2nd PUC History Question Bank Chapter 7 Modern India

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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Question Bank Chapter 7 Modern India

Advent of Europeans

2nd PUC History Modern India One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one Word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was The first Portuguese Viceroy in India?
Answer:
Francisco-de-Almeida.

Question 2.
In which year was the ‘Dutch East India Company’ established?
Answer:
The Dutch East India company was established in 1602.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Name the capital of the Dutch in India.
Answer:
Pulicat was made the capital of the Dutch in India in 1610 C.E.

Question 4.
When was the ‘French East India Company’ established?
Answer:
In 1664C.E.

Question 5.
Which was the capital of the French in India?
Answer:
Pondicherry in 1674 C.E.

Question 6.
When was the ‘British East India Company’ established?
Answer:
The British East India Company was established in 1600.

Question 7.
Which was the first capital of the British in India?
Answer:
Calcutta was made the first capital of the British, in India, in 1696 C.E.

Question 8.
Which treaty ended the first Carnatic war?
Answer:
The treaty of Aix-la-Chapel in 1748.

Question 9.
In which year was the battle of Plassey fought?
Answer:
1757 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
When did the battle of Buxar take place?
Answer:
The battle of Buxar took place in 1764 C.E.

Question 11.
Name the treaty which ended the first Anglo-Mysore war.
Answer:
Treaty of Madras in 1769 C.E.

Question 12
Which treaty ended the second Anglo-Mysore war?
Answer:
Treaty of Mangalore in 1784.

Question 13.
Which treaty ended the third Anglo-Mysore war?
Answer:
Treaty of Srirangapattana in 1792.

Question 14.
Who was called ‘The Tiger of Mysore’? (or) Who assumed the title “the Tiger of Mysore”?
Answer:
Tippu Sultan assumed the title‘The Tiger of Mysore’. *

Question 15.
Name the Governor General who introduced the Subsidiary Alliance?
Answer:
Lord Wellesley introduced the Subsidiary Alliance in India in 1798.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 16.
Who was the first Indian ruler to accept the Subsidiary Alliance?
Answer:
The Nizam of Hyderabad was the first ruler to acccpt the Subsidiary Alliance 1798.

Question 17.
Who introduced the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ in India?
Answer:
Lord Dalhousie in 1848 C.E.

Question 18.
Who were the first Europeans to come to India by sea-route?
Answer:
Portuguese were the first among the Europeans to come to India by sea route.

Question 19.
Who discovered the sea-route to India?
Answer:
Portuguese sailor Vasco-da-Gama.

Question 20.
Which was the capital of Portuguese in India?
Answer:
Goa was the capital of Portuguese in India. „

Question 21.
Who conquerred Goa from the Adil Shahis of Bijapur in 1510 C.E.?
Answer:
Alfanso-de-Albuquerque.

Question 22.
Who was Sir Thomas Roe?
Ans. Sir Thomas Roe was the British Ambassador sent by King James -1 of England to the court of Jahangir in 1615 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 23.
Who were the rivals in the Carnatic wars?
Answer:
British and French were the rivals in the Carnatic wars.

Question 24.
What was the main cause for the first Carnatic war?
Answer:
War between England and France over the question of Austrian succession.

Question 25.
When did the first Carnatic war take place?
Answer:
Between 1746-1748 C.E.

Question 26.
When did the second Carnatic war take place?
Answer:
Between 1748-1754.

Question 27.
What was the main cause for the second Carnatic war?
Answer:
Two succession disputes at Hyderabad and at Arcot, and the British and French taking sides.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 28.
Which treaty ended the second Carnatic war.
Answer:
Treaty of Pondicherry in 1754.

Question 29.
When did the Third Carnatic war take place?
Answer:
Between 1758-1763 C.E.

Question 30.
What was the main cause for the Third Carnatic waif?
Answer:
The seven years (1756-1763) war fought between the French and the British in Europe, was the cause for the war.

Question 31.
In which battle were the French completely defeated by the British?
Answer:
Battle of Wandiwash in 1760.

Question 32.
Which treaty ended the Third Carnatic war?
Answer:
Treaty of Paris in 1763 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 33.
Which battle laid the foundation for the British supremacy in India?
Answer:
Battle of Plassey in 1757 C.E.

Question 34.
Who was the commander of the Bengal army in the battle of Plassey?
Answer:
Mir Jafar was the commander of the Bengal army.

Question 35.
When did the first Anglo-Mysore war occur?
Ans.
During 1767 to 1769 C.E.

Question 36.
When was the second Anglo-Mysore war fought?
Answer:
Between 1780-1784 C.E.

Question 37.
Name the British Governor General who defeated Tippu in the third Anglo-Mysore war?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis defeated Tippu in the third Anglo-Mysore war.

Question 38.
Who led the British army during the fourth Anglo-Mysore war?
Answer:
Lord Wellesley led the British army during the fourth Anglo-Mysore war.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 39.
What was the aim of the Subsidiary Alliance?
Answer:
The expansion of the British Empire in India.

Question 40.
Which treaty ended the first Anglo-Maratha war?
Answer:
The first Anglo-Maratha war took place between 1775and 1782. It ended with the treaty of Salbai in 1782 C.E.

Question 41.
When did the third Anglo-Maratha war take place?
Answer:
During 1817-1818 C.E.

2nd PUC History Modern India Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who conquered Goa from the Sultan of Bijapura? When?
Answer:
Portuguese Governor Alfanso-dc-Albuquerque-in 1510 d).E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Name the important trading centers of the Portuguese in India.
Answer:
Goa (Capital), Diu, Daman, Salsette, Bassern, Bombay, Calicut, Cochin, Machalipattanam, Santhome etc., were the trading centers of the Portuguese in India.

Question 3.
Mention any two causes for the decline of the Portuguese power in India?
Answer:
Causes for the decline of Portuguese:

  • The Portuguese officers did not follow the policy of moderation and did not conduct their affairs in a diplomatic manner.
  • Their officers were corrupt and arrogent. They looked to their personal interests rather than the interests of their country.
  • Portuguese religious intolerance provoked hostility of the Indian public, which became too strong for them to overcome.
  • Encouragement was given to the Portuguese men to marry Indian ladies and settle down in India. The offsprings of the mixed marriages were inferior and could not take up the responsibilities.
  • European powers like the Dutch, the French and the British on the Indian scene, also gave a serious setback to the Portuguese authority.
  • The expansion of the Mughal Empire in the Deccan and other regions also gave a serious setback to the Portuguese ambitions.

Question 4.
Name the important trading centers of the Dutch in India.
Answer:
Machalipattanam, Nagapattanam, Cochin, Kasim Bazaar, Mahe, Pulicat (Capital), Karaikkal, Patna, etc., were the important trading centers of the Dutch in India.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Name the important trading centers of the French in India.
Answer:
Pondicherry (Capital), Surat, Chandranagore, Machalipattanam, Karaikkal, Mahe, etc., were the important trading centers of the French in India.

Question 6.
Between whom was the battle of Plassey fought? When?
Answer:
Sirajud-Daulah, Nawab of Bengal and Robert Clive in 1757C.E.

Question 7.
Mention any two conditions of the treaty of Srirangapattana.
Answer:

  1. Tippu had to surrender half of his Kingdom to the British.
  2. Tippu agreed to pay a war indemnity of 3.5 crore rupees to the British. As Tippu did not have enough money, he had to send two of his sons to the British as hostages.

Question 8.
Name any four Indian states, annexed by the British applying the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’.
Answer:
Satara, Jaipur, Sambhalpur, Udaipur,Jhansi, Nagpur, Coorg,Tanjore,’Bhagatpurctc.,

Question 9.
Name any four Indian states which accepted the Subsidiary Alliance.
Answer:
Nizam of Hyderabad, Mysore, Oudh, Travancore, Baroda, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bharathpur, Nagpur, Gwalior, Poona, Surat etc., accepted the Subsidiary Alliance of British.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Name the important trading centers of the British in India.
Answer:
Surat, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, Machalipattanam, Iloogli etc.,

Question 11.
Between whom was the second Carnatic war fought? When?
Answer:
Robert Clive (British) and Dupleix (French) during 1748-1754 C.E.

Question 12.
Who had partaken in the third Carnatic war? When?
Answer:
Count-De-Lally (French) and Robert Clive (British) in 1758-1763 C.E.

Question 13.
Between whom was the battle of Buxar fought? When?
Answer:
Between Mir Kasim the Nawab of Bengal and the British (Vansitart) in 1764 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 14.
Who fought the first Anglo-Mysore war? Which treaty ended the war?
Answer:
British and Hyder Ali fought this war. Treaty of Madras ended this.

Question 15.
Who had fought the second Anglo-Mysore war? When?
Answer:
HyderAli and after his death, his son Tippu Sulthan fought against the British. From 1780 to 1784 C.E.

Question 16.
Between whom was the third Anglo-Mysore war fought? When?
Answer:
Tippu Sultan and the British (Lord Cornwallis)-between 1790-1792 C.E.

Question 17.
Why did Lord Wellesley declare the fourth Anglo-Mysore war?
Answer:
Lord Wellesley urged Tippu Sultan to join the subsidiary Alliance. Tippu rejected the demand and began talks with the French, Turkey and others to secure military help, which provoked Wellesley to declare war.

Question 18.
What is subsidiary Alliance? When was it introduced?
Answer:
The Indian Princes who had entered into this military alliance with the British had to maintain a British army in their states and bear the cost of its maintainance. It was introduced by Lord Welleselyin 1798.

Question 19.
What is doctrine of Lapse?
Answer:
As per British laws, when a Lord died without a son or daughter his estate lapsed to the British Government. It should be noted, that the Lord had no right to adopt a son under any circumstances. This policy was introduced in India by Lord Dalhousie. According to this policy, when the Indian Ruler of a protected state died without a natural heir (son or daughter), then that state would pass on to the British Empire.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Modern India Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Briefly explain the Carnatic wars.
Answer:
Introduction: British and French were rivals in India, because the objective of the British which was to establish complete monopoly over trade and commerce in India brought them into conflict with the French. They fought for seventeen years (1746-1763) to establish their ‘ supremacy in the Deccan. This rivalry with the French-led to the Carnatic wars.

First Carnatic war (1746-1748): The first Carnatic war took place between the British and the French during 1746-1748 in the Carnatic area. This war was a part of the European war, between the two countries over the Austrian succession issue (1740-1748) in Europe.

Course of the war: British commander Burnett captured some French ships. At this juncture Dupleix appealed to Anwaruddin, the Nawab of Arcot to prevail upon the British to desist from hostile action. British did not take any action. In 1746, Dupleix (French Governor) besieged and captured Madras.

British sought the help of Anwaruddin who ordered the French to free Madras. Dupleix refused to free it. So, Anwaruddin sent an army against the French. A battle was fought at St. Thome (battle ofAdyar), in which the French were defeated. The Austrian succession war came to an end in Europe by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapel in 1748. Thus, the first Carnatic war also came to an end.

Result: Treaty of Aix-la-Chapel in 1748.

  • The British and the French agreed to stop their hostilities in India forthwith.
  • The French agreed to return Madras to the British and prisoners of war were released from both the sides.

Second Carnatic war (1748-1754): The second Carnatic war broke out due to two succession disputes – one at Hyderabad and the other at Arcot, for which the British and the French took sides. There were civil wars of succession between Anwaruddi n and Chandasaheb at Arcot and Nasir Jung and Muzaffar Jung at Hyderabad. Dupleix and the French supported Chandasaheb (Arcot)

and Muzaffar Jung (Hyderabad) whereas the British supported Anwaruddin (Arcot) and Nasir Jung (Hyderabad) This struggle led to the second Carnatic war (1748-1754).

Course of the war: The French troup defeated and killed Anwaruddin in the battle of Amber. His son Mohammad Ali fled toTrichinapalli. Dupleix proclaimed Chandasaheb as the Nawab of Arcot. Dupleix was equally successful in Hyderabad. Nasir Jung was killed and Muzaffar Jung was made the Nizam of Hyderabad.

Dupleix and Chandasaheb besieged Trichinapalli to kill Mohammad Ali. The British were aware that Chandasaheb was an ally of the French and his succession to throne would adversely affect the British trade. Robert Clive (British) laid siege to Arcot. Chandasaheb rushed to protect his capital. He was defeated and killed in the battle of Arcot in 1752.

As a result, British crowned Mohammad Ali as the Nawab of Arcot. Dupleix was defeated in the war and was recalled by the French Government. The war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry in 1754. Both the parties agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Indian states. They also agreed to return the territories conquerred from each other.

Third Carnatic war (1758-1763): The seven years war (1756-1763) was fought between the French and the British in Europe. The tension between the two In India also increased and ultimately took the shape of the third Carnatic war.

Course of the war: Robert Clive (British) captured Chandranagore, a French settlement. The French were determined to end the British settlements in India and sent Count-de-Lally as Governor to India. He launched an attack on Madras and recalled Bussey from Hyderabad to help him. The British attacked Hyderabad and captured it.

Count-de-Lally was defeated by the British (SirEyrecoote) in the battle of Wandiwash in 1760. In 1761, the British captured Pondicherry and other French settlements in India. The seven years war came to an end by . the treaty of Paris in 1763. The war in India also ended.

Treaty of Paris in 1763: 1)The trading centres of the French were returned with restrictions, that they would not fortify them.
2) The Anglo-French rivalry in India ended with the success of the British and failure of the French.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
What were the cause and results of the battle of Plassey?
Answer:
Battle of Plassey in 1757: The battle of Plassey was fought between the British (Robert Clive) and Siraj-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal in 1757. This battle led to the British supremacy in India.

Causes for the battle of Plassey :
1. Misuse of the concession pass (Dastaks): The British had received tax concessions from the Mughal Emperors. But, servents of the East India Company were misusing the concessions by openly indulging in private trade for profit. They refused to pay any taxes to the Nawab.

This resulted in the loss of income to the state and was opposed by the Nawab of Bengal. This was the main cause for the battle of Plassey.

2. Shelter to the French and demolition of fortifications of factories: The British and the French were rivals. The British captured Chandranagore from the French. Siraj-ud-Daula gave shelter to some Frenchmen, which angered the British. Siraj-ud-Daula tried to develop cordial relations with the British, but soon the relations got strained because the British fearing the French attack began to fortify their factories in Bengal which was counter to the interest of Bengal, when Siraj-ud-Daula protested and demanded for the demolition of all fortifications of factories.

3. Political cause – Encouragement to the opponents of Siraj-ud-Daula: Siraj-ud-Daula had many rivals. Soon after his succession to the throne, it was opposed by Shaukath Jung, Ghasti Begum and Rajavallabha who put forward their claims to the throne. The British fully supported the opponents of Siraj-ud-Daulah and ultimately succeeded in bringing his downfall.

4. The black hole incident or tragedy: During an attack on Kasim Bazar, the forces of Nawab besieged Fort William (Calcutta). The 146 civilians comprising of women and children who surrendered to the Nawab’s army were taken prisoners and forced into a small dark cell (15’ x 18’) within the fort and killed in the most inhuman manner. This incident called ‘The Block hole episode or Tragedy’ took place on 20th June 1757.

Course of the Battle: Peace was concluded between the British and Siraj-ud-Daula and the treaty of Aligarh was signed in Febuary 1757. Robert Clive hatched a conspiracy with the commander Mir Jafar against Siraj-ud-Daula. When the arrangements were complete, Clive took position at Plassey (Bhagirathi river). However, when the war broke out, the troops under Mir Jafar remained inactive and Siraj-ud-Daula was defeated and he fled, and got killed while trying to escape.

Results of the battle of Plassey :
1. British domination over Bengal: The British established domination over the political life of Bengal. Mir Jafar was made the Nawab of Bengal. He was called a Sovereign but in actual practice he was nothing more than a puppet of the company. He could be removed from the throne any time, by the Company.

2. Territorial gains for the British: As a result, the British gained both in territorial as well as in finances. The Company received the 24 paraganas and other grants. The trade of the British Company greatly flourished and it made huge profits. Robert Clive was appointed as the Governor of Ben gal.

3. Establishing political supremacy: The battle of Plassey left a deep impact on the course of Anglo-French conflict in Deccan. This battle laid the foundation for the British supremacy in India.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Write about the subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse.
Answer:
Subsidiary Alliance: The Indian rulers who had entered into this military alliance with the British had to keep a British army in their state and bear the expenses of-the maintainance of that army. It was introduced by Lord Wellesley in 1798. Expansion of the British Empire in India was its main aim.

Conditions of the subsidiary Alliance:

  • The Indian state which joins it, must surrender its external relations to the care of the Company. They should not wage wars and their dealings should be conducted only with their the prior permission of the Company.
  • If any ruler was unable to pay the expenses, he had to cede apart of his Kingdom. The protection of that state was the responsibility of the Company.
  • A British Resident should be kept in the court of the King. The Company was not to interfere in the internal affairs of that state.
  • The Company should protect the Indian state against their enemies and no other European could be appointed in their administration without the permission of the Company.

Advantages to the Company:

  • The subsidiary Alliance disarmed the Indian states. They came under the mercy of the British. The grave consequences of the war were much reduced.
  • Indian states practically lost their independence and became financially weak.
  • The Kings neglected the welfare of their people. So Kings also lost their credibility. The Kings were protected by the Company. ‘
  • The Company was able to check the influence of the French over the Indian states. The Company gradually brought the whole country under its control.

The Nizam of Hyderabad was the first to sign the Alliance. Later the rulers of Mysore, Oudh, Travancore, Baroda, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bharatpur, Nagpur and Gwalior also signed the Alliance.

The Doctrine of Lapse: According to this policy, when the Ruler of the protected state died without a natural heir, then that state would pass on to the British Empire, which was called the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’. (or)Accordingtothispolicy,ifaKing died without a son or daughter, his estate lapsed. It should be noted that the King had no right to adopt a son under any circumstances. The Doctrine of lapse was introduced by Lord Dalhousie. His aim was the expansion of the British Empire in India.
By following this policy, the British annexed Sitara, Jaipur, Sambhalpur, Udaipur, Jhansi, Nagapur, Bhagatpur, Coorg, etc.

Conclusion: The doctrine of lapse was unjustified both on legal and ethical grounds, Whether right or wrong, two third of the Indian territories came under the British rule by 1856. These factors contributed to the outburst of the Indian anger in ] 857 in the form of First war of the Indian Independence.

Question 4.
Discuss the struggle of Tippu Sultan with the British.
Answer:
Anglo-Mysore wars (1767-1799):
The first Anglo-Mysore war (1767-1769) The British after establishing supremacy in Bengal, waged war against Mysore to expand their Empire. Tippu had participated in his father’s campaigns and had gained sufficient military experience. In 1766, he fought against the Paliagars of Balam. In 1767-1769, in the first Anglo-Mysore war, he took his army towards Madras. Later, he helped his father capture the forts of Tirupattur and Vaniyambadi.

The second Anglo-Mysore war (1780-1784): Ilyder Ali died in 1782. His son Tippu Sultan continued the war. Tippu defeated the British at Wandiwash in 1783, and marched against Mangalore and besieged the fort. Negotiations for peace started between Tippu and ‘ British through signing the treaty of Mangalore in 1784. and the second Anglo-Mysore war ended with that.

Third Anglo-Mysore war (1790-1792): The third Anglo-Mysore war was again fought between Tippu Sultan and the British. Tippu’s rise caused fear and jealousy among the Britishers. Tippu was trying to get the help of the French to expel the British from India. War broke out with Tippu’s unprovoked attack on Travancore in 1789, whose ruler was an ally of the British. British Governor-General, Lord Cornwallis was waiting for fora pretext to wage a war against Tippu.

He formed a coalition consisting of the British, the Nizam and the Marathas against Tippu, and attacked Sirangapattana. Tippu could not fight this combined army and he began to lose ground. They besieged his capital Srirangapattana in 1792. Forced by circumstances, Tippu signed the most humiliating treaty of Srirangapattana in March 1792.

Treaty of Srirangapattana in 1792: The terms of the treaty were: 1) Tippu had to surrender half of his Kingdom to the British and their allies. 2) Tippu agreed to pay a war indemnity of 3.5 crores (30 lakh pounds) to the British. As he did not have enough money, he had to send two of his sons to the British as hostages.

Fourth Anglo-Mysore war (1798-1799): Tippu could not reconcile to the defeat and humiliation in the third Anglo-Mysore war and was determined to dri ve out the British from India. He again started negotiations with France, Turkey, Kabul, Afghanistan etc. by sending his delegations but he could not get any help. Lord Wellesley forced him to sign the subsidiary Alliance, which he refused, As a result war became inevitable.

Lord Wellesley sent a powerful army along with the Marathas and Nizam. Tippu was defeated in the battle of Siddeshwara and Malavalli. On fourth May 1799, the British besieged the fort of Srirangapattana. The fort was bombarded and the enemy entered’the fort. Tippu died fighting in the battle and the British captured Srirangapattana.

After the death of Tippu, his territories were divided among the British, the Marathas and the Nizam. A portion of his Kingdom was given to the Wodeyars of Mysore. Krishnaraja Wodeyar-III became the King of Mysore.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Give an account of the Anglo-Maratha wars.
Answer:
1. First Anglo-Maralha war (1775-1782): In the civil war between Narayana Rao and his uncle Raghunath Rao, Narayana Rao was killed, and his widow gave birth to a male child. The child, Savai Madhava Rao was supported by the Maratha chiefs. Raghunath Rao sought the help of the British. He signed the treaty of Surat in 1775, with the Bombay Governor Elphinstone to retain his position.

Raghunatha Rao and the British fought with the Maratha chiefs at Poona. But, Nana Fadnavis, the Prime minister of Peshwa Savai Madhava Rao, got the help of Governor-General Hastings at Calcutta and signed with him the Treaty of Purandhara in 1776. According to that treaty. 1) The British agreed to withdraw their support to Raghunatha Rao, 2) Raghunath Rao was given a monthly pension of 25000/- from the Peshwa Government.

But this was not accepted by Elphinstone (Bombay Governor). He reopened the war and English forces were defeated and signed the Treaty of Wadagaon in 1779. Lord Hastings sent an army from Calcutta and battles were fought. Finally the treaty of Salbai was concluded in 1782.

Treaty of Salbai in 1782:
1. Both the parties agreed to restore the captured territories
2. There was peace for the next 20 years.

2. Second Anglo-Maratha war (1803-1806): MarathachiefsofHolkar and Sindhia tried to control Peshwa Bajirao-II. Peshwa was greatly influenced by Mahadji Sindhia. So, Holkar waged a war and defeated the armies of Sindhia and Peshwa in 1802. Holkar placed Vinayaka Rao on the throne.

Treaty of Bassien: (1) Peshwa signed the subsidiary Alliance and agreed to keep 6000 British soldiers and pay 26 Lakh every year for their upkeep. (2) Peshwa surrendered the northern territories of his Kingdom to the British (3) The Maratha Chieftains who were subordinates to Peshwa had become subordinates to the Company.

Sindhia and Bhonsle challenged the British power, and a series of battles were fought. The British defeated them and both of them accepted subsidiary Alliance. Holkar also fought with the British and concluded the treaty of Rajpurghat and ceded BundelkhancTand Chambal to the British.

3. Third Anglo-Maratha war (1817-1818): Peshwa Baji Rao-II had lost his power and prestige. He decided to reocganise the Maratha confederacy and revive the lost glory of the Marathas. He also enlisted the support of the Pathans and the Pindaries for this cause. They attacked the British military camp at Kirki. This started the third Anglo-Maratha war. In a series of battles, Marathas were defeated by the British.

All Maratha chieftains accepted subsidiary Alliances. The descendant of Chatrapathi Sahu was allowed to rule the region of Satara. Baji Rao – II was pensioned off to Bithore with an annual pension of 8 Lakh rupees. With this, the British established political Supremacy all over south India.

First War of Indian Independence -1857

2nd PUC History Modern India One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
In which year did the first war of Indian Independence occur?
Answer:
The first war of Indian Independence occurred in 1857 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Name the Queen of Lucknow who revolted against the British in the first war of Indian Independence.
Answer:
Begum Hazrath Mahal, the widow of Wajid Ali.

Question 3.
Name the Indian soldier who killed a British sergeant at Barrackpore in 1857?
Answer:
MangalPandey killed the British sergeant in 1857.

Question 4.
Who revolted against the British at Kanpur in 1857?
Answer:
Nana Saheb revolted against the British at Kanpur in 1857.

Question 5.
Why did Queen Laxmi Bai of Jhansi revolt against the British?
Answer:
The British refused to recognize her adopted son as the ruler of Jhansi.

Question 6.
Where did the first war of Indian independence begin?
Answer:
In the military unit at Meerut.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Who was proclaimed as the Emperor of India?
Answer:
The Indian soldiers broke out in open rebellion and proclaimed Bahadur Shah – II (dethroned Mughal Emperor) as the Emperor of India.

Question 8.
Why did the sepoys refuse to use the cartridges?
Answer:
Indian soldiers believed that the cartridges were smeared with the fat of cows and pigs, which were antireligious to both Hindus and Muslims.

Question 9.
Who was the British Governor General when the revolt took place?
Answer:
Lord Canning was the British Governor General at the time of these revolts.

2nd PUC History Modern India Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
What was the immediate cause for the first war of Indian Independence.
Answer:
The British introduced new Enfield rifles. The Indian soldiers refused to use these rifles because a rumour spread that the cartridges were smeared with the fat of cows and pigs. The Indian soldiers felt that the British were trying to spoil their religion.

Question 2.
Write any two causes for the failure of the revolt of 1857.
Answer:

  1. There was no common aim among the rebels. Lack of unity, lack of leadership, lack of arms, lack of proper organization, mutual hatred and suspicion were the reasons for the failure of the revolt.
  2. The British fully utilised the scientific developments like modem weapons, telegraphs, railways, postal etc., to collect information quicker than the Indian soldiers and were ready for proper action.
  3. The Indian Kings were supporting the British and the general public did not fully get involved
    and support the rebels.

Question 3.
Name the centres of the First war of Indian Independence.
Answer:
Meerut, Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Bareily, Jhansi, Oudh, Allahabad, Gwalior, Jagadeeshpur, etc.

Question 4.
Who was the first Indian Queen to revolt against the British? By whom and when was she killed?
Answer:
Jhansi Rani Laxmi Bai. She died in the battle field at the hands of Hugh Rose on 17th June 1858.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Modern India Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Write a note on the course of the first war of Indian Independence.
(or)
Explain the course of the first war of Indian Independence.
Answer:
Course of the war (Revolt):
1. Mangal Pandey: The revolt broke out in 34th infantry at Barrackpur (Bengal) on 29th March 1857. The Indian soldiers of Barrackpur refused to use the new cartridges and one of them, Mangal Pandey killed the British sergeant who forced them. This was the first shot of the revolt, but he was arrested and hanged. Mangal Pandey became the first martyr of the revolt.

2. Meerut Military: The Indian soldiers at Meerut refused to use the cartridges. They were tried and sentenced to long term imprisonments. Other soldiers broke out in open rebellion (10th May 1857). They attacked the jail, released their fellow soldiers and the British officers were killed and their houses were burnt. ‘Maro Phirangiko’ was their slogan. –

3. Delhi (Bahadur Shah-II): The soldiers marched from Meerut to Delhi on 11th May 1857 and brought it under their control. The dethroned Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah-II was proclaimed as the ‘Emperor of India’. They hoisted the flag of independence on the Red Fort. The loss of Delhi dealt a severe blow to the prestige of the British Empire. Finally, in September 1857, Delhi was recaptured by the British. Bahadur Shah – II was arrested and deported to Rangoon.

4. Revolt in Lucknow: In June 1857, Begum Hazrath Mahal declared her son WajidAli as the Nawab of Oudh, but this proposal was rejected by the British. So, she rebelled
against them at Lucknow. The British attacked Lucknow and captured it. and she fled to Nepal.

5. Kanpur incident: On 5th june 1857, Nana Saheb revolted against the British and captured Kanpur and declared himself as Peshwa. Nana Saheb was assisted by Tantia Tope. But the British (General Havelock) were successful in recapturing Kanpur (17th June 1857). Nana Saheb fled to Nepal.

6. Revolt in Jhansi: Protesting against the policy of Doctrine of Lapse, Rani Laxmi Bai the Queen of Jhansi who was driven out of Jhansi, along with Tantia Tope revolted and captured Gwalior. When the British came to recapture Gwalior under Hugh Rose, she fought heroically and died on the battle field on 17th june 1858.

Spread of the Revolt: The news of the revolt at Delhi spread throughout northern and central India, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bihar, Allahabad, Bareilly, Jagadhishpur, Jhansi and other parts of the country. Many Rulers remained loyal to the British government, but their soldiers revolted, and people started supporting the rebels.

Question 2.
What were the causes for the failure of the revolt? (or) Why did the first war of Independence fail to, realise its goal?
Answer:
Causes for the failure of the revolt: The 1857 uprising proved to be a failure due to a number of reasons. Lack of unity among the Indians, mutual hatred and suspicion were reasons for the failure.

1. Lack of Leadership: There was a lack of able leadership for the sepoys. Nana Saheb, Laxmi Bai, TantiaTope and of there were the leaders but lacked of experience and efficiency to enforce discipline. When the sepoys captured one town, they were not knowing what to do further. They were not guided properly by their leaders.

2. Lack of Arms: Indian soldiers did not possess the modem improved weapons (Enfield rifles) like, the British. They did not have a common plan. They were using old muzzle, breechloaders. ‘

3. Good transportation and communication: The British fully utilised the technological developments like the Telegraph, Railways, Postal and Financial sources which helped them suppress the revolt. They could collect information quicker than the Indian soldiers and could be ready for suitable counteractions. ‘

4. Support of the Indian Rulers io the British: The revolt was not nationalistic in character. Rajputs, Sikhs, Bengalis, Nizam of Hyderabad, Maharaja of Kashmir, Gwalior Ruler and many other rulers of Princely states, Zamindars, merchants, money lenders were loyal to British and assisted them.

5. Lack of proper organization: There was no common aim, proper organization, unity and co-operation among the rebel soldiers.

6. Lack of public support: The educated Indians did not support the revolt fearing the return of the old order. They believed that the British administration would accomplish the task of modernization. All parts of the country did not support the rebels, because the sepoys indulged in looting and dacoity and this resulted in the common people losing their faith in them.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Modern India Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following question in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Explain the causes and results of the First War of Indian Independence.
Answer:
Introduction: The revolt of 1857 set the tone for India’s Independence struggles. The period between 1757-1857 was marked by the plunder of Indian wealth, by East India Company. Political, social and cultural changes led to the rebellion against British rule. This was the first united revolt and it was the outburst of accumulated discontent of Indians against the policies of East India company.

The spark of patriotism was kindled in a military unit at Meerut which soon burst into a terrific flame and spread to other parts of the country and shook the British rule. British called this as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’, but the nationalists called it as the first war of Indian Independence.

Causes for the revolt:
1. Political causes: The conquests and annexations of the British not only affected the ruling class, but also gave a rude shock to the sentiments of the people. The British interfered in the internal affairs of the Indian states and followed the policy of divide and rule. Implementation of the subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse, using the pretext of misrule to annex the Kingdoms and Princely states were the reasons for the Indian Kings, Princes, Soldiers, Zamindars to be disappointed with the actions of the British East India Company.

2. Administrative causes: The British introduced a new system of administration which
replaced the traditional system. The introduction of ‘Rule of Law’ and ‘Equality before law’ developed suspicion in the minds of the orthodox (traditional) Hindus and Muslims. Indians were not given higher posts in the administration and were paid much less than the British officers with no promotions. This was contrary to the British policy of equality before law.

3. Economic causes: Economic exploitation was an important cause for the revolt. The huge drain of wealth made India economically poor. The British trade policy had established a monopoly on trade. They converted India into a supplier of raw materials and a market for their finished goods. Indian native handicrafts suffered a lot. Indian goods could not be sold in England due to heavy taxes imposed on their export. The Land tax was also raised, due to which many of them were compelled to mortage their lands to moneylenders and consequently found themselves in deep debts.
Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks “India became a milk cow for England, while her own children died of starvation”.

4. Social causes: Many social and religious reforms caused (Social Reforms Act) serious
discontent among Hindu and Muslim orthodox sections. The British thought that they belonged to a superior race and humiliated Indians. The abolition of Sati, permission for widow remarriages, curb on child marriages, purdah, animal sacrifices etc., caused a lot of unrest among the orthodox people.

The introduction of telegraph and railways were seen as efforts to chain the country and were clear signs of westernization. The British treated Indians as unworthy of trust, incapable of honesty and fit to be employed only where they could not do without them. They were rude and arrogant towards Indians and were very racial in their nature and spirit.

5. Religious causes: The British activities affected the sentiments of Hindus and Muslims. The Christian missionaries were seen everywhere in the schools, hospitals, prisons and at the market places. They tried to convert Indians to Christianity by various devious methods. The spread of English education and culture through missionaries and convents created suspicion among Indians about their religions.

Hindu soldiers were forced to cross the sea against their belief. Forced intermarriages became a means to convert the natives to Christianity. Cartridges greased with Cows/Pigs fat affected the religious sentiments of Hindus and Muslims alike. The Europeans treated Indians as untouchables.

6. Military causes: Indian soldiers were paid very low salaries compared to the British soldiers of the same grade, and were not promoted to any rank higher than that of a subedar. According to the Enlistment Act of 1856 of Lord Canning, it required the sepoys to serve overseas also.

Hindus believed that crossing the sea was a sin (Kalapani). The soldiers were often treated with contempt by their British officers. There were rumours among the sepoys that the British were trying to break their caste and convert them to Christianity. There were more than 75000 soldiers in the British army from Oudh. When Oudh was annexed by the British Empire citing maladministration, these soldiers were angry.

7. Immediate causes: The British introduced new Enfield rifles. The top of the cartridges had to be removed by biting it off. A rumour spread that the cartridges were smeared with the fat of cows and pigs. The Indian sepoys felt that the British were trying to spoil their religion. They refused to use these rifles and the British forced and threatened the soldiers to use them. This was the spark, which later spread all over the country.

Results of the revolt:
The first war of Indian Independence marks a very important turning point in the history of India and its far reaching results. They are:

1. End of the Company rule : The East India Company rule was abolished and the British Crown took over the administration of India. Viceroy was the representative of the Crown in India and Lord Canning was the first Viceroy.

2. The Queen’s proclamation (or) Magna carta of India in 1858 : Queen Victoria issued her famous proclamation known as the Magna carta of the Indian people (Lord Canning announced it on 1st November 1858). Indians were promised that their rights, self-respect, honour and religious traditions would be safeguarded and Government jobs would be offered to all without any favouritism. The British Government will not annex any more Indian states.

3. Reorganization of the Army : The Indian Army was reorganized. Number of the British soldiers in the army was increased, growth of sentiment of national unity among the sepoys was checked, but communal loyalties were encouraged.

4. Unity among Indians: The revolt brought unity among Hindus and Muslims, as they came together to fight the British.

5. Source of Inspiration: The revolt gave British a taste of Indian patriotism. It served as a source of inspiration in India’s struggle for freedom. The heroes of the revolt soon became household names in the country. The Mughal rule also came to an end.

Impact of British Rule on Economy And Education

2nd PUC History Modern India One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentences each.

Question 1.
Who introduced the permanent Land Revenue Settlement in India?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis introduced the Zamindari system (PLRS) in India.

Question 2.
Who propounded the Drain theory?
Answer:
Dadabai Naoroji propounded the Drain theory.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Which was the hook written by Dadabai Naoroji?
Answer:
‘Poverty and Un British Rule in India’(in 1876 C.E.).

Question 4.
In which year was Wood’s Despatch prepared?
Answer:
Sir Charles Wood prepared a report in 1854 C.E.

Question 5.
Which report is called as the ‘Magna Carta’ of English education in India?
Answer:
Sir Charles Wood’s report or Despatch.

Question 6.
What is drain of wealth?
Answer:
One way flow of the Indian wealth to Britain is known as the Drain of wealth, (or) The British exported India’s enormous wealth to England through various means. India did not get any economic and material benefit in return and this is known as drain of wealth.

Question 7.
Who is called as ‘The Father of the English Education’ in India?
Answer:
Thomas Macaulay is called as the father of the English education in India.

Question 8.
What was advocated by Macaulay in his report or Minutes?
Answer:
Macaulay advocated the development of Western system of education in India through English as the medium of education.

2nd PUC History Modern India Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
What were the Land revenue policies introduced by the British between 1757 and 1857? (or) Name the Land revenue systems introduced by the British in India.
Answer:
The British introduced three types of land revenue systems in India. They were 1) The Permanent land revenue settlement (PLRS) or Zamindari system, 2) Ryotwari or Munroe system 3) Mahalwari system.

Question 2.
What is Ryotwari system?
Answer:
In Bombay and Madras Presidencies, the Ryot or cultivator was recognized as the owner of the land on the condition that he paid the land revenue regularly to the Government at 50% of the total income. This was known as Ryotwari system.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
What is meant by Mahalwari system?
Answer:
The East India Company entered into a settlement with Estate or Mahal (village). The farmers within the village were collectively considered to be the owners of the land and were also collectively responsible for the payment of land revenue at 50 to 60% of the yield, (or) The village (Mahal) land belonged jointly to the village community, which is responsible for payment of land revenue to the company.

Question 4.
What was the opinion of Macaulay regarding the Eastern Literature?
Answer:
Macaulay said “A single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native Literature of Indian and Arabia”.

Question 5.
Where and when was the Zamindari or Permanent land revenue settlement introduced in India?
Ans.
Lord Cornwallis introduced this system in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Northern U.P. in 1793 (23rd march 1793).

Question 6.
What is meant by Zamindari or Permanent land revenue system?
Answer:
The East India Company entered into agreements with the Zamindars. The Zamindars were given permanent ownership of Land, which they cultivated with the help of tenants. Out of the total revenue collected, the Zamindars had to pay regularly, 89% to the Government as land revenue. This was known as Zamindari system.

Question 7.
Where and when was the Ryotwari system introduced?
Answer:
In Bombay and Madras Presidencies in 1820 C.E.

Question 8.
Give two motives of British in introducing English education in India?
Answer:
1) Converting Indians to Christianity.
2) Company needed workers who would help them in delivering work.
3) Spread of western culture through English education.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Modern India Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Explain the Drain theory
(or)
Write a note on the drain of wealth.
Answer:
The Drain of Wealth: The British were not interested in the development of Indian agriculture. They were interested only in safeguarding their commercial interests. They forced Indian fanners to produce commercial crops like cotton, tea, Indigo, etc., which were in great demand in the European markets. They converted India into a source for raw materials and a market for their finished goods.

Indian handicrafts could not compete with the machine-made products and the British had not started any industries in India. The impact of the Drain was that employment within the country was scarce and artisans and craftsmen turned into labourers. Hence the stability and development of Indian villages also suffered.

The British exported India’s enormous wealth to England through various means and that India did not get any economic and material benefit in return is known as drain of wealth. Dadabai Naoroji explained the drain theory in his book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’ (1876 C.E.). He declared that drain was the basic cause of India’s poverty and fundamental evil of the British rule in India.

Source of the Drain: India’s enormous wealth flowed into England in the form of salaries and pensions of civil, military and railway officers, interest on loans, profits by British capitalists and expenditure on administration. Excess taxes were imposed on Indian export goods and less taxes were levied on British imports.

Results of the Drain :

  • The most important results of the drain was that India became poor.
  • The impact of the drain on income and employment within the country was harmful.
  • The drain produced shortage of capital in the country. This hindered Indian industrial development.
  • Since the drain was mainly paid out of land revenue, it hit the peasantry the most and made them poor.
  • Nearly 12%of interest (6,30,000 pounds) was being paid out of Indian resources, for the loans raised by the English to construct Railways and seaports. Loans on unproductive items were also included.

Question 2.
Write about the impact of the British rule on Indian Education,
(or)
What reforms did Macaulay and Wood carry out in the education system in India.
Ans.
Thomas Macaulay’s Minutes in 1835: The Governor General, Lord William Bentinck appointed Macaulay to settle the dispute between Orientalists and Anglicists. He wrote a report on the ‘Indian system of Education’. Macaulay favoured the views of Anglicists. He recommended in 1835, that the accumulated amount (23 lakh) must be exclusively used for the study of western system of education in India through English as the medium of education. He had great contempt for Indian customs and literature. He said that a single shelf of a good European Library was worth the whole native Literature of India and Arabia.

Macaulay aimed to create a class of persons, who should be ‘Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions and intellect’. This report was also aimed at converting people to Christianity, preparing Indians to work for the company and also the spread of English education. English education infused in to them the spirit of nationalism.

Charles Wood’s Despatch (Report) in 1854 : Sir Charles Wood prepared and submitted a report to the Government in 1854. It touched upon all aspects of the Indian education (Scheme of future education of India). The implementation of the report led to tremendous changes in primary and secondary education in India. It is considered as ‘The Magna Carta’ of the English education in India. The report made the following important recommendations.

  • Emphasis on western Education: The main object of the education was the teaching of western Education. The dissemination of western thoughts, literature, science and art should be the ultimate aim of education.
  • Company should start Primary schools in villages, High-schools in towns and Colleges at district level.
  • Vernacular Education: Primary education should be in the vernacular languages and English medium for higher education. Opportunities should be given for the study of Indian languages.
  • Grant-in-Aid: To provide Grant-in-Aid to private Educational institutions.
  • Department of Public Instruction : Company should set up a Department of Public Instruction to supervise the education in all the Provinces.
  • Technical Education: Institutions must be stalled to offer specialized training in the technical fields. Training of teachers must also be carried out through separate schools meant for the purpose.
  • Establishment of Universities: Universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras on the model of London Uni versity must be opened.
  • Encouragement of women’s education: Women must be encouraged to attend schools. The report gave support to women’s education.
    Lord Dalhousie accepted these recommendations and brought in noteworthy changes in Indian Education.

2nd PUC History Modern India Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following question in 30 to 40 sentence.

Question 1.
Give an explanation about the impact of British rule on Indian economy.
Answer:
Economic Impact: Land’revenue was the main source of income to the Government. The British had incurred huge expenditure on administration, maintenance of army and waging many wars. To make up the burden of expenditure, they introduced some new systems of revenue collection in different provinces in India. They were:

1. Zamindari system (or) Permanent land revenue settlement: Lord Cornwallis introduced the Zamindari system in 1793 in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and U.P. According to this system, the East India Company entered into an agreement with the Zamindars. The Zamindars were given permanent ownership of Land, which they cultivated with the help of tenants. Out of the total revenue collected, the Zamindars had to pay regularly the land revenue at 89%.

Merits and demerits of the Zamindari system:

  • The company was assured of a regular and fixed income.
  • In due course the Zamindars became a strong political force and the Company secured the loyalty of the Zamindars to support its colonalism.
  • Zamindars exploited the peasants by collecting high rates of revenue.
  • Zamindars led a life of comfort in cities. There came into being agents in between the landlords and the tenants.

2. Ryotwari or Munro system: This system was introduced by Governor Sir Thomas Munro in the Bombay and Madras presidencies in 1820 C.E.

Ryotwari system established direct settlement between the Company and the cultivator. The peasant (Ryot) was recognized as the owner of land on the condition, that he paid the land revenue regularly.

The land revenue fixed was about 50%  the value of the yield. It was fixed on the basis of the quality of the soil and the nature of the crops grown. The land revenue was fixed not on a permanent basis but was revised periodically every 20 to 30 years. Under this system,

  • The farmers were exploited by the Company because the land revenue assessment was very high.
  • The cultivator had to pay revenue even when his produce was destroyed by drought or floods.
  • The farmers had to take loans from moneylenders to pay the land revenue. It they failed to pay the land tax, farmers forfeited ownership of their land.

3. Mahalwari system: This system was introduced by Lord William Bentinck in North-western India and the central parts of India in 1828 C.E.

The Company entered into settlements with the Estate or Mahal (village). The farmers within the village were collectively considered to be the owners of the land and were also collectively responsible for the payment of land revenue.
Mahalwari was a mixture of both Zamindari and Ryotwari systems.

KSEEB Solutions

Socio-Religious Reform Movement

2nd PUC History Modern India One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentences each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of Brahmo Samaj?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the founder of Brahmo Samaj.

Question 2.
Where was Raja Ram Mohan Roy born?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was bom in 1774 at Radhanagar in Bengal.

Question 3.
Who is called the Father of Indian Renaissance? ,
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy is called the Father of Indian Renaissance.

Question 4.
Who was the founder of Arya Samaj?
Answer:
Swami Dayananda Saraswati.

Question 5.
When was the Arya Samaj established?
Answer:
1875 at Bombay.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
What is Shuddhi movement?
Answer:
To check the conversion of Hindus to other religions and to bring back the Hindu converts, who had embraced other religions, Swami Dayananda Saraswathi introduced the Shuddhi movement.

Question 7.
Who gave the call ‘Go back to Vedas’?
Answer:
It was the famous call of Swami Dayananda Saraswati.

Question 8.
Which book was written by Swami Dayananda Saraswati?
Answer:
Swami Dayananda Saraswati wrote ‘SatyarthaPrakasha’.

Question 9.
Who established the Ramakrishna Mission?
Answer:
The Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda in 1897 at Belur Mutt in Bengal.

Question 10.
What was the original name of Swami Vivekananda?
Answer:
Narendranatha Dutta.

Question 11.
When and where was the Conference of World Religions held?
Answer:
On 31st May 1893 at Chicago in America.

Question 12.
Who founded the Vedanta Samaja?
Answer:
Swami Vivekananda founded it.

Question 13.
Who established the Theosophical Society in India?
Answer:
Dr. Annie Besant, established a branch of the Theosophical Society in India.

Question 14.
Who started the Aligarh movement?
Answer:
Sir Sayyid AhmedKhan started the Aligarh movement.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Who is called as the Morning Star of Indian Renaissance?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy is called as the Morning Star of Indian Renaissance.

Question 16.
Which Governor General abolished Sati system through an Act?
Answer:
Lord William Bentinck’.

Question 17.
What was the original name of Swami Dayananda Saraswati?
Answer:
Mula Shankara was the original name of Dayananda Saraswati.

Question 18.
What was the famous call of Swami Vivekananda?
Answer:
“Awake! Arise! Stop not till the goal is reached”.

Question 19.
“Hindus and Muslims are the two eyes of the beautiful bird that is India’’. Whose statement was this?
Answer:
Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan.

Question 20.
Which University was founded by Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan?
Answer:
Aligarh Muslim University.

2nd PUC History Modern India Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who Here the parents of Raja Ram Mohan Roy?
Ans.
Ramakant Roy and Tarinidevi were the parents of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. He was born on 22nd May 1774.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
When and where was Brahmo Samaj established?
Ans.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy established the Brahmo Samaj in 1828 at Calcutta.

Question 3.
When and where was Swami Dayananda Sarswati born?
Ans.
He was bom in 1824, atTankara village in Gujarat.

Question 4.
Name the parents of Swami Dayananda Saraswati.
Ans.
Krishnajr Tiwari and Yashodara were the parents of Swami Dayananda Saraswati.

Question 5.
Where was Arya Samaj established? When?
Ans.
Arya Samaj was founded at Bombay in 1875.

Question 6.
When was Swami Vivekananda born? Where?
Ans.
Swami Vivekananda was born on January 12lh 1863 at Calcutta.

Question 7.
Where and when was the Ramakrishna Mission established? ‘
Ans.
Ramakrishna Mission was founded at Belur Mutt near Calcutta on 5th May 1897.

Question 8.
Which were the two newspapers published by Vivekananda?
Ans.
Prabuddha Bharata (English) and Udbodhana (Bengali).

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Who established the Theosophical Society?
Answer:
Madam Blavatsky and Colonel Alcoh founded it in 1875 at New York. The Indian branch was established by Annie Besant in 1882 at Adyar near Madras.

Question 10.
Which were the two journals edited by Raja Ram Mohan Roy?
Answer:L
Samvad Kaumudi and Mirat-ul-Akbari were the journals edited by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

Question 11.
Who were the parents of Swami Vivekananda.
Ans.
Vishwanatha Dutta and Bhuvaneshwari Devi were the parents of Swami Vivekananda.

Question 12.
Who started the Home Rule Movement? When?
Answer:
Dr. Annie Besant started the Home Rule Movement in 1916 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Modern India Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the role of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in the socio-religious movement.
(or)
What role did Raja Ram Mohan Roy play in the socio-religious movement?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the great socio-religious reformer of modem India. He is called the “Father and prophet of Indian Renaissance”. He had a deep knowledge of Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and sufism. He was very much influenced by the English language and western thoughts. His primary aim was to reform the society and religion. He had to face the challenges of orthodox Hindus and fanatic Christian missionaries.

Religious reforms: Raja Ram Mohan Roy wanted to bring about reforms in Hindustan by getting rid of idol-worship, sacrifices and caste rigidity. On 20th August 1828, he founded the Brahmo Samaj at Calcutta. The main purpose of the Brahmo Samaj was to establish a casteless society based on common worship. Brahmo Samaj taught that ‘God is one, every religion possesses truth, idol worship and ritualism are meaningless and social evils have no connection . with religion”. The followers of all religions were invited to come and worship in the same temple in a spirit of brotherhood.

Social reforms: He carried on a long struggle against the social evils like the practice of Sati, child marriages, polygamy, untouchability and purdah system. Widows used to bum themselves up in the funeral pyres of their husbands and Raja Ram Mohan Roy organised agitations against this inhuman custom of Sati. It was due to his persuasion that Lord William Bentinck abolished Sati in 1829 and declared it a legal offence. He worked for the improvement of the status of women and for their education. He encouraged intercaste marriages and remarriage of widows.

Question 2.
Describe the role of Swami Dayananda Saraswati in the socio-religious movement.
Answer:
Dayananda Saraswati acquired a deep knowledge of the Vedas and other sacred books of Hinduism. He found that the Vedas were the real knowledge of the world, and dedicated his entire life to the cause of truth, spreading of knowledge and to wipe out falsehood. In 1875, he founded the Arya Samaj.

Religious reforms: The ideas of Dayananda Saraswati was to unite all Indians religiously, socially and nationally. He wanted the Aryan religion to be the common religion of all. He believed that the Vedas contained the original seed of Hinduism. His watch word was ‘Go back to the Vedas’. He tried to show that the Vedic civilization was the most ancient and highly developed one. He attacked the numerous blind beliefs like idol worship, going on pilgrimages, Polytheism, belief in black magic and charms, animal sacrifice etc.,

Shuddhi movement: Dayananda Saraswati tried not only to check conversion of Hindus to other religions, but also wanted to bring back the Hindu converts who had embraced other religions by Shuddhi Movement. His views were published in his work ‘Satyartha Prakasha’. He is hailed as the protector of Hindu religion’.

Social reforms: He advocated equality of social status to all members of the society and preached against untouchability and class differentiation in the spiritual and social lives of Hindus. He fought against the restrictions imposed on women and a section of the Hindu society, against the study of Vedas. He bitterly opposed child marriages, purdah system and other pseudo-religious customs of the Hindu society. He worked for the upliftment of women by advocating the causes of widow remarriage and female education.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Discuss the personality of Swami Vivekananda.
Answer:
Swami Vivekananda: He was born on 12th January 1863 in Calcutta. VishwanathaDatta and Bhuvancshwari Devi were his parents. His original name was Narendranatha Datta. He was the disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. He studied both Indian and western philosophies, but did not get intellectual satisfaction. He came under the spiritual influence of Sri Ramakrishna. After the death of his Guru, Vivekananda took up the cause of spreading his messages (Ideas).

World religious conference at Chicago-31st may 1893: Vivekananda travelled widely, spreading the divine message of his master in the world. In 1893, he attended the ‘World Religious Conference’ at Chicago, representing Hinduism, which was being misrepresented in the western countries. His Chicago address began as “Brothers and sisters of America….” This won over the hearts of the people. He described Hinduism as the mother of all religions. He declared the superiority of Indian culture and civilization. He influenced Americans by his speeches and thoughts. For the purpose of spreading the message of Hinduism, he founded ‘Vedanta Samaja’ in America and other European countries.

Ramakrishna Mission – 5th May 1897 – Calcutta: The Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda in 1897 at Belur Mutt near Calcutta. The Mission works for religious and social upliftment of the people. Its objective is to create cordial relations among the followers of different religions and to help the poor in the society.

The Mission stalled several Schools, Hospitals, Orphanages and old age Homes across the country. It also serves people in times of natural calamities like floods, famines, epidemics, earthquakes etc., Its branches have been established all over the world. Swami Vivekananda succeeded in making Hindus conscious of their strengths and weaknesses. He remarked “I do not believe in a religion that cannot wipe out the widow’s tear or bring a piece of bread to the orphan’s mouth”.

Social and religious reforms: Vivekananda condemned the caste system, rituals, ceremonies and superstitions. He stressed the need for social reforms. He preached tolerance, equality and co-operation among the people of all faiths. He gave importance to education, emancipation of women and eradication of poverty.

National Awakening: Vivekananda was a great nationalist. He roused the national consciousness of Indians by his famous call “Awake, Arise, stop not till the goal is reached”. He wanted India to be a great nation. He has been popularly called as the Patriotic Saint of India, Vedantha Kesari and Cyclonic Monk of India. He edited and published two newspapers, PrabhuddhaBharata (English) and Udbhodhan (Bengali).

Mysore – A Model State

2nd PUC History Modern India One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who transferred the capital of Mysore State from Mysore to Bangalore?
Answer:
Mark Cubbon, the Commissioner shifted the capital from Mysore to Bangalore.

Question 2.
Where was the first railway line laid down in Mysore Stale?
Answer:
Bangalore to Jolarpet in 1859 C.E.

Question 3.
Where was Vishwcshwaraiah born?
Answer:
Vishweshwaraiah was born at Muddenahalli (Chikkaballapura district).

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
In which year was the Mysore University established?
Answer:
In 1916, the Mysore University was established.

Question 5.
Who founded the Kannada Sahitya Parishat?
Answer:
Sir. M. Vishweshwaraiah.

Question 6.
Name the Bank established by Vishweshwaraiah?
Answer:
The Mysore Bank.

Question 7.
What was the famous slogan of Vishweshwariah regarding Industrial development?
Answer:
‘Industrialize or perish’ was the famous slogam of Sir M.V.

Question 8.
Who was the first Kannadiga to be conferred with the Bharata Ratna award?
Answer:
Sir. M. Vishweshwaraiah. in 1955.

Question 9.
Who built the Krishnaraja Sagara Dam?
Answer:
Sir. M. Vishweshwaraiah.

Question 10.
Name the founder of NIMIIANS (National Institute of Mental Health and Nuero Surgery) in Bangalore.
Answer:
Sir Mirza Ismail founded the NIMHANS in Bangalore.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Who built the Brindavan Gardens at K.R.S.?
Answer:
Sir Mirza Ismail built the Brindavan Gardens at K.R.S.

Question 12.
When did Commissioner’s rule begin in the Mysore State?
Answer:
Commissioner’s rule began in Mysore in 1831 C.E.

Question 13.
Which Governor General introduced Commissioner’s rule in Mysore State?
Answer:
Lord William Bentinck introduced Commissioner’s rule in 1831 in Mysore State.

Question 14.
When did Mark Cubbon become the Commissioner of Mysore Stale?
Answer:
Mark Cubbon became the Commissioner of Mysore State in 1834C.E.

Question 15.
Who set 300 acres of land for a park (Cubbon park) in Bangalore?
Answer:
L.B. Bowring set 300 acres of land for a park in Bangalore.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 16.
Who became the King of Mysore after rendition in 1881?
Answer:
Chamaraja Wodeyar- X became the King of Mysore in 1881.

Question 17.
Who is called as the maker (architect) of modern Mysore?
Answer:
Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah is called as the maker of modern Mysore.

Question 18.
Who started the Radio stations at Bangalore and Mysore?
Answer:
Sir Mirza Ismail started the Bangalore and Mysore Radio stations.

Question 19.
Who had the title ‘Rajarishi’?
Answer:
Krishnaraja Wodeyar-IV had the title ‘Rajarishi’.

2nd PUC History Modern India Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Name two important Commissioners of Mysore?
Answer:
Mark Cubbon and Lewis Bentham Bowring were two important Commisioners of Mysore.

Question 2.
Write any two administrative reforms of Mark Cubbon.
Answer:
Mark Cubbon shifted the capital from Mysore to Bangalore. Mysore state was divided into administrative units to minimise the expenditure and for the convenience of administration. The Judicial and Police departments were reorganized. Kannada was introduced as the official language.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Write any two administrative reforms of L.B. Bowring.
Answer:
Bowring divided Mysore state into 3 administrative divisions. A Commissioner was appointed over each division. Land revenue was reformed. Registration act was introduced. Judicial and police departments were systematically organised. Educational reforms were introduced with IhefdrmationofaDcpartmentofPublic Instruction.

Question 4.
Name any two important Dewans of Mysore.
Answer:
Sir.M. Vishweshwaraiah and Sir Mirza Ismail.

Question 5.
Name the parents of Sri. M. Vishweshwaraiah.
Answer:
Srinivasashastri and Venkatalaxmamma were the parents of SirM.V.

Question 6.
Mention any two books written by Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah?
Answer:
Sir M.V. wrote A vision of prosperous Mysore, Reconstructing India, Rapid development of Industries, Planned Economy for India. Memories of my working life etc.,

Question 7.
Mention any two industries started by Sir Mirza Ismail.
Answer:
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) Bangalore, Sugar Factory at Mandya, Match Factory at Shivamogga, Chemical and Fertilisers Factory at Belagola.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Who was the architect of K.R.S. Dam? Where is it built?
Answer:
Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah. It is across the Cauvery river at Kannambadi.

Question 9.
Who founded the Kannada Sahitya Parishat? When and Where?
Answer:
Sir. M. Vishweshwaraiah in 1915 at Bangalore.

Question 10.
Who founded the Mysore Bank and When? (or) Which bank was founded by Sri M.V.? ‘
Answer:
Sir.M. Vishweshwaraiah in 1913 C.E. founded the Bank of Mysore.

Question 11.
Which were the awards conferred on Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah?
Answer:
Sri M.V. was conferred with the title ‘Sir’ and Knighthood by the British Government in 1915. The government of India conferred the ‘Bharat Ratna’ in 1955.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Modern India Ten Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah is called the ‘Maker of Modern Mysore’. Explain,
(or)
What role did Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah play in transforming Mysore into a model and progressive state? Explain.
Answer:
Introduction: Sri M. Vishweshwaraiah was the most outstanding Dewan of Mysore. He entered the services of Mysore as Chief Engineer. He was a great Engineer, a capable administrator, eminent economist, liberal-minded statesmen and patriot. He is rightly called as‘The Architect of Modem Mysore”.

Early life and career of M.V.: Sir M.V. was bom on 15lh September 1861 at Muddenahalli (Chikkaballapur District). His parents were Srinivas Shastri and Venkatalaxmamma who were orthodox Hindus. After completing his primary education at Chikkaballapura, he went to Bangalore for further studies.

He obtained his B. A. degree from Central College, Bangalore in 1881. He did his B.E. degree (Pune) from Madras University in 1884. lie served in the Bombay Government from 1884 to 1909. He was appointed as the Chief Engineer of Mysore State in 1909. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – IV appointed him as the Dewan of Mysore in 1912. The main objective of Sir M. V. was the eradication of poverty and to put India in line with the developed nations.

Administrative reforms: Sir M.V. was a liberal statesman and believed in democracy. He took steps to strengthen the local self-governing bodies. The number of the members of the legislative council was increased from 18 to 24 and given the power to discuss the budget of the state. Sri M.V. passed the local self-governing bodies Act. This act made provisions for the majority of the members of the district and taluk boards being elected. Village reform committees were established for the progress of villages. The development of Malnad region was given priority and a plan was drawn up.

Industrial Development: ‘Industrialize or Perish’ was the slogan of Sir M.V. His aim was to make Mysore an industrially advanced state in India. He started several industries in the state. The important industries are Sandal oil factory at Mysore, Soap factory, Central Industrial workshop and Metal factory at Bangalore, Silk research center at Channapattana. Small scale and Cottage industries also developed.

Cottage industries such as weaving, pottery, oil processing, mat making, woodworks, leather goods, etc., flourished. The Mysore Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established in 1913 at Bangalore. The Mysore Bank was founded in 1913 at Bangalore for the promotion of Industries and Commerce.

Educational reforms: Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourage education among the economically and socially backward classes. Female and technical education were also encouraged.

The major Educational Institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore. His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore Univesity in 1916 at Mysore and the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and Literature.

Irrigational scheme: He understood the needs of the farmers. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for better utilisation of the available water. K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at (1911 to 1931)Kannambadi and as a result, 150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya and Malavalli areas came under cultivation. lie offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty. Canals, tanks and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage systems were introduced.

Railway reforms: Sir M.V. introduced the ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore-Arasikere and Bowringpete – Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Bimr-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Marata Company were brought under the State control.

Relief works: During Sir. M. Vishweshwaraiah’s Dewanship the first world war (1914-18) broke out. This led to severe shortage of foodstuff. He look up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices.

Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable service to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, the British Government honoured him with Knighthood in 1915. In 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to gel this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.

Indian National Movement

2nd PUC History Modern India One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who presided over the first session of the Indian National Congress?
Answer:
Womesh Chandra Banerjee.

Question 2.
Why was Bengal partitioned in 1905?
Answer:
The British intended to create a split (rift) between Hindus and Muslims. Real intention of the order was to curb the growing national feeling in Bengal.

Question 3.
Which Satyagraha of Gandhiji forced the British to abolish Theen Kathiya (Grow Indigo) system?
(or)
Where did Gandhiji first practice Satyagraha in India?
Answer:
Gandhiji organized the peasant movement in Champaran in 1917.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Which incident made Gandhiji to withdraw the Non-Cooperation movement?
Answer:
The Chauri Chaura incident when a mob burnt down a police station along with some policemen on 5th February 1922.

Question 5.
Which was the popular slogan of the people during the visit of the Simon Commission to India? (or) Why was the Simon Commission boycotted?
Answer:
As the Simon Commission did not have any Indian members, it was boycotted by the Congress in 1928 with the slogan‘Simon, Go back’.

Question 6.
When was Poorna Swaraj declared by the Indian National Congress?
Answer:
The Congress session at Lahore in 1929, declared Poorna Swaraj.

Question 7.
Which Round Table Conference did Gandhiji attend?
Answer:
Gandhiji attended the Second Round Table Conference at London (1931).

Question 8.
When was the Poona Pact signed? ‘
Answer:
Gandhiji and Dr. B.R.Ambedkar signed the Poona Pact in 1932.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Who was popular as Netaji?
Answer:
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.

Question 10.
Expand INA.
Answer:
The Indian National Army (INA).

Question 11.
Where were the INA (Indian National Army) trials held?
Answer:
iNA’s first trial was held at the Red Fort in Delhi.

Question 12.
Who gave the call for‘Direct Action Day’?
Answer:
Mohammad Ali Jinnah called for ‘Direct Action Day’.

Question 13.
Who was popular as the ‘Iron man of India’?
Answer:
SardarVallababhai Patel was popular as the ‘Iron Man of India’.

Question 14.
Where was a branch of the Home Rule League established in Karnataka?
Answer:
A branch of the Home Rule League was established in Karnataka at Dharwad in 1916.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Expand KPCC.
Answer:
Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee (KPCC).

Question 16.
Who was famous as‘Karnataka Kesari’and‘Lion of Karnataka’?
Answer:
Gangadhar Rao Deshpande.

Question 17.
What was the popular slogan of Isur?
Answer:
‘Esuru Kottaru, Isuru Kodevu ’ (How many ever villages be given, Isuru will not be let).

Question 18.
Who is called as the ‘Father of Indian National Congress’?
Answer:
Allan Octavian Hume (A.O. Hume).

Question 19.
Who was known as the Grand old Man of India?
Answer:
Dadabai Naoroji was popular as the Grand old Man of India.

Question 20.
Who were the founders of the All India Muslim League (AIML)?
Answer:
The All India Muslim League was established by Nawab Aga Khan and Nawab Mohsin ul Mulkin 1906.

Question 21.
What was the Patriotic slogan of Bal GangadharTilak?
Answer:
“Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it” was his slogan.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 22.
Who founded the Hindustan Republican Army?
Answer:
Chandrashekar Azad founded the H.R.A.

Question 23.
‘Inquilab Zindabad’ (Long live the Revolution). Whose slogan was this?
Answer:
Bhagat Singh while being hanged on 23rd March 1931.

Question 24.
Which was, the first mass-based movement in the freedom struggle of India?
Answer:
Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920.

Question 25.
Who gave the call ‘Do or Die’, to Indians during the Quit India Movement?
Answer:
Gandhiji gave the call ‘Do or Die’ in 1942.

Question 26.
Who was the last Viceroy of India?
Answer:
Lord Mountbatten.

Question 27.
Who is called “Karnataka Kulapurohita”?
Answer:
Alur Venkata Rao is called as ‘Karnataka Kulapurohita’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 28.
Where was the first National Flag hoisted in Karnataka (Before Independence)
Answer:
At the Shivapura Congress Session on 11th April 1938.

Question 29.
Which tragedy is called as the Jalianwalabagh massacre of Karnataka?
Answer:
VidurashwathaTragedy (25th April 1938), when the police fired and killed 32 people in a procession. –

Question 30.
Which was the First village that declared Independence in Karnataka?
Answer:
Isur (ShimogaDist) in 1942.

Question 31.
Who organized the ‘Mysore Chalo’ movement (Palace Satyagraha) for responsible Government?
Answer:
K. C. Reddy organized the Mysore Chalo, on 1st September 1947.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Modern India Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
When was the First session of the Indian National Congress held and where?
Answer:
On the 27th December 1885, the first session of the Indian national congress was held at Bombay and W.C. Banerjee presided over it.

Question 2.
What were the objectives of the Indian National Congress?
Answer:

  • To encourage and consolidate National unity, intimacy and friendship among Indians.
  • To remove prejudices of Religion, Caste, Province, etc.
  • To politically educate the Indian masses and formulate a public opinion.
  • To include more Indians in the councils and civil services.
  • To persuade the British Government to introduce reforms.

Question 3.
Name any two Moderate leaders, (or) Who were the leaders of the Moderates?
Answer:
Dadabhai Naoroji, Pheroz Shah Mehta, Surendranath Baneijee, G K Gokhale, M. G Ranade, M. M. Malaviya, Badruddin Tyabji, Subramania Iyar, Womesh Chandra Banerjee and others.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Name any two Extremist leaders.
Answer:
Lala Lajpat Roy, Bipin Chandra Pal and BalGangadharTilak.

Question 5.
Who partitioned Bengal? When was Bengal partitioned?
Answer:
Governor General Lord Curzon in 1905 partitioned Bengal.

Question 6.
Who started the Home Rule League Movement? When?
Answer:
Lokmanya Bal GangadharTilak and Mrs. Annie Besant started the Home Rule Movement in
1916. (23rd April 1916).

Question 7.
Who was responsible for the massacre at Jalianwalabagh? When did it occur?
Answer:
General Dyer, the Commander of Amritsar, on 13th April 1919 ordered the shooting.

Question 8.
Mention any two leaders of the Khilafat Movement.
Answer:
The Ali brothers, MaulanaAzad, IIakim Ajmal Khan and others.

Question 9.
Who founded the Swaraj Party? When?
Answer:
C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the Swaraj Party in 1923.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Which Congress Session declared ‘Poorna Swaraj’ as its aim? When was it held?
Answer:
Lahore Congress Session presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru declared complete Independence
as its aim, in 1929.

Question 11.
From where did Gandhiji start the ‘Salt March’ and where did it culminate?
Answer:
Gandhiji started the Salt March from the Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmadabad to Dandi (12th March to 6th April 1930).

Question 12.
When was the Poona Pact signed and between whom?
Answer:
In 1932 -It was signed between Gandhiji and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.

Question 13.
Where was the First session of the Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee held and when?
Answer:
The first session of the KPCC was held in 1920 at Dharwad.

Question 14.
Where was the only Congress Session presided by Gandhiji held and when?
Answer:
In 1924 at Belgaum, Gandhiji presided over the Indian Congress Session.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Who were the Moderates?
Answer:
Moderates had strong faith in the British sense of Justice and fairplay. They believed that when Indians become well educated and nationally awakened, Independence would gradually come.

Question 16.
Who were the Extremists?
Answer:
Extremists believed that reforms would not be secured by mere talk, and only by action and they blamed the British rule for India’s problems.

Question 17.
What is Swadeshi movement?
Answer:
Boycotting foreign goods, adapting to Indian goods and spreading the national feeling among Indians was called Swadeshi Movement.

Question 18.
Who were the Revolutionaries?
Answer:
Revolutionaries were radical Nationalists who did not believe in passive resistance. They wanted to achieve freedom by armed rebellion. They were ready for violence in order to drive away the British from India.

Question 19.
Who planned the launching of the Non-Cooperation Movement? When?
Answer:
Gandhiji planned the launching of the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920.

Question 20.
Who started the Civil Disobedience Movement? When?
Answer:
Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.

Question 21.
What was the slogan of the Quit India Movement? Who gave the call?
Answer:
‘Do or die’ was the slogan, and it was given by Gandhiji in 1942.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 22.
Who were the members of the Cabinet Mission?
Answer:
Sir Lawrence, Sir Cripps and Alexander were the members of the Cabinet Mission in 1944.

Question 23.
What was Atlee’s declaration? When was it issued?
Answer:
LordAtlee was the Prime Minister of England in 1947. His declaration called for granting Independence to India before June 1948. It was made on 20th February 1947.

Question 24.
Who started the Hindustan Sevadal? When and Where?
Answer:
Dr. N. S. Hardekar-In 1924-AtITubIi.

Question 25.
Where did the Salt Satyagraha take place in Karnataka and under whose leadership?
Answer:
At Ankola in 1930 – under the leadership of M. P. Nadakami:

Question 26.
Where was the first session of the Mysore Pradesh Congress held and who was its President?
Answer:
The first session was held in Shivapura. T. Siddalingaiah was the President of the session.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Modern India Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
What were the important factors that led to the growth of Indian Nationalism?
Answer:
The important factors for the growth of Indian Nationalism were as listed below.
1. Political Unity and Uniform Administration: The British conquered the whole of India and brought it under a single administration. This made the people of India unite psychologically. Now they faced many common problems and a common enemy. The concept that “We are all Indians” was created in the minds of the Indian people. The British imperialism gave India political unity.

2. Impact of English Education: A wave of liberalism and individual freedom was passing through English politics and literature in the 19th century. The enlightened Indians began to compare their existing conditions to that of Europe. By the study of English literature and history, educated Indians were filled with the spirit of democracy and national patriotism. English language was the language of communication for the national leaders.

3. Discrimination against Indians: The British considered themselves to be racially superior to Indians. They had the feeling that Indians were incapable and unworthy of trust. Therefore, they denied higher posts to Indians. The British officers often berated Indians as Kutthe (dogs) Niggers (blacks) and Suvars (pigs). The Queen’s proclamation in 1858 promised to Indians, that they would be appointed to higher posts on the basis of their merit, irrespective of their caste, religion or race, but this policy was never implemented. Indian culture and heritage were looked down upon by the British. This unjust policy created great discontent among the educated class.

4. Role of Indian press and literature: The Indian press contributed a lot to the national awakening. Newspapers openly criticized the political policy of the British Government. Newspapers like the Bombay Samachar, Indian Mirror, The Kesari, Hindu, Patriot etc., greatly influenced the nationalist feelings.

Many articles and poems inspiring nationalism were being published both in English and the vernacular languages. Scholars like R. G Bhandarkar, R. L. Mitra, Tilak, Swami Vivekananda, Max Muller, Monier Williams and others conducted researches and brought to light the glorious cultural past of India. The cultural heritage of India filled the nationalists with pride and self-confidence. For e.g. writings of Ravindra Nath Tagore and the inspiring song ‘Vandemataram’ by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee stirred the hearts of Indians.

5. The Economic Policy of the British: The British considered India to be only a colony which provided cheap raw materials and market for their finished goods. Their economic policy destroyed the economic structure that existed in India and the nation became poorer. The Indian cottage industries suffered severely. The economic deterioration of India was attributed to the British rule.

6. Network of Communication: The British followed reactionary policies like divide and rule, subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine of Lapse, annexing States quoting misrule etc., to establish political supremacy over India. Indian Rulers and common people were discontents with the British policies.

The introduction of the telegraph network, postal and railways looked like efforts to chain the country. The nationalist movement spread very quickly throughout India. It made inter-provincial relations and exchange of thoughts possible. The national leaders visited every nook and comer of the country and made propaganda.

Indian Nationalism is the offspring and outcome of the British rule. All the above factors directly or indirectly led to national awakening among Indians.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Discuss briefly the causes for the rise of Extremism.
Answer:
The period of the Extremists 1905-1920: The Indian National Movement entered a new phase after 1905. The period between 1905 and 1920 is known as the period of the Extremists. Extremists believed that reforms could not be secured by mere talk, only by action and they blamed the British rule in India for all the problems and economic backwardness. They were also called Radical Nationalists. The prominent leaders of the Extremists were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and BalgangadharTilak. The trio were popularly known as Lal-Bal- Pal. Extremists convinced the public that Self-Government was essential for the sake of the economic, political and cultural progress of the country and they grew in self-confidence.
Causes for the rise of Extremism :

1. The Moderates failed to achieve any noteworthy results through their constitutional methods of prayers, petitions and protests. This angered the Extremists and the Moderates themselves were disillusioned by the British attitude. The approach of the Moderates towards the foreign invaders was termed by the Extremists as ‘Political Mendicancy’.

2. The lethargy of the British Government in handling the terrible famine and plague attacks of 1896-1901 resulted in thousands of people becoming victims of starvation, disease and death. The Government took some measures to check the disease, but they were inadequate. The British were interested only in the economic exploitation of India and not in the welfare of the people. The Plague Commissioner Mr. Rand was murdered and Bal Gangadhar Tilak was arrested for the same. This further increased the radical nationalism.

3. The Indian Council Act of 1892 did not satisfy the Congress, which expected more power. It was just an eye-wash. The act gave some additional powers to the elected representatives, but Viceroy was the final authority.

4. Viceroy Lord Curzon followed an anti-Indian racial policy and introduced many reactionary measures like Calcutta Corporation Act (1899), Official Secrets Act (1904), Indian University Act (1904), Partition of Bengal (1905) etc., His actions curbed Indians and increased the dominance of the British. He held that only Englishmen were fit to rule India. The intention of the British was to create a Hindu – Muslim divide under the pretext of making the Partition for better administration. The angry reactions of the Indian population gave scope to extremist sentiments.

5. The efforts of leaders like Swami Vivekananda, Dayananda Saraswati, Aurobindo Ghosh, Tilak, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee and others, instilled confidence and self respect among the Indians. Bal GangadharTilak initiated the public celebration of Ganesha festival and Shivaji Jayanthi, which encouraged the nationalist sentiments.

6. International events like the nationalist movements in Egypt, Turkey, Persia, unification of Italy, Germany and China influenced the Indian thought process. Nationalists began to think that Indians too can unite and drive away the British.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Explain the role of Karnataka in the Indian National Movement.
Answer:
Karnataka played an important role in the National movement. After the fall of Tippu, Mysore Kingdom fell into the hands of British. The people of Karnataka opposed the overlordship of the British and their policies. The British Jiad to face stiff opposition in Karnataka. This led to the freedom struggle at various places. Some of the important ones were Dhondia Wagha (1800), Kittur Revolt (1824), Sangolli Rayanna’s Revolt (1830), Bidanure Revolt (1830), RevoltinCoorg(1834)BedasofHalagali’sRevolt(1857)etc.,

Serious struggle started with the establishment of Indian National Congress (1885). Representatives of Karnataka participated in the first Congress Session at Bombay (28.12.1885). The Bombay State Political Conference was held at Belgaum in 1893, presided over by Dinsha Wacha. At Dharwad, Pheroz Shah Mehta was the President. Tilak’s newspapers ‘Kesari’ and ‘Maratha’ stirred up nationalistic feelings. Tilak toured Karnataka and gathered support for the Home Rule Movement.

Alur Venkata Rao, Srinivas Rao Kaujalgi, Govinda Rao Yalagi and others led the nationalistic activities. A branch of the Home Rule League was established at Dharwad in 1916. The celebrations of Ganeshotsava and Shivaji Jayanthi became very popular in north Karnataka. The First Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee (KPCC) session was held in 1920 at Dharwad. Gangadhar Rao Deshpande was the President of the session. He was popular as ‘Lion of Karnataka’ and ‘Karnataka Kesari’. Soon, Pradesha Congress Committees were established at Bangalore. Tumkur, Mysore and Kadur during 1921-1922.

Gandhian Era : Gandhiji started the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920. He toured Karnataka and advocated satyagraha to expel the British from India. Kannadigas were greatly influenced by Gandhiji. Leaders like Krishna Rao, Hanumant Rao Kaujalgi, Kamad Sadashiva Rao, N. S. Hardikar, R. R. Diwakar and others led the Non-Cooperation Movement in Karnataka. Boycotting Schools, Colleges, Courts and abstaining from work, picketing, strikes, demonstrations, burning of foreign goods, etc were held at most of the places in Karnataka. N. S. Hardikar established the Hindustan Seva Dal at Hubli in 1924, to intensify the struggle in Karnataka.

Belgaum Congress Session in 1924: Indian National Congress session was held at Belgaum in 1924. Gandhiji presided over the session. Hardikar Manjappa, famous as Gandhi of Karnataka along with Vallababhai Patel, Rajagopalachari, Jawaharlal Nehru and others participated in it. In that session, Gandhiji clearly explained the aims, methods and contents of the Satyagraha Movement lie called for the prohibition of alcohol and removal of untouchability. Gangubai Hangal sang ‘Vande Mataram’in this session.

This helped the Congress and its struggle in Karnataka. After the session, Gandhiji travelled to Bangalore, Mandya, Shimoga, Ilassan, Chikkamagaluru and encouraged nationalistic activities.

Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930: Gandhiji started Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.1 le went to Dandi to make salt, to break the monopoly of the British Government to make salt. Kannadigas actively participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Mylara Mahadevappa of Karnataka was one among the 78 members, who started the march from Sabarmati Ashram (12th March ISJO) along with Gandhiji during the Salt Satyagraha. In Karnataka, Salt Satyagraha was organized by R. R. Diwakar, M. R Nadakami, Sadashiva Rao, Ilanumantha Rao, Gangadhar Rao Deshpande and others.

They were completely successful in preparing salt at Ankolaon the very day Gandhiji did it at Dandi. It was repeated in over 30 centers in Karnataka like Mangalore, Kapu, Udupi, Kundapura, Malpe, Putturu and other places.

Shivapura Flag Satyagraha in 1938: The Mysore Pradesh Congress organized the session at Shivapura in 1938. It was presided over by T. Siddalingaiah. Large number of people attended the session. T. Siddalingaiah hoisted the tricolour Flag and demanded for responsible Government. The British Government prohibited all activities of the Congress and all congress leaders were arrested.

Vidurashwatha Tragedy in 1938: The Mysore Congress held a meeting and a procession at Vidurashwatha on 25th April 1938 during the temple festival. The Government had prohibited the meeting but the people defied the orders and hoisted the national flag. Several Congress workers were arrested and the situation turned violent. Police opened fire on the agitators. In the police firing, 32 people were killed and many injured. This incident is generally known as ‘Julian Walabagh of Karnataka’.

Quit India Movement in 1942: In 1942, Gandhiji gave a call to the people of India to ‘Do or Die’ and asked the British to quit India. Karnataka also took part in the movement with great enthusiam and fervour. One of the most important incident during the movement in Karnataka was the Isur Tragedy.

Isur, a small village in Shikaripur taluk of Shimoga district jumped into the Quit India Movement and declared Independence from the British rule. ‘Esuru Kottaru, hum Kodevu’ (How many ever villages be given, Isuru will not be let) was the famous slogan of the villagers. The villagers snatched away revenue records from the Patel and Shanbhag and beat them up for not supporting the movement. They hoisted the tricolour flag on the Veerabhadreshwara temple.

The police responded with severe lathi charge and firing. Government suppressed the uprising and arrested many people and sent them to Bangalore Cenjral Jail. The court passed death sentences on Gurappa, Mallappa, Halappa, Shankarappa and Suryanarayanachari. The National Movement ended with the Independence of India in 1947. Isur was the first village to declare itself as an Independent village.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Modern India Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences each.

Question 1.
Trace the Indian National movement from 1885 to 1920
(or)
What was the role of the National Congress and Moderates in the National Movement?
Answer:
Role of the Indian National Congress: The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 gave a clear warning to the British with regard to the rising national feeling among Indians. There was a need for a common national organization, which included all classes of people. A. O. Hume (Allan Octavian , Hume) inspired the national leaders, to establish the Indian National Union in 1884, subsequently the Indian National Congress. The first Indian National Congress session was held at Bombay on 27th December 1885, presided over by Womesh Chandra Banerjee. 72 delegates from different parts of India attended it and four of them were from Karnataka.

Aims and objectives of the Congress:

  • Promotion of friendly relations among the nationalists and other political workers from different parts of the country.
  • Development and consolidation of the feeling of national unity, irrespective of caste, religion, province etc.,
  • Presenting the popular demands of the people before the British Government.
  • Organisation of public opinion in the country.
  • To politically educate the Indian masses and demand to include more Indians in the councils and civil services.

In the beginning, the British Government was friendly towards the Congress. But as its strength and popularity increased, Congress was in favour of a responsible Government in India and began to demand the same. This irritated the British Government and it began to adopt a policy of favouring anti-Congrcss elements. Freedom movement in India can be divided into three stages, namely:-

  1. The first phase -The period of the Moderates – 1885-1905.
  2. The second phase-The period of the Extremists in 1905-1920.
  3. The third phase-The Gandhian period or Era-1920-1947.

The first phase – The period of the Moderates in 1885-1905 :
The early Congress (1885-1905): Leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji (The grand old man of India), Pheroz Shah Mehta, Surendranath Banerjee, G K. Gokhale, BadruddinTyabji, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Anandacharlu and others were the moderates.

Policy of the Moderates: The Moderates were cordial towards the British, and they had strong faith in the British sense of justice and f airplay. They felt that India will get modernized and uplifted by the benevolent and liberal rule of the British.

Moderates followed the principles of Prayers, Petitions and Protests to pressurize the British Government. They organized public meetings, submitted memorandums to the Government to redress the grievances of the people; If the Government was stubborn to their demands, they used to protest against it. Dadabhai Naoroji established the East India Association in 1866. This Association took up the Indian issues at London and attempted to influence the British public and British legislators to enact policies and laws favoring Indians.

The British were hostile towards the Congress since its establishment and they developed a . stem attitude towards the moderates. Their policy was nicknamed as ‘Political Mendicancy’ (begging for political concessions) by the Extremists. They called the Congress as factory of sedition’ and leaders as ‘Seditious Brahmins’ and ‘Disloyal Babus’.

Moderates were true patriots and they brought political maturity to the Indians. They exposed the exploitative character of the colonial rule and policies of the British. They were able to underline that the duty of the Government was to consider the interests of the Indians. The notable results of their demands was the Indian Councils Act of 1892. The Moderates played a very important role in the freedom movement in India. They sowed the seeds of liberalism and nationalist ideas in the minds of Indians.

Second Phase – The period of the Extremists -1905-1920.
The Indian National Movement entered a new phase after 1905. The Extremists wen: radical and militant in their approach in contrast to the Moderates. They believed that reform could not be secured by mere talk, and only by action. They blamed the British rule fo all the prevailing problems and were called Extremists or Radical Nationalists.

Extremists convinced the public that Self-Government was essential for the sal of the economic, political and cultural progress of the country. Extremists had grown in self-confidence. The leaders of the extremists were Bal GangadharTilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Roy.

Important events during the Extremist’s Period:
1. Partition of Bengal in 1905: In 1905, Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal into two parts as East Bengal and West Bengal. He justified the partition on administrative convenience, as Bengal was too big a province to be administrated by a single provincial Government. The real intention of the order was to curb the growing national feeling in Bengal. The people staunchly opposed this and indulged in the anti-partition movement, boycott of foreign goods and usage of only swadeshi goods.

2. Flic Surat Split -1907: The Extremists and the Moderates differed over issues like election of the President, setting goals and passing resolutions of the Congress. Finally, both the groups agreed to Dadabhai Naoroji for Presidentship of the Congress in 1906. But the Extremists were successful in making Dadabhai Naoroji to declare ‘Swaraj (Self Government) as the goal of the Congress.

The differences once again emerged at the Surat session in 1907. The Moderates wanted Rashbihari Ghosh and the Extremists wanted Lala Lajpat Rai to be the President. Both the groups refused to compromise resulting in the split in the Indian National Congress. This is commonly known as the ‘Surat Split’. The British undertook many repressive measures and also introduced many Acts to suppress the Extremists. Both groups reunited in the Lucknow Congress session.

3. Revolutionary Nationalism (Terrorism): The repressive measures of the British encouraged revolutionary terrorism. The revolutionaries were radical nationalists who did not believe in passive resistance. They were ready for any violent activity in order to drive away the British from India. They organised secret societies like Abhinav Bharat and Anusilan Samiti to achieve their goal. The revolutionaries were able to create a commotion but most of them were either imprisoned, exiled, killed or hanged.

4. Muslim League in 1906: The All India Muslim League was founded by Nawab Aga Khan, Nawab Mohsim ul Mulk and others in 1906. The British tried to check the National movement by following a policy of divide and rule. The League followed a path contrary to that of Congress. They supported the partition of Bengal and also demanded a separate electorate for the Muslims. The Punjab Hindu Sabha was founded in 1909. The Hindu Maha Sabha like the All India Muslim League was also against the Indian National Congress.

5. Morley – Minto Reforms 1909: This act increased the number of elected members to the Central and Provincial Councils and also introduced separate electorates to the Muslims. The number of seats so reserved was in an higher ratio for the Muslim population when compared to the Hindu population. Only Muslims were to vote to the reserved Muslim seats.

6. Home Rule League 1916: The Home Rule Movement was started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mrs. Annie Bcsant in 1916. The objective of the movement was to attain Self-Government within the British Empire by all constitutional means. The movement soon spread throughout India and became popular. Tilak gave the popular slogan “Swaraj (Home rule) is my birthright and I shall have it”. Mr. Edwin Montague made a declaration on 20th August 1917. By this announcement, it was promised to give responsible Government to Indians, by degrees.

7. Montague – Chelmsford Reforms 1919; (Government of India Act of 1919) This Act introduced Bi-Cameral legislatures (Diarchy). The Central Assembly (Lower house) consisted of 144 members, 104 elected and 40 nominated members. The Council of States (Upper I louse) was to have 34 elected and 26 nominated members.

8. Rowlatt act ofl 919 and Jalian Walabagh Tragedy: The British Government passed the Rovvlatt Act in 1919. This Act empowered the Government to arrest and detain suspected persons without warrant and imprison them without any trial. Indians protested against the Rowlatt Act. A huge meeting was held at Jalian Walabagh on 13th April 1919. About 10,000 unarmed people had gathered there. General Dyer with his troops surrounded the meeting place and opened fire on the innocent people and around 1000 persons were killed and many more were injured.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Discuss the role of Gandhiji in Indian National Movement.
(or)
Explain the Freedom Movement in India form 1920 to 1947
Movement ‘ Vs
Answer:
Gandhiji an Era 1C- 1920 to 1947: The Montague – Chelmsford reforms (1919) and subsequent events like the Rowlatt Act, the Jalian Walabagh tragedy made Gandhiji to plunge into the National movement. 1 le advocated the policy of Satyagraha which was Non-violent and Non-Coopcraciion to the British Government.

1. Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22): A special session of the Congress was held at Calcutta in September 1920. Gandhiji proposed the Non-Cooperation Movement. His plan of launching a nationwide Non-Cooperation Movement was accepted by the session. The response of the people to the call was unprecedented. Students and teachers came out of Schools and Colleges and national Institutions like Kashi Vidyapeetha, Jamiya Miliya Islamiya etc., also joined the movement.

Members of the council tendered their resignations. Congress took some constructive measures and Hindu – Muslim unity was stressed. Foreign goods were boycotted and were collected and burnt at public places. This created nationalistic awareness among people, who began, to use ‘Swadeshi’ and wearing khadi became a symbol of National pride.

2. The Chowri – Chowra incident: 5th February 1922: Non-Cooperation Movement shook the foundation of the British Empire in India. Gandhiji toured the whole country to motivate people. The Viceroy, Lord Curzon took steps to curb the movement. Non-Cooperation participants along with Gandhiji were sent to prison. A violent mob at Chowri Chowra (U.R) set fire to the police station on 5th Feb 1922. In this incident, 22 policemen were killed. Immediately Gandhiji called off the movement.

3. The Swaraj Party -1923: Congress leaders like C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru were dissatisfied
about the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement and they wanted to end the boycott to the legislature and wanted to contest elections. But Congress rejected the proposal to contest elections So, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the ‘Swaraj Party’. Their aim was to achieve Independence by radical but constitutional methods.

4. Simon Commission in 1927: The British Government appointed the Simon Commission to placate the agitating Indians and make recommendations for further reforms. As the Commission did not have any indian representative in it, it was boycotted by the Congress. The Congress organised a black flag demonstration with the slogan ‘Simon go back’.

5. Nehru Report and Poorna Swaraj (1929): The British challenged the Indians to provide an alternative proposal acceptable to all the political parties. The All Parties Conference took up the challenge and appointed a committee under Motilal Nehru. The Committee submitted its report in 1928. Differences arose with regard to the communal representation between parties like the Muslim League, the Hindu Malta Sabha and the Sikhs. Communalists also were unhappy with the Nehru report, and the British ignored the same.

At the Indian National Congress session held at Lahore in December 1929 presided by Jawaharlal Nehru, a resolution of complete Independence of India as its goal (Poorna Swaraj) was adopted. It announced the celebration of 26th January 1930 as Independence day and authorized Gandhiji to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930 : In the 1929 Lahore Congress session, it was decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. In order to overthrow the British, many methods were adopted. Gandhiji placed 11 demands before the British and set 31st January 1930 as the deadline to accept or reject the demands. Without any positive response, the British nationalized the production of Salt.

Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement through the ‘Salt March or Dandi March’ on 12th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and reached Dandi on 5th April 1930. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji and his followers made salt from the seawater, violating the salt laws. The salt satyagraha was carried out throughout India. The Government took repressive measures. Gandhiji and many other leadeis were put behind bars. Salt became a symbol of our National Pride.

The first Round Table Conference 1930-31: Muslim League, Hindu Maha Sabha, Liberals and the Princes of various States attended it. The conference could not achieve much without the participation of the Indian National Congress which had boycotted it. The British unconditionally released Gandhiji and the other members of the Congress working committee (CEC) from prison. A pact was made between Gandhiji and Viceroy Lord Irwin. Irwin agreed to withdraw all repressive measures relating to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji demanded the formation of a responsible Government. The signing of the Gandhi – Irwin Pact also known as the ‘Delhi Pact’ was done on 14th February Gandhiji on behalf of the Congress withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Second Round Table Conference 1931 : Gandhiji attended the second Round Table Conference at London as the sole representative of the Congress. The session soon got deadlocked bn the question of the minorities. Separate electorates were being demanded by the Muslims and the oppressed classes. Gandhiji claimed the untouchables to be Hindus and not to be treated an minorities and no special electorates to be provided to them or to the Muslims.

The British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald announced separate electorates to the Muslims and the untouchables, which was called as the ‘Communal Award’. This resulted in serious differences between Gandhiji and Ambedkar. This issue was finally settled amicably with the ‘Poona Pact’ signed between the two stalwarts in 1932.

3rd Round Table Conference 1932: This conference was held at London in 1932. Congress refused to participate in it and the conference failed. The only important result of the discussions of the Conference was the passing of the Government of India Act 1935. This Act provided for All India Federation and Provincial Governments. Gandhiji launched a movement with Ambedkar to eradicate untouchability from India.

Second World War and National Movement in 1939: The second world war broke out in 1939. India was dragged into the war without any consultation. The Congress refused any kind of cooperation. All the Congress Ministries resigned in 1939. Gandhiji launched individual Satyagraha against the British.

The British tided to enlist the Indian support by creating differences between the Muslim League and the Congress. Muslim League adopted the Pakistan resolution in 1940. Viceroy Linlithgow announced that India would get Dominion status and establishment of constituent Assembly after the war and requested the Indian public to support the British in the war.

Cripps Mission 1942: The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to negotiate with the Indian leaders. He proposed that Dominion status and an Interim Government of Indians to administer on all matters except defence, to be granted to India after the war. Gandhiji described Cripps’ offer as “a post-dated cheque of a drowning Bank”.

Quit India Movement in 1942: The All India Congress Committee met in Bombay and passed the Quit India resolution on Sth August 1942. It was declared that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity. Gandhiji gave the call of ‘Do or Die’ to Indians. The British Government arrested the Congress leaders including Gandhiji and people were stunned. They d;d not know what to do next. As a result people took to violence.

They attacked Police stations, Post offices, Railway stations etc., They cut off telegraph and telephone wires and railway lines. They burnt Government buildings and Railway carnages were put on fire. The Government adopted strong measures of repression and more than 60,000 people were arrested. More than 1000 people died in the police and military firing.

The Cabinet Mission 1946: During his Prime Ministership, Clement Atlee deputed a Commission to India in 1946. (Cripps, Lawrence and A. V. Alexander were its members) Its objective was to concede independence to India and transfer powers. The Cabinet Mission held discussions and rejected the creation of Pakistan. The Muslim League rejected it and Jinnah called for ‘Direct Action Day’ and insisted upon having Pakistan (Lokar range Pakistan).

This resulted in communal violence at many places, bloodshed and killings. A constituent Assembly was constituted under the Chairmanship of Babu Rajendra Prasad on 9th December 1946. The Congress under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru formed an interim Government.

Independence and Partition: (June 1947) British Prime Minister Clement Alice entrusted to Lord Mountbatten (Viceroy) the job of transferring power. He tried to resolve the deadlock which existed between the Congress and the Muslim League. When he realised that it was impossible to patch up the differences, he made an announcement on 3rd June 1947 regarding the partition of the country.

On the basis of Mountbatten’s declaration, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on 18th July 1947. This Act came into effect on 15th August 1947. This act divided the country into India and Pakistan. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of Independent India and Lord Mountbatten who was the last Viceroy became Independent India’s first Governor-General.

Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel was instrumental in reorganizing and merging the Princely Indian States into the Indian Federation. The constitution was brought into effect on 26th January 1950 and India became a Republic.

KSEEB Solutions

Unification of Karnataka

2nd PUC History Modern India One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentences each.

Question 1.
Who persuaded the Princely States to join the Indian Union?
Answer:
The first Home Minister Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel.

Question 2.
Which was the famous work of Alur Venkata Rao?
Answer:
Karnataka Gatha Vai bhava.

Question 3.
Who was the Chairman of the State Reorganisation Committee?
Answer:
FazlAli.

Question 4.
Who was the first Chief Minister of Mysore after the unification?
Answer:
S. Nijalingappa was the first Chief Minister of Mysore State.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Which Indian Princely States refused to join the Indian Union?
Answer:
Hyderabad, Kashmir and Junagad refused to join the Indian Union.

Question 6.
Who started a fast unto death demanding the creation of Andhra Pradesh?
Answer:
Potti Sriramulu started a fast unto death demanding the creation Of A.P.

Question 7.
Who was called ‘Kannada Kulapurohita’?
Answer:
Alur Venkata Rao was called Kannada Kulapurohita.

Question 8.
What did the S. K. Dhar Committee recommed?
Answer:
Dhar Commission recommended that states should not be formed on linguistic basis and opined that it was detrimental to the National integration.

Question 9.
Who started a hunger strik demanding for unification of Karnataka?
Answer:
Andanappa Doddameti at Jakkali in Dharwad District.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Which Committee recommended the unification of Karnataka?
Answer:
State Reorganization Committee or Fazl Ali Committee – 30th Sep 1955.

Question 11.
When did Mysore Slate come into being?
Answer:
1 st November 1956.

2nd PUC History Modern India Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Name any two important leaders of the unification of Karnataka?
Answer:
Alur Venkata Rao, Siddappa Kambli, Andanappa Doddameti, Goruru Ramaswamy Iyengar, K. Hanumanthaiah, S. Nijalingappa, R. I I. Deshpande, Srini vas Rao Mangalavede and others.

Question 2.
Mention the committees formed for the reorganization of states.
Answer:
Dhar Committee (1948), J.V.R Committee (1949) and State Reorganization Committee (Fazl Ali) in 1953.

Question 3.
When was J.V.P. committee formed? Who were its members?
Answer:
In 1949 – Jawaharalal Nehru, Vallababhai Patel and Pattabi Sitharamaiah were the members.

Question 4.
Which committee recommended the unification of Karnataka? Who were its members?
Answer:
The State Reorganization Committee recommended the unification of Karnataka. Fazl Ali was the Chairman and II. M. Kunjru and K. M. Panikkar were its members.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
When was the Mysore state renamed as Karnataka? Who was the Chief Minister at that time?
Answer:
1st November 1973. D. DevarajaUrs was the Chief Minister.

2nd PUC History Modern India Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Trace the factors responsible for creating unity among Kannadigas?
Answer:
The following were the important factors responsible for creating unity among Kannadigas.

1. The newspapers like Samyukta Karnataka, Vishala Karnataka, Karnataka Vrutha etc., propagated unity through their editorials.

2. Cultural and Political organizations like Karnataka Vidyavardhaka Sanga (1890), Karnataka Education Society (1893), Kannada Sahitya Parishat (1915), Karnataka Sabha(l916), Belgaum Congress Session (1924), KarnatakaEkeekaranaSamithi (1924) etc., worked towards unifying the Kannada speaking territories.

3. Huilgol Narayana Rao wrote “Udayavagali Namma Cheluva Kannada Nadu”, Shantakavi wrote ‘Rakshisu Karnataka Devi’. Kuvempu – “Jaya Bharatha Jananiya Tanujathe Jayahe Karnataka Mate”, B. M. Shree – “Yerisu Harisu Kannadada Bavuta”, Mangesh Pai – ‘Taye Bare Mogava thore Kannadigara Matheye” etc., The above mentioned poets and their poems depicted the past glory and inspired nationalism and patriotism among Kannadi gas.

4. Alur Venkara Rao wrote a famous book ‘Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava’ and similar books. This book depicted the past glory of Karnataka. Alur Venkata Rao was called as Karnataka Kulapurohita.

5. Mahtma Gandhi also accepted the formation of linguistic states during the Belgaum Congress session in 1924.
6. The Nehru Committee recommended the unification of Karnataka in 1928.
7. The efforts of many leaders like – Alur Venkata Rao, Siddappa Kambli, Goruru Ramaswamy Iyengar, Srinivasa Rao Mangalavede, Andanappa Doddamcti and others, filled the public with immense linguistic pride and inspiration.

Question 2.
Briefly discuss the unification movement of Karnataka.
Answer:
The Independence to India Act of 1947 provided for the formation of India and Paki stan. 562 Princely States were given the option of either joining India or Pakistan or could remain Independent. Our first Home Minister Sardar Vallababhai Patel (Indian Bismark) persuaded the Princely states to join the Indian Union. But the Rulers of Hyderabad, Junagad and Kashmir refused to join the Indian Union. At that moment, Sardar Vallababhai Patel skillfully handled the situation and merged these Princely States into the Indian Union.

After the merger of Hyderbad, the ruling Government agreed to create Andhra Pradesh which would bring together all Telugu speaking people. Andhra province could not be formed. In Andhra, people started agitations for the formation of Andhra state and Potti Sriramalu undertook a fast unto death for this cause and he died (58 days) in 1952. The unrest spread to many other provinces which wanted unification of provinces on the basis of linguistic and cultural unity. Kannada speaking regions also wanted unification and formation of a separate state.

Some important factors like newspaper editorials, Cultural and Political organizations, poets, Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee, recommendations of national leaders etc., infused the provincal feeling in the minds of Kannadigas. The Government appointed the Dhar Committee in 1948 to look into the question of the Re-organization of states. The committee’s report did not favour the formation of states on linguistic grounds and opined that it was detrimental to the national integration.

The people were discontented and agitations continued. The J.V.P. Committee (Jawaharial Nehru, Vallababhai Patel and Pattabi Sitharamaiah) was formed in 1949. That committee agreed to the formation of Andhra but refused the formation of Karnataka. Andanappa Doddameti resigned from the Bombay Assembly and started a fast demanding the unification of Kannada speaking regions.

State Reorganization Committee (S.R.C.) was formed in 1953. It consisted of Fazl Ali as (Chairman) and If. M. Kunjru and K.M. Panikkar were its members. The Committee toured all over the state, interviewed thousands of people, studied their petitions and submitted its report on 30th September 1955.

As per its report, with some modifications, the integrated Mysore State came into being on 1 st November 1956. The first Chief Minister of Mysore state was S. Nijalingappa. Mysore state was renamed as Karnataka on 1st November 1973 under the Chief Ministership of D. Devaraja Urs.
Integrated Karnataka -1956

KSEEB Solutions

The Kannada speaking areas that were integrated on 1 st November 1956.

I. Mysore Provinces (Old Mysore State) had 9 Districts.

  1. Mysore
  2. Bangalore
  3. Mandya
  4. Hassan
  5. Kolar
  6. Tumkur
  7. Chitradurga
  8. Chikkamagalur
  9. Shimoga

II. From Bombay Presidency:

  1. Belgaum
  2. harwad
  3. ijapur
  4. Karwar (North Canara)

III. From Madras Presidency (State):

  1. South Canara (Mangalore)
  2. Coorg (Kodagu)
  3. Kollegal
  4. Bellary.

IV. From Hyderabad Presidency (State):

  1. Bidar
  2. Gulbarga
  3. Raichur

V. From Independent States:

  1. Sandur
  2. Jamakhandi
  3. Mudhol
  4. Savanur

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