1st PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Constitution and Government

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Karnataka 1st PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Constitution and Government

1st PUC Political Science Constitution and Government One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write the root word of constitution?
Answer:
The root of the term constitution is the latin word ‘Constituere’.

Question 2.
What is constitution?
Answer:
The rules and principles according to which the government of a country functions is called constitution.

Question 3.
What is constitutional government?
Answer:
According to K.C. Where “Constitution is collection of legal rules which govern the government of the countries and which have been embedded in a document”.

Question 4.
What is written constitution?
Answer:
A constitution which is written down in one or several documents is called written constitution.

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Question 5.
What is unwritten constitution?
Answer:
A constitution which is not written down but has grown during various centuries is called unwritten constitution.

Question 6.
What is rigid constitution?
Answer:
A constitution which cannot be amended easily is called rigid constitution.

Question 7.
What is flexible constitution?
Answer:
A constitution which can be amended easily is called flexible constitution.

Question 8.
Give the best example for written constitution.
Answer:
America, India having written constitution.

Question 9.
Give the best example for un-written constitution.
Answer:
England having un-written constitution.

Question 10.
Give the best example for rigid constitution.
Answer:
America is having rigid constitution.

Question 11.
Give the best example for flexible constitutions.
Answer:
England is having flexible constitution.

Question 12.
What is democratic government?
Answer:
A government which can be ruled by the people is called a democratic government.

Question 13.
Give the meaning of direct democracy.
Answer:
A government where people are directly participating in the administration is called direct democracy.

Question 14.
Give an example of direct democracy.
Answer:
Ancient Greek city-states having direct democracy.

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Question 15.
Give the meaning of indirect democracy.
Answer:
A government where the representatives are participating in the administration is called indirect democracy.

Question 16.
Give an example for indirect democracy.
Answer:
India is having indirect democracy.

Question 17.
What is dictatorial government?
Answer:
A government where only one person or group run the administration is called a dictatorial government.

Question 18.
Give an example for dictatorial government.
Answer:
Germany was an example for the dictatorial government.

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Question 19.
What is ancient dictatorship?
Answer:
To meet the immediate crisis dictators came into existence is called ancient dictatorship.

Question 20.
Give an example for ancient dictatorship.
Answer:
Ancient Rome was a example of ancient dictatorship.

Question 21.
What is modern dictatorship?
Answer:
Once a dictator came to power is desiring to be in the power permanently is called modem dictatorship.

Question 22.
Give an example of modern dictatorship.
Answer:
Saddam Hussian of Iraq was an example for modern dictatorship.

Question 23.
What is the root word of democracy?
Answer:
The word democracy has been derived from the Greek words ‘Demos’ and ‘Kratia’.

Question 24.
Define parliamentary government.
Answer:
In parliamentary form of government executive is the part of legislature and responsible to the legislature.

Question 25.
Give an example for the parliamentary government.
Answer:
England is an example of parliamentary government.

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Question 26.
What is presidential government?
Answer:
In this system, the chief executive is directly elected by the people. It is not the part of the legislature.

Question 27.
Give an example for the presidential government.
Answer:
America is an example for the presidential government.

Question 28.
What is the root word of the federation?
Answer:
The root word of federation is the Latin word ‘foedus’.

Question 29.
What is the federal government?
Answer:
A government where the powers have been distributed between union and state is called federal government.

Question 30.
Give an example for federal government.
Answer:
America is an example for federal government.

Question 31.
What is unitary government?
Answer:
A government where the powers are concentrated in union is called unitary government.

Question 32.
Give an example for unitary government.
Answer:
England is an example for unitary government.

Question 33.
Who used the word constitution for the first time?
Answer:
The word constitution was used by Henry II of England.

Question 34.
What is constitutional law?
Answer:
Constitutional law is a fundamental law of a country drafted and enacted by constitutional assembly.

Question 35.
What is the ordinary law?
Answer:
The ordinary law is not fundamental law. It is subordinate to the constitutional law.

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Question 36.
What is constitutional government?
Answer:
Government which functions on the basis of the law laid down by constitution is constitutional government.

Question 37.
What is ideal constitution?
Answer:
Burgess describes an ideal constitution as one which contains the principle of liberty, government and sovereignty.

Question 38.
What is meant by collective responsibility?
Answer:
It means the cabinet and council of ministers individually and collectively responsible to the parliament:”

Question 39.
What is “no-confidence motion”?
Answer:
It is the power of the legislature to remove the ministry from office.

Question 40.
What is veto-power?
Answer:
It is the power of President to say ‘No’ to a law passed by parliament’ and send it back for reconsideration.

Question 41.
Which is the lengthiest constitution in the world?
Answer:
Indian constitution.

Question 42.
Who is the protector of constitution?
Answer:
The Judiciary (Supreme court).

1st PUC Political Science Constitution and Government Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define constitution.
Answer:
According to K.C. Wheare “Constitution is collection of legal rules which govern the government of the countries and which have been embedded in a document”.

Question 2.
Write the meaning of constitutional government.
Answer:
A government which functions in accordance with defined rule as laid down in constitution is known as constitutional government. In short constitutional government means limited government.

Question 3.
Define written constitution.
Answer:
According to C.F. Strong “A written constitution is in the form of a document which has a special sanctity”.

Question 4.
Define un-written constitution.
Answer:
According to Sir Ivor Jennings – “An unwritten constitution consists of institutions and not paper documents. It is not made but has grow n from time to time by a process of evolution”.

Question 5.
Define rigid constitution.
Answer:
According to A.V. Dicey a rigid constitution is one which certain laws generally are known as constitutional or fundamental laws cannot be changed in the same maimer as the ordinary laws.

Question 6.
Define flexible constitution.
Answer:
According to Gamer the flexible constitution places constitutional law and ordinary law on the same footing.

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Question 7.
Write the meaning of democratic government.
Answer:
Democracy is the form of government in which the ruling power is largely vested not in any particular class or classes but in the members of the community as a whole.

Question 8.
What do you mean by the dictatorial government?
Ans.
A form of government in which absolute power is concentrated in a person or group is called dictatorial government.

Question 9.
Define parliamentary government.
Answer:
In parliamentary form of government executive is the part of legislature and responsible to the legislature.

Question 10.
What is the presidential government?
Answer:
In this system, the chief executive is directly elected by the people. It is not the part of the legislature.

Question 11.
Define federal government and give example.
Answer:
It is the government which the powers of the state are divided and distributed between central and state government. It is, also known as dual polity. The federal government discharges its power and authority in accordance with constitution. Eg: U.S.A

Question 12.
What is meant by unitary system of government?
Answer:
In the unitary system of government, where all the powers and authority of the state is concentrated in the single Central government and the supreme power is exercised by it.
Eg: England, France, Japan, etc.

Question 13.
Define and explain the term constitution.
Answer:
According to Lord Bryce “The constitution is the aggregate of laws and customs under which the life of states goes on” Maclver defines as “law which governs the state”.

Question 14.
What are the characteristics of democratic government?
Answer:

  1. It is a government ruled by the people.
  2. It is government by discussion.
  3. It is based in universal adult suffrage.
  4. There is liberty and equality and rights.
  5. It is constitutional government.

Question 15.
What is presidential form of government?
Answer:
In this system, the legislature and executive are separate and independent. The term of office of the president is fixed and goes by calender.

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Question 16.
How do non-democratic government arise?
Answer:
It arises out of illegal method. It is the result of the use of force. A powerful individual or group can overthrow the constitutional government and establish dictatorship. ,

Question 17.
Describe the features of the Presidential system of government.
Answer:
In Presidential executive president is the supreme head of the state. Here executive is neither elected, nor responsible to legislature. The term of office here is fixed. It is not responsible to the legislature.

Question 18.
Describe the merits of Parliamentary form of government.
Answer:

  1. It ensures harmony between legislative and executive branches.
  2. There is no division of responsibility.
  3. Opposition keeps government on right path.
  4. There will be peaceful change of government.
  5. It ensures flexibility and elasticity.

Question 19.
What are the demerits of parliamentary form of government?
Answer:

  1. Executive dominates legislature.
  2. Parliamentary government is unstable. It does not have fixed term.
  3. In a parliamentary government, the government comes under the control of majority party.
  4. It may lead to the dictatorship of the cabinet.

Question 20.
Distinguish between division of powers and separation of powers.
Answer:
Division power is in a federal form of government Power is divided between the central and state government, where as separation of powers means there is clear cut demarcation between 3 organs of government that is Legislature, executive and judiciary.

Question 21.
Give one definition of democracy.
Answer:
According to Lord Bryce “Democracy is the form of government where the ruling power of the state is legally vested not in any particular class but in members of community as a whole.

Question 22.
What is the meaning of federal government?
Answer:
The word federal is derived from the Latin word ‘Foedus’, which means treaty or agreement. The federal form of government comes into existence through treaty or agreement, when a state with its vast geographical territory, heterogeneous characteristics desires to protect them is born by creating new state.

Question 23.
What is Indirect democracy? Give example.
Answer:
It is also known as representative democracy. The citizens of a state elect their representatives in the election. The elected representatives administer the country on behalf of people. Eg : India, U.S.A, U.K.

Question 24.
What is the difference parliamentary and presidential form of government?
Answer:
The distinction between parliamentary and presidential executive is based on the relationship between the legislature and executive. If the executive depends on legislature for its survival it is a parliamentary government and if the executive is independent of legislative it is presidential executive.

1st PUC Political Science Constitution and Government Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1
Explain the significance of constitution.
Answer:
The significance of a constitution to the state is discussed below:

1. Outlines the goals of state:
No state can progress and prosper, however rich and wealthy, if it does not possess clear cut aims and objectives. A constitution details the path to be followed by a state in accomplishing its objectives thereby living up to the aims and objectives of its people.

2. Regulates behavior of people:
The constitution provides for basic guidelines or a reasonable code of conduct which helps create a civil and civilized society. A constitution is very important in harmonizing relationship between and among numerous sections of people.

3. Control over authority of the government:
The government derives its power from the constitution and is bound to abide by provisions of the constitution. No government can take law into its hand and deal whimsically.

4. Establishes ruler – ruled relationship:
The people and government are like two faces of the same coin. A state can succeed only if people and government share mutual trust and co-operation. The constitution should avoid any kind of needless friction between the governor and the governed.

5. A guide to future generations:
A constitution is often referred to as the mirror of a state which reflects the basic ambitions and aspirations of a state. By acting as a standard of reference it guides future generations to make necessary changes based on the existing structure.

Question 2.
Describe the Characteristics of constitutional government.
Answer:
The Characteristics of constitutional government are as below:
1. Supremacy of the constitution :
In this system all the powers of government are laid down in accordance with the provisions of constitution. Government should function with in the frame work of the constitution.

2. Equality before law :
Here law will apply to all the people equally. The benefits of law can be enjoyed all the citizens irrespective of caste, creed, religion, social and economic
status.

3. Individual liberty :
In the constitutional government all the citizens are enjoying the fundamental rights guaranteed by the constitutions. So constitution provides the rights to all the people and ensures protection.

4. Protects public interest :
All people in the country should be lived under the purview of constitution. Violation of the provisions of constitution invites severe punishment. So constitution safeguards the interests of the people by protecting them from all the outside aggression.

Question 3.
Explain the features of wirtten constitution.
Answer:
The features of written constitution are explained below.

  1. A written constitution is written in the document by the constituent assembly.
  2. It is deliberately framed by the constitutional experts.
  3. It came in to effect from a particular date.
  4. In the written form of constitution, all the provisions relating to the organization of the government, rights, and duties of the citizens are clearly mentioned.
  5. In this system the amendment procedure is very difficult and rigid.
  6. Written constitution provides the provisions of independence of judiciary.
  7. In the written constitution all provisions are clearly mentioned and the contents are in precise.

Question 4.
Explain the features of unwritten constitution.
Answer:
The features of unwritten constitution are explained as below.

  1. An unwritten constitution is not written by the constitution assembly but evolved over a period of time.
  2. It is not deliberately framed by the experts but grown by customs, traditions and usages.
  3. An unwritten constitution has not come in to effect from a particular date.
  4. In un written constitution the provisions with relates to the organization of the government, rights and duties of the citizens are the fruits of customs traditions and usages.
  5. In this system the amendment procedure is very easy and flexible
  6. An un written constitution is not clear and unsettled.

Question 5.
Explain the features of rigid constitution.
Answer:
The features of rigid constitution are explained below.

  1. In the rigid constitution there is a difference between constitutional law and ordinary law.
  2. Here constitutional law is superior to ordinary law.
  3. To ammend the constitutional law, there is a need to follow the special amendment procedure.
  4. In this system the powers of government should be with the framework of constitution.
  5. The powers and functions of government are clearly mentioned in this system.
  6. Judiciary has a special power to safeguard and protect the constitution.

Question 6.
Explain the features of flexible constitution.
Answer:
The features of the flexible constitution are explained as below

  1. In the flexible constitution, there is no difference between constitutional law and ordinary law.
  2. In this system constitutional law and ordinary law are framed by the parliament of the country.
  3. Constitutional law can be amended as in the form of amendment of ordinary law.
  4. In the flexible constitution the powers and functions of the government are assumable by the parliament.
  5. In this system judiciary does not exercise its power of judicial review.
  6. All the power of the organization of government are defined by the parliament.

Question 7.
Describe the essential elements of the Ideal constitution.
Answer:
The essentials of an ideal constitution are explained as below
1. It should be definite :
An ideal constitution should not be vague but clearly narrate the provisions which relates to the organization of the government. The principles should be precise and clarity.

2. It should be comprehensive:
An ideal constitution must be comprehensive enough to mention the functions of the government and rights, duties of the citizens. The constitution should not be too big but include all the information on the government.

3. Method of amendment:
An ideal constitution should possess the method of amendment. As the social condition of the people is going on change, the constitution must also undergoes change. It should represent the future needs of the future generation.

4. It should correspond to reality :
An ideal constitution should correspond to the real, conditions obtained with in the state, otherwise it cannot work properly.

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Question 8.
Explain the features of unitary governments.
Answer:
Features of Unitary Government:
1. Concentration of Power:
A Unitary government is characterized by the presence of a single centre, which is omnipotent and omnipresent all over the territory. All decisions of the state flow from one single centre.

2. No Provincial Autonomy:
The provinces or local units in a unitary system are created by the centre for the sake of administrative convenience. It carries out the orders of the centre without having any powers to make decisions. Thus, the local units only act as subordinate agents of the centre without any authority or autonomy.

3. Single legislature:
In a Unitary system of government there will be only one single supreme legislative assembly which makes laws for the whole country and are faithfully implemented by the local units.

4. Constitution may be written or unwritten:
The constitution, in a unitary government, may be written or unwritten as there is one single central authority wielding power all over the state without any other centres of power.

Question 9.
Explain the features of federal government.
Answer:
1. Division of Powers:
A federal government is characterized by the existence of two governments- the centre and the local government created on the basis of division of powers. Both are independent and autonomous within their spheres of powers and yet interdependent. The residuary powers rests with the centre in some states (e.g. India)
and in the hands of local units in some states (e.g. Great Britain).

2. Supremacy of the constitution:
In a Federal system, the power enjoyed by the centre and local units is original because both derive their powers from the constitution. This avoids any confusion or contention in the sharing of power. The division of powers is based on necessity and convenience.

3. Written and rigid constitution:
The constitution in a federal government would definitely be rigid because it has to deal with powers related to both center and local governments. Each and every detail should be explained in a written form in order to avoid any clash of jurisdiction or possible over-lapping of responsibilities. The amendment procedure would be rigid which protects the interest of the federation from frequent, mindless changes to the constitution.

4. Special provision for settlement of disputes:
In a presidential system, in order to settle disputes arising between the states or between centre and the states, the judiciary has been assigned the job of interpreting the provisions of the constitution, thus acting as custodian and guardian of the constitution.

5. Power of amendment:
In a presidential system, to amend the constitution both the centre and the local governments have been assigned equal powers. No constitutional amendment can be made without the consent of federal units.

Question 10.
Distinguish between federation and confederation.
Answer:
Confederation is an association of state founded on the basis of common interests. The member states, retain their original sovereignty and independence.
Federation is permanents established through a constitution. Constitution units do not possess the right to withdraw from a federation.

Question 11.
What is residuary powers?
Answer:
In a federal government subjects of national interest are allocated to the centre. Matters of regional or local interests are given to units or states. The remaining powers those which have not been mentioned in the constitution are known as residuary powers.

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Question 12.
Describe the parliamentary type of executive.
Answer:
There is a difference between real and nominal executive head on whom all powers are concentrated, but these powers are exercised by the cabinet. In this system, cabinet is responsible to the parliament for all their actions. There is individual and collective responsibility of ministers. There is a close relationship between the cabinet and the council of ministers.

Question 13.
Explain the characteristic of Constitution.
Answer:

  1. Constitution lays down fundamental structure of the state.
  2. Constitution represents the heart and soul of a state i.e., the basic objectives of a state.
  3. Constitution may be a product of deliberate creation or gradual evaluation.
  4. Constitution may be written or unwritten.
  5. Constitution may be embodied in one or several documents.
  6. Constitution determines the structure arid relationship between various organs of government.
  7. Constitution regulates the ruler – ruled relationship.
  8. Constitution is a growing organism i.e., it provides for a procedure of its own change.

Question 14.
What is a Constitutional Government?
Answer:
A government that is run strictly in accordance with provisions of the constitution is called a constitutional government. Constitutional governments It strives for the welfare of the whole society rather than any perceived vested interest. These governments are a creation of the people and therefore obedience and allegiance to it are natural. The use of force in running a government does not find a place in a constitutional government. Constitutional government is also called “limited government” or “controlled government”.

Question 15.
What is Democracy? Explain the features of Democracy?
Answer:
The word “Democracy” is a derivative of Greek words ‘Demos’ and ‘Kratia’ meaning ‘people’ and ‘rule’ respectively. Thus, democracy is the rule of the people.

Features of Democratic Government:
The following features can be identified by democratic form of government.

  1. Democracy is based on freedom and openness;
  2. Democracy thrives on majority opinion;
  3. Democracy upholds individual dignity ;
  4. Democracy is open to criticism and correction and
  5. Popular Sovereignty is the basis of democracy expressed through universal adult franchise.

Question 16.
What is Dictatorship? What are the kinds of dictatorship?
Answer:
Dictatorship is a form of government where all the powers of the state are concentrated in one man or in one party or in one group. Dictatorship is classified as traditional and modem, old and new, leftisit fascist, communist and military. The old type of dictatorship existed in ancient Greece and Rome; they are temporary and appointed during crisis. Modem dictatorship is of new type and permanent. Modem dictatorship has taken three forms;

  1. Fascist or Nazi dictatorship as it existed in Italy, Germany, Spain, and Portugal.
  2. Party Dictatorship as was found in U.S.S.R. and found at present in china
  3. Military Dictatorships as found in Pakistan and some African and Latin American countries.

Question 17.
What is a Federal Government?
Answer:
In a federal government, there will be two sets of government. The powers and authority of government is divided between a government for the whole country and provincial governments of the country in such a way that each government is legally independent within its own sphere.

The term ‘Federation’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Foedus’ meaning ‘treaty’ or ‘agreement’. Two or more provinces, after surrendering the sovereignty, on agreement agree to work within the union with a certain degree of autonomy under a single sovereignty. The Central government and the provincial governments are neither superior nor subordinate to each other but work in unison with co-ordination and co-operation.

The best examples for a federal form of government are the USA, India, Switzerland, Australia and Canada.

Question 18.
Explain Division of powers in India.
Answer:
In India, the division of powers is based on three lists i.e., the Union list, State list and Concurrent list. The Union list consists of 99 Subjects such as defense, national security; home affairs, science and technology are vested in the hands of central government. The State List consisting of 66 subjects like education, health, maintenance of law and order, providing basic facilities etc., are vested in the state governments. There are certain provisions in which both states and centre shall share power, under the Concurrent list consisting of 52 subjects such as marriage, divorce, contracts etc.

1st PUC Political Science Constitution and Government Ten Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write the meaning and significance of constitution.
Answer:
Importance of a constitution to the state is discussed below:
1. Outlines the goals of state:
No state can progress and prosper, however rich and wealthy if it does not possess clear cut aims and objectives. A constitution details the path to be followed by a state in accomplishing its objectives thereby living up to the aims and objectives of its people.

2. Regulates behavior of people:
The constitution provides for basic guidelines or a reasonable code of conduct which helps create a civil and civilized society. A constitution is very important in harmonizing the relationship between and among numerous sections of people.

3. Control over the authority of the government:
The government derives its power from the constitution and is bound to abide by provisions of the constitution. No government can take law into its hand and deal whimsically.

4. Establishes a ruler — ruled relationship:
The people and government are like two faces of the same coin. A state can succeed only if people and the government share mutual trust and co-operation. The constitution should avoid any kind of needless friction between the governor and the governed.

5. A guide to future generations:
A constitution is often referred to as the mirror of a state which reflects the basic ambitions and aspirations of a state. By acting as a standard of reference it guides future generations to make necessary changes based on the existing structure.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Distinguish between written and unwritten constitution.
Answer:
Written constitution

  1. A written constitution is written in the document by the constituent assembly.
  2. It is deliberately framed by the constitutional experts.
  3. It came in to effect from a particular date. ^
  4. In the written form of constitution, all the provisions relating to the organization of the government, rights, and duties of the citizens are clearly mentioned.
  5. In this system, the amendment procedure is very difficult and rigid.
  6. The written constitution provides the provisions of the independence of the judiciary.
  7. In the written constitution all provisions are clearly mentioned and the contents are precise.

Unwritten constitution

  1. An unwritten constitution is not written by the constitution assembly but evolved over a period of time.
  2. It is hot deliberately framed by the experts but grown by customs, traditions, and usages.
  3. An unwritten constitution has not come in to effect from a particular date.
  4. In un written constitution the provisions with relates to the organization of the government, rights, and duties of the citizens are the fruits of customs traditions and usages.
  5. In this system, the amendment procedure is very easy and flexible.
  6. An un written constitution is not clear and unsettled.

Question 3.
Distinguish between rigid and flexible constitution.
Answer:
Rigid constitution

  1. In the rigid constitution there is a difference between constitutional law and ordinary law,
  2. Here constitutional law is superior to ordinary law.
  3. To ammend the constitutional law, there is a need to follow the special amendment procedure.
  4. In this system the powers of government should be with the framework of constitution.
  5. The powers and functions of government are clearly mentioned in this system.
  6. Judiciary has a special power to safeguard and protect the constitution.

Flexible Constitution

  1. In the flexible constitution, there is no difference between constitutional law and ordinary law.
  2. In this system constitutional law and ordinary law are framed by the parliament of the country.
  3. A constitutional law can be amended as in the form of amendment of ordinary law.
  4. In the flexible constitution the powers and functions of the government are assumable by the parliament.
  5. In this system judiciary does not exercise its power of judicial review.
  6. All the power of the organization of government are defined by the parliament.

Question 4.
Describe the features of democratic government.
Answer:

1. The government in a democracy is responsible to the people. The government will also have to function according to public opinion. Self-government makes the people more disciplined and there will be more responsible citizens than in any other form of government.

2. Democracy upholds the principles of liberty and equality. Political and economic equality are assured in a democracy.

3. Democracy respects the dignity of human being. It provides rights and liberties for the development of the personality of individual.

4. A democratic government promote the welfare of the people, where as in other forms of government only particular class may be benefitted.

5. Democratic government is stable and efficient government. It avoids the revolution because it tarried on according to the wishes of the people.

6. Unlike other forms of government, democracy is self-corrective. In democracy the freedom of speech and freedom of press creates an enlightened public opinion

7. Democracy is progressive and educative force. In a democracy, people have full civil and political rights. It is a training ground for active, healthy and intelligent citizenship.

8. In democracy, there is order, peace and progress. It is flexible government which adopts itself to change peacefully.

9. As the people have a share in the government of country, the spirit of patriotism is strengthened and everybody is willing to work and undergo sacrifices for the welfare of the community.

10. Democracy protects the minority. A written constitution guarantees the rights of the minorities.

Question 5.
Explain the features of the dictatorial government.
Answer:
1. Absolute power:
Dictatorship is characterized by absolute power where the dictator controls the constitution. He can make and unmake laws. All the laws must originate from him and there is neither a limit on his tenure nor is he subjected to any other authority.

2. Based on Force:
Dictatorship stands on the twin pillars of force and coercion. The word of the dictator should be honored in letter and spirit. Any violation of the order may result in severe punishment or even death.

3. Totalitarian state:
Dictatorial regimes regulate and control all aspects of human existence. It provides security, basic necessities such as food, shelter and clothing, education and order in society. In totalitarian state’s individual personality is suppressed and all aspects of an individual are regimented and brought under the control of the state. The totalitarian approach is well summarized by Mussolini when he says: “Everything within the state, nothing above the state, nothing outside the State’’. Thus, the State is the central point around which all human activities must revolve.

4. One Nation one party:
In a dictatorship, for the whole state, there is only one constitution and the administration is managed by one single party and that is responsible for the whole state. Any kind of criticism of the party or the leadership is not tolerated. The distinct feature of dictatorship is its intolerance to criticism and new ideas.

5. No individual liberty:
In a dictatorship, individual freedom and liberty do not find place. Freedom of thought and expression is restricted.

Question 6.
What is a parliamentary form of government? Explain its features.
Answer:
A parliamentary form of government is characterized by the direct responsibility of the executive to the legislature which lasts as long as it enjoys the confidence of the legislature. The parliamentary government system which first began in England (Great Britain) is also called as ‘Cabinet government’ and ‘Responsible government’.

Features of a Parliamentary form of Government.
1. Nominal Executive:
The presence of a nominal executive is a primary feature of parliamentary government. Though all powers of the state are vested in his name by the constitution, it is in fact exercised by the real executive consisting of Prime minister and council of ministers. For example, the Queen of England and the President of India are the nominal executives.

2. Collective responsibility:
A parliamentary government is directly responsible to the legislature and stays in office as long as it enjoys the confidence of the lower house. A decision taken by cabinet is binding on ministers and they should defend it in and out of parliament. Together we sink or sail” is the key statement of parliamentary government.

3. Individual Responsibility: Each minister will be in charge of a ministry and is wholly responsible for all decisions of the ministry to the legislature. Parliamentary government and individual responsibility go hand in hand.

4. Political Homogeneity:
In a parliamentary government, all ministers belong to the same party or alliance having common policies, programmes, values and beliefs and work under a common minimum programme (CMP). As a result, it is not difficult to secure co¬operation and co-ordination.
In case, a government consists of divergent policies and beliefs, frequent quarrels, squabbling, and infighting brings down the government. It defeats the very purpose of government formation.

5. Membership of parliament:
In a parliamentary government, a minister must be a member of either house of parliament. On becoming a minister he must become a member of either house within 180 days. Otherwise, he will have to step down from office. This is to ensure individual responsibility to the parliament.

6. Oath of Secrecy:
It is the responsibility as well as duty of the cabinet to protect official secrets. Cabinet decision should not become public without the authorization from parliament. Ministers are administered the ‘oath of secrecy’ to maintain secrecy of cabinet decisions. The purpose is to avoid any person or a group taking undue advantage of the leaked information.

7. Leadership of the Prime Minister:
In parliamentary government, Prime Minister is the backbone of the cabinet. He acts as the spokesperson of the government by defending it in and out of the government. He acts as the advisor to the president in summoning, proroguing and dissolving the parliament. The Prime minister exercises independence in appointing ministers, expanding the ministry and allocation of portfolios.

8. Effective opposition:
Opposition party is called “the government in waiting”. In parliamentary government, opposition parties follow the day-today administration and
bring before the people the failures of the government from time to time. During elections they seek a mandate on the basis of the failures of the government Thus, opposition acts as a watchdog of the government.

In fact, in Britain, the shadow cabinet functions just like the government but without powers.
They too have separate departments to monitor developments in respective areas.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
What is a Presidential form of Government? Explain its features.
Answer:
In Presidential government the Executive is not responsible to the legislature. It is based on the principle of ‘Separation of powers’. It is known as non-responsible system or fixed executive system. E.g. USA.

Features of presidential government.
1. Separation of powers:
The Presidential government is based on Montesquieu concept of “separation of powers”. The concept of separation powers contend that the legislature, executive and judiciary must be independent of each other and function independently. Legislature performs the task of law-making, executive law implementation and judiciary interpretation of laws.

2. Checks and Balances:
The presidential government is based on checks and balances. Though the legislature, executive and judiciary function independently, complete separation is not only desirable but also impractical. To maintain the exercise of power balanced, controlled and widespread each organ is given a fair degree of power in one another ’s the functional area.

3. Executive is not responsible to legislature:
The president in U S.A is directly elected by the people and hence is not responsible to the legislature. The president can’t participate in the proceedings of the congress. He can neither initiate a bill nor pilots it. The President is not accountable to anyone but the constitution and the people.

4. Real Executive:
In the presidential government, the president is directly elected by the people. The president is not only the real executive but also the head of government. He is directly responsible for all happenings in the country.

5. Secretaries directly responsible to the president:
The secretaries known as presidents ‘Brain Trust’ are appointed by the president and stay in office as long as they enjoy the confidence of the president. The President may remove any secretary without assigning any reason. Secretaries are neither responsible to congress nor to the people but to the president. The President can hire or fire secretaries

6. Fixed Tenure:
The President does not depend on the congress for his survival. He, is directly elected for a period of 4 years and lasts his full term. He cannot be removed from office except on grounds of inefficiency and proven misbehavior through an impeachment motion.

Question 8.
Distinguish between democratic and dictatorial government.
Answer:
Democratic government :

  1. Democracy is based on freedom and openness;
  2. Democracy thrives on majority opinion;
  3. Democracy upholds individual dignity;
  4. Democracy is open to criticism and correction and
  5. Popular Sovereignty is the basis of democracy expressed through universal adult franchise.

Dictatorial government
Dictatorship is a form of government where all the powers of the state are concentrated in one man or in one party or in one group. Dictatorship is classified as traditional and modem, old and new, leftisit fascist, communist, and military. The old type of dictatorship existed in ancient Greece and Rome; they are temporary and appointed during crisis. Modem dictatorship is of new type and permanent. Modem dictatorship has taken three forms;

  1. Fascist or Nazi dictatorship as it existed in Italy, Germany, Spain, and Portugal.
  2. Party Dictatorship as was found in U.S.S.R. and found at present in china
  3. Military Dictatorships as found in Pakistan and some African and Latin American countries.

Question 9.
Distinguish between parliamentary and presidential government.
Answer:
A parliamentary form of government is characterized by the direct responsibility of the executive to the legislature which lasts as long as it enjoys the confidence of the legislature. The parliamentary government system which first began in England (Great Britain) is also called as ‘Cabinet government’ and ‘Responsible government’.

1. Nominal Executive:
The presence of a nominal executive is a primary feature of parliamentary government. Though all powers of the state are vested in his name by the constitution, it is in fact exercised by the real executive consisting of Prime minister and council of ministers. For example, the Queen of England and the President of India are the nominal executives.

2. Collective responsibility:
A parliamentary government is directly responsible to the legislature and stays in office as long as it enjoys the confidence of the lower house. A decision taken by cabinet is binding on ministers and they should defend it in and out of parliament. Together we sink or sail” is the key statement of parliamentary government.

3. Individual Responsibility:
Each minister will be in charge of a ministry and is wholly responsible for all decisions of the ministry to the legislature. Parliamentary government
and individual responsibility go hand in hand.

4. Political Homogeneity:
In a parliamentary government, all ministers belong to the same party or alliance having common policies, programmes, values and beliefs and work under a common minimum programme (CMP). As a result, it is not difficult to secure co¬operation and co-ordination.

In case, a government consists of divergent policies and beliefs, frequent quarrels, squabbling, and infighting brings down the government. It defeats the very purpose of government formation.

5. Membership of parliament:
In a parliamentary government, a minister must be a member of either house of parliament. On becoming a minister he must become a member of either house within 180 days. Otherwise, he will have to step down from office. This is to ensure individual responsibility to the parliament.

6. Oath of Secrecy:
It is the responsibility as well as the duty of the cabinet to protect official secrets. Cabinet decision should not become public without the authorization from cabinet decisions. The purpose is to avoid any person or a group taking undue advantage of the leaked information.

7. Leadership of the Prime Minister:
In parliamentary government, Prime Minister is the backbone of the cabinet. He acts as the spokesperson of the government by defending it in and out of the government. He acts as the advisor to the president in summoning, proroguing and dissolving the parliament. The Prime minister exercises independence in appointing ministers, expanding the ministry and allocation of portfolios.

8. Effective opposition:
Opposition party is called “the government in waiting”. In parliamentary government, opposition parties follow the day-today administration and bring before the people the failures of the government from time to time. During elections, they seek a mandate on the basis of the failures of the government. Thus, opposition acts as a watchdog of the government.

In fact, in Britain, the shadow cabinet functions just like the government but without powers.
They too have separate departments to monitor developments in respective areas.

Presidential Government:
In the Presidential government, the Executive is not responsible to the legislature. It is based on the principle of ‘Separation of powers’. It is known as a non-responsible system or fixed executive system. E.g. USA.

1. Separation of powers:
The Presidential government is based on Montesquieu concept of “separation of powers”. The concept of separation powers contend that the legislature, executive and judiciary must be independent of each other and function independently. Legislature performs the task of law-making, executive law implementation and judiciary interpretation of laws.

2. Checks and Balances:
The presidential government is based on checks and balances. Though the legislature, executive and judiciary function independently, complete separation is not only desirable but also impractical. To maintain the exercise of power balanced, controlled and widespread each organ is given a fair degree of power in one another’s the functional area. ,

3. Executive is not responsible to the legislature:
The president in U S A is directly elected by the people and hence is not responsible to the legislature. The president can’t participate in the proceedings of the congress. He can neither initiate a bill nor pilots it. The President is not accountable to anyone but the constitution and the people.

4. Real Executive:
In the presidential government, the president is directly elected by the people. The president is not only the real executive but also the head of government. He is directly responsible for all happenings in the country.

5. Secretaries directly responsible to the president:
The secretaries known as presidents ‘Brain Trust’ are appointed by the president and stay in office as long as they enjoy the confidence of the president. The President may remove any secretary without assigning any reason. Secretaries are neither responsible to congress nor to the people but to the president. The President can hire or fire secretaries.

6. Fixed Tenure:
The President does not depend on congress for his survival. He is directly elected for a period of 4 years and lasts his full term. He cannot be removed from office except on grounds of inefficiency and proven misbehavior through an impeachment motion.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Distinguish between federal and unitary government.
Answer:
Unitary government:

  1. The authority of the central government is supreme and all the organs of government are integral parts of one single administrative machinery.
  2. Units are the creation of the central government. The powers given to them can be increased or decreased or cancelled.
  3. Single citizenship right prevails.

Federal government:

  1. The powers of the nation be divided between central and state governments. These are two administrative machineries.
  2. The powers are divided and distributed to the state and central government by constitution.
  3. Dual citizenship right enjoyed by citizen.

Question 11.
What are the kinds of Democracy?
Answer:
There are two kinds of Democracy

  1. Direct democracy and
  2. Indirect Democracy.

1. Direct Democracy:
Direct democracy is a kind of governance where the people directly ’’ take part in electing their government and also have a share in the exercise of real power. For example, the ancient Greek and Roman city-states had direct democracy where people directly participated to elect their representatives and take necessary measures.

In modem times, the direct democracy is still in practice in some of the cantons of Switzerland, where the voters meet in ‘ open-air parliament’. However, direct democracy . is best suited to only countries small in area and a population small enough to directly take part in the affairs.

  1. Direct Democracy functions through constitutional devices like referendum, initiative, and recall.
  2. Referendum means referring a bill or proposal for amendment of the constitution to the people to know their opinion.
  3. Initiative provides the people a right to petition or request the parliament to enact a certain type of law.
  4. Recall is a method by which the people may compel an elected representative to either resign or to submit to re-election before his term of office is over.

2. Indirect Democracy:
Under this system, the people participate in the affairs of the state through their representatives. Though popular sovereignty rests in the hands of the people, it is actually exercised by their representatives and they are in turn responsible to the people. If the representatives fail to stand up to the aims and aspirations of the people, they may be changed in the next election.

Question 12.
What are the factors that condition the success of Democracy?
Answer:
1. Liberty and Equality:
Democracy can work satisfactorily only when people are allowed to enjoy a greater amount of freedom and equality. Freedom is necessary for the participation of the people in their administrative affairs. People must enjoy economic, social and political liberty and equality without any discrimination.

2. Eternal Vigilance:
Eternal vigilance is the price of democracy. Vigilance is nothing but. alertness or watchfulness of the people. Citizens must constantly watch as to how the government is doing its administrative business. The government can be kept on track if the people are constantly vigil on what is going on at the government level.

3.Spirited Leadership:
Spirited leadership is a must for the success of democracy. Leaders should be able, efficient, intelligent, active and honest. They must have good reasoning capacity, rational attitude, clean-hands and descent behavior. They must take proper steps to increase the competence of the government.

4. Literacy:
The active and intelligent participation of citizens in public affairs can be assured if all of them are adequately educated. The government has to chalk out plans to provide free and compulsory education for all.

5. Bi-party system:
For the successful working of democracy, there must be only two political parties.

6.Strong Opposition:
For the success of democracy, there must be a strong opposition. The government becomes irresponsible and careless in the absence of strong and effective opposition parties. Opposition parties should check the illegal, unpopular and unconstitutional act of the ministers and the representatives. They should try to keep the government on the right track through their rational criticism.

7. Participation:
The people must have an independent opinion in public affairs. The success of democracy depends upon the ability, character and power of common man.

8. Tolerance:
Tolerance is a noble virtue of democracy. The government must be tolerant enough to listen to the criticism made by people from time to time. People must be tolerant enough to understand the problems of the government. The minority must accept the majority views, and majority must understand the feelings of the minority.

9. Independent Judiciary:
In all democratic countries, the judiciary should play a significant role. An independent and impartial judiciary is necessary to protect the fundamental rights of the people guaranteed in the constitution. For the administration of justice, settlement of disputes and to interpret the laws and constitution, an independent judiciary is a must.

10. Decentralization:
It is the most important feature of democratic government. Power in the hands of the people is called decentralization. Rural and Urban Panchayat Raj system has been implemented on the basis of decentralization.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
What is a Unitary Government? Explain its features.
Answer:
A unitary government is system in which the power and authority to make and unmake laws lie with the centre. It enjoys the authority of transferring power to provincial units, for the sake of administrative convenience, which can be installed, changed or removed at the discretion of the single central authority. The United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan, China, Sri Lanka, and Iran are some of the examples of a unitary state.

Features of Unitary Government:
1. Concentration of Power:
A Unitary government is characterized by the presence of a single centre, which is omnipotent and omnipresent all over the territory. All decisions of the state flow from one single centre.

2. No Provincial Autonomy:
The provinces or local units in a unitary system are created by the centre for the sake of administrative convenience. It carries out the orders of the centre without having any powers to make decisions. Thus, the local units only act as subordinate agents of the centre without any authority or autonomy.

3. Single legislature:
In a unitary system of government, there will be only one single supreme legislative assembly which makes laws for the whole country and are faithfully implemented by the local units.

4. Constitution may be written or unwritten:
The constitution, in a unitary government, may be written or unwritten as there is one single central authority wielding power all over the state without any other centres of power.

Question 14.
Explain the features of a Federal Government.
Answer:
1. Division of Powers:
A federal government is characterized by the existence of two governments- the centre and the local government created on the basis of division of powers. Both are independent and autonomous within their spheres of powers and yet interdependent. The residuary powers rests with the centre in some states (e.g. India) and in the hands of local units in some states (e.g. Great Britain).

2. Supremacy of the constitution:
In a Federal system, the power enjoyed by the centre and local units is original because both derive their powers from the constitution. This avoids any confusion or contention in the sharing of power. The division of powers is based on necessity and convenience.

3. Written and rigid constitution:
The constitution in a federal government would definitely be rigid because it has to deal with powers related to both centre and local governments. Each and every detail should be explained in a written form in order to avoid any clash of jurisdiction or possible over-lapping of responsibilities. The amendment procedure would be rigid which protects the interest of the federation from frequent, mindless changes to the constitution.

4. Special provision for settlement of disputes:
In a presidential system, in order to settle disputes arising between the states or between centre and the states, the judiciary has been assigned the job of interpreting the provisions of the constitution, thus acting as custodian and guardian of the constitution.

5. Power of amendment:
In a presidential system, to amend the constitution both the centre and the local governments have been assigned equal powers. No constitutional amendment can be made without the consent of federal units.

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