Liberty :
This liberty implies the political independence of the state. All other liberties can’t be enjoyed unless the country is independent.
Explain the features of Unitary Government.
Features of Unitary Government:
1. Concentration of Power:
A Unitary government is characterized by the presence of a 1 single-center, Which is omnipotent and omnipresent all over the territory. All decisions of the state flow from one single center.
2. No Provincial Autonomy:
The provinces or local units in a unitary system are created by the centre for the sake of administrative convenience. It carries out the orders of the center without having any powers to make decisions. Thus, the local units only act as subordinate agents of the center without any authority or autonomy.
3. Single legislature: In a Unitary system of government there will be only one single supreme legislative assembly which makes laws for the whole country and are faithfully implemented by the local units.
4. Constitution may be written or unwritten: The constitution, in a unitary government, may be written or unwritten as there is one single central authority wielding power all over the state without any other centres of power.
Write a text of the preamble of the Indian Constitution.
The preamble of the constitution of India explains the aims and ideology and reads as:
WE THE PEOPLE OF INDIA having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, DEMOCRATIC, SOCIALIST, SECULAR and REPUBLIC Nation and securing to all its citizens.
- JUSTICE -social, economic and political.
- LIBERTY- of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship,
- EQUALITY- of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all.
- FRATERNITY- assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and the integrity of The idea of the preamble has been borrowed from constitution of U.S.A.
Explain the composition of Rajya Sabha.
In federal representation the state is important. In India, the members of the Rajyasabha are indirectly elected for 6 yrs but in of them will retire every 2 yrs.
The Rajyasabha has 250 members out of whom 12 are nominated by the president for their contributions to science, literature, art and social service. The remaining 238 members are indirectly elected by the state legislative assemblies through a system of proportional representation.
Explain the political rights.
a. Right to Vote:
All the citizens who have attained the age of 18 are eligible to vote through adult franchise without any discrimination.
b. Right to contest election:
All the citizens of a country who have attained a particular age are given the chance to contest elections and thus respect the aims and aspirations of various sections of society in government.
c. Right to Enter Government Service:
In a democracy, all the citizens are equally entitled to get a government jobs on the basis of their qualifications.
d. Right to petition:
It gives an opportunity to ail people to bring their problems to the notice of government and seek remedies.
e. Right to Criticism:
It is one of the biggest boons of democracy. All citizens have right to. criticise the policies of the government.
Explain the Legislative powers of the President of India.
Powers and functions of the president of India are as follows:
a. In the Parliamentary government, the position of the President is that of a respectful figurehead, representing the honor and dignity of the people of India. It has become a fashion to label the President as ‘a rubber stamp’, the impression is that he does nothing but signing bills brought before him. But there are occasions that offer scope for independent decisions.
b. When no party enjoys a majority, the power to appoint prime minister rests with the President (Ar- tide 75). In case of sudden demise of Prime minister, if the party fails to elect its leader, at the earliest, President may appoint a person of his choice as the Prime minister. Importantly, if a government loses majority and recommends for the dissolution of the house (Lok Sabha), it is purely power of the President to dissolve the parliament or not (Article 85).
The powers and functions of the President are as follows:
1. Legislative Functions:
The legislative functions are detailed below:
1. To summon, prorogue and dissolve the Parliament.
2. The President enjoys the power to address the Parliament. It is normally done after general elections or the first session of the year. It is generally called Presidential speech. This inaugural speech outlines the objectives and priorities of the goverment.
3. In passing the bills, if a dead lock arises due to non-agreement between two houses of the parliament, the President may call for joint session of both the houses.
4. The President may address Lok sabha or Rajya sabha or both any time and also may send a message to both the houses of parliament to look into a bill.
5. In the considered view of the President, if he is satisfied that the Anglo-Indian com-munity is not adequately represented, he may nominate 12 members to Rajya Sabha and 2 members to Lok sabha.
6. Prior permission ofthe President is essential while dealing with bills relating to for- mation of new states, alteration of boundaries and some special bills like the finance bills.
7. No bill can become a law without the assent of the President. He enjoys the power to withhold a bill. This power is called ‘Veto power’. However he cannot refuse his assent for finance bills. But he can withhold assent for a non money bill. But if the same is resubmitted for signature even without changes, he cannot refuse to sign it.
8. The President enjoys the power of issuing Ordinance when the parliament is not in session. It will have the same power and effect similar to that of a law made by the Parliament provided the same is ratified by the Parliament within 6 weeks of its passage. Otherwise it ceases to be a law and is considered null and void or zero.
Explain the features of the Constitutional Government.
The Characteristics of constitutional government are as below
1. Supremacy of the constitution:
In this system all the powers of government are laid down in accordance with the provisions of constitution. Government should function within the framework of the constitution.
2. Equality before law:
Here law will apply to all the people equally. The benefits of law can be enjoyed by all the citizens irrespective of caste, creed, religion, social and economic status.
3. Individual liberty:
In the constitutional government, all the citizens are enjoying the fundamental rights guaranteed by the constitutions. So constitution provides the rights to all the people and ensures protection.
4. Protects public interest:
All people in the country should be lived under the purview’ of constitution. Violation of the provisions of constitution invites severe punishment. So constitution safeguards the interests of the people by protecting them from all the outside aggression.
Explain the composition and powers of district courts.
1. The Civil Courts:
THE DISTRICT CIVIL COURT:
The State Government in consultation with the high court establishes a District Court. The district court is the highest civil court in the district. In exercises both judicial and administrative powers. It has the power of supervision over the courts under its control and has both original and appellate jurisdiction.
The court of the district judge is located at the district headquarters. It has the powers of typing both civil as well as criminal cases. Thus he is designated as the district and sessions judge. The Governor in consultation with the high court appoints judges to the district court.
1. At the Taluk level, the court of civil judge (senior division) and the court of civil judge (junior division) are presided over by a principal civil judge and additional civil judge and have jurisdiction over every revenue taluk of the district.
2. The Munsiff courts at Taluk level.
3. The small cause courts function at metropolitan cities and it is presided by the most junior magistrate.
2. The Criminal Court:
- District Session’s court – It is the highest criminal court in every district. The District Civil Court Judge also heads this court but he is called a Session’s Court Judge. It deals with cases of criminal nature like robbery and murder. Sessions court awards punishment, including death sentence, which should be approved by the high court.
- First Additional District and Sessions court.
- Second Additional District and Sessions court.
- Chief Judicial Magistrate Court.
- First Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate Court.
- Second Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate Court.
Explain the original jurisdiction of Supreme court.
Original Jurisdiction: Article 131 of the constitution deals with the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. The original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is so exclusive that no court in India can take up cases falling under the original jurisdiction.
The original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is purely federal in character. Matters relating to the problems and disputes arising between the union and the states or between the states are taken up by the Supreme Court. The disputes entertained under the original jurisdiction are
- A dispute involving the Government of India Vs the state of Union of India.
- A dispute involving the Government of India plus one or more states V s one or more states.
- A dispute involving one or more states on one side Vs one or more states on the other.
Explain standing committees of Zilla Panchayat.
Zill panchayath consists of five standing committees which are as follows:
1. General committee:
It is incharge of communication, building, rural housing development project of villages and management of natural calamities etc.,
2. The Finance, Auditing and planning committee:
This committee looks after, the preparation of annual Budget of Zilla panchayath, financial, functions, expenditure management, and economic development.
3. Social justice committee:
Promotion of education and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled tribes and other backward classes. Welfare and protection of women, providing social justice to the depressed classes.
4. Education and Health committee:
Maintenance of educational activities of panchayats in the district. Execution of provisions of National Education Policy, Adult Education Programmes, management of hospitals, health activities and family planning.
5. Agricultural and Industry committee:
Promotion of agriculture, animal husbandry, cottage industry and development of Indus-tries in the district.
These standing committees comprises of Chairman and members who are elected from amongst themselves. ,
IV. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences each: (2 × 10=20)
Explain the composition, powers, and functions of Lok Sabha.
1. Legislative functions:
The power of Loksabha extends to all subjects falling under the Union list and the Concurrent list. In case of emergency in operation its power also extends to State list as well. No bill can become a law without the consent of Loksabha. The Loksabha has equal powers of law making with Rajyasabha except on financial matters where the supremacy of Loksabha is total.
In case of disagreement between the two houses on a matter of legislation, it is resolved by a Joint Sitting of both the houses presided over by the Speaker. In a Joint Sitting, Loksabha would emerge triumphant because the decisions are taken by a majority of the total number of members of both the house present and voting in which the numerical superiority of Loksabha prevails.
2. Financial functions:
On financial matters, the supremacy of the Loksabha is total and complete. “One, who holds purse, holds power” said James Madison. By establishing its authority over the national purse, Loksabha establishes its authority over the Rajyasabha.
It is expressly stated that Money bill can originate only in the house of people. Regarding budget, Loksabha being a representative house enjoys total authority. Loksabha’s position on financial matters is such that the demands for grants are placed only before the Loksabha.
3. Control over the executive:
The Loksabha enjoys direct control over the executive because; executive is directly responsible to the lower house and stays in office as long as it enjoys the confidence of the house. The Loksabha not only makes laws but also supervises the implementation. The lower house being a debating house, the members are free to seek information from the executive and raise questions and seek clarifications.
The members can effectively seek information from the government by way of discussions and debates during the Question Hour (seek clarification), the Adjournment Motion (raises issues of national importance), the Zero Hour, the Cu motion, the Call-attention motion, etc. The soundest way of controlling the executive is by way of moving the No-confidence motion, if the executive fails to win the support of Lok sabha, they must step down.
4. Constituent functions:
The Loksabha shares equal powers in regard to amending provisions of the constitution. An amendment may be initiated either in the Rajyasabha or Loksabha and must be passed by a 2/3 majority in both the houses present and voting. The agreement of Rajyasabha is compulsory for the success of constitutional amendment.
5. Electoral functions:
The Loksabha and Rajyasabha elect the highest constitutional functionaries such as the President and the Vice-president. The President is elected by the members of Loksabha and Rajyasabha along with the members of Legislative Assemblies of the states. The Vice-president is elected by members of Loksabha and Rajyasabha.
6. Judicial functions:
The Loksabha acts as a judge in the impeachment of the President. Either house can prefer the charge of impeachment. If Rajyasabha prefers the charge, Loksabha investigates the charge and if it passes a resolution by a 2/3 majority of the total membership of the house, President stands impeached from the office.
He Loksabha also sits in Judgement, along with the Rajyasabha, in removing high constitutional functionaries such as the Comptroller and Auditor General, The Chief Vigilance Commissioner, the Chief Election Commissioner etc.
Explain the meaning and features of democratic government.
The word “Democracy” is a derivative of Greek words ‘Demos’ and ‘Kratie’ meaning ‘people’ and ‘rule’ respectively. Thus, democracy is the rule of the people.
Features of Democratic Government:
The following features can be identified by democratic form of government.
- Democracy is based on freedom and openness;
- Democracy thrives on majority opinion;
- Democracy upholds individual dignity;
- Democracy is open to criticism and correction and
- Popular Sovereignty is the basis of democracy expressed through universal adult franchise.
Explain the role, powers, and functions of the Prime Minister of India.
The powers and function of the Prime minister are detailed below:
1. Formation of Ministry:
The primary task of the Prime minister on assuming office is the formation of Council of ministers. Normally ministers are picked from the same political formation to ensure uniformity and continuity of policy. However, nothing prevents Prime minister from picking anyone as minister.
2. Allocation of Portfolios:
After forming the ministry the next important task is allocation of responsibilities to ministers. Certain key or heavyweight portfolios such as Home, Defence, Finance, Commerce and Industry, External affairs etc., are to be given to party heavyweights who enjoy a good clout and following among the party workers. Also to ensure efficiency and stability of the government. Prime minister enjoys the power of expanding and reforming the ministry.
3. Chairman of the Cabinet:
The cabinet meetings are held under the chairmanship of the Prime minister. The Cabinet is a deliberating forum and differences may come up. It is the responsibility of Prime minister to mediate and soften things and arrive at decisions. The Prime minister has the authority to decide the matters to be taken up by the cabinet and may accept or reject proposals.
Normally the proposals brought by ministers for discussion are not rejected. In the era of coalition politics it is a challenge for the Prime minister to hold the flock together. It is very difficult to chair a Cabinet full of divergent views, ideologies and principles. For example, for the last fifteen years we are a witness to pulls and pressures exerted on the Prime minister from different alliance partners.
4. Leader of Lok Sabha:
Prime minister is the leader of Lok sabha. All major decisions and announcements of the government are made by the Prime minister. It is the responsibility of the Prime minister to ensure that all bills brought before Lok sabha for approval are passed. And he has to defend the government on the floor of the house.
Though ministers are individually responsible to their ministries, it is the Prime minister who provides general leadership and direction. If any minister makes a mistake, the Prime minister has the power to guide and correct him.
5. Leader of the Government:
The decisions of the government however good, are subjected to scrutiny and criticism. The Prime minister, as leader of the government has to defend policies and programmes of the government both in and out of parliament.
6. Co-ordination and Supervision:
In running the administrative machinery Prime minister will have to encounter numerous problems ranging from routine to serious. Under the circumstances it is essential to integrate different departments and see that they work smoothly and the ability of the Prime minister is tested on this count. A Prime minister should not only pick a team but also retain it as a team till the end of the term.
Whenever problems arise between departments, he has to meditate and sort it out amicably through dialogue and goodwill. The Prime minster is the general head of the government. Hence he has the responsibility of supervising the administration. Though each Minister is in charge of a ministry, lack of general supervision results in poor administrative quality.
To maintain quality in administration, the Prime minister will have to supervise. It not only gives him a general feel of the administration but also makes the ministers more responsible. The Prime Minister may correct the working of a particular ministry and offer suggestions.
7. Bridge between the President and the Parliament:
The Prime minister acts as a link between President and Parliament In a parliamentary government. As all executives powers are vested in the hands of the President, the Prime minister is duty bound to keep the President informed about the decisions taken by the government.
Also, the President himself can call for any information from the government. The Prime minister not only acts as a bridge but also as the, advisor to the President. Whenever necessary the President will look forward for advice. For example, the President seeks the advice of Prime minister before dissolving Loksabha.
Describe the powers and functions of Mahanagara Palikas.
Functions of corporation:
The functions of corporation may be broadly classified into 3 groups :
- General functions
- Compulsory functions
- Optional functions
1. General functions:
The 1976 Act stipulates certain general functions to the corporation. These functions are routine in nature. Management of administration of the corporation Preparation of budget Seek approval of budget.
2. Compulsory Functions:
The corporation is duty-bound to perform certain functions designated as compulsory. Following are the compulsory functions of corporation. Construction and conservation of public roads and streets.
- Providing electricity to public roads, streets and markets
- Making arrangements for conservancy, drainage and removal of garbage.
- Providing of safe drinking water and water for other purposes.
- Naming and numbering of roads.
- Construction and maintenance of pubic markets.
- Prevent diseases through effective public health system
- Control over construction of buildings through effective clearance system.
- Prevent adulteration of food products , milk and pharmaceuticals.
- Registration and maintenance of birth and death records.
- Establishment and maintenance of primary schools.
- Planting and conservation of saplings
- Construction and maintenance of public gardens and playgrounds.
- Construction and maintenance of burial grounds.
- Protection of public property and public monuments.
3. Optional functions:
Optional functions are discretionary in nature. They can be undertaken only if the time and money permits. Following are the optional functions of the corporations.
- Establishment of an efficient transport system.
- Establish associations for the welfare of orphans and the destitute.
- Establishment and maintenance of child welfare centers.
- Construction and conservation of swimming pools and bathing Ghats.
- Conduct surveys of land and buildings
- Construction and maintenance of museums, art galleries, and gardens with district plants. Establishment and
- maintenance of hospitals for animals
- Raise money for providing relief during natural calamities such as earthquake, drought, etc.,
- Improve slums by developing them.
- Construct houses for the poor, homeless and the destitute.
- Construction and maintenance of water troughs for animals.
- Support environment conservation programmes through planting trees etc.
V. Answer any Two of the following questions in 5 to 10 sentence each: (2 × 5 = 10)
(prepare these answers by yourself)
Write about the life and achievements of a local politician.
Write a note on the family courts.
Write a note as the life and achievements of a freedom fighter.
Write the importance of PIL.