1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2017 (South)

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Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2017 (South)

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each:  ( 10 × 1 = 10 )

Question 1.
Who is called the ‘Father of Sociology’?
August Comte.

Question 2.
How is the term ‘Society’ derived?
The term Society is derived from Latin word ‘Socius’ which means “companionship or friendship” or an associate.

Question 3.
Give an example of unorganized groups

Question 4.
What is Social interaction?
When two or more people interact in a meaningful way it is called social interaction.

Question 5.
Mention any one importance of competition.
Competition increases efficiency.

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Question 6.
What is ‘Primary identification?
The personality of the child. His role and that of the mother are not probably clearly distinguished. Hence the infant and mother are merged Sigmund Freud called this stage as the stahe of a primary identification.

Question 7.
What is monogamy?
Monogamy is a type of marriage where one should have only one partner.

Question 8.
Give the meaning of the term‘evolution’
The term evolution is emerged from the Latin word ‘Evolvere’ which means to unfold or to ‘develop’.

Question 9.
What is Social research?
According to William P Scott Social research is that focuses on the study of human groups or the processes of social interaction to find new thing.

Question 10.
What is pollution?
According to P.H. Collin “pollution refers concentration of pollutes created by man”

II. Answer any ten questions in two to three sentences each. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )

Question 11.
Mention two essential elements of community.

  1. Locality or a Geographical area
  2. Community Sentiment

Question 12.
What is primary group?
C.H Cooley classigied group into primary group regers to a “Social groups characterized by face – to – face relationship, mutual aid and companionship” example family neighborhood, friends, club, peer groups ect.

Question 13.
Give any two purposes of social control.
To bring order, stability and conformity.

Question 14.
Mention any two types of competition.

  1. Social competition
  2. Economic competiton

Question 15.
Give any two features of assimilation.

  1. Assimilation is not confined to signal field only.
  2. Assimilation is a slow and gradual process.

Question 16.
Name two types of culture.
Material culture and Non – Material culture.

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Question 17.
What is Socialization?
According to H.M. Johnson “Socialization in the learning process that enables the learner to perform social roles”.

Question 18.
Mention two types in polygyny
Sororal polygyny and Non – Sororal polygyny.

Question 19.
Give any two functions of education.

  1. Preservative function and
  2. Allocative function.

Question 20.
Define ‘progress’
The progress means to a forward movement or an intended growth or a desirable movement.

Question 21.
Give two examples for technological change.
Mobile Phone, Computer.

Question 22.
State two sources of primary data.
The major source of primary data are Observation, Interview, Social Survey and Questionnaire.

III. Answer any four following question. ( 5 × 4 = 20 )

Question 23.
Describe any five characteristics of sociology,
The nature and characteristics of sociology can be summarised in the following way :
Sociology is an Independent Science: Sociology is not treated and studied as a branch of any other Science like philosophy or political philosophy. As an independent science it has its own subject matter, theories and method of approach.

Sociology is a Social Science not a physical Science: Sociology belongs to the Social Science and not to the physical science. As a Social Science it concentrates its attention on man, his Social behaviour, Social activities and Social life. It is intimately related to other social Sciences like anthropology, Political Science, economics, and Psychology, etc.

Sociology is a categorical not a Normative Discipline: Sociology Studies things “as it is” and “not as they ought to be”. As a Science, Sociology is necessarily silent about the questions of value. It does not make any kind of value-judgements. Its approaches neither moral nor immoral but amoral. It is ethically neutral. It cannot decide the directions in which Sociology ought to go. Sociology is a pure Science not an Applied science: Sociology is a pure science, because the immediate aim of Sociology is the acquisition of knowledge.

On the contrary an applied science is interested in the application or utilization of that knowledge. Sociologists never determine questions of public policy and do not recommend legislators what laws should be passed or repealed. But the knowledge acquired by a Sociologist is of great help to the administrator, legislators, diplomats, teachers, Social workers, & citizens, Sociology is relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science Sociology does not confine itself to the study of particular or concrete instances of human events.

But it. studies the abstract forms of human events and their patterns. For example, it does not limit ‘ itself to the Study of any particular war or revolution. On the contrary it deals with them in a I general or abstract manner, as Social phenomena, i.e., as types of Social conflict. In a similar manner, it makes such generalized Studies of marriage, religion, family, group, etc.

Sociology is a Generalising and not a particularising science: Sociology tries to make generalisations on the basis of the study of some selected events. For example, a Sociologist make generalizations on the following:

  1. Joint families are more stable than the nuclear families.
  2. Social changes tale place with greater rapidity in urban communities than in tribal or rural communities.

Sociology is a General Social Science and not a special Social Science: The area of enquiry of Sociology is general and not specialized. It is concerned with human activities whether they are political, economic, religious, social, etc., in a general way.

Finally Sociology is both an Empirical and a Rational Science: Sociology is an empirical science because it emphasises the facts that result from observation and experimentation, it rests on trial, or experiment or experience. It is a rational Science because it stresses the role of reasoning and logical inferences. An empiricist collects facts where as a rationalist co-ordinates and arranges them. All modem science including Sociology avail themselves of both empirical and rational resources.

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Question 24.
Explain any give features of association.
Characteristics of Association.
(a) Association – A Human Group: An association is formed by people. It is basically a social group. Without people there can be no association. However all groups are not associations. Because an association is basically an organized group. An unorganized group like a crowd or a mob cannot be an association.

(b) Specific Interest or Interests: An association is not only collection of individuals. But also consists of those individuals who have more or less the same interests. According those who have political interests may join political parties and those who have sports interest may join sports association and so on.

(c) Co-operative Spirit: An association is based on the co-operative spirit of its members. People work together to achieve common purpose. For example: Workers to work together on a co-operative basis in order to fulfill their objective of getting good working conditions.

(d) Organized Group: Association is not just a collection of individuals. It is an organized collections for some specific ends. Organization gives stability and proper shape to an association. Organization refers to the way in which the status and roles are distributed among its members.

(e) Regulation of Relations: Every association has its own rules and regulation applicable to its members. These are called associational norms. Organization depends on this elements of regulation. Association reports to formal or informal means to regulate the relations of its members. For Example: Family through the institution of marriage controls the sexual behavior of its members, professional organization have formal norms to control members.

(f) Element of Stability: An association may be permanent or temporary. There are some long standing association like the political parties, trade union etc. Some associations may be purely temporary in nature, Example: Association that are established to felicitate some great writers, scientists and religious leaders.

Question 25.
Describe any five characteristics of culture.
According to Malinowski: “culture is the handiwork of man and the medium through which he achieves his ends”

Characteristics of culture are:

Culture is learnt: Culture is often understood as learned ways of behaviors. Culture is not an inborn tendency. It is acquired or learnt. It includes those learned patterns for thinking, feeling and acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next. Therefore what is learned through socialization and are acquired in group life are what is called culture.

Culture is Social: Culture is not the property of any individual. It is the social heritage of man. It is a way of group life. It originates in and develops through social interaction. It consists of a number of behavior patterns that are common to a group of people. It is the inclusive of all expectation of the members of the groups. Thus culture is a social products shared by most of the members of the group.

Culture is Shared: Culture is a social property. It belongs to the group. The elements of culture such as customs beliefs, idea, folkways, mores, and language are all belonged to the people of a group. These are commonly shared by the members of a group. So culture is the product of groups life. Culture cannot be hidden and used by one individual. According to Robert Bierstadt. “Culture is something adopted, used believed, practiced or possessed by more than one person”.

Culture is Transmissive: Culture is the total social heritage. It is linked with the past. The past continues because it lives in culture. Culture is something that can be transmitted from one generation to the next. Culture is passed through language. Language is the chief vehicles of culture. Culture is also passed from one generation to another through traditions and customs. It is a product of human experience.

Question 26.
Briefly explain any five functions of marriage.
According to naclver and Page “Marriage is a durable association between husband and wife for procreation and upbringing of children and requires social approval”
The functions of marriage are:

Regulation of sex life: Marriage is the powerful instrument of regulating the sex life of man. It is an Instinct, it has to be controlled and regulated through the Institution of marriage. Marriage thus regulative means of sex life marriage often called the license for sex life acts as a

Marriage regulates sex relations also:
It prohibits sex relations between the closest relatives i.e., between father and daughter, mother and son., brother and sister etc., such a kind of prohibition is called “incest taboo” Marriage also puts restrictions on the premarital and extra martial sex relations.

Marriage leads to the establishment of the family: Sexual satisfaction offered by marriage results in self-perpetuation. It is in family the children are bom and brought up. The marriage which determines the descent, inheritance and succession.

Provides for economic co-operation: Marriage makes division of labor possible on the basis of sex age and experience, partners of marriage divide work among themselves and perform them.

Marriage contributes to emotional and intellectual aerstimulation of the partners: Marriage brings life-partners together and helps them to develops intense love and affection towards other. It depends the emotion and strengthens and also helps them to develop intellectual co-operation between them.

Marriage aims at social solidarity: Marriage not only brings two individuals of the opposite sex together but also their respective families and their Kith and Kin, friendship between these groups is reinforced through marriage. It is often suggested that by encouraging marriage between different castes, races, classes, religious, linguistic and other communities.

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Question 27.
Analyse any five factors that resist social change.
The factors that resist the process of social change. Lack of New Inventions: Social changes depends on the invention of new objects, techniques, thoughts, devices and plans to a great extent. Changes will take place without much opposition if the people have the strong craving for new things. Lack of inventions as such, do not provide a favorable atmosphere for change.

Rejection or Non-Acceptance of New Inventions: No change is possible if people go on rejecting the new inventions. Ex (1) Dr. William Harvey’s Blood Circulation. Theory, and Galileo’s theory concerning the planetary system and the movements of earth, were opposed in the beginning (2) opposition came in the British Parliament for the use of steam energy in British Naval Ships.

Imperfections of New Inventions: In the beginning, inventions are generally subject to imperfections, such as inadequate performance, easy breakage, and difficulty of repair. Social inventions also have imperfections in the beginning. People may oppose them for their inadequacies.

Fear Towards the New: Man has not only love for the past but also fear for the new. People express their fear for the new while making use of the new objects, listening to the new thoughts and following a new practice.

Tradition and Reverence for the past: People are traditional in their attitudes, the old and the traditional practices and things and ideas are upheld by the people. People are emotionally and sentimentally bound by them.

Question 28.
Explain the basic elements of religion.
James G Frazer considered Religion as a belief in power superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and Human life.

Elements of Religion:

Supernatural and the Sacred: At the centre of almost every religion lies the idea of the supernatural. It is something beyond physical understanding. It is omnipotent infinite or extraordinary. According to E. B. Tylor Belief in supernatural begins is called religion.

Belief in the supernatural begins might also include belief in other kinds of begins like magic forces, angles or soul of dead ancestors, believers might arrange the supernatural begins in a hierarchy according to their power or they may differentiate the supernatural begins in terms of their functions. It should be interesting to note that Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, the three Hindu Gods, are said to perform the function of creation of the cosmic order, its maintenance and destruction, respectively.

Beliefs and practice: Religious belief is a system of knowledge about the divine and its relationship with the human. It is simply not enough to believe in the existence of a supernatural force. The knowledge of its existence must be explained to people and to generations to come. Belief serves this purpose of revealing the existence of the supernatural or divine or the sacred. Belief explains the nature of the divine.

Provides Moral Prescriptions: Religion is the source of moral values, and religion without moral prescription is virtually not possible. Religion can distinguish between the right and the wrong, more powerful than other social institutions.

Methods of Salvation: Methods of salvation constitutes another elements of Religion. If may be in various forms like attaining moksha, Nirvana, Salvation, and the Christian has a redeemer in Christ, the son of God, who gave his life for man’s Sin. In short religion is the institutionalized set of beliefs men hold about super natural forces belief are formalized and regularized.

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IV. Answer any four following questions in 15 sentences each. ( 4 × 5 = 20 )

Question 29.
Explain the characteristics of mores.
According to Maclver and Page “When the folkways have added to them conceptions of groups welfare, standards of right and wrong they are converted into mores”.

Characteristics of Mores are:

More are the regulators of social life: Mores represent the living character of the group or community. They are always considered right by the people who share them. They are morally right and their violation morally wrong. Hence they are more compulsive in nature. They put restrictions on our behavior.

Mores are relatively more persistent: More are relatively long lasting than ordinary folkways. In fact, they even become conservative elements in society. They also put up resistance to change.

Mores vary from group to group or time to time: What is prescribed in one group is prohibited in another Eskimos for example: often practice female infanticide, whereas such a practice is strictly forbidden in the modern societies. Mores not only differ with culture but also with time. What is right at one time may be wrong at another and vice versa. Ex; the practice of “Sati” was “moral” then, but today it is illegal and immoral.

Mores are often backed by values and religion: More normally receive the sanction and backing of values and religion. When this occurs they become still more powerful and binding. Mores backed by religious sanctions are strongly justified people.

Question 30.
Explain George Simmel’s typology of conflict.
George Simmel has distinguished four types of conflict
(a) war
(b) feud or rational strife
(c) litigation
(d) conflict of impersonal ideas.

(a) War: According to Simmel war represents a deep seated antagonistic impulse in men. But to bring out this impulse into action some define objectives is needed. The objective may be the desire to gain material interests.

(b) Feud and factional strife: This is an intra-group conflict. It may arise because of injustice alleged to have been done by one group to another.

(c) Litigation: Litigation is a judicial form of conflict. It is a judicial struggle by an individual or group to protect right to possessions. This kind of conflict is more objectives in nature.

(d) Conflict of impersonal ideas: This is a conflict carried on by the individuals not for themselves but for an ideal. In such a conflict each party attempts to justify truthfulness of its own ideas. For ex, the communists and Capitalists carry on conflicts to prove that their own system can bring in a better world order.

Question 31.
Examine any five characreristics of accommodation.
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff: “Accommodation is a term used by the sociologists to describe the adj ustment of hostile individuals or groups”. Maclver says that “the term Accommodation refers particularly to the process in which man attains a sense of harmony with his environment.

Characteristics of Accommodation:

1. Accommodation is the natural result of Conflict: Since conflicts cannot take place continuously they involved in conflict do not relish the sense of conflict they sit down for it settlement. Such settlements temporary or permanent may be called “Accommodation” in the absence of conflict the question of arriving at accommodation does not arise.

2. Accommodation may be a conscious or an unconscious: Man’s adjustment with the social environment is mostly unconscious. From birth to death man to be behave in conformity with the normative order. The new bom individual learns to accommodate himself with the social order which is dedicated by various norms such as customs, morals, traditions etc. Thus, unconsciously the new bom individual accommodation himself with his family, caste or race, neighborhood. Life is full of such unconscious accommodative activities.

3. Accommodation is Universal: Accommodation as a ‘condition’ and as a ‘process’ is universal. Human society is composed to antagonistic elements and hence conflicts are inevitable. Since no society becomes necessary. Thus accommodation is found in all societies and in all fields of social fife.

4.  Accommodation is continuous: The process of accommodation is not confined to any particular stage in the life of an individual It is not limited to any fixed social situation also. On the contrary, throughout the life one has to accommodate oneself with various situations, further, as and when conflicts take place sooner or later accommodation would follow not only the individuals but also the groups within the society are obliged to accommodate among themselves.

5. The effects of accommodation may vary with the circumstances: It may act to reduce the conflict between persons or groups as an initial step towards assimilation. It may serve to postpone outright conflict for a specific period of time, as in a treaty between nations or labor.

Management agreement. It may permit groups marked by sharp social-psychological distance to get along together. It may prove to be beneficial for the parties involved in it. Sometimes it may help the superior or more powerful party to party to impose it on the weaker party.

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Question 32.
Briefly explain the secondary functions of family.
The secondary function are:

Economic function: Family an important unit of both production and consumption, but today, modem families mainly earn incomes. Thus, their principles function is that of the consumption of goods and services which they purchase. Because of income the provision of economic support for family members is a major function of the modem family.

Educational function: In the modem world child learns basic skills at formal school and colleges. At the same time child learn its mother tongue and traditions skills and talents at home. Traditions families were associated with vocational education because families were associated with a particular task.

Religious function: Family is the centre for the Religious training of the children who learn various religious virtues from their parents. Rituals, ceremonies and worship are carried out on which made the outlook of children.

Recreational function: Family provides Recreation to its members. It may be day today interaction among the members in several occasion such as feasting, gathering, marriage, festival enhances happiness.

Thus family is a school of civil virtues. The virtues of love, co-operati

Inter-institutional linkage: Each baby is a potential participant in the group life of the society. Family relationship with other institutions like religious, political, economic, recreational and other kinds of organizations typically gives individuals an opportunity to participate in these activities. The family, then, not only prepares the individual to play social roles and occupy a status in the community, but also provides the opportunities for such activity.

Question 33.
Explain the role of biological factors which bring social change.
Biological factor: It indicates two types (A) One is non human biological factor and (B) Second is human biological factor. It is true that both constitute total life on earth.

Mclver and page are the opinion that demographic or biological factors involves (1)size of population (2) structure of population (3) Heredity (4) race (5) Birth rate (6)Death rate (7) fertility (8)sex ratio

Six of population: People are assets, without men and women this society is useless. But the size of population is to balanced. We know that according to Malthus, more population leads to poverty. Similarly optimum size of population, theory explains that there should be balance between population and production of food. It fails we find change in society. To maintain balanced society we want population.

Birth rate and death rate: A high birth rate and low death rate leads to population increase. This brings various problems, like poverty, unemployment, housing problems etc Similar lower birth rate and higher death rate brings changes in society like that of scarcity of human resources, decrease in efficiently. This may create defense r blem in nation.

Migration: It is one of the most influential activities which brings changes in society. Migration means movements of population from one area to another. There are two types of migration (1) Urban rural migration (2) Rural urban migration.

Age and sex ratio: Population constitutes three elements in its structure children, youth and old. In every society the members of below fourteen years and more. But in china due to strick’ One child norm,’ there is decrease in 0-14 years age children ratio. If youth population low economic development.

Question 34.
Explain the types of environment.
The word Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means all that surrounds us.
Environment which is helpful to man’s existence and progress has been divided into physical, biological and social environments

Physical Environment: It consists of earth, water, mountains and hills, forests, planets, stars, lakes, minerals sources etc., This is called Physical or Natural Environment. The Physical Environment is not created by man: hence it is called the Natural environment.

Biological Environment: This category of environment includes all living things on • earth. For the production and growth of all living creatures, environment is complimentary and protecting.

Social Environment: Social Environment is man-made. Social environment is nothing but the collective and cooperative life of human beings. Sociologists feel that “man is a social animal and one cannot live without society”. For the survival of mankind there must be a cordial relationship with environment.

V. Answer any two questions in 25 sentences. ( 10 x 2 = 20 )

Question 35.
Explain the uses or importance of sociology.
a. Development of Personality : Man is fundamentally a social being. He has to adjust to the changing conditions of the society. Sociology gives a scientific and a comprehensive knowledge of human society. The scientific knowledge about the structure of society, its development, change, problems, individual rights and obligations, etc., makes not only individual an enlighten member of the society, but also leads to the development of his personality in a proper manner.

b. Change in attitudes: Sociology is useful in developing rational attitude towards society, religion, customs, mores, institutions, values, ideologies, etc. Sociology plays an important role in changing the attitudes towards others. The study of Sociology helps us to overcome prejudices about others people, class, caste, religious hatredness, misconceptions ambitions. Totally Sociology helps us to develop a critical approach towards the ‘ Social World’, So that, we can have better relations with the people of not only our society but also with the people of other societies.

c. Solutions of Social Problems: Every society is facing its own problems. For example, India is facing so many problems like poverty, unemployment, terrorism, corruption, untouchability, prostitution, gambling, over population, beggary, etc. The deep study of these problems is necessary to solve them. Sociology helps us to make an objective study of social problems. It also gives valuable suggestions to solve.

d. Social Planning and Policy Making: Sociology is playing a key role in social planning and policy making. Sociological knowledge is very much useful and the service and suggestions of expert sociologists are sought even in the formulations of Government Policies, Social Legislations regarding family, population control, child labour, environment pollution, beggary, etc.

e. To promote welfare of the backward and weaker section of the society: In India, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other weaker sections are exploited in social, economic, and political fields for centuries. To promote welfare programmes for these groups sociological knowledge is necessary.

f. Sociology as a Attractive Teaching Subject: Sociology is gaining importance as a popular teaching subject. Careers apart from teaching are now possible in Sociology. Sociology is introduced as one of the subj ect to be studied in many colleges and Universities. Sociology is also included in the subjects to be offered by candidates taking completive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS and KES, etc. There are many employment opportunities in many fields like Education, Social Welfare, Family Welfare, Public Administration, Women and Child Welfare Development, etc.

g. Role of Sociology in developing countries: Social factors are also responsible for the economic backwardness particularly in under developed countries. Economists have now realized the importance of sociological information and knowledge in analyzing the economic life of their countries. So, it has been said that “Economist should be Sociologist also”.

h. Sociological knowledge about modern situations and developments: Sociology always gives information about the recent changes and developments that takes place in and around us. So that we can act according to the changes. The knowledge about these things makes us conscious about our responsibilities towards society.

Question 36.
Explain the characteristics of institution.
Characteristics of institution
Universal: Social institution are universal in nature. They are found everywhere and at all stages of social development. There can be no society in the absence of institutions. The basic institutions such as marriage, family, property, Religion are observed even in the tribal or primitive societies. Institutions are Standardized Norms: Social institution must be understood as well recognized or standardized procedures and norms. They prescribe the way of doing thing. They also prescribe rules and regulations that are to be followed.

For example – marriage, as an institution that governs the relation between the husband and wife. Similarly the school or college has its own established or standardized rules and procedures. Institutions are Controlling Mechanism: Institutions like religion, education, morality, state, government, legislation etc Control the behavior of man. These mechanisms preserve the social order and give stability to it. Institutions is the machinery through human society carries on its activities. They are like wheels on which human society marches on towards the desirable goals.

Institutions are Relatively Permanent: Institutions normally do not undergo sudden or rapid changes. Changes take place gradually. Many institutions are rigid and enduring. They in course of time became the conservative element in society. Examples- caste, religion etc. But under the pressure of circumstances they also undergo changes.

Abstract in Nature: Institutions are not external visible or tangible things. They are abstract. Thus marriage cannot be kept in a mueseum. Religion cannot be brought to the laboratory experiments and so on. However They can be compared and evaluated on the basis of values and ideologies.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 37.
Examine the role played by different agencies of socialization..
Formal agencies: The School: School is also an important agent of socialization. Teachers in school play – a decisive role in molding child’s personality. Since the family in itself is not fully equipped to prepare the child for adult roles, school has an important role to play. In the school the child gets his education which moulds his ideas and attitudes, school transmits not only required knowledge but also important values such as cooperation, discipline, patriotism, friendship etc. it helps further development of intellectual, emotional and social development already begun in the family. It is a formal agency that socializes the child authoditway.

The Mass Media: The print and audio-visual means of communication have a great role to play in child’s socialization. Newspaper, magazine, text books, television etc., play a lucid role in transmitting culture from one generation to the other. The state may also use them deliberately to educate the mass. They may be used purposively to change the value system.

In traditional and simple societies the agencies of socialization are limited and harmonious in influencing the personality of the individual. In complex societies, however, there are many and diverse agencies, at time working at cross purposes.

State: The state plays an important role in socialization. It is an authoritarian agency. State makes laws for the people and lays down the modes of conduct expected of them. The people have to compulsorily obey these laws. The state has immense power at its command which helps the development of personality of an individual. This will help the individual to adjust with social situation. State makes arrangement to socialize people through the media and other means of communication. State teaches citizens to follow the rules of law and values. State motivates its citizens by rewarding for their achievements.

Formal education: On the other hand is designed, consciously and deliberately given with a planned pursuit what takes place within the four walls of the school, strictly officially in accordance with the curriculum is format instruction. Time table, syllabi, specialized and compartmentalized knowledge, authority pattern, official structure, by laws, disciplines, hierarchy of teachers and class grades, examination system all reflects the formal design of the school and colleges. As it is with the modern social structure characterized by formal institutions and relations in performing economic, industrial, legal and political regulative functions.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 38.
Write the advantages and disadvantages of interview method.
The very term implies “Interviewing is an interactional process, it is a mutual view of each other”.

Structured Interview : has predetermined questions and standard techniques. The number of questions is also fixed. In this method of interview, number and nature of questions, order of asking them, wording of questions, recording system and everything in the interview process is standardized.

Merits of structured Interview:

  • It provides safe basis for th&generalization
  • In this method, interview’s bias can be restricted
  • It is more methodical and easy to administer


  • The rigid and mechanical process, sometimes defeat the purpose of interview. It lacks the flexible nature and personal touch in interview
  • In this method, there is a possibility that substances of interview obtain less importance than formal process and set up.

Unstructured (Oral) Interview: It is not rigid type of interview. In this method, there is flexibility in the entire process of interview. The interview has greater freedom to choose the form depending on situations. The flexibility nature of interview allows the interview to ask number, sequence, and method of questions according to requirements of situations.

Merits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview creates a congenial atmosphere for effective communication.
  • In a highly diverse society of India, the formal set up interview imposes serve limitations on interview. Unstructured interview is the only remedy for this problem

Demerits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview provides respondents to answer differently, this is difficult in analysis of data
  • To administer this type of interview, well trained and skilled persons are required
  • The more number of personal bias and prejudices may be the part of this method.

Merits of Interview method

  • It is possible to obtain highly reliable information and in depth knowledge
  • It is possible to obtain information about the past and also about future plans in a detailed manner.
  • There is a high rate of response
  • Interview method can be used with all types of persons.

Demerits of Interview method

  • There is a possibility of misleading information being given by the interview
  • There can be defects due to the interview who may not be the best person to give information
  • There can be defects due to the bias or prejudice of the interview himself. Interview is a difficult skill and needs training
  • It is a costly and time-consuming method.

VI. Answer any two questions in 15 sentences each. ( 2 × 5 = 10 )

Question 39.
Explain the contributions of Auguste comte in the development of Sociology.
Being one of the pioneers of Sociology, August Comte is the first who introduced the term “Sociology”. Therefore the credit of calling “Father of Sociology” goes to him. August Comte was the first to introduced a new science called “Sociology” and a brief note of his contribution Confirms a new era for the study of sociology. He used the word “Sociology” for the first time in his famous work “positive philosophy” during 1839.

He called sociology as the scientific study of society. He wanted that this science of society should explain the laws of the social world like natural sciences explain the laws of the physical world. August Comte insisted that, study of society needs scientific method with objectivity. He believed that theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behaviour were needed to improve society.

August Comte divided sociology into two parts. They are : (1) social statics and (2) social dynamics. “Social statics” deals with major Institutions such as family, economy, religion, etc. “Social Dynamics” deals with the issue of social change and social progress. Now these words are called in the name of social structure and social change respectively.

According to August Comte, there is a direct relation between intellectuality and social progress. Related to this he explains law of three stages. They are:

(i) The Theological stage: During this stage all human thoughts were guided by religious ideas and faith in the supernatural powers. It emphasizes the belief that everything is attributed to a particular God.

(ii) The metaphysical stage: During this stage, all human thought were guided by “abstract forces” like nature. It is almost like philosophical inquiry into the nature.

(iii) The positive or scientific stage: This is what the stage that everything based on intellectual way of thinking, looking the world. Through this theory Comte tried to establish the fact that man became more and more rational and scientific in his approach. Comte introduced a theory of classification of sciences. Through this theory he emphasized that there is interrelation and interdependence of social sciences.

August Comte as a supporter of the moral order in the society says that sociologists have to taken responsibility of “priesthood of humanity” and should solve the problems of the society. August Comte’s contribution to sociological literature are “Positive Philosophy” and “Positive Polity”.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 40.
Analyse the importance of co-operation in social life.
The importance of Co-operation are:

1. Co-operation is universal and continuous: It is a form of social process is not only universal but also continuous. Co-operation makes possible same understanding and adjustment between individuals and groups without which social life is impossible. Co¬operation is hailed as the very basis of the communication life of men.

2. Perception of common goals: Individual indulging in Co-operative interaction are aware of some goals. The goal may be winning a victory in a battle, winning a hockey match, students making a combined study and so on perception of a common goal often draws people together.

3. Collective work for common rewards: Co-operation involves combined or collective efforts, rewards are normally shared by them, for example the reward may be match victory or profit shared in an Industry.

4. Co-operation is not necessarily unselfish: It is generally believed to be unselfish, but men may also find that their selfish goals are best served by working together with their fellows. Groups may Co-Operate for self-advancement as in the case of a monopoly or mutual protection, or for the welfare of all groups of people.

5. Essential conditions of Co-operation: According to Young and Marck Co-operation takes under some conditions. They are as follows. Firstly, Co-operation requires a motivation to seek a goal. Secondly, people must have some knowledge of the benefits of Co-operative activity. This requires some kind of education and must have a favorable attitude towards sharing both the work and the rewards involved.

6. Psychological qualities necessary for the developing Co-operative attitudes: Co-operation requires sympathy and identification, Sympathy depends upon the capacity of the individual to imagine himself in the place of another, particular when the other person is in difficulties. Mutual aid is another name for Co-operation. Co-operation is possible only when there is like mindedness. Similarity of purpose, mutual awareness, mutual understanding, mutual helpfulness and selfless attitudes.

Question 41.
Explain the importance of computer and internet in social research
Modern society is dominated by Information and Communication Technology. Recent computers perform multi-dimensional functions. Various soft ware packages provide data on different topics. Use of internet provided world wide data on different subjects.

Internet provides more up to data information, very large extent of data which is limitless because traditional print media has limited space in library. Internet access is available for 24 hours a day. research successfully save time, energy and resources due to use of internet.

Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing techniques are common in America. It helps the researcher to collect data systematic way and computer easily store, classify and analyses the responses immediately completion of interview.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 42.
Write about the causes for environmental pollution.
The word Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means all that surrounds us.

Air Pollution:
Air pollution is caused by unwanted and rejected things in the atmosphere around us. According to Oxford dictionary air pollution means “The compounds that get mixed with the atmosphere causes dangerous effects on useful plants, animals and human beings”.

Causes for Air pollution: Man’s activities in the name of the modernization have damaged the living species. Man’s activities are also responsible for polluting air, causing dirt, dust and smoke. The Natural disasters like volcanic eruption, forest fire and bacteria also cause air pollution. Man has created industries, vehicles, atomic energy, excessive use of Petrol and other source of energy like Coal, and different types of mining also cause air pollution.

Water Pollution:
Water is essential for all living things 2/3 portion on the earth is covered by water, 97.2% of water on earth is mixed with solids and rest 2.8% only is left for drinking purpose.

Water pollution occurs in three different forms.

  • Inland pollution.
  • Underground pollution
  • Sea pollution.

Causes for water pollution: Water pollution is due to many factors. Factory wastes, Houses hold wastes and water from agricultural land, all these contributions to water pollution. Biological contamination like gutter water, food processing factories, skin and hide processing factories, insecticides,.drugs, various chemical colours contributes to water pollution.

Noise Pollution
Intolerable sound is considered as sound pollution, because intense sound result in physical and mental stress and also irritation. Sound pollution is also result due to various activities of human begins. Intensity of sound is measured in decibels while talking usual intensity of sound is 60 decibels.

Soil Pollution
The upper most layer of the earth is consisted of “Soil” This soil layer is formed by the natural processes from millions of years. This layer supplies the necessary nutrients essential for the growth of the plants. The soil which feeds the plants is the reason for the existence of all biological system.

The decrease in the quality of the soil and changes in it due to various activities of the humans is called as soil pollution. Soil pollution lessens the productive nature of the soil and destroys the living beings in it and also its rejuvinable process.

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