1st PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 2 with Answers

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Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 2 with Answers

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following in one sentences each: ( 1 × 10 = 10 )

Question 1.
Who is father of sociology?
August Comte

Question 2.
What do you mean by community sentiment?
Maclver and Page introduced term community sentiment.

Question 3.
How is the term ‘Culture’ derived.
The word Culture is derived from the Latin word Colera which means to cultivate or till the soil.

Question 4.
What is Interaction?
Interaction means in society people socialy interact each other.

Question 5.
What is Family?
According to Elliott and Merrill define family as “a biological social unit composed of husband, wife and children.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
What is a social change?
According to Samuel Koenig “Social change refers to the modifications which occur in the life patterns of people.”

Question 7.
Define science.
Science is a method of approach to the entire empirical world, i.e. to the world which is susceptible of experience by man.

Question 8.
Bring out one difference between interview and questonnaire method.
In interview there is a high rate of response were as in questionaire the rate is less.

Question 9.
What do you mean by environment?
Environment is the sum of all social, economical, biological, physical or chemical factors which constitute the surroundings of man.

Question 10.
What is global warming?
Global warming may be defined as an increase in the surface temperature as a result of increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

II. Answer the following any ten in two sentences each: ( 2 × 10 = 20 )

Question 11.
Give the meaning of the terms socious &Iogos.
Socious means society logos means study. Sociology means study of society.

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Question 12.
Give any two elements of community.
Locality and Community Sentiment.

Question 13.
State any two classifications of group.
In groups and Out groups.

Question 14.
Mention any two primary functions of family.
Reproduction and Socialization

Question 15.
Define Co-operation.
Co operation means is a form of social interaction wherein two or moew persons work together to gain a common end.

Question 16.
What is evolution?
The word evolution comes from the Latin word ‘evolvere’ which means to develop or to unfold.

Question 17.
Bring out two difference between physical and social sciences.
Social science investigates laws related to man or man’s social behavior. The Physical sciences search for physical laws in natural phenomena.

Question 18.
Mention two types of Primary data.
Observation and questionnaire.

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Question 19.
Give the meaning of environmental pollution.
Environment pollution defined as the unfavorable alternation of our surroundings.

Question 20.
Give any two evil effects of water pollution.
Thermal Discharges and Oxygen Demanding Wastes

Question 21.
What is the result of ozone display?
Health disorders, damage to plant and aquatic life and degradation of materials will probably increase. Ozone depletion may even affect the global climate.

Question 22.
Give any two difference between society and community.
Society is dynamic community is Naturalness
Socierty keeps on changing forever but community never changes for long.

III. Answer any four of the following in fifteen sentences each: ( 5 × 4 = 20 )

Question 23.
Explain Alex Inkeles views about the subject matter of sociology.
Alex Inkle’s in his book “what is Sociology?” has provided a general outline of the fields of Sociology on which there is considerable agreement among sociologists. It could be presented in the following manner:

1. Providing a sociological analysis of human culture and society: The major concern of Sociology is human society and its culture. A sociologist seeks to provide an analysis of human society and culture with sociological perspective. He evinces interest in the evolution of society and tries to reconstruct the major stages in the evolutionary process. An attempt is also made to analyse the factors and forces underlying historical transformations of society. Due importance is given to the scientific method that is adopted in the sociological studies.

2. Analysing the primary units of social units of social life: s has given sufficient attention to the study of primary units of social life. In this area it is concerned with social
acts and social relationships, individual personality, groups of all varieties, communities(urban, rural and tribal), association organisations and population.

3. Studying the nature and functions of basic social institutions: Socia institutions constitute the basic fabric the society. Any social system is built on the foundation of social institutions. Institutions such as – the family and kinship religions and morality, economic and political, legal and educational, scientific and aesthetic, recreational and expressive, medical and welfare, etc., serve the most important needs of man. Sociology develops deep into the study of the origin and development, structure and function, changes and challenges of a wide variety of social institutions.

4. Sociology throws light on the fundamental social processes: Human society is neither static nor uniform. It is dynamic and diverse. This dynamic element in society is reflected by what are known as social processes. They reveal the way in which human interaction assume different patterns and courses in social life. The social processes such as co-operation and competition, accommodation, and assimilation, social conflict and communication, social differentiation and stratification, socialisation social control and deviance, social integration and social change, etc., assume prominence in sociological studies.

Question 24.
What do you mean by social control? Explain.
Social control is one of the mechanisms of society. E.A. Ross was the first sociologist to the concept of “social control” in his famous book “social control” published in 1901. since then, the concept has become quite popular. Society has to make use of its mechanisms to accomplish the necessary order and discipline. Ross has stressed upon the roles of public opinion, law, belief, suggestion, religion, ideals, ceremony, etc., in establishing social control.

Types of social control

  1. Informal control
  2. Formal control.

1. Informal control: It refers to that types of social control. Which is not purposefully created, but spontaneously evolved and which includes informal ways and means for maintenance of social control. EgFolkways mores, customs, morality etc.,

2. Formal control: It refers to those types of social control which is desperately created and which includes some fixed formal means and procedures for the maintenance of social control. Eg laws and legislation, courts, police Jail, armed force, Bureaucracy etc..

Question 25.
Explain the functions of marriage.
According to Macular and Page “Marriage is a durable association between husband and wife for procreation and upbringing of children and requires social approval”

The functions of marriage are:

1. Regulation of sex life: Marriage is the powerful instrument of regulating the sex life of man. It is an Instinct, it has to be controlled and regulated through the Institution of marriage. Marriage thus regulative means of sex life marriage often called the license for sex life acts as a.

2. Marriage regulates sex relations also: It prohibits sex relations between the closest relatives i.e., between father and daughter, mother and son., brother and sister etc., such a kind of prohibition is called “incest taboo” Marriage also puts restrictions on the premarital and extra martial sex relations.

3. Marriage leads to the establishment of the family: Sexual satisfaction offered by marriage results in self-perpetuation. It is in family the children are bom and brought up. The marriage which determines the descent, inheritance and succession.

4. Provides for economic co-operation: Marriage makes division of labor possible on the basis of sex age and experience, partners of marriage divide work among themselves and perform them.

5. Marriage contributes to emotional and intellectual interstimulation of the partners: Marriage brings life-partners together and helps them to develops intense love and affection towards other. It depends the emotion and strengthens and also helps them to develop intellectual co-operation between them.

6. Marriage aims at social solidarity: Marriage not only brings two individuals of the opposite sex together but also their respective families and their Kith and Kin, friendship between these groups is reinforced through marriage. It is often suggested that by encouraging marriage between different castes, races, classes, religious, linguistic and other communities.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 26.
Write a note on cultural lag?
The concept of cultural lag was first introduced by W. F. Ogbum published in his book entitled ‘Social change’ in 1922. In his book he had delineated the two aspects of culture-material and non material. In that context he introduced the concept of cultural lag. By the very natural of it the material aspects changes quickly but the non material changes but slowly. The change between material and non material culture is called gap or lag. The word lag denotes crippled movement of one part of culture as compared with the other. Culture has two parts, material and nonmaterial. Both be changed by human begins.

In the process of change Ogbum believes that both the material culture and nonmaterial culture undergoes change. But the non-material culture according to Ogbum is often slow to respond to the rapid changes in material culture. When non material culture cannot adjust itself to the material culture it falls behind the two. According to Ogbum this gap between the material culture and nonmaterial culture is called “cultural lag”

In the words of Ogbum “the strain that exists between two correlated parts of culture that change at unequal rates of speed may be interpreted as a lag in the part that is changing at the slowest rate for the one lags behind the other”. For example a lag is seen when people change method of cultivation without change in the land owning system. Thus according to Ogbum one of the main problems of adjustment in modem society is due to problem of uneven speed of change in material and non material culture.

Question 27.
Explain the types of conflict by Georg Simmel.
George Simmel has distinguished four types of conflict

  1. War
  2. Feud or rational strife
  3. Litigation
  4. Conflict of impersonal ideas.

1. War: according to Simmel war represents a deep seated antagonistic impulse in men. But to bring out this impulse into action some define objectives is needed. The objective may be the desire to gain material interests.

2. Feud and factional strife: this is an intra-group conflict. It may arise because of injustice alleged to have been done by one group to another.

3. Litigation: Litigation is ajudicial form of conflict. It is ajudicial struggle by an individual or group to protect right to possessions. This kind of conflict is more objectives in nature.

4. Conflict of impersonal ideas: This is a conflict carried on by the individuals not for themselves but for an ideal. In such a conflict each party attempts to justify truthfulness of its own ideas. For ex, the communists and Capitalists carry on conflicts to prove that their own system can bring in a better world order.

Question 28.
Describe the effects of technological factors on social change.
Use of machines and technological tools are common in modem society. Scientific development and approach towards making life more convenient, help the growth of society Ogbum and Nimkoff remark that the Most novel phenomena in society is not capitalism but Mechanization. The role of technology can be discovered in the following ways:

1. Transport and communication: After 18th century, we see b- hanges in society due to industrialization, communication and transportation. Such ca c lopment took place only because of growth in technology. As a result now modem technology has changed the joint family system and its relationships. Communication skills, transportation methods changed to such extent that today human world is called as “Global Village”.

2. Growth of classes: Industrialization leads to growth of urbanization. Industrialization brought opportunities for new professions. Youths are provided new jobs. Along with it new “Glass” system developed in society. Society is classified as upper middle and lower class.

Agriculture Changes in the agricultural technology directly influenced rural community invention of new agricultural tools and techniques’ chemical manures brought increase in agricultural production which influenced standard of living in village.

IV. Answer any four of the following in fifteen sentences each: ( 5 × 4 = 20 )

Question 29.
Explain the characteristics of religion.
James G. Frazer considered Religion as a belief in power superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and Human life.

Elements of Religion:
1. Supernatural and the Sacred: At the centre of almost every religion lies the idea of the supernatural. It is something beyond physical understanding. It is omnipotent infinite or extraordinary. According to E. B. Tylor Belief in supernatural begins is called religion. Belief in the supernatural begins might also include belief in other kinds of begins like magic forces, angles or soul of dead ancestors, believers might arrange the supernatural begins in a hierarchy according to their power or they may differentiate the supernatural begins in terms of their functions.

It should be interesting to note that Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, the three Hindu Gods, are said to perform the function of creation of the cosmic order, its maintenance and destruction, respectively.

2. Beliefs and practice: Religious belief is a system of knowledge about the divine and its relationship with the human. It is simply not enough to believe in the existence of a supernatural force. The knowledge of its existence must be explained to people and to generations to come. Belief serves this purpose of revealing the existence of the supernatural or divine or the sacred. Belief explains the nature of the divine.

3. Provides Moral Prescriptions: Religion is the source of moral values, and religion without moral prescription is virtually not possible. Religion can distinguish between the right and the wrong, more powerful than other social institutions.

4. Methods of Salvation: Methods of salvation constitutes another elements of Religion. If may be in various forms like attaining moksha, Nirvana, Salvation, and the Christian has a redeemer in Christ, the son of God, who gave his life for man’s Sin. In short religion is the institutionalized set of beliefs men hold about super natural forces belief are formalized and regularized.

Question 30.
Define Education. Explain any three characteristics.
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously. The education process, with its different specialization, different levels and certification process which goes along with it, allocates the younger generation to various roles in society according to their possession of or lack of appropriate diplomas and degree, specifying particular skills, abilities and values.

Thus it legitimizes the existing distribution of position of socio-economic gains and power by convincing the losers or relative loss that their failure in life is due to their failure in education, which interim is due to their lack of abilities. Moreover, this a locative function induces greater demands for more and more education and thus contributes to the expansion of education system and increase the common people’s dependence on and subjugation to, it is that some of the so called universal goals of education in a society articulate the thinking of philosophers and social reformers of the times.

According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously.

Reformative function: Education is of fundamental significance to the development and progress of human society. Although education as a process of socialization. Education has also the capacity to liberate the human mind from shackles of the pass and the present. It has the potential to make men question the ruling values and norms in society, to make them rebel- against the existing social constraints and to solutions to the developed social contradiction and constraints outside the frame work of he established system. This we call the transformative, progressive or reformative function of education.

The American sociologists Bowles and Gintis argue that the major role of education in modem world is the reproduction of labor power. The education system helps to achieve these objectives largely through the hidden curriculum. It is not the content of lessons and the examinations that pupils take which are important, but the form that teaching and learning take and the way that schools are organized. The hidden curriculum consists of those things that pupils learn through the experience of attending school, rather than the stated educational objectives of such institutions.

According to Bowles and Gintis, the hidden curriculum shapes the future workforce in the following ways:

1. It helps to produce a subservient workforce of uncritical, passive and docile workers. Far from living up to liberal ideal of encouraging self-development.

2. Bowles and Gintis claim that the hidden curriculum encourages an acceptance of hierarchy. Schools are organized on a hierarchical principle of authority and control.

3. At school, pupils learn to be motivated by external rewards, just as the workforce in a capitalist society is motivated by external rewards. Because students have so little control over, and little feeling of in volment in, their school work, they get little satisfaction from studying.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 31.
Explain any five factors that resist the process of social change.
Ogbum and Nimkoff says that sometimes “Boon to society is also opposed”
The factors for resistance are:

1. Inadequacy of invention: For one or the other reason. People may or may not show interest in inventions. Some time the innovatory fails to convince the community. Inventions do not impress community life or are needful by that perfect of time.

2. Fear: Men in general are happy with present. People always feel that new disturbs or may bring new problems. When Thomas Edison invented electric bulb, exhibition of illuminating electric bulb was arranged, immediately when electric bulb illuminated, people ran away with fear. Earlier people did not show interest in photography.

3. Ignorance: Education and training make him intelligent. Even though man is ignorant about new. Before he is given proper knowledge his ignorance make him to resist. Secondly some men do not even learn to live. They are happy with their ignorance. America took generations to learn use of iron plough. Material change and its resistances is temporary. For example Mahatma Gandhiji and his efforts are still in process to bring “non alcoholic society”.

4. Habit: Man develops his personality thorough socialization. Once developed Personality cannot be changed easily. Personality is a complex whole of many habits. Habits force man to follow traditions. Habits influence our thoughts and dialylife.. people hesitate to accept new rules and regulations in society.

5. Vested Interests: Vested Interest are selfish groups who want statuesque. Most social changes carry a threat to some vested interests. Land Reform Act in India brought change. But such change and legislative reformations were opposed by land lords. Orthodox society is always in fear of losing its interests, it opposes inter caste marriage.

6. Economic Costs: Money play important role in adopting social change. For example to implement five year planning Indian government invested money. In recent tears cost of planning is raising. Some of the welfare measures like education, health, housing are lagging behind.

7. Lack of an integrated approach: Society is combination of different parts, for example religion, education, government are in social system only. Change in one element brings change in another part also. When we want to bring change in religion it is necessary to bring change in education system also. To eradicate blind belief or evil practices all other conditions in prevailing society should be changed

8. Technical difficulties in implementation: Looking to new technical innovations, society adopt its life style. Community many times accepts technical changes immediately, but does not accept some time. Technical devices should be restructured or they are not suitable to the conditions, hence there is hindrance in acceptance.

9. Intellectual Laziness: Creativity drive the attention immediately. Lack of creativity in man does not accept new. Active men agree to modem condition. Lazy do not. To understand the importance of new one must show interest in it. when there is lack of interest and do not pay attention, it is difficult to make men to change themselves.

10. Desire for stability: Society and its functions go smooth with required stability. Individuals are safe in stable society. Change disturbs the balance in present society. Often change brings insecurity to people in society. Common men feel

  1. No guarantee in new social system, and
  2. New thing; nay bring pain.
  3. Pleasure and comforts may not exists in new
  4. Wants to maintain present status.

Therefore, members in stable conditions do not accept change. Desire for stability is guard against change.

Question 32.
Define Research. Explain the sources of data collection in social research.
Research is a “Systematized investigation to gain a new knowledge about social phenomena and problems we call it social research”. Modem society is dominated by Information and Communication Technology. Recent computers perform multi-dimensional functions. Various ‘ soft ware packages provide data on different topics. Use of internet provided world wide data on different subjects. Internet provides more up to data information, very large extent of data which is limitless because traditional print media has limited space in library.

Internet access is available for 24 hours a day. research successfully save time, energy and resources due to use of internet. Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing techniques are common in America. It helps the researcher to collect data systematic way and computer easily store, classify and analyses the responses immediately completion of interview.

The techniques of data collection are: Observation is a regulated perception of facts and circumstances with a definite purpose in view. There are two types of observation on the basis of different criteria:

1. Controlled and Uncontrolled observation: controlled observation implies the use of various tools and instruments to control one or more variable. It usually takes place in a laboratory. Uncontrolled observation is also called unaided observation because it is made in the natural environment without exercising any controls on the phenomena observed.

2. Participant and Non-Participant Observation: The Participant observation method focus on observer or researcher participants in the social phenomena under study. Whereas in Non-participant observation or researcher does not participate, is a loaf and observes the life and activities of the group in a passive manner.

Merits of participant Observation

  • It is possible to observe the natural behavior of the group because the observer is not stranger.
  • It is possible to gather quantitatively more and quantitatively better information.
  • It is possible to get better insights into the phenomena because the observer is an insider.
  • It is possible to observe secrete behavior.


  • There is a danger objectives because of emotional attachment and over-involvement or ego-satisfaction
  • Some phenomena cannot be observed through participation. For instance, an observer cannot become a criminal.

Merits of Non-Participant Observation

  • It is possible to retain a high level of objectivity.
  • A non-participant observer is able to collect considerable information because of his open role as an observer and his eagerness to learn.

Demerits .

  • It is not possible to get information on many aspects of life and activities because observation is limited to formal occasions and organizations.
  • It is not possible to gain insights into many aspects of behavior because the observer is an outsider.

Merits and limitation of Observation

  • It is possible to record behavior as it occurs, without any distortions. This gives highly qualitative data.
  • Observation is a flexible method of data collection
  • It is independent of people’s willingness to report.


  • Data collected through observation cannot be quantified
  • There is a danger of bias, especially hidden bias.
  • Observation cannot be used to study private behavior
  • Observation is limited by the duration of the event.

The very term implies “Interviewing is an interactional process, it is a mutual view of each other.

Structured Interview: has predetermined questions and standard techniques. The number of questions is also fixed. In this method of interview, number and nature of questions, order of asking them, wording of questions, recording system and everything in the interview process is standardized

Merits of structured Interview’:

  • It provides safe basis for the generalization
  • In this method, interview’s bias can be restricted
  • It is more methodical and easy to administer


  • The rigid and mechanical process, sometimes defeat the purpose of interview. It lacks the flexible nature and personal touch in interview
  • In this method, there is a possibility that substances of interview obtain less importance than fon*:al process and set up.

Question 33.
Briefly explain the relevance of report writing method in social reserach.
Unstructured (Oral) Interview: It is not rigid type of interview. In this method, there is flexibility in the entire process of interview. The interview has greater freedom to choose the form depending on situations. The flexibility nature of interview allows the interview to ask number, sequence, and method of questions according to requirements of situations.

Merits of Unstructured Interview :

  • The informal nature of interview creates a congenial atmosphere for effective communication
  • In a highly society of India, the formal set up interview imposes serve limitations on interview. Unstructured interview is the only remedy for this problem

Demerits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview provides respondents to answer differently, this is difficult in analysis of data
  • To administer this type of interview, well trained and skilled persons are required
  • The more number of personal bias and prejudices may be the part of this method.

Merits of Interview method

  • It is possible to obtain highly reliable information and in depth knowledge
  • It is possible to obtain information about the past and also about future plans in a detailed manner.
  • There is a high rate of response
  • Interview method can be used with all types of persons.

Demerits of Interview method

  • There is a possibility of misleading information being given by the interview
  • There can be defects due to the interview who may not be the best person to give information
  • There can be defects due to the bias or prejudice of the interview himself, interview is a difficult skill and needs training
  • It is a costly and time-consuming method.

Question 34.
What is Bio diversity? Describe.
Only the earth has provided essential environment to all kinds of species. The earth has been evolved since 460 billions of years. Since then evolution has been taking place stage by stage.
It is the existence of a wide variety of species- plants, animals and micro-organisms in a natural habitant within a particular environment or of genetic variation with in a species. All living organisms have maintained their specific quality. We find air, water and temperature on this earth including micro organisms, birds and butterflies, aquatic plants and animals, wild animals like Dinosaurs etc., all live on this earth.

V. Answer any two of the following in thirty sentences each: ( 10 x 2 = 20 )

Question 35.
Explain the importance of Sociology.
Development of personality: Man is fundamentally a social being. He has to adjust to the changing conditions of the society. Sociology gives of scientific and a comprehensive knowledge of human society. The scientific knowledge about the structure of society, its development, change, problems, individual rights and obligations, etc., makes not only individual an enlighten member of the society, but also to the development of his personality in a proper manner.

a. Change in attitudes: Sociology is useful in developing rational attitude towards society, religion, customs, mores, institutions, values, ideologies, etc. Sociology plays an important role in changing the attitudes towards others. The study of Sociology helps us to overcome prejudices about others people, class, caste, religious hatredness, misconceptions ambitions. Totally Sociology helps us to develop a critical approach towards the social world, so that we can have better relations with the people of not only our society but also with the people of other societies.

b. Solutions of social problems: Every society is facing its own problems. For example, India is facing so many problems like poverty, unemployment, terrorism, corruption, untouchability, prostitution, gambling, over population, beggary, etc. The deep study of these problems is necessary to solve them. Sociology helps us to make an objective study of social problems. It also gives valuable suggestions to solve.

c. Social planning and policy making: Sociology is playing a key role in social planning and policy making. Sociological knowledge is very much useful and the service and suggestions of expert sociologists are sought even in the formulations of Government Policies, Social Legislations regarding family, population control, child labour, environment pollution, beggary, etc.

d. To promote welfare of the backward and weaker section of the society: In India, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other weaker sections are exploited in social, economic, and political fields for centuries. To promote welfare programmers for these groups sociological knowledge is necessary.

e. Sociology as an attractive teaching subject: Sociology is gaining importance as a popular teaching subject. Careers apart from teaching are now possible in Sociology. Sociology is introduced as one of the subject to be studied in many colleges and universities. Sociology is also included in the subjects to be offered by candidates taking completive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS and KES, etc. There are many employment opportunities in many fields like education, social welfare, family welfare, public administration, women and child welfare development, etc.

f. Role of Sociology in developing countries: Social factors are also responsible for the economic backwardness particularly in under developed countries. Economists have now realized the importance of sociological information and knowledge in analyzing the economic life of their countries. So, it has been said that “Economists should be Sociologist also”.

g. Sociological knowledge about modern situations and developments: Sociology always gives information about the recent changes and developments that takes place in and around us, So that we can act according to the changes. The knowledge about these things makes us conscious about our responsibilities towards society.

Question 36.
Explain the characteristics of society.
The term Society is derived from Latin word ‘Socius’ which means “companionship or friendship’ According to Maclver and Page “Society is the web of social relationships”.

Characteristics of society.

a. Society- The group of groups: People collets together to form groups. Such groups combine together to give rise to society. Each society has family, neighbor, village, city, labor association, religious gathering, Political Parties etc, H.M. Johnson – has thus remarked that “society is the group of groups”, but it is not just like a crowd. It is a system. It is a system. It consists of innumerable groups which fulfill the various needs of the people.

b. Society is a web of social relations : Social relation means -’’The reciprocal contact between two or more persons. Social relationships have a wide range. For example Teacher – student, Parent-children, patient-doctor, husband-wife and so on. One individual enters in to several social relationships at the same time. Maclver and page- point out that “society exists only where social beings behave towards one another in ways determined by their recognition of one another. Thus society is a web of social relations.

c. Similarity or likeness: The principal of‘likeness’ is essential for society. It exists among the people have similarities with regards to their needs, work, aims, ideals, values and so on. these similarities inspire the people to interact and like each other and live to gather. Hence mutual intimacy, Co-operation, love and affection, sympathy, sacrifice and feeling of oneness among people develops. Similarly the people of same nature and behavior live together in society.

d. Differences in society: Likeness and differences are two faces of the same coin. Therefore we see natural differences among people in their interest, ability, talent, attitude, intelligence and so on. Thus we find farmers, labors. Teachers, soldiers, business, advocates, doctors, engineers and other working in different capacities, Maclver and page – Said that “primary likeness and Secondary differences are the chief features of human society.

e. Co-operation and division of labor: Human Society is essentially based on ‘co-operation and division of labor. Due to the feeling of Co-operation people share their joys and sorrows. The division of labor depends on people’s interest, ability, sex, and age etc. Due to division of labor in various fields task are performed more efficiently. In modem society, skilled and specialized persons have more importance. Thus co-operative and division of labor are reciprocal.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 37.
Describe the role of family and peer-groups in the process of socializing the child.
The next most important agency of socialization is the peer group. The peer group consists of his age mates, Play mates and status mates, those who form the inner circle of friends, class mates, and workmates etc., who share almost the status with the child. They serve an important function in defining appropriate behavior, acquiring appropriate roles, setting standards of conduct, arriving at a level of personal independence and inculcating goals.

The child acquires something from his friends and playmates which he cannot acquires cooperative morality and some of the informal aspects-of culture like fashions, fads, crazes, modes of gratification etc. the peer group also provides opportunities to explore tabooed topics. For instance, most of the sex knowledge in early stage, rightly or wrongly, comes from one’s peer group.

The family: Family is the first agency of socialization of the child. Physical nearness, close xelationship, passiveness of the child, authority of parents over the child etc., all have greater influence in molding the personality of the child.

In family, parental influence, particularly of the mother, is very great. From the parents the child learns language. It is taught number of civic virtues. The child gets his first lessons in cooperation, tolerance self-sacrifice, love and affection, etc., in the family.

The earliest and the closet ties of an individual are with his parents and siblings. There have authority over the child. Possessiveness of the child and its emotional attachment with parents and siblings make socialization an easy and smooth process. Cultural heritage is passed from one generation to the other in family.

Question 38.
Explain the factors favoring of assimilation.
Factors Favoring Assimilation:

1. Toleration: assimilation is possible only when individual and groups are tolerated towards cultural deferences of others. Tolerance helps people to come together, to develop contacts and to participate in common social and cultural activities. When the majority group or the dominant group itself is secure.

2. Intimate social relationships: Assimilation is the final product of social contacts. The relative speed in which it is achieved depends on the nature of the contacts. It takes place naturally in primary groups such as family and friendship groups.

3. Amalgamation or intermarriage: It is an effective favoring assimilation process. It does not combine two opposite sexes but also two different families, castes, religious and regional groups together. A factor which helps complete assimilation is amalgamation which refers to the intermarriage of different groups without biological amalgamation complete assimilation is not possible. Mere inter mixture of the groups to a limited degree does not guarantee assimilation but intermarriage or amalgamation must be accepted in the mores and become a part of the institutional; structure, before assimilation exists.

4. Cultural similarity: If there are striking similarities between them an constituents of cultures of groups assimilation is quick to take place. In America, for example English¬speaking protestants are assimilated with greater aped than non-Christians who do not speak English.

5. Education: Education is another conductive factor for assimilation. For immigrant people public education has played a prominent role in providing culture contact. Maurice R Davis has pointed out in his “world immigration” that in American public schools has been playing the vital role in the process of Americanizing the children of foreign born parents.

6. Equal Social and economic opportunity: Public education alone is not enough. People of all groups must have equal access to socio-economic opportunities. Only then, they can come closer and establish relations among themselves with mutual trust. As it has been observed in the case of America, full assimilation is< possible only when full participation in social, cultural and economic life is allowed.

Assimilation is a two way process when it happens between two vulture groups. Each group contributing varying proportions of the eventual blend.

VI. Answer any two of the following in fifteen sentences each: ( 5 × 2 = 10 )

Question 39.
Explain the contribution of Dr. G S. Ghurye to the development of sociology in India.
Dr GS.Ghurye: Dr. Ghuiye played a key role in popularizing Sociology in India. Therefore he is called as the “Father of Indian Sociology”. The fame of functioning as the first head of the department of Sociology goes to Dr. Ghurye. He is also recognized as the leading expert in the field of Sociology. Dr. Ghurye carried an elaborate study of “cap caste and races in India”/ he elaborately written on origin of caste, regional existence of caste and its Characteristics, impact of British rule on caste, caste in politics etc.

His study on rural culture has also gained importance in the field of Sociology. Studied on majordeities, ancient civilization, role ofsadhus and sanyasis was also included in his analysis. He has also written on literature, Shakespeare, Comte, contemporary problems in India. Totally his works present a logical continuity from the past to present to the immediate future. Dr. Ghurye has written “Caste and Race in India”, “Scheduled Tribes”, “Social tension in India”, “Vedic India”.

Dr. Iravathi Karve: Dr.Iravati Karve has been recognized as a renowned and brilliant sociologist. As a student of Dr. GS.Ghurye, Dr.Iravati Karve was the first “women sociologist in India”. Dr.Iravati Karve’s field of studies is very much extensive that Indian society social institutions and kinship are her specialised interest of studies. Understanding Indian society and its institutions on the basis of kinship was her main effort. “Kinship organization in India”, “Hindu Society- an interpretation”, “Land and people of Maharashtra”, “family of India” and more than seven books were written by Dr. Iravati Karve.

Question 40.
What is primary group? Explain its characteristics.
The concept of ‘Primary Groups’ is a significant of C.H. Cooley to the social thought. Building black of human societies throughout the world history.

Characteristics of Primary Groups:
(a) Dominance of primary or face-to face-refationships: Primary groups are characterized by close and intimate relationships. These exists a face-to-face relationship amongthe members. In primary Groups everyone knows everyone else; one’s name and fame, one’s status, wealth, occupation, level of education etc.,

(b) Small in size: Primary groups are generally small in size, because its consists of few members. Size of primary groups should be small if the relations among members are to be close personal and intimate.

(c) Physical Proximity or Nearness: Face-to-face relations can be found only when members reside in particular area more or less permanently. Seeing and talking with each other facilitates the exchange of ideas, opinions and sentiments.

(d) Durability of the groups: Primary groups are relatively permanent groups. Other things equal, the longer the groups remains together, the more numerous and deeper are the contacts between its members.

(e) Similarity of Background: The members of the primary groups may have more or less the same background. These must be some approximations in their levels of experience. Each must have something to contribute to give as well as to take.

(f) Shared Interest: The shared interests of the groups also hold them together, any interest becomes focused and enriched in the group process. Since all are working for a common cause each acquires stimulation and a heightening of the emotional significance of the interest.

Question 41.
Explain the form of competition.
1. Scarcity as a condition of competition: Wherever there are community desired goods and services, there is Competition.

In Tact, economics starts with its fundamental proposition that while human wants are
Unlimited the resources that can satisfy these wants are strictly limited. Hence people complete for the possession of these limited resources. As Hamilton pointed out Competition is necessitated by “a population of insatiable wants and a world of stubborn and inadequate resources”.

2. Competition and affluence: Competition may be found even in circumstances of abundance or affluence. In a time of full employment, Competition may take place for The status of the top class. There is Competition not only for food, shelter and other basic N
needs but also for luxuries, power, name, fame, social position, mates and so on,

3. Competition is Universal: Modem civilized society is marked by the Phenomenon of Competition. Competition is covering almost all the areas of customers, lawyers for clients, doctors for patients, students for ranks or distinctions, athletes and sportsmen for trophies, political parties for power, no society can be said to be exclusively Competition or co-operative.

4. Competition is continuous: Competition is continuous. It is found virtually in every area of social activity and social interaction. Particularly Competition for status, wealth and fame is always present in almost all societies.

5. Competition is dynamic: It stimulates the achievement and contributes to social change to higher level. A college student who completes with others to get selected to the college cricket team. After becoming successful may later struggle to get selected to the University cricket team, to the state team to the national team and so on.

6. Competition is always governed by norms: Competition is not limitless nor is it unregulated. There is no such things as ‘unrestricted competition’ such a phrase is contradiction in terms. Moral norms or legal rules always govern and control competition competitorsareexpected to use ‘fair tactics’ and not ‘cut-throat devices’.

7. Competition may be unconscious also: Competition may take place on an unconscious level. Many times individuals engaged in Competition are not always aware of the fact that they are in a Competitive race.

8. Competition may be constructive or destructive: Competition may be healthy or unhealthy. If one of the two or more competitor tries to win only at the expense of the others, it is destructive. Sometimes, big industrialists or businessmen to become virtually bankrupt. But constructive competition is mutually stimulating and helpful. It contributes to the welfare of all at large.

9. Competition may be personal or impersonal: Competition is normally directed towards a goal and not against any individual. Sometimes, it takes place without a actual knowledge of other’s existence. Ex. It is impersonal as in the case of civil service examination in, which the contestants are not even aware of one another’s identity. Competition may also be personal as when two individuals contest for election to an office. As competition becomes more personal., it leads to rivalry and shades into conflict. Competition in the social world is largely impersonal. The individual may be vaguely aware of, but has no , personal contact with other competitors.

Importance or function of competition:
Competition plays an important role in social life. Competition performs a number of useful functions in society. Some of them may be noted here.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 42.
Write a short note on any two environmental movements in Karnataka.
The application of human ecological perspective poinfcToufM the three basic functions of natural environment for the human beings and also for many other animal species.

1. The Environment provides the resources essential for life. These resources include air, water and materials used to create shelter, transportation and such other needed products. If human beings exhaust these resources in an irresponsible way for example by polluting the water supply or destroying rain forests then serious consequences will be the result

2. The environment houses our species: Environment is our home, our living space, the place where we reside work and play, at times we take this truth for granted, but some others times we forget it and make our own living conditions very unpleasant and horrible. It is only when our air becomes heavy with smoke, dust etc., if our tap water turns brown, if toxic chemicals seep into our garden- only then we remember why it is vital to live in a healthy environment

3. The environment serves as a waste respiratory: more than any other species on earth human beings produce a huge quantity and variety of products-bottles, boxes, papers, plastics, sewage, garbage, and so on. Various types of pollution have become more common because human societies are generating more waste than the environment can safely absorb.

4. The 1972 rule of wild life protection provided complete protection to the wild life and birds. As per the directed of this rule every state government and centralized states must create a committee for wild life suggestion. This law restricts the hunting of wild animals violates ofthis law will be punished

5. Control and prevention of water pollution act has enforced and the water pollution is prohibited through this law and for prevention of water pollution a special rule ini 981 is introducedf prevention on control of air pollution)

6. 1986, rule of environment protection act 1986 have intended to protect and improve the environment; it implements nationwide programs on environment pollution and encourages the researches on Environment Pollution.

7. The motor vehicles act 1988 control the air pollution caused by the vehicles traffic.

8. The noise pollution act of 1989: This law controls the decibels of the sounds residential places, schools and colleges, hospitals, courts premises are declared as silent zones and prohibits using mikes crackers etc. in these areas.

9. 1991 rule of public security: the Government of India has introduced this law in 1991 this law suggested to establish a environment solution fund and provided security to the citizen, it enables to lodge a criminal cases on the law breakers.

10. State pollution controls board is active in state level and with the co-ordination of central pollution control board is engaged in the environment protection. Environment department will implement many works regarding environment protection.

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