1st PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 1 Nature of Sociology

Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 1 Nature of Sociology India

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1st PUC Sociology Nature of Sociology One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
How is the term Sociology derived?
Answer:
The term “Sociology” is derived from Latin word “SOCIUS” means “Companion” or “Associate” and Greek word “LOGOS” means “Science” or “Study”.

Question 2.
Who is called the “Father of Sociology”?
Answer:
Auguste Comte.

Question 3.
In which year the term Sociology was introduced.
Answer:
The word Socialogy was introduced in the year 1839.

Question 4.
What is the literal meaning of the word Sociology?
Answer:
The study of society.

Question 5.
State any one definition of Sociology.
Answer:
According to Auguste Comte: “Sociology is the Science of Social phenomena Subject to natural and invariable laws. The discovery of which is the object of investigation”

Question 6.
Mention any one book written by Auguste Comte.
Answer:
“Positive Philosophy”

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Question 7.
Mention Comte’s definition of Sociology.
Answer:
According to Auguste Comte: “Sociology is the Science of Social phenomena Subject to natural and invariable laws. The discovery of which is the object of investigation”

Question 8.
Mention Durkheim definition of Sociology.
Answer:
According to Durkheim: “Sociology is the Science of institutions”

Question 9.
Mention Maclver & page definition of Sociology.
Answer:
According to Maclver and Page: “Sociology is about Social relationships”

Question 10.
What is categorical science?
Answer:
Sociology Studies things “as it is” and not “as it ought to be”. As a Science, Sociology is necessarily silent about the questions of value.

Question 11.
What is pure science?
Answer:
Pure science is a branch for knowledge, without primary concern for its practical use ;

Question 12.
Is sociology a pure science.
Answer:
Yes, Sociology a pure science.

Question 13.
What is an applied science?
Answer:
Applied science is the search for ways of using scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.

Question 14.
Mention any one specific literary source of ancient though.
Answer:
Vedas, Upanishads.

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Question 15.
Mention any one factor that led to the emergence of Sociology.
Answer:
Impact of Twin Revolution: The French Revolution and The Industrial Revolution. Inspiration from the “Growth of Natural and other Social Sciences.

Question 16.
Mention twin revolution that led to the emergence of Sociology.
Answer:
Impact of the twin Revolution are:

  • The French Revolution and
  • The Industrial Revolution.

Question 17.
State any one effect of Industrial Revolution.
Answer:
The revolution led to factory system of production which in turn gave place to mechanization and industrialization.

Question 18.
Mention any one subject matter of sociology.
Answer:
Providing a Sociological analysis of human culture and society.

Question 19.
Mention any one specialised fields of Sociology.
Answer:
Interpersonal Relations, Rural and Urban life marriage and family, Social differentiation are
the specialised fields of Sociology.

Question 20.
Mention any one method which Sociology is making use of in its studies.
Answer:
Method in which Sociology is making use of its study of society, needs scientific method with objectives, were believe theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behavior were needed to improve society.

Question 21.
Write any two social problems of India.
Answer:
India is facing so many social problems like:

  1. Poverty, unemployment.
  2. Corruption.

Question 22.
Who called Sociology as a vehicle to social reform?
Answer:
August Comte

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Question 23.
Mention anyone use of the study of Sociology.
Answer:
Studying sociology will make a change in altitudes and it also gives solution to social problems.

Question 24.
What are the two parts of sociology according to August Comte?
Answer:

  1. Social Statics
  2. Social Dynamics.

Question 25.
Write anyone pioneer of Sociology other than August Comte.
Answer:
Max Weber

Question 26.
Define theological stage.
Answer:
During theological stage all human thoughts were guided by religious ideas and faith in the supernatural powers.

Question 27.
What is positive stage?
Answer:
It is a stage that everything based on intellectual way of thinking looking the world.

Question 28.
Who is “Priests of humanity”?
Answer:
August Comte is the “priests of humanity”.

Question 29.
Which book influenced Spencer very much?
Answer:
“The origin of the Species”.

Question 30.
Write the name of evolution a list influenced Spencer.
Answer:
Militant society and Industrial society”.

Question 31.
Name any one Book written by Spencer.
Answer:
’’Social Statics”, “Principles of Ethics” etc.

Question 32.
Who is the second father of sociology?
Answer:
Herbert Spencer

Question 33.
What is social fact according to Durkhiem?
Answer:
According to Durkheim. A social fact is every way of acting, fixed or not, capable of exercising on the individual an external constraint.

Question 34.
Write anyone specialised field introduced by Durkhiem?
Answer:
General Sociology, sociology of religion,, sociology of morals etc.

Question 35.
Write any one Book written by Durkheim?
Answer:
The Division of Labor in society, The Rules of sociological method etc.

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Question 36.
In which university of India Sociology was first introduced?
Answer:
Bombay university introduced Sociology in India first time.

Question 37.
Write any two names of Indian Sociologist.
Answer:

  1. Dr.GS.Ghurye [Maharashtra]
  2. Dr. M. N. Srinivas [Mumbai]

Question 38.
Who is the Father of Indian sociology?
Answer:
Dr. G. S Ghurye is called Father of sociology.

Question 39.
Who is the source behind the formulation of the Indian sociological study?
Answer:
Dr. G. S Ghurye.

Question 40.
Mention any two Book written by G. S. Ghurge.
Answer:
“Caste and Race in India”, “Scheduled tribes” etc.

Question 41.
Who wrote the book Caste and Race in India?
Answer:
Dr. G. S. Ghurye.

Question 42.
Who is the famous sociologist of Karnataka?
Answer:
Dr. M. N. Srinivas.

Question 43.
Write any one concept introduced by M.N. Rinivas.
Answer:
Analysing the process of social change in India he introduced the concept of “Sanskritisation”, “Westernization” and “Dominate caste”.

Question 44.
Who is the First women sociologist of India?
Answer:
Dr. Iravati Karve was the First women sociologist of India.

Question 45.
Who wrote the book Kinship organization in India?
Answer:
Dr. Iravati Karve.

Question 46.
Who introduced the concept of Deconstruction?
Answer:
Jacques Derrida introduced the concept of Deconstruction.

Question 47.
Who introduced the concept of Structuration?
Answer:
F.H. Giddings introduced the concept of Structuration.

Question 48.
Who introduced the concept of Habitius?
Answer:
Bourdieu introduced the concept of Habitius.

1st PUC Sociology Nature of Sociology Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is Sociology?
Answer:
This is a continuous pursuit of knowledge human being has invented various branches of knowledge According to Auguste Comte : “Sociology is the Science of Social phenomena Subject to natural and invariable laws. The discovery of which is the object of investigation”.

Question 2.
Mention Comte’s definition of Sociology.
Answer:
According to Auguste Comte: “Sociology is the Science of Social phenomena Subject to natural and invariable laws. The discovery of which is the object of investigation”.

Question 3.
Mention Max Weber’s definition of Sociology.
Answer:
According to Max Weber “Sociology is the science which attempts the interpretative understanding of social action in order there by to arrive at causal explanation of its cause and effects”.

Question 4.
State Ginsberg’s definitions of Sociology.
Answer:
According to Morris Ginsberg “In the broadest Sense, Sociology is the study of human interactions and interrelations. Their conditions and consequences”.

Question 5.
Give H. M. Johnson’s definition of sociology.
Answer:
According to Harry, M. Johnson “Sociology is the science that deals with Social groups”.

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Question 6.
Give an example to support the view that Sociology is an Abstract science.
Answer:
It does not limit itself to the study of any particular war or revolution. On the contrary, it deals with them in general or abstract Mannar, as social phenomena.

Question 7.
Mention any two factors that led to the beginning of sociology.
Answer:

  1. The great intellectual process of Renaissance
  2. Reformation and enlightenment gave a big impact to begin sociology.

Question 8.
State any literary sources of ancient India Social thought.
Answer:
“Vedas”, “Upanishads”, “Puranas”, etc.

Question 9.
Mention any two social effects if Industrial Revolution.
Answer:
The social effects of Industrial Revolution were many. They are:

  • The revolution led to factory system of production which in turn gave place to mechanisation and industrialisation
  • The simple rural life and domestic industries were replaced by complex urban life and mass production of goods.

Question 10.
Mention any two primary units of social life according to Alex Inkeles.
Answer:
The primary units are. The area are concerned with- social acts and social relationships,
” individual personality, groups of all varieties communities etc.

Question 11.
Name the two books of August Comte.
Answer:
Positive Philosophy and Positive polity.

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Question 12.
Mention any two subject matter of sociology.

  1. Providing a sociological analysis of human culture and society.
  2. Analyzing the primary units of social life.

Question 13.
Mention any four specialized fields of Sociology?
Answer:

  1. Interpersonal relations
  2. Rural and urban life
  3. Marriage and family
  4. Social differentiation.

Question 14.
Is Sociology helpful in tacking social problems? How?
Answer:
Yes, “Sociology gives valuable suggestions to solve”.

Question 15.
Mention any two important use of Sociology?
Answer:

  1. Development of personality
  2. Change in Attitudes
  3. Solution of social problems
  4. Social planning and policy making.

Question 16.
Mention Comte’s Law of three Stages.
Answer:

  1. The Theological stage
  2. The Metaphysical stage
  3. The positive stage.

Question 17.
Why August Comte is called as the father of sociology?
Answer:
Auguste Comte is called father of Sociology, because he is the first to introduced a new science called “Sociology” and a brief note of his contributions confirms a new era for the study of sociology.

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Question 18.
What are the two types of society introduced by Spencer?
Answer:

  1. Militant Society
  2. Industrial society.

Question 19.
Write any two famous books written by Durkheim.
Answer:

  1. “The Division of Labour in Society”
  2. “The Rules of sociological method”.

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Question 20.
Mention any two types of suicide according to Durkheim.
Answer:

  1. Egoistic suicide
  2. Anomic suicide
  3. Altruistic suicide.

Question 21.
Write any two Indian sociologists?
Answer:

  1. Dr. G. S. Ghurye
  2. Dr. M. N. Srinivas
  3. Dr. Iravati Karve.
  4. A. R. Desai.

Question 22.
Which are the concepts introduced by M. N. Srinivasa?
Answer:
Sanskritization, Westernization and Dominate Caste.

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1st PUC Sociology Nature of Sociology Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is sociology? Explain by citing at least three definition of Sociology.
Answer:
The term “Sociology” is derived from Latin word “SOCIUS” meaning ‘Companion’ or ‘Associate’ and Greek word “LOGOS” means ‘Science’ or ‘Study’. Thus the etymological meaning of the term Sociology is “study of Society”. Some of the definitions of Sociology are: August Comte, the founding father of sociology, defines Sociology as “The Science of social phenomena subject to natural and invariable laws. The discovery of which is the object of investigation.”

  • Maclver and Page says that “Sociology is about Social relationships.”
  • Emile Durkheim defines “Sociology is the Science of Social institutions.”
  • Max Weber says “Sociology is the science which attempts the interpretative understanding of social action in order there by to arrive at causal explanation of its course and effects.”
  • Harry M. Johnson said that “Sociology is the science that deals with Social groups.”
  • Morris Ginsberg says “In the broadest Sense, Sociology, is the study of human interactions and interrelationships, their conditions and consequences.”

Question 2.
Examine briefly nature and characteristics of sociology.
Answer:
The nature and characteristics of sociology can be summarised in the following way :
Sociology is an Independent Science: Sociology is not treated and studied as a branch of any other Science like philosophy or political philosophy. As an independent science it has its own subject matter, theories and method of approach.

Sociology is a Social Science not a physical Science: Sociology belongs to the Social Science and not to the physical science. As a Social Science it concentrates its attention on man, his Social behaviour, Social activities and Social life. It is intimately related to other social Sciences like anthropology, Political Science, economics, and Psychology, etc.

Sociology is a categorical not a Normative Discipline: Sociology Studies things “as it is” and “not as they ought to be”. As a Science, Sociology is necessarily silent about the questions of value. It does not make any kind of value-judgements. Its approaches neither moral nor immoral but amoral. It is ethically neutral. It cannot decide the directions in which Sociology ought to go. Sociology is a pure Science not an Applied science: Sociology is a pure science, because the immediate aim of Sociology is the acquisition of knowledge.

On the contrary an applied science is interested in the application or utilization of that knowledge. Sociologists never determine questions of public policy and do not recommend legislators what laws should be passed or repealed. But the knowledge acquired by a Sociologist is of great help to the administrator, legislators, diplomats, teachers, Social workers, & citizens, i Sociology is relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science Sociology does not confine itself to the study of particular or concrete instances of human events.

But it. studies the abstract forms of human events and their patterns. For example, it does not limit ‘ itself to the Study of any particular war or revolution. On the contrary it deals with them in a I general or abstract manner, as Social phenomena, i.e., as types of Social conflict. In a similar manner, it makes such generalized Studies of marriage, religion, family, group, etc.

Sociology is a Generalising and not a particularising science: Sociology tries to make generalisations on the basis of the study of some selected events. For example, a Sociologist make generalizations on the following:

  1. Joint families are more stable than the nuclear families.
  2. Social changes tale place with greater rapidity in urban communities than in tribal or rural communities.

Sociology is a General Social Science and not a special Social Science: The area of enquiry of Sociology is general and not specialized. It is concerned with human activities whether they are political, economic, religious, social, etc., in a general way.

Finally Sociology is both an Empirical and a Rational Science: Sociology is an empirical science because it emphasises the facts that result from observation and experimentation, it rests on trial, or experiment or experience. It is a rational Science because it stresses the role of reasoning and logical inferences. An empiricist collects facts where as a rationalist co-ordinates and arranges them. All modem science including Sociology avail themselves of both empirical and rational resources.

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Question 3.
Analyse the role of the twin revolutions in the emergence of sociology.
Answer:
Influence of the French revolutions (1789): The French Revolution was the most immediate factor in the rise of sociological thinking, the new political climate emphasized liberty, equality, emity, justice, individual right & thinking. The writers and thinkers of the day were particularly I disturbed by the chaos and disorder which the Revolution brought in.

Some of the radical I thinkers sought the need to find out new bases of social order or system which had been disturbed by the political revolutions. This interest in the issue of social order evinced by the social thinkers ultimately supported the cause of the emergence of sociology. The impact of the Industrial Revolution: the Industrial Revolution that began in England 1 in the 18th century swept through many western societies.

The Social effects of Industrial I Revolution were many. The revolution led to a factory system of production which in turn gave, place to mechanisation and industrialization. The simple rural life and domestic industries were replaced by complex urban life and mass production of goods. Industrialization changed the direction of civilisation.

Question 4.
Explain Alex Inkle’s views about the subject matter of Sociology.
Answer:
Alex Inkle’s in his book “What is Sociology?” has provided a general outline of the fields of Sociology on which there is considerable agreement among sociologists. It could be presented in the following manner:

1. Providing a sociological analysis of human culture and society: The major concern of sociology is human society and its culture. A sociologist seeks to provide an analysis of human society and culture with Sociological perspective. He evinces interest in the evolution of society and tries to reconstruct the major stages in the evolutionary process. An attempt is also made “to analyses the factors and forces underlying historical transformations of society”. Due importance is given to the scientific method that is adopted in the sociological studies.

2. Analysing the primary units: Sociology has given sufficient attention to the study of primary units of social life. In this area it is concerned with social acts and social relationships, individual personality, groups of all varieties, communities(urban, rural and tribal), association organisations and population.

3. Studying the Nature and Functions of Basic Social Institutions: Social Institutions constitute the basic fabric the society. Any social system is built on the foundation of social institutions. Institutions such as – the family and kinship religions and morality, Economic and political, legal and educational, scientific and aesthetic, recreational and expressive, medical and welfare, etc. Serve the most important needs of man. Sociology develops deep into the study of the origin and development, structure and function, changes and challenges of a wide variety of social institutions.

4. Sociology throws Light on the Fundamental social processes: Human society is neither static nor uniform. It is dynamic and diverse. This dynamic element in society is reflected by what are known as “social processes”. They reveal the way in which human interaction assume different patterns and courses in social life. The social processes such as co-operation and competition, accommodation, and assimilation, social conflict and communication, social differentiation and stratification, socialisation social control and deviance, social integration and social change, etc., assume prominence in sociological studies.

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Question 5.
Explain the role of August Comte in the development of Sociology?
Answer:
Being one of the pioneers of Sociology, August Comte is the first who introduced the term “Sociology”. Therefore the credit of calling “Father of Sociology” goes to him. August Comte was the first to introduced a new science called “Sociology” and a brief note of his contribution Confirms a new era for the study of sociology. He used the word “Sociology” for the first time in his famous work “positive philosophy” during 1839.

He called sociology as the scientific study of society. He wanted that this science of society should explain the laws of the social world like natural sciences explain the laws of the physical world. August Comte insisted that, study of society needs scientific method with objectivity. He believed that theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behaviour were needed to improve society.

August Comte divided sociology into two parts. They are : (1) social statics and (2) social dynamics. “Social statics” deals with major Institutions such as family, economy, religion, etc. “Social Dynamics” deals with the issue of social change and social progress. Now these words are called in the name of social structure and social change respectively.

According to August Comte, there is a direct relation between intellectuality and social progress. Related to this he explains law of three stages. They are:

(i) The Theological stage: During this stage all human thoughts were guided by religious ideas and faith in the supernatural powers. It emphasizes the belief that everything is attributed to a particular God.

(ii) The metaphysical stage: During this stage, all human thought were guided by “abstract forces” like nature. It is almost like philosophical inquiry into the nature.

(iii) The positive or scientific stage: This is what the stage that everything based on intellectual way of thinking, looking the world. Through this theory Comte tried to establish the fact that man became more and more rational and scientific in his approach. Comte introduced a theory of classification of sciences. Through this theory he emphasized that there is interrelation and interdependence of social sciences.

August Comte as a supporter of the moral order in the society says that sociologists have to taken responsibility of “priesthood of humanity” and should solve the problems of the society. August Comte’s contribution to sociological literature are “Positive Philosophy” and “Positive Polity”.

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Question 6.
Explain the role of Herbert Spencer in the development of Sociology?
Answer:
Herbert Spencer is one of pioneers of Sociology and it has been described Herbert Spencer’s Sociology as socially Darwinistic. Herbert Spencer has been called as “Second Father Sociology.”

Being a famous evolutionist, Spencer was very much influenced by Charles Darwin’s book “The origin of the species”. He tried to apply the theory of Biological evolution to Sociology. Spencer used the concept of evolution of animals to explain the evolution of society and he compares the society to human organism. His theory of organic analogy was very much popular earlier even though it has been rejected now. Spencer claimed that man’s mind has evolved in the same way from the simple automatic responses of lower animals to the process of reasoning in the thinking of man.

Spencer believed in two kinds of knowledge: knowledge gained by the individual and knowledge gained by the race. He also developed a theory of two types of society. They are (1) militant society (2) Industrial society. These are corresponded to the evolutionary progression. Thus according to him society is changing from simple form to complex form. Spencer stressed that the whole society should be considered as a unit of society.

According to him the different parts of society are interrelated and interdependent, not only the parts influence the whole system, but also the whole system influences the parts. While explaining the stages of the development of society his attitude of comparison draws a special attention. Major works of Herbert Spencer are “Social Statics”, “First Principles”, “Principles of ‘ Ethics”, “The Man Versus State”, “The study of sociology”, Principles of sociology”.

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Question 7.
Briefly write the contributions of Durkheim to the enrichment of Sociologists.
Answer:
Emile Durkheim was definitely one of the most important contributors to sociological knowledge. His “comparative method” leads to the importance of studying different types of society comparatively. Durkheim believed that we must study social life with the same objectivity as scientists study the natural world. He was the first sociologist who emphasized the reality of society. He introduced “Rules of sociological method” to carry out the scientific study of „ society.

Durkheim’s opinion is that man’s social behavior has to understand not by personal view but by social background. He says that human event is called “social”. According to him, we perform every action in the interest of society. Our duties and practices are defined through law and custom. We have not created the duties, but have inherited them through our education these types of conduct are called ‘social facts’ in the words of Durkheim.

“A social fact is every way of acting, fixed or not. Capable of exercising on the individual an entemal constraint. Durkheim used the theory of “Anomie” in his book on the Davison of labor in society. To him suicide is a social fact that takes place due to external force. He outlined four types of suicide. They are (1) Egoistic suicide (2)Anomie suicide (3)Altruistic suicide (4)Fatalistic suicide.

Durkheim was impressed by the fact that religion is universal in human society and he felt that religion plays vital role in maintaining society as whole religious beliefs emerges from society and helps to hold the society together. Durkheim laid foundation for various specialized fields of study like General Sociology, sociology of religion, sociology of morals, sociology of law, sociology of crime, economic sociology and sociology of aesthetics, etc.

The major works of Emile Durkheim are “The division of Labour in society”, “Suicide”, “The Rules of sociological method”, “The Elementary forms of religious Life”.

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Question 8.
Write briefly about G.S.Ghurye and Iravathi Karve as Indian sociologists.
Answer:
Dr GS.Ghurye: Dr. Ghurye played a key role in popularizing Sociology in India. Therefore he is called as the “Father of Indian Sociology”. The fame of functioning as the first head of the Department of Sociology goes to Dr. Ghurye. He is also recognized as the leading expert in the field of Sociology. Dr. Ghurye carried a elaborate study of “Cap caste and races in India”. He has elaborately written on origin of caste, regional existence of caste and its characteristics, impact of British rule on caste, caste in politics etc.

His study on rural culture has also gained importance in the field od Sociology. Studied on major deities, ancient civilization, role of sudhus and sanyasis was also included in his analysis. He has also written on Bharatnatyam and its costumes. He also covered studies in Rajput, literature, Shakespeare, Comte, contemporary problems in India. Totally his works present a logical continuity from the past to present to the immediate future. Dr. Ghurye has written “Caste and Race in India”, “Scheduled Tribes”, “Social tension in India”, “Vedic India”.

Dr. Iravathi Karve: Dr.Iravati Karve has been recognised as a renowned and brilliant sociologist. As a student of Dr. G.S.Ghurye, Dr.Iravati Karve was the first “Women Sociologist in India”. Dr. Iravati Karve’s field of studies is very much extensive that Indian society social institutions and kinship are her specialised interest of studies. Understanding Indian society and its institutions on the basis of kinship was her main effort. “Kinship organisation in India”, in his famous book “Hindu Society- an interpretation”, Land and people of Maharashtra, “Family of India” and more than seven books were written by Dr.Iravati Karve.

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Question 9.
Distinguish between Sociology and common sense.
Answer:
Many times Sociology is charged with what it studies, we have at least a bit of knowledge about it or we have experienced it. Sometimes in our own lives or we know it through our popular wisdom. This knowledge, while sometimes accurate, is not always reliable, because it rests on commonly held beliefs rather than systematic analysis of facts. It was once considered ‘common sense’ to accept that the earth was flat. This was questioned by Pythagoras and Aristotle. Such notions still remain with us today.

For thousands of years people’s common sense told them that big objects fall faster than small ones, that stone and iron were perfectly. Solid materials, that the desire for children is instinctive in women, that with the spread of education, the institutions of caste and dowry will automatically wither away, yet today we know that none of these statement are true. These common sense statement s based on popular wisdom illustrate our point that common sense knowledge is not always true.

Some popular observations may be true but many others are not supported by empirical data. Many .common sense conclusions are based on guesses, hunches, ignorance, prejudices, mistaken interpretation and haphazard trial and error learning. Common sense can lead us astray when we are studying other societies and also when we are studying our own society. Like other scientists, sociologists do not accept something as a fact because “everyone knows it”. Instead, each piece of information must be tested and recorded, then analysed in relationship to other data. Sociology relies on facts gathered scientifically in order to describe, understand and predict about many social phenomena. ‘

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Question 10.
Mention any five famous sociologists of 20th century?
Answer:
The famous sociologists of 20 century are
Pierre Bourdieu (1930): For Bourdieu the objective of sociology is to unveil the hidden culture of the society. For achieving this objective, sociologist should study cultural practices of the masses rather than classes. As such sociology should take up cultural analysis as their primary concern to uncover the political uses of science, the authority of science Physical or economic science, not to mention the biological or sociology, of the advanced forms of racism. Being a neo-Marxist, he emphasized on the culture of which is against the established culture.

What should be the shape of sociology? Answering this question, Bourdieu in his later works. The Logic of Practice (1990) and Craft of Sociology (1991) observed that the subjective and objective aspects of social life are inescapably bound together, as such there is no fun in the dualism of macro versus micro and structure versus agency, Instead, he calls for a constructivist approach to sociology, transcending both essentialism and all ideas taken for granted in everyday life.

Jurgen Habermas (1929): Jurgen Habermas is perhaps the most influential social thinker today with an explicit allegiance to Marxist thought. He is known as a best spokesman of the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory. Habermas has severely critised positivism. In his opinion, it has limited our understanding of natural and the social world. He focused particularly on three major contributions which have become prominent in the 1960s: (1) The phenomenological sociology (2) Anthropological extension of Wittgenstein’s notation of language games, and (3) Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics.

He has been a serve critique of capitalist societies in which, according to him, change is ever present tend to destroy the moral order on which they in fact depend. We live in a social order where economic growth tends to take precedence over all else but this situation creates a back of meaning in everyday life.

Jacques Derrida (1930): French philosofher and post- modernist, who himself declined to be called as sociologist, but who has definitely made imprint on the modern sociology is Jacques Derrida. His ideas are developed primarily from linguisrics. Through his popular concept deconstruction, he has pleaded for the deconstruction of sociological texts. In his opinion, these texts demystified the social reality.

They do always unveil the truth of society. By deconstruction, Derrida means that the textual reading is hot always correct, it does not lead us to know the reality of society. Deconstruction brings out what texts exclude by showing what operates as in decidable in the texts itself. It is the task of sociology to deconstruct the narratives of the texts through the explicit and implicit analyses.

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Question 11.
Consider Sociology as a pure science.
Answer:
Pure science is a branch for knowledge, without primary concern for practical use. Knowledge for knowledge sake is the main aim of a pure scientist. Scientists, who seek knowledge for its own sake, no more moved by the question of its, utility like the mother and the father who protect and nourish their children without expecting any thing inretum parents commonly love their children without calculating their usefulness.

Many students/ researchers of science feel much the same thing about their work. Pure sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Botany, Physiology, Psychology, Anthropology, Political Science, Sociology, etc) are concerned with the advancement of knowledge. Their main aim is to investigate the underlined principles of the natural and social world which sustain and change in the natural and social order.

They are not concerned w ith the practical applications of their results or curing the immediate ills of natural or social orders. The goal of each natural science, including sociology is the formulation of scientific laws. Sociology is a pure science, not an applied one. The immediate goal of sociology is the acquisition of knowledge about the human society, not the utilization of that knowledge.

Question 12.
Consider Sociology as an applied science.
Answer:
Applied science is the search for ways of using scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. This science which apply the principles of knowledge are used principles to manipulate something something, gained from the basic or pure sciences, are known as applied sciences. All branches of engineering, medicine, architecture, and social work come under this category of applied sciences. An applied science has quite opposite aim and intent than a pure science.

It is not concern with the theory or formulation of laws or development and systemization of principles. The social sciences like all the sciences have dual function. They serve to help the people to solve their problems and at the same time to explore and to understand the world around them. As such, there is an interest in application and an interest in understanding as well.

When social scientific findings are applied to the solutions of social problems, it is called applied sociology. Sociology as an applied discipline which uses knowledge of the pure social scientists to improve social life. Immediately, sociology seeks to understand the fundamental mechanism „ of social reality but the desire to understand is always motivated by the wish to control. The main aim of applied sociology is to bring social welfare in society through social scientific investigation.

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Question 13.
Write the five main branches of applied Sociology.
Answer:
Applied Sociology may be divided into five main branches:

  1. Clinical Sociology
  2. Social engineering
  3. Social work
  4. Applied social research
  5. Action Sociology

Question 14.
Mention the new perspective development by Modern Sociologists to study society?
Answer:
All science are useful to the human begins in one or the other manner. Professor Giddings says, “Sociology tells us how to become what we want to become”. The study of Sociology has a great practical importance in the modern complex society which is as follows:

1. Development of Personality: Man is fundamental a social being. He has to adjust to the changing conditions of the society’. In order to adjust, he is in need of knowledge of the society. Sociology gives a scientific and a comprehensive knowledge of human society. The scientific knowledge about the structure of society, its development, change, problems, individuals rights and obligations etc, makes not only individual an enlighten member of the society, but also leads to the development of his personality in a proper manner.

2. Change in Attitudes: Sociology is useful in developing rational attitudes towards society, religion, customs, mores, institutions, values; ideologies etc. Sociology plays a important role in changing the attitudes towards others. The study of Sociology helps us to overcome prejudices about others people, class, caste, religious hat redness, misconceptions, ambitions, Totally Sociology helps us to develop a critical approach towards the Social World, so that we can have better relations with the people of not only our society, but also with people of other societies Solution of Social Problems: Every society is facing its own problems.

For ex, India is facing so many social problems like Poverty, Unemployment, Terrorism, Corruption, Untouchability Prostitution, Gambling, Over population, Beggary etc. they deep study of these problems is necessary to solve them, Sociology helps us to make an objective study of social problems. It’s also gives valuable suggestions to solve.

3. Social Planning and Policy Making: Sociology is playing a key role in social planning and policy making Sociological knowledge is very much useful and the service and suggestions of expert sociologists are sought even in the formulations of Government Policies, Social legislations, regarding family, population control, child labour, environment pollution, beggary, etc,

4. To promote Welfare of the Backward and Weaker Section of the Societyrln India SC’s, ST’s and other weaker sections are explained social economic & political field for centuries. To promote welfare programmers for these groups sociological knowledge is necessary.

5. Sociology as a Attractive Teaching Subject: Sociology is gaining importance as a popular teaching subject, Carriers apart from teaching are now possible in Sociology, Sociology is introduced as one of the subject to be studied in many colleges and Universities, Sociology is also included in the subjects to be offered by candidates taking competitive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS and KES etc. there are many employment opportunities in-many fields like Education, social Welfare, Family Welfare, Public Administration, Women and Child Welfare Department etc.

Role of Sociology in developing countries: Social factors are also responsible for the economic backwardness particularly in under developed countries. Economists have now realized the importance of sociological information and knowledge in analyzing the economic life goes their countries. So, it has been said that “Economist should be Sociologist also”.

6. Sociological Knowledge about modern situations and developments: Sociology always gives information about the recent changes and development that takes place in and around us. So that, we can act according to the changes. The knowledge about these things makes us conscious about our responsibilities towards society.

Conclusion: We can be convinced of the importance or uses of Sociology by the above explanation. Is has both personal and social advantages. The question of the value of Sociology is therefore not a question of whether or not should have such a science, but a question of how the knowledge acquired by it can be used.

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Question 15.
Explain EW Burgess Classification of Institution?
Answer:
EW Burgess has offered fourfold classification:

  • Cultural institutions for transmitting social heritage like family, school and religious institution
  • Economic institutions for organizing of services of utility like bank, labor union, commercial and industrial enterprises.
  • Recreational institution for satisfying human desire of entertainment amusement and play etc.
  • Social control institutions for solving problem of society and personality.

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1st PUC Sociology Nature of Sociology Ten Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define Sociology? Describe its characteristics?
Answer:
Sociology is the youngest among the Social Sciences. The term “Sociology” is derived from Latin word “Socius” means ‘Companion’ or ‘Associate’ and Greek word “LOGOS” means ‘Science’ or ‘Study of Society’. Thus the etymological meaning of the term Sociology is “Study of Society”.

The nature and characteristics of sociology can be summarised in the following way :

1. Sociology is an independent science: Sociology is not treated and studied as a branch of any other science like philosophy or political philosophy. As an independent science, it has its own field of study, boundary and method of approach.

2. Sociology is a Social Science and not a physical Science: Sociology belongs to the Social Science and not to Physical Science. As a social science, it concentrates its attention on man, his Social behavior, Social Activities, and Social life. It is intimately related to other social Sciences like Anthropology, Political Science, Economics, Psychology, etc.

3. Sociology is a categorical and not a Normative Discipline: Sociology Studies things “as it is” and not “as they ought to be”. As a Science, Sociology is necessarily silent about the questions of value. It does not make any kind of value-judgements. Its approaches neither moral nor immoral but amoral. It is ethically neutral. It cannot decide the directions in which Sociology ought to go.

4. Sociology is a pure science and not an Applied science: Sociology is a pure Science because the immediate aim of Sociology is the acquisition of knowledge. On the contrary an applied science is interested in the application or utilization of that knowledge. Sociologists never determine questions of public policy and do not recommend legislators what laws should be passed or repealed. But the knowledge acquired by a Sociologist is of great help to the administrator, legislators, diplomats, teachers, social workers, and citizens.

5. Sociology is relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science: Sociology does not confine itself to the study of particular or concrete instances of human events. But it studies the abstract forms of human events and their patterns. For example, it does not limit itself to the study of any particular war or revolution. On the contrary, it deals with them in a general or abstract manner, as social phenomena, i.e., as types of Social conflict. In a similar manner, it makes such generalized Studies of marriage, religion, family, group, etc.

6. Sociology is a Generalising and not a particularising science: Sociology tries to make generalizations on the basis of the study of some selected events. For example, a sociologist make generalizations on the following:

  • Joint families are more stable than the nuclear families.
  • Social changes tale place with greater rapidity in urban communities than in tribal or rural communities.

7. Sociology is a General Social science and not a Special Social Science: The area of inquiry of Sociology is general and not specialized. It is concerned with human activities whether they are political, economic, religious, social, etc., in a general way.

8. Sociology is both an Empirical and a Rational Science: Sociology is an empirical science because, it emphasises the facts that result from observation and experimentation, it rests on trial, or experiment or experience. It is a rational Science because it stresses that role of reasoning and logical inferences. An empiricist collects facts where as a rationalist co-ordinates and arranges them. All modern science including Sociology avail themselves of both empirical and rational resources.

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Question 2.
Examine the factors that contributed to the emergence of Sociology.
Answer:
The major factors which favoured the emergence of Sociology are as follows:
(a) Impact of the Twin Revolution: Sociology emerged in the context of the sweeping changes that the twin revolutions, namely (a) The French Revolution and (b) The Industrial Revolution, brought to Europe.

1.  Influence of the French revolutions (1789): The French Revolution was the most immediate factor in the rise of sociological thinking, the new political climate emphasised liberty, equality, fraternity, justice, individual right and thinking. The writers and thinkers of the day were particularly disturbed by the chaos and disorder which the Revolution brought in. Some of the radical thinkers sought the need to find out new bases of social order or system which had been disturbed by the political revolutions. This interest in the issue of social order evinced by the social thinkers ultimately supported the cause of the emergence of sociology.

2. The impact of the industrial revolution: The Industrial Revolution that began in England in the 18th century swept through many western societies. The social effects of Industrial Revolution were many. The revolution led to factory system of production which in turn gave place to mechanisation and industrialisation. The simple rural life and domastic industries were replaced by complex urban life and mass production of goods. Industrialisation changed the direction of civilisation. Peasants left the rural areas and flocked towns, Cities started growing at a very fast rate. Cities also became the centres of crime, Political orders and religious beliefs were also adversely affected.

(b) Inspiration from the growth of natural and other social sciences: The age of Enlightenment and the era of Revolutions increased the importance of Science in Society. Science subjects came to introduced as major subjects of learning in several colleges and universities in the west. Further technological products from coal to steam engines, from sward tq hand gun and canons, from pen and paper to printing press, and the like started entering almost all sectors of life. Science thus, started acquiring enormous prestige in society.

The success attained by the natural scientists inspired and even tempted good number of social thinkers to imitate their example. Many thinkers wanted to model Sociology after the successful physical and biological sciences. Comte, Durkheim, Spencer, Weber, Simmel and others successfully demonstrated that the methods of physical sciences could be used effectively to study the social world.

(c) Inspiration provided by the newly discovered societies and cultures: The colonial powers of Europe such as England, France, Portugal, Spain, Holland, Germany, and other nations came in contact with different societies and cultures in the colonies. Their exposures to such diversities in cultures provided an intellectual challenge for the social scientists of the day. Information about the widely contrasting social practices of these distant peoples raised fresh questions about society! The new science of society called “Sociology” emerged as an independent science in an attempt to find convincing answer to these and to many such questions.

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Question 3.
Examine the subject matter of Sociology.
Answer:
Alex Inkle’s in his book “what is Sociology?” has provided a general outline of the fields of Sociology on which there is considerable agreement among sociologists. It could be presented in the following manner:

(1) Providing a sociological analysis of human culture and society: The major concern ,. of Sociology is human society and its culture. A sociologist seeks to provide an analysis of ” human society and culture with a Sociological perspective. He evinces interest in the 1 evolution of society and tries to reconstruct the maj or stages in the evolutionary process.

An attempt is also made to “analyse the factors and forces underlying historical Transformations of society”. Due importance is given to the scientific method that is adopted in the sociological studies.

(2) Analysing the primary units of social life: Sociology has given sufficient attention to the study of primary units of social life. In this area it is concerned with social acts and social relationships, individual personality, groups of all varieties, communities(urban, rural and tribal), association organisations and population.

(3) Studying the Nature and Functions of Basic Social Institutions: Social Institutions constitute the basic fabric the society. Any social system is built on the foundation of social institutions. Institutions such as – the family and kinship religions and morality, Economic and political, legal and educational, scientific and aesthetic, recreational and expressive, medical and welfare, etc. Serve the most important needs of man. Sociology. develops deep into the study of the origin and development, structure and function, changes ’ and challenges of a wide variety of social institutions.

(4) Sociology throws Light on the Fundamental social processes: Human society is neither static nor uniform, it is dynamic and diverse. This dynamic element in society is reflected by what are known as “social processes”. They reveal the way in which human interaction assume different patterns and courses in social life. The social processes such as co-operation and competition, accommodation, and assimilation, social conflict and communication, social differentiation and stratification, socialisation social control and deviance, social integration and social change, etc., assume prominence in sociological studies.

In the present era of explosion of knowledge, sociologists have ventured to make specialisations also, thus, today good number of specialised fields of inquiry are emerging out. Sociology of knowledge, Sociology of history, Sociology of culture, Sociology of religion, Sociology of family, etc., represent such specialised fields.

Question 4.
Describe the contributions of Comte and Spencer towards the development of Sociology.
Answer:
August Comte: Being one of the pioneers of Sociology, August Comte is the first who introduced the term “Sociology”. Therefore the credit of calling “Father of Sociology” goes to.him. August Comte was the first to introduce a new science called “Sociology” and a brief note of his contribution confirms a new era for the study of Sociology. He used the word “Sociology” for the first time in his famous work “Positive Philosophy” during 1839. He called Sociology as the scientific study of society. He wanted that this science of society should explain the laws of the social world like natural sciences explain the laws of the physical world.

August Comte insisted that the study of society needs scientific method with objectivity. He believed that theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behaviour were needed to improve society.

August Comte divided Sociology into two parts. They are : (1) Social statics and (2) social dynamics. “Social statics” deals with major institutions such as family, economy, religion, etc. “Social Dynamics” deals with the issue of social change and social progress. Now these . words are called in the name of social structure and social change respectively.

According to August Comte, there is a direct relation between intellectuality and social progress. Related to this he explains law of three stages. They are:
(i) The Theological stage: During this stage all human thoughts were guided by religious ideas and faith in the supernatural powers. It emphasizes the belief that everything is attributed to a particular God.

(ii) The metaphysical stage: During this stage, all human thought were guided by “abstract forces” like nature. It is almost like philosophical inquiry into the nature.

(iii) The positive or scientific stage: This is what the stage that everything based on intellectual way of thinking, looking the world. Through this theory Comte tried to establish the fact that man became more and more rational and scientific in his approach. Comte introduced a theory of classification of sciences.

Through this theory he emphasized that there is interrelation and interdependence of social sciences. August Comte as a supporter of the moral order in the society says that sociologists have taken responsibility of “priesthood of humanity” and should solve the problems of the society. August Comte’s contribution to sociological literature are “Positive Philosophy” and “Positive Polity”

Herbert Spencer: Herbert Spencer is one of pioneers of Sociology and it has been described Herbert Spencer’s Sociology as socially Darwinistic. Herbert Spencer has been called as “Second Father of Sociology.” Being a famous evolutionist, Spencer was very much influenced by Charles Darwin’s book “The Origin of Species”. He tried to apply the theory of Biological evolution to Sociology.

Spencer used the concept of evolution of animals to explain the evolution of society and he compares the society to human organism. His theory of organic analogy was very much popular earlier even though it has been rejected now. Spencer claimed that man’s mind has evolved in the same way from the simple automatic responses of lower animals to the process of reasoning in the thinking of man. Spencer believed in two kinds of knowledge: knowledge gained by the individual and knowledge gained by the Race. He also developed a theory of two types of society.

They are (1) Militant society (2) Industrial society. These are corresponded to the evolutionary progression. Thus according to him society is changing from simple form to complex form. Spencer stressed that the whole society should be considered as a unit of society. According to him the different parts of society are interrelated and interdependent, not only the parts influence the whole system, but also the whole system influences the parts. While explaining the stages of the development of society his attitude of comparison draws a special attention.

Major works of Herbert Spencer are “Social Statics”, “First Principles”, “Principles of ethics”, “The Man Versus State”, “The study of Sociology”, Principles of Sociology”

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Question 5.
Explain the uses of Sociology:
Answer:
a. Development of Personality : Man is fundamentally a social being. He has to adjust to the changing conditions of the society. Sociology gives a scientific and a comprehensive knowledge of human society. The scientific knowledge about the structure of society, its development, change, problems, individual rights and obligations, etc., makes not only individual an enlighten member of the society, but also leads to the development of his personality in a proper manner.

b. Change in attitudes: Sociology is useful in developing rational attitude towards society, religion, customs, mores, institutions, values, ideologies, etc. Sociology plays an important role in changing the attitudes towards others. The study of Sociology helps us to overcome prejudices about others people, class, caste, religious hatredness, misconceptions ambitions. Totally Sociology helps us to develop a critical approach towards the ‘ Social World’, So that, we can have better relations with the people of not only our society but also with the people of other societies.

c. Solutions of Social Problems: Every society is facing its own problems. For example, India is facing so many problems like poverty, unemployment, terrorism, corruption, untouchability, prostitution, gambling, over population, beggary, etc. The deep study of these problems is necessary to solve them. Sociology helps us to make an objective study of social problems. It also gives valuable suggestions to solve.

d. Social Planning and Policy Making: Sociology is playing a key role in social planning and policy making. Sociological knowledge is very much useful and the service and suggestions of expert sociologists are sought even in the formulations of Government Policies, Social Legislations regarding family, population control, child labour, environment pollution, beggary, etc.

e. To promote welfare of the backward and weaker section of the society: In India, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other weaker sections are exploited in social, economic, and political fields for centuries. To promote welfare programmes for these groups sociological knowledge is necessary.

f. Sociology as a Attractive Teaching Subject: Sociology is gaining importance as a popular teaching subject. Careers apart from teaching are now possible in Sociology. Sociology is introduced as one of the subj ect to be studied in many colleges and Universities. Sociology is also included in the subjects to be offered by candidates taking completive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS and KES, etc. There are many employment opportunities in many fields like Education, Social Welfare, Family Welfare, Public Administration, Women and Child Welfare Development, etc.

g. Role of Sociology in developing countries: Social factors are also responsible for the economic backwardness particularly in under developed countries. Economists have now realized the importance of sociological information and knowledge in analyzing the economic life of their countries. So, it has been said that “Economist should be Sociologist also”.

h. Sociological knowledge about modern situations and developments: Sociology always gives information about the recent changes and developments that takes place in and around us. So that we can act according to the changes. The knowledge about these things makes us conscious about our responsibilities towards society.

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Question 6.
Explain the modern trends in Sociology.
Answer:
Sociology as we know it today draws upon the firm foundation developed by Emile Durkheim, Max Weber and Karl Marx. The trio has been seen by some sociologists as epitomising modern Sociology. However, the discipline has not remained stagnant over the last century. Sociologists have gained new insights which have helped them to better understand the workings of society. Contemporary Sociology reflects the diverse contributions of earlier theorists like GH.Mead, C.H.Cooley, Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton and many others speaking through the pages of current research.

Sociologists expect the 21st century too be perhaps the most exciting and critical period in the history of the discipline because of a growing recognition that social problems must be addressed because of a growing recognition that social problems must be addressed in the near future. The far going long description and analysis about the nature, perspective, scope, and subject matter will be incomplete if we do not reflect on the modern trends in Sociology.

It is a fact that during the last quarter of the 20th century, many new thinkers who were not trained as sociologists, have entered into the arena of Sociology, notable among them are Michel Foucault, Jurgen Habermas, Pierre Bourdieu, Jacques Derrida and Anthony Giddens. They have in some way or other influenced the course of Sociology, especially the methods of investigation. This new generation of sociologists has invented or used many concepts as tools od sociological research such as Habitus, Deconstruction, Structuration, etc. With their efforts new perspectives have developed such as post-industrialism, post – structuralism, post – modernism, neo-functionalism, neo-Marxism, etc.

The types of questions as the classical thinkers – Comte, Durkheim, Marx, Weber sought to answer – what is human nature? Why is society so structured? Why and how do societies change? What directions will change take in the future?- are the same questions modem thinkers try to answer today but their approaches are different. Our modern world is radically different from the past and this has an impact on the development of Sociology also. Now, it is the task of sociology to help us understand the rapidly changing world in which we live and reflect about the nature of the future world.

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Question 7.
List out the fields of Sociology in 20th century.
Answer:
Contemporary sociology has been divided and subdivided into a wide range of specialized fields of research and theory. The prominent fields of research now-a-days are : interpersonal Natures of Setioiagy relations, rural and urban life, marriage and family, social differentiation, stratification and inequality, caste, gender, population and demography, Subaltern studies, economic sociologies, political sociology, educational sociology, formal sociology, race and ethnicity, formal organisations, linguistics, Criminology, Gerontology, Social change, modernity and post modernity, globalisation and world system.

Other important branches are sociology of religion and knowledge, law, work, occupation, professions and industries, architecture, art, music, literature, health, illness, and medicines, development and welfare, deviance, and many other subjects along with sociology and sociological methodology.

Question 8.
Point out the sociological views of Pierre Bourdieu, Jurgen Habermas and Jacques Derrida.
Answer:
Pierre Bourdieu: For Bourdieu, the objective of Sociology is to unveil the hidden culture of the society. For achieving this objective, sociologists should study cultural practices of the masses rather than classes. As such, sociology should take up cultural analysis as their primary concern to uncover the political uses of science, the authority of science of the advances forms of racism.

Being a neo-Marxist, he emphasized on the culture of proletariat to which he calls “counter culture”. What should be the shape Sociology? Answering this question, Bourdieu in his later works, The Logic Of Practice( 1990) and Craft Of Sociology (1991), observed that the subjective and objective aspects of social life are inescapably bound together, as such there is no fun in the dualism of macro versus micro and structure versus agency. Instead, he calls for a constructivist approach to sociology, transcending both essentialism and all ideas taken for granted in everyday life.

Jurgen Habermas: Habermas is perhaps the most influential social thinker today with any explicit allegiance to Marxist thought. He is known as the beast spokesman of the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory. Habermas has severely criticised positivism. In his opinion, it has limited our understanding of natural and the social world. He focussed particularly on three major contributions which have become prominent in the 1960’s : (1) The phenomenological sociology, (2) Anthropological extension of Wittgenstein’s notation of language games, and (3) (Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics.

He has been a severe critique of capitalist societies in which, according to him, change is ever present tend to destroy the moral order on which they they in fact depend. We live, in a social world where economic growth tends to take precedence over all else but this situation creates a back of meaning in everyday life. Jacques Derrida: French philosopher and post – modernist, who himself declined to be called as sociologist, but who has definitely made imprint on the modern sociology is Jacques Derrida. His ideas are developed primarily from linguisrics.

Through his most popular concept. deconstruction, he has pleaded for deconstruction of sociological texts. In his opinion, these texts demystified the social reality. They do always unveil the truth of society. By deconstruction, Derrida means that the texting reading is not always correct, it does not lead us to know the reality of society. Deconstruction brings out what texts exclude by showing what operates as in decidable in the texts itself. It is the task of sociology to deconstruct the narratives of the . texts through the explicit and implicit analyses.

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