1st PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 2 Basic Concepts

Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 2 Basic Concepts

You can Download Chapter 2 Basic Concepts Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Sociology Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

1st PUC Sociology Basic Concepts One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Who was the first person to say “Man is social animal”?
Answer:
Aristotle was the first person to say “Man is social animal”.

Question 2.
How is the term society derived?
Answer:
The term Society is derived from Latin word ’Socius’ which means “companionship or friendship’

Question 3.
What does the web of social relations symbolises?
Answer:
The reciprocal contact between two or more persons. Social relationships have a wide range.

Question 4.
What is co-operation?
Answer:
The mutual co-operation between male and female is essential for the reproduction of human race and lead to the growth of culture and civilization.

Question 5.
Give one example for community.
Answer:
Caste community, Lingnistic community.

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Question 6.
What is locality?
Answer:
Locality means Geographical area.

Question 7.
What is association?
Answer:
According to Maclver and Page “An association is an organisation deliberately formed for the collective pursuit of some interest or a set of interests, which its members share”.

Question 8.
Give one example for association.
Answer:
Political parties, trade union, student union, rotary clubs, lion club, professional association etc

Question 9.
What is an institution?
Answer:
According to Kingsley Denis “ Institution is a set of interwover of folkways, mores and laws built around one or more functions”.
According to Maclver and Page “Institutions may be defined as the “Established forms or conditions of procedure characteristics of group activity”.

Question 10.
Give one example for institution
Answer:
Family, marriage, education, religion, school college etc.

Question 11.
Give an example for primary institutions.
Answer:
Religious, Morality, Family kinship, Marriage etc.

Question 12.
Give an example for secondary institutions?
Answer:
Education, Law, Legislation etc.

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Question 13.
Give an example for evolved institutions?
Answer:
Family, Marriage.

Question 14.
What is social groups?
Answer:
Marshal Jones is of the opinion that a social group is ‘two or more people between whom there is an established pattern of interaction’.

Question 15.
Who classified the social groups into “in-groups” and “out-groups”?
Answer:
W.GSumner classified the social groups into in-groups and out-groups.

Question 16.
Who introduced the term primary groups.
Answer:
C. H. Cooley introduced the term primary groups.

Question 17.
Who classified groups into “Gemeinschaft” and “Geselleschaft”?
Answer:
German Sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies classified groups into Gemeinschaft and Geselleshaft.

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Question 18.
Give an example of gemeinschaft
Answer:
The family kin group. Neighborhood, the rural Community, the friend group represent the gemeinschaft.

Question 19.
Give an example of gaselleschaft.
Answer:
Business contract, legal pacts between individuals represent the geselleschaft relationships, Business companies, corporations, cities, towns, etc.

Question 20.
Who classified groups into voluntary and involuntary groups?
Answer:
C.H. Cooley. Classified groups into voluntary and involuntary groups.

Question 21.
Who classified groups into horizontal and vertical groups?
Answer:
American sociologist PA Sorokin

Question 22.
Give an example of vertical group.
Answer:
Economic classes, (upper, middle and lower classes) and caste group.

Question 23.
Who classified groups into territorial and non-territorial groups.
Answer:
American sociologist Park and Burgess.

Question 24.
Give an example of organized groups.
Answer:
College, University, Bank, Hospital, Club etc.

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Question 25.
Give an example of unorganized groups.
Answer:
Mob, audience, spectators, group, public etc

Question 26.
Who introduced the concept of social control?
Answer:
E.A. Ross introduced the concept of social control.

Question 27.
Who wrote the book of social control?
Answer:
E.A. Ross. Written the book of social control.

Question 28.
Give an example of formal control.
Answer:
Laws and legislation, courts, police Jail, armed force, Bureaucracy etc.

Question 29.
Give an example of informal control.
Answer:
Folkways, mores, customs, morality etc.

Question 30.
Who introduced the concept of folkways?
Answer:
W. G. Sumner introduced the concept of folkways.

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Question 31.
What is a folkway?
Answer:
According to Land burg says that the “Folkways are the typical or habitual beliefs, attitudes and style of conduct observed within a group or community”.

Question 32.
Give an example of folkways?
Answer:
The ways of eating, talking, dressing, playing, walking, greeting, conversing, expressing love and affection etc.

Question 33.
What is more?
Answer:
According to Maclver and Page. “When the folkways have added to them conceptions of group welfare, standards of right and wrong they are converted into morals”

Question 34.
What is law?
Answer:
According to J.S. Roucek “Laws are a form of social rule emanating from political agencies”

Question 35.
What do you mean by Food gathering and hunting society?
Answer:
Hunting and food gathering societies, characterised by small number of people, gaming their livelihood from hunting, fishing, and gathering of edible plants.

Question 36.
Give a feature of agrarian society.
Answer:
Agrarians societies based on small rural communities without towns or cities. Lively hood gained through agriculture, often supplemented by hunting and gathering it was ruled by a chief and inequalities exited among themselves”.

Question 37.
Define Patrol society.
Answer:
Size of this society ranges from five hundred people to many thousand depends on the tending of domesticated animals for their subsistence.

Question 38.
Light a feature of traditional society.
Answer:

  1. Traditional societies are large in size.
  2. This society is based on agriculture.

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Question 39.
Define first world societies.
Answer:
“Companionship or friendship”.

Question 40.
What do you mean by second world societies?
Answer:
It refers to the social nature of man, companionship thus means sociability.

Question 41.
Write a feature of developing societies.
Answer:
These societies existed from 18“ century to the present day.

Question 42.
Name any one country that comes under new industrialized country.
Answer:
America comes under new industrialized country.

Question 43.
Who introduced the concept of the consciousness of kind?
Answer:
F H Giddings introduced the concept of consciousness of kind.

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1st PUC Sociology Basic Concepts Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is basic concept?
Answer:
“A word or set of words that expresses a general idea concerning with the nature of something or the relations between things” is called basic concepts.

Question 2.
Define society.
Answer:
According to Maclver and Page “Society is the web of social relationship” According to G. D. M. Cole “Society is a complex of organised association and institutions within the community”.

Question 3.
What is division of labor?
Answer:
The division of labor depends on peoples interest, ability, sex, and age etc. Due to division of labor in various fields task are performed more efficiently. In modem society, skilled and specialized persons have more importance”.

Question 4.
What do you mean by principles of likeness?
Answer:
The principle of “Likeness” is essential for society. It exists among the people who have similarities with regards to their needs, works, aims, ideals, values and so on.

Question 5.
What do you mean by principles of differences?
Answer:
It refers to the physical, mental and social differences found among people. Likeness and differences are like the two faces of the same coin.

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Question 6.
Why society is called dynamic?
Answer:
Society is not static it is dynamic. Society is like water in a stream or river that ever flows. It is always in flux. Old men die and new ones born.

Question 7.
Mention any two characteristics of society.
Answer:

  1. Society is the group of groups
  2. Society is a web of Social Relations
  3. Similarity or Likeness
  4. Differences in Society.

Question 8.
Define community.
Answer:
According to Kingsly Devis “Community is the smallest territorial group that can embrace all aspects of social life”
According to E.S. Bagardus: “Community is a Social Group with some degree of “we feeling” and living in a given area”.

Question 9.
What are two essential elements of community?
Answer:

  1. Locality or Geographical area
  2. Community Sentiment
  3. Stability or Relative Permanence
  4. Naturalness.

Question 10.
What is community sentiment?
Answer:
Community sentiment is “a feeling of belongingness towards” or “a kind of conscious identification with the local group.

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Question 11.
What is tribal community?
Answer:
Tribal community consist of mostly Indigenous people living far away from the area of influence of civilisation. It constitutes a group speaking a common dialect inhabiting in a common area and following a common culture.

Question 12.
What is rural community?
Answer:
Rural community consist of people living in village and depending mainly on agriculture and • allied occupations. Rural community is homogeneous in nature relatively smaller in size and has a dominance of primary relations.

Question 13.
What is urban community?
Answer:
Urban community consist of people living in towns and cities and depending mainly on non- agricultural occupations. This is heterogeneous in nature, relatively bigger in size and has a dominance of non- intimate or secondary relations.

Question 14.
Define association?
Answer:
According to Maclver and Page “An association is an organization deliberately formed for the collective pursuit of some interest or a set of interests, which its members share”.

Question 15.
Mention any two characteristics of association?
Answer:

  1. Association-A Human group
  2. Specific Interest
  3. Co-Operative Spirit
  4. Organized Group.

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Question 16.
Define institution.
Answer:
Kingsley Devis says “Institution is a set of interwoven of folkways, mores and laws built around one or more functions”.
According to Maclver and page “Institutions may be defined as the “established forms or conditions of procedure characteristics of group activity”.

Question 17.
Mention any two characteristics of institution?
Answer:

  1. Universal
  2. Institutions are Standardized Norms
  3. Institutions are Controlling Mechanism
  4. Abstract in Nature.

Question 18.
What is primary institution?
Answer:
Primary institutions are those that cater to the primary needs of man.
Ex: Religion, Morality.

Question 19.
What is secondary institution?
Answer:
Secondary institutions are those that cater to the secondary needs of people.
Ex: Education, Law.

Question 20.
Mention any two characteristics of social groups.
Answer:

  1. Collection of Interacting Individuals
  2. Sense of Group Unity and Solidarity.

Question 21.
Define social groups.
Answer:
According to Marshal Jones opinion that a social group is two or more people between I whom there is an established pattern of interaction.

Question 22.
What is in-group?
Answer:
In group is one to which an individual belongs, or feels that he belongs.

Question 23.
What is out-group?
Answer:
Outgroup is one to which an individual does not belong or feels that he does not belong, in a
particular context. Ex. Religious group, cast group.

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Question 24.
What is primary group?
Answer:
C.H. Cooley classified groups into primary group refers to a “social groups characterized by fact-to-face relationship, mutual aid and companionship” example family neighborhood, friends, club, peer groups etc.

Question 25.
What is secondary group?
Answer:
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff say that “Groups which provide experience lacking in intimacy can be called secondary groups”. Ex. Schools and Colleges.

Question 26.
What is voluntary group?
Answer:
Voluntary groups are those whose membership is not compulsory. Individuals have the freedom to join or not to join them.
Example: Political parties, Recreational clubs, Cultural associations, Sports clubs, Rotary club etc.

Question 27.
What is organized group?
Answer:
Organized groups are also called associationaf group. These group come to be established through a formally articulated process known as organisation.
Examples: political parties, Trade union, college, university, company, club etc.

Question 28.
What is unorganized group?
Answer:
Social groups that conspicuously lack the attribute of organization can be called unorganized group. They are unorganized in the sense.
Examples: Crowd, Mob, audience, spectator’s, group, public etc.

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Question 29.
What is genetic group?
Answer:
Genetic groups are involuntary a nature and the individuals are born in them.
Ex : Family groups.

Question 30.
Define social control.
Answer:
According to E.A. Ross: Social control refer to the “system of devices whereby society brings its members into conformity With the accepted standards of behavior”.

Question 31.
Give any two objectives of social control.
Answer:

  1. Social control Brings about Social Conformity
  2. Social control Brings about Social Solidarity.

Question 32.
Mention two types of social control.
Answer:

  1. Informal control.
  2. Formal control.

Question 33.
What is informal control?
Answer:
Informal control refers to that type of social control. Which is not purposefully created, but spontaneously evolved and which includes informal ways and means for maintenance of social control.

Question 34.
What is formal control?
Answer:
Formal control refers to those types of social control which is deliberately created and which includes some fixed formal means and procedure for the maintenance of social control.

Question 35.
Mention any two characteristics of primary groups.
Answer:

  1. Dominance of primary or face to face relationships
  2. Small in size
  3. Physical Proximity or Nearness
  4. Durability of the groups.

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Question 36.
Mention any two characteristics of Secondary groups.
Answer:

  1. Dominance of Secondary Relations
  2. Large in size
  3. No physical basis
  4. Nature of Membership.

Question 37.
Mention any two characteristics of organized groups.
Answer:

  1. Common interests and goals
  2. Elements of organization
  3. Size of the Groups
  4. Nature of social relations.

Question 38.
Mention any two characteristics of unorganized groups.
Answer:

  1. Lack of organization
  2. Spontaneous in origin
  3. Shorter life span
  4. Lack of organization in social interaction.

Question 39.
Mention any two characteristics of folkways.
Answer:

  1. Social in Nature
  2. Unplanned Origin
  3. Informal Enforcement
  4. Folkways are Innumerable.

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Question 40.
Mention any two characteristics of Mores.
Answer:

  1. 1. Mores are the regulators of social life
  2. Mores are relatively more persistent.
  3. Mores vary from group to group or time to time.
  4. Mores are often backed by values and religion.

Question 41.
Mention any two characteristics of laws.
Answer:

  1. Laws are the general conditions of human activity prescribed by the state for its members
  2. Law is called law, only if enacted by a proper law making authority. Hence it is a product of conscious through deliberate attempts and careful planning.

Question 42.
Write any two characteristics of food gathering and hunting society.
Answer:
Hunting and food gathering societies, characterized by small number of people, gaining their livelihood from hunting, fishing, and gathering of edible plants.

Question 43.
Write any two features agrarian society.
Answer:
Agrarians societies based on small rural communities without towns or cities. Lively hood gained through agriculture, often supplemented by hunting and gathering it was ruled by a chief and inequalities exited among themselves”.

Question 44.
Write any two features traditional society.
Answer:
Size of this society ranges from few hundred people to many thousand depends on the tending of domesticated animals for their subsistence.

Question 45.
Write any two modern societies.
Answer:
America and Indian societies.

Question 46.
Write any two characteristics of New Industrial society.
Answer:

  1. Industrial societies have existed only in the very modem era.
  2. The very invention of machines to produce goods has proved to be an event of great historical importance.

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1st PUC Sociology Basic Concepts Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is society? Explain.
Answer:
The term society is the most fundamental concept in sociology. Sociology is established as a separate science to study human society scientifically. Human life and society are two faces of the same coin. Man cannot live alone. He lives everywhere in groups in society. Society has become an essential condition for all round development of personality. Hence “Aristotle” recognized that “Man is a social animal” man has created his own society because of his intellectual capacity. Sociology only deals with human society.

In simple term, society is very loosely used in their daily life. Thus the expression- the agricultural society, women’s society, rural society, the weaver’s society, Cooperative Society, etc, But in sociology the term society has a specific meaning. The term Society is derived from Latin word ‘Socious’ which means “companionship or friendship”. According to Maclver and page: “Society is “the web of social relationships”.

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Question 2.
Explain any five characteristics of society.
Answer:
Characteristics of society.

(a) Society- The Group of Groups: People collect together to form groups. Such groups combine together to give rise to society. Each society has family, neighbor, village, city, labor association, religious gathering, Political Parties etc, H.M.Johnson – Has thus remarked that “society is the group of groups”, but it is not’just like a crowd. It is a system. It consists of innumerable groups which fulfill the various needs of the people.

(b) Society is a web of Social Relations: Social relation means -’’The reciprocal contact between two or more persons. Social relationships have a wide range. For example Teacher – student, Parent-children, patient-doctor, husband-wife and so on. One individual enters into several social relationships at the same time. Maclver and Page- Point out that “society exists only where social beings behave towards one another in ways determined by their recognisation of one another. Thus society is a web of social relations.

(c) Similarity or likeness: The principal of ‘ likeness’ is essential for society. It exists among the people who have similarities with regards to their needs, work, aims, ideals, values and so on. these similarities inspire the people to interact and like each other and live together. Hence mutual intimacy, Co-operation, love and affection, Sympathy, sacrifice and feeling of oneness among people develop. Similarly the people of same nature and behavior live together in society.

(d) Differences in Society: Likeness and differences are two faces of the same coin. Therefore we see natural differences among people in their interest, ability, talent, attitude, intelligence and so on. Thus we find farmers, labors. Teachers, soldiers, businessmen, advocates, doctors, engineers and other working in different capacities, Maclver and page – Said that “Primary likeness and Secondary differences are the chief features of human society.

(e) Co-operation and Division of Labor: Human Society is essentially based on ‘co-operation and division of labour. Due to the feeling of co-operation people share their joys and Sorrows. The division of labour depends on people’s interest, ability, sex, and age etc. Due to division of labor in various fields task are performed more efficiently. In modem society, skilled and specialized persons have more importance. Thus co-operative and division of labor are reciprocal.

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Question 3.
Explain the elements of community.
Answer:
Elements of community E.A. Bogardus identified the following elements by community. Geographical area or locality and community sentiments are considered as the essential elements of community. They are also considered as characteristics of community.

(a) Locality or Geographical area: A community is a territorial group. It always occupies some geographic area. Locality is the physical basis of a community. Locality Means – “a group of people became a community only when it starts to reside permanently in a definite locality”.

In contrast with Society a community is more or less locally limited. Living together facilitates people to develop social contacts, provides to fulfill their common interests. In community physical conditions may influence people’s social life, family, religion, belief, employment etc.

(b) Community Sentiment: Community sentiment: “A feeling of belongingness towards, or “a kind of conscious identification with the local group.” Community sentiment makes the people share their joys and sorrows and brings social integrity in them. Common interests, and similar lifestyles awakens community sentiments in pepple.

Other Characteristics of community:

1. Stability or Relative Permanence: A community is not temporary group like a crowd or a mob. It includes a permanent life in a definite territory. As along as there is life on the earth, People continue to reside permanently all through their life in the communities.

2. Naturalness: Communities are normally established in a natural way. They are not deliberately created. They are not made by planned efforts. The members of a community are the individual who are born in a community. As people live over a period of time in a particular territory naturally the community feeling develops.

3. Size of the Community: Community has no certain size. A community may be big or small. A village is small community where as a city is a big one. A city and a village may be included in a wider community called the district. Hence there are communities within communities. Nation as a big community, may include communities like, Village, towns cities etc.

4. Social Control: Every community has its own rules and regulations to control the relationship of its members. The nature of this regulation depends very much on the nature and type of the community. For example. In the rural and tribal communities informal means of regulations such as customs, folkways, mores, beliefs, rites and rituals etc are enough to exercise social pressure on the behavior of the people.

5. A Specific Name: Every community has some particular name, whether community is a village or a city or a tribe it has its own name and identity, on the basis of these one community is distinguished from the other.

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Question 4.
Explain the characteristics of community.
Answer:
Elements of community E.A. Bogardus identified the following elements by community. Geographical area or locality and community sentiments are considered as the essential elements of community. They are also considered as characteristics of community.

(a) Locality or Geographical area: A Community is ja territorial group. It always occupies some geographic area. Locality is the physical basis of a community. Locality Means – “A group of people became a community only when it starts to reside permanently in a definite locality.

In contrast with Society a community is more or less locally limited. Living together facilitates people to develop social contacts, gives fulfill their common interests. In community physical conditions may influence peoples social life, family, religion, belief, employment etc.

(b) Community Sentiment: Community sentiment: “a feeling of belongingness towards, or “a kind of conscious identification with the local group.” Community sentiment makes the people share their joys and sorrows and brings social integrity in them. Common interests, and similar lifestyles awaken community sentiments in people.

Other Characteristics of community:

1. Stability or Relative Permanence: A community is not temporary group like a crowd or a mob. It includes a permanent life in a definite territory. As along as there is life on the earth, People continue to reside permanently all through their life in the communities.

2. Naturalness: Communities are normally established in a natural way. They are not deliberately created. They are not made by planned efforts. The members of a community are the individual who are born in a community. As people live over a period of time in a particular territory naturally the community feeling develops.

3. Size of the Community: Community has no certain size. A community may be big or small. A village is small community where as a city is a big one. A city and a village may be included in a wider community called the district. Hence there are communities within communities. Nation as a big community, may include communities like, Village, towns cities etc.

Question 5.
Explain the characteristics of association.
Answer:
Characteristics of Association.

(a) Association – A Human Group: An association is formed by people. It is basically a social group. Without people there can be no association. However all groups are not associations. Because an association is basically an organized group. An unorganized group like a crowd or a mob cannot be an association.

(b) Specific Interest or Interests: An association is not only collection of individuals. But also consists of those individuals who have more or less the same interests. According those who have political interests may join political parties and those who have sports interest may join sports association and so on.

(c) Co-operative Spirit: An association is based on the co-operative spirit of its members. People work together to achieve common purpose. For example: Workers to work together on a co-operative basis in order to fulfill their objective of getting good working conditions.

(d) Organized Group: Association is not just a collection of individuals. It is an organized collections for some specific ends. Organization gives stability and proper shape to an association. Organization refers to the way in which the status and roles are distributed among its members.

(e) Regulation of Relations: Every association has its own rules and regulation applicable to its members. These are called associational norms. Organization depends on this elements of regulation. Association reports to formal or informal means to regulate the relations of its members. For Example: Family through the institution of marriage controls the sexual behavior of its members, professional organization have formal norms to control members.

(f) Element of Stability: An association may be permanent or temporary. There are some long standing association like the political parties, trade union etc. Some associations may be purely temporary in nature, Example: Association that are established to felicitate some great writers, scientists and religious leaders.

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Question 6.
Explain any five characteristics of institution?
Answer:
Characteristics of institution
Universal: Social institution are universal in nature. They are found everywhere and at all stages of social development. There can be no society in the absence of institutions. The basic institutions such as marriage, family, property, Religion are observed even in the tribal or primitive societies. Institutions are Standardized Norms: Social institution must be understood as well recognized or standardized procedures and norms. They prescribe the way of doing thing. They also prescribe rules and regulations that are to be followed.

For example – marriage, as an institution that governs the relation between the husband and wife. Similarly the school or college has its own established or standardized rules and procedures. Institutions are Controlling Mechanism: Institutions like religion, education, morality, state, government, legislation etc Control the behavior of man. These mechanisms preserve the social order and give stability to it. Institutions is the machinery through human society carries on its activities. They are like wheels on which human society marches on towards the desirable goals.

Institutions are Relatively Permanent: Institutions normally do not undergo sudden or rapid changes. Changes take place gradually. Many institutions are rigid and enduring. They in course of time became the conservative element in society. Examples- caste, religion etc. But under the pressure of circumstances they also undergo changes.

Abstract in Nature: Institutions are not external visible or tangible things. They are abstract. Thus marriage cannot be kept in a mueseum. Religion cannot be brought to the laboratory experiments and so on. However They can be compared and evaluated on the basis of values and ideologies.

Question 7.
Explain any five characteristics of social groups.
Answer:
Marshal Jones is of the opinion that “a social group is two or more people between whom there is an established patter of interaction”.
Characteristics of social group:

1. Collection of Interacting Individuals: Social groups consists of people. Social interaction is the very basis of group life, hence mere collection of individual does not make a group. The members must have interaction. A social group is, in fact, a system of social interaction. Different interaction patterns exists in different groups such as family, friendship, and recreational associations etc.

2. Sense of Group Unity and Solidarity: Depending on the nature of the group, its members are tied together by a sense of unity. The solidarity or unity of a group is largely dependent upon the frequency, the variety, and the emotional quality of the interactions of its members. A friends group or a peer group, or a professional association is highly united because its members are related by several common interests.

3. Group Goals and Interests: The interest and goal of a group are said to be common. Groups are mostly formed or established for the fulfillment of certain interests. In fact, men do not join groups but also form groups for the realization of their objectives or interests. Forms of the group differ depending upon the interests of the groups, educational groups, professional groups, recreational groups and so on.

4. Groups are Stronger than their Individual Members: A group is more than the sum of its parts. As Durkheim noted a group has a reality of its own or “suigeneris”. For example, the age and size of a group are not simple derived from the ages and sizes of its members. As Wallace and Wallace have pointed out. “groups are generally stronger and collective than even the strongest individual members”.

5. Group Norms: Every group has its own rules or norms which the members are supposed to follow. These norms may be in the form of customs, folkways, mores, traditions, conventions, laws etc. They may be written or unwritten norms or standards. Every group has its own ways and means of correcting those who go against the rules. The continued groups-life of man practically becomes impossible without some norms.

6. Size of the Group: Every group involves an idea of size. Social groups vary in size. A group may be small as that of a dyad as big as that of a political party having lakhs of members. Size will have its own impact on the character of the group. Membership is limited or unlimited depending on its purpose.

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Question 8.
Explain the characteristics of primary groups.
Answer:
The concept of ‘primary groups’ is a significant of C.H. Cooley to the social thought. Building black of human societies throughout the world history.
Characteristics of primary groups.

(a) Dominance of primary or face-to-face relationships: Primary groups are characterized by close and intimate relationships. These exists a face-to-face relationship among the members. In primary groups everyone knows everyone else; one’s name and fame, one’s status, wealth, occupation, level of education etc.

(b) Small in size: Primary groups are generally small in size, because its consists of few members. Size of primary groups should be small if the relations among members are to be close personal and intimate.

(c) Physical Proximity or Nearness: Face-to-face relations can be found only when members reside in particular area more or less permanently. Seeing and talking with each other facilitates the exchange of ideas, opinions and sentiments.

(d) Durability of the groups: Primary groups are relatively a permanent groups. Other
things equal, the longer the groups remains together, the more numerous and deeper are the contacts between its members.

(e) Similarity of Background: The members of the primary groups may have more or less the same background, these must be some approximations in their levels of experience. Each must have something to contribute to give as well as to take.

(f) Shared Interest: The shared interests of the groups also hold them together. Any interest becomes focused and enriched in the group process. Since all are working for a common cause each acquires stimulation and a heightening of the emotional significance of the interest.

Question 9.
Explain the characteristics of secondary groups.
Answer:
In the secondary groups the relationships secondary, relatively impersonal contractual task – oriented, hence I limited focus of its activities.

(a) Dominance of Secondary Relations: The relationships that are found within secondary groups are formal indirect impersonal and secondary for example the relationship between the teachers and the students.

(b) Large in size: The secondary groups are generally large in size in comparision to primary groups that may contain thousands of members. Trade union, corporation, international associations, etc. are secondary groups and they have thousands of members.

(c) No physical basis: Secondary groups are not necessarily characterized by physical proximity. Many secondary groups are not limited to any definite area. The members such a groups are scattered over vast area.

(d) Nature of Membership: Membership is the case of secondary groups in mainly voluntary. Individuals are at liberty to join or go away from the groups, for example: they are at liberty to join political parties.

(e) Specific Ends and interest: Secondary groups are formed for the realization of some specific interests ends. They are often called ‘Special interest groups’. Members are interested in the groups because they have specific ends to aim at.

(f) Nature of Group control: Informal means of social control are loss effective in regulating the relations of members. Moral control is only secondary formal means of social control such as law, legislation, police, court, etc. are made use of to control the behavior of members.

Question 10.
Explain the characteristics of folkways.
Answer:
The term folkways was introduced to the sociological literature by W.GSummer in his book with the little “Folkways” published in 1906. The word literately means “The ways of the folk or people”. Folkways are the accepted ways of behavior.

(a) Social in Nature: Folkways are the product of man’s group life. They are created by the groups for their sustenance and maintenance. Individuals get social recognition by conforming to the folkways. Every new generation absorbs folkways partly by deliberate teaching but mainly by observing and taking part in life about them.

(b) Unplanned Origin: The origin of folkways are very obscure. Sumner believed that they arise automatically and unconsciously, they are not the result of any advance planning.

(c) Informal Enforcement: Folkways are not as compulsive and obligatory as those of laws or morals. Conformity to the folkways is neither required by law nor enforced by any special agency of the society.

(d) Folkways are Innumerable: It is not possible for anyone to enlist all the folkways. No encyclopedia could contain all the folkways observed by all of the people of history. They are very diverse and numerous.

(e) Folkways are subject to change: Folkways are not static, but dynamic, folkways are change with changing social conditions. Some folkways undergo relatively rapid change, some are resist change very often.

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Question 11.
Explain the characteristics of mores.
Answer:
According to Maclver and Page “When the folkways have added to them conceptions of groups welfare, standards of right and wrong are converted into mores”.

Characteristics of Mores are:

1. More are the regulators of social life: Mores represent the living character of the group or community. They are always considered right by the people who share them. They are morally right and their violation morally wrong. Hence they are more compulsive in nature. They put restrictions on our behavior.

2. Mores are relatively more persistent: More are relatively long lasting than ordinary folkways. In fact, they even become conservative elements in society. They also put up resistance to change.

3. Mores vary from group to group or time to time: What is prescribed in one group is prohibited in another Eskimos for example: often practice female infanticide, whereas such a practice is strictly forbidden in the modern societies. Mores not only differ with culture but also with time. What is right at one time may be wrong at another and vice versa. Ex; the practice of “Sat” was “moral” then, but today it is illegal and immoral.

4. Mores are often backed by values and religion: More normally receive the sanction and backing of values and religion. When this occurs they become still more powerful and binding. Mores backed by religious sanctions are strongly justified people.

Question 12.
Explain the characteristics of law.
Answer:
Law is the most powerful formal means of social control in the modern society. It is an l indispensable part of the modem social life. Laws appear only in societies where a political organization called “Government” is found. According to J.S. Roucek “Laws are a form of social rule emanating from political agencies”.

Characteristics:

  • Laws are the general condition of human activity prescribed by the state for its members.
  • Law is called law, only if enacted by a proper law making authority. Hence it is a product of conscious thought deliberate attempts and careful planning.
  • Law is written definite, clear, precise and unambiguous.
  • Law applies equally to all without exception in identical circumstances.
  • Violation of law is followed by penalties and punishments determined by the authority of the state.
  • Laws are always written down and recorded.
  • Laws are not the result of voluntary consent of persons against whom they are directed.
  • Laws a dynamic and subject to change. Law. is not a static body of rules handed down from generation to generation. Rather, it reflects continuously changing standards of, what is right and wrong of how violations are to be determined, and of what sanctions are to be applied.
  • Laws differ from country to country. Though the outward pattern of the legal system to be same every where. The content of laws often differ significantly.

Question 13.
Explain the importance of Groups.
Answer:
The study of human society is essentially the study of human groups. Society consists of groups of innumerable kinds and variety. That is why H. M. Johnson calls human society “the group of groups” No man exists, without a society and no society exists without groups.
Groups; have become a part and parcel of our life. Man’s life, to an enormous extent, is lived and controlled by groups of different kinds.

(a) Survival becomes problematic without groups: Groups have become so necessary that our very survival becomes problematic and doubtful in their absence. Groups are complementary to the development of human nature, human faculties, and capacities.

Man by birth itself have the biological potentiality of getting transformed into a social being. The biological or physical survival of man has been made possible by groups. The very important needs of man such as the need for protection and security need for companionship or fellowship; need for food, clothing and shelter etc. are fulfilled by the context of the group life of man.

(b) Man becomes man only among men: Man becomes man only among men. Various studies have convincingly proved that man fails to develop human qualities in the absence of human environment.

Example: The most interesting feral case of the two Hindu female children Kamala and her sister found in an wolf’s den, and the pitiable case of Anna, an illegitimate American child who was kept away from human contacts for more than five years, and several other similar instances have proved beyond doubts that only a human environment makes a man; a biological animal, a human being.

(c) Groups help social survival also: Not only from the point of view of physical survival but also from the viewpoint of leading a successful social life man depends on groups. By engaging himself in constant relation with others, he learns things and mends his way. He _ keeps his eyes wide open, lends his ears to what others say, tries to keep his memory ever fresh to remember the good things of the post to refrain from repeating the blunders of the past.

(d) Groups give us our identity: Social groups are important because they provide us our identity in the larger society. According to Merton, people who interact in a group are also seen by others as belonging to a group. Because, the group acquires an identity in the eyes of outsiders. The social esteem of the group depends on its identity. An urban gang known for rowdism has its own identity in the neighborhood. At the same time, a youth club committed to selfless social service, too has its own identity.

(e) Groups contribute to the development of personality: Personality is the product of the group life. The self that every individual develops. Though unique, is itself a product of the group. No self arises in isolation. Groups provide scope for the individuals to express their real nature, their talents and abilities. Hidden potentialities can find their expression only in the context of social groups. What is latent in man becomes manifest only in groups. The groups shape man’s attributes, his beliefs, his morals and his ideals.

(f) Groups help transmission of culture: According to Richard T. Schaefer, social groups “play a key role in the transmission of culture”. By functioning as the agents of socialisation, groups such as family, peer group, friends group, neighborhood, school and various other formal as well as informal groups, transmit the culture of the group and the larger society to the younger generation. Groups, thus assure the continuity of the cultural tradition.

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Question 14.
Explain the pre-modern societies.
Answer:
Societies can be divided into pre-modern and modem societies. In the pre-modem societies

(1) Hunting and food gathering societies, characterized by small number of people gaining their livelihood from hunting, fishing and gathering of edible plants. There were few differences based on age and gender.

(2) Agrarians societies based on small rural communities without towns or cities. Lively hood gained through agriculture, often supplemented by hunting and gathering. It is ruled by a chief and inequalities existed among themselves.

(3) Pastoral Societies Size of this society ranges from few hundred people to many thousands depends on the tending of domesticated animals for their subsistence. It is marked by distinct inequalities and ruled by a chief or warrior kings.

(4) Traditional societies or civilizations. This kind of societies were existed from 6000B.C to 19th century. These relatively disappeared. Traditional societies were large in size some numbering millions of people though small compared with industrialized societies. Some cities exists in which trade and manufacturing are concentrated.

Societies in the modern world are divided into

(1) The first world societies which existed since 18th century to the present. First world societies are based on industrial production and generally free enterprise. The majority of the people live in towns and cities, a few work in rural agriculture persists.

(2) Second world Societies-These societies period of existence: In early 20th century to the early 1990s. It is based on industry, but the economic system is centrally planned. Small proportion of the population work in agriculture, most live in towns and cities major class inequalities persists. Distinct political communities are Nations State. Until 1989, composed of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. But Social and Political changes began to transform them into free enterprise, economic system according to the model of first world’s societies.

(3) Developing Societies These societies existed from 18th century to the present day. Majority of the population work in agriculture, using traditional methods of production. Some have free enterprise system while the others are centrally planned distinct political communities are Notions State, including China, India, and most Africa and South American Nations come under this category.

(4) Newly industrialized societies. These societies came into existence since 1970 onwards. Former developing societies now based on industrial production and generally free enterprises. Majority of the people live in towns arid cities, a few work in agricultural pursuits. Major class inequalities found than the first world societies. Average per capita income is considerably less than first world societies. The countries like Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Brazil and Mexico etc.

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Question 15.
Explain the modern societies.
Answer:
Our social world consist of thousands of human societies. For the sake of comparison, and analysis, it is necessary for us to classify them on some basis. According to Lenski, these diverse societies which are existing at present can be classified into a limited number of basic.

types depending upon the technologies or the subsistence strategies that they use to exploit the natural environment. Different societies have used different subsistence strategies, and those societies that have tended to grow larger and more complex! These complex societies often enjoy their success at the expense of societies using more primitive technologies.

Thus, it is on the basis of the level of technology or reliance on the basic type of subsistence strategy, societies can be generally classified into the following types:

Hunting and Gathering Societies. Pastoralism or Pastoral Societies. Horticultural Societies

  • Agricultural Societies, and
  • Industrial Societies

Hunting and Gathering Societies: As Gerhard Lenki pointed out in his “Human Societies” the oldest and the simplest type of society is the “Hunting and Gathering a nomadic way of life and a very primitive technology. They have the most primitive tools such as stone axes, spears and knives.

Characteristics: hunting-gathering societies consist of small but scattered groups. They are nomadic in nature. There is limited or no division of labour among them for there is no scope for different occupation roles. Since they are wandering in nature they need to face danger constantly. Family and kinship are the only defined institutions among them and there is no ground for the development of political institutions.

Even their religious faith is. also very simple and it has. not developed into a complex institution. It is interesting to note that they do not have desire to acquire wealth for sharing a norm in such societies. Also, there is no wealth worth calling, to be acquired among them.

Herding or Pastoral Societies.“Herding society refers to any form of society whose main subsistence comes from tending flocks and herds of domesticated animals. In practice, subsistence needs are often met by a combination of herding with hunting and gathering and other forms of agriculture”.

Characteristics: Herding societies are relatively larger in size and their size ranges between some hundred to a few thousands of members. Herding people like the hunters and gatherers, are nomadic because of their seasonal need to find sufficient grazing areas for their herds. Pastoralist has proved to be a better productive strategy than hunting and gathering for it provides an assured food supply and permits the accumulation of surplus resources. Accumulation of surplus resources has contributed to the beginning of inequality among them.

Horticultural Societies:“A horticultural society is a society system based on horticulture, a mode of production in which digging sticks are used to cultivate small gardens” Horticulturists specialize in the domestication of plants such as wheat, rice etc. the simplest horticulturalists cultivate manually with hoes or digging sticks in relatively small gardens without using the metal tools and weapons. The subsistence’s strategy of the horticulturists is typically based on a “slash and bum” technology. Horticulturalists are better settled than pastoralists.

This society assures better food supply and the possibility of surplus. Existence of surplus leads to specialization of roles, such as those of Shaman trader, or craft worker. We find the emergence of political allows institutions among these people. The surplus production allows some wealthy individuals to become more powerful than others. This leads to the emergence of political institutions in the form of chieftainships.

Agricultural or Agrarian Societies: Around 3000 B. C the invention of the plough led to the beginning of the agrarian society. Agrarian societies first arose in ancient Egypt and were based on the introduction of the plough and the harnessing of animal power “An agricultural society focuses its mode of production primarily on agriculture and the cultivation of large field. Cultivation of land through the plough is the main feature of this society.

Based on the invention of the plough around 3000 B.C the agrarian revolution marked its beginning. This invention enables animal power to pull the plough enables a person to achieve great productivity. Size of the agricultural societies is much greater than that of horticultural or pastoral communities. The full-time specialists who engage themselves in non agricultural activities tend to concentrate in some compact places which ultimately led to the birth of cities. Agricultural societies, in source of time, lead to the establishment of more elaborate political institutions.

Industrial Societies: The industrial mode of production began in England about 250 years ago. The very invention of machines of produce goods has proved to be an event of great ” historical importance. Industrial societies have existed only in the very modern era, dating from the industrialization of Great Britain in the late 18 century. Industrial society is associated with Industrial Revolution and industrialism.

Industrialism is based on the application of scientific knowledge to the technology of production, enabling new energy sources to be harnessed. Technology based on modem scientific knowledge leads to higher rate of technology innovations. These innovations in turn, bring about a flood of social changes.

Industrial societies have huge populations and large scale division of lab our. Division of labor is also complex for it gives scope for thousand of new specialized jobs. Science and education assume more importance here and at the same time, family and kind ship and religion start losing their hold and control over the members.

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1st PUC Sociology Basic Concepts Ten Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is society? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
The term society is the most fundamental concept in sociology. Sociology is established as a separate science to study human society scientifically. Human life and society are two faces of the same coin. Man cannot live alone. He everywhere in groups in society, society has became an essential condition for all round development of personality. Hence “ARISTOTLE” recognized that “man is a social animal” man has created his own society because of his intellectual capacity. Sociology only delay with human society.
Characteristics of society

(a) Society- The Group of Groups: People collects together to form groups. Such groups combine together to give rise to society, each society has family, neighbour, village, city, labor association, religious gathering, Political Parties etc. H.M.Johnson – Has thus remarked that “society is the group of groups”. But it is not just like a crowd. It is a system. It consists of innumerable groups which fulfill the various needs of the people.

(b) Society is a web of Social Relations: Social relation means -’’The reciprocal contact between two or more persons. Social relationships have a wide range, for example Teacher – student, parent-children, patient-doctor, husband-wife and so on. One individual enters into several social relationships at the same time. Maclver and Page- Point out that “society exists only where social beings behave towards one another in ways determined by their recognisation of one another. Thus society is a web of social relations.

(c) Similarity or likeness: The principal of likeness is essential for society. It exists among the people have similarities with regards to their needs, work, aims, ideals, values and soon. These similarities inspire the people to interact and like each other and live together. Hence mutual intimacy, Co-operation, love and affection, sympathy, sacrifice and feeling of oneness among people develops. Similarly of the people of same nature and behavior live together in society.

(d) Differences in Society: Likeness and differences are two faces of the same coin. Therefore we see natural differences among people in their interest, ability, talent, attitude, intelligence and so on. Thus we find farmers, labours. Teachers, soldiers, business men, advocates, doctors, engineers and other working in different capacities, Maclver and page – Said that “Primary likeness and Secondary differences are the chief features of human society.

(e) Co-operation and Division of Labor: Human Society is essentially based on ‘Co-operation and divisions of labour. Due to the feeling of Co-operation people share their joys and sorrows. The division of labor depends on peoples interest, ability, sex, and age etc. Due to division of labor in various fields task are performed more efficiently. In modem society, skilled and specialized persons have more importance, thus co-operative and division of labor are reciprocal.

(f) Interdependence: Interdependence is another characteristic of society. An individual seeks the satisfaction of his wants and the fulfillment of his goals with the co-operation of others. For example “Family is a primary institution is based on interdependence of members, with the growth of civilization and industrialization the need of interdependence has increased. Today not only individuals are interdependent but even communities are also interdependent.

(g) Society is Dynamic: Society keeps on changing forever. No society can ever remain constant for a long period. New associations, institutions and groups may come into being and old ones may die a natural death. Changes may take place slowly or suddenly at a rapid pace. For example-in the rural society changes may occur at a slower pace, where as in an urban society changes will occur at a faster pace.

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Question 2.
Define community. Describe the element?
Answer:
Generally the term community is very loosely used Thus the expressions like a caste community, a racial community, a religious community, a linguistic community are used in a very limited since. But its sociological meaning is different and specific. Elements of community E.A. Bogardus identified the following elements by community. Geographical area or locality and community sentiments are considered as the essential elements of community. They are also considered as characteristics of community.

(a) Locality or Geographical area: A community is a territorial group. It always occupies some geographic area. Locality is the physical basis of a community, locality Means- “a group of people became a community only when they start to reside permanently in a definite locality. In contrasct with Society a community is more or less locally limited. Living together facilitates people to develop social contacts, gives fulfill their common interests. In community physical conditions may influence peoples social life, family, religion, belief, employment etc.

(b) Community Sentiment: Community sentiment: “a feeling of belongingness towards’’. Or “a kind of conscious identification with the local group.” Community sentiment makes the people share their joys and sorrows and brings social integrity in them. Common . interests, and similar life styles awaken community sentiments in people.

Other Characteristics of community:

1. Stability or Relative Permanence: A community is not temporary group like a crowd or a mob. It includes a permanent life in a definite territory. As a along as there is life on the earth, People continue to reside permanently all through their life in the communities.

2. Naturalness: Communities are normally established in a natural way. They are not deliberately created. They are not made by planned efforts. The members of a community are the individual who are born in a community. As people live over a period of time in a particular territory naturally the community feeling develops.

3. Size of the Community: Community has no certain size. A community may be big or small. A village is small community where as a city is a big one. A city and a village may be included in a wider community called the district. Hence there are communities within communities. Nation as a big community, may include communities like, Village, towns cities etc.

4. Social Control: Every community has its own rules and regulations to control the relationship of its members. The nature of this regulation depends very much on the nature and type of the community. For example. In the rural and tribal communities informal means of regulations such as customs, folkways, mores, beliefs, rites and rituals etc are enough to exercise social pressure on the behavior of the people.

5. A Specific Name: Every community has some particular name, whether community is a village or a city or a tribe it has its own name and identity, on the basis of these one community is distinguished from the other.

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Question 3.
Define Association. Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
In day to day life, associations and institutions are used very commonly. Sometimes these words are used inter changeably to mean one and the same. But in Sociology these words have specific meaning Definition of Association: According to E.S. Bogardus “Association is usually working together . of people to achieve some common purpose”.

Accordingto William P. Scott “An Association refer to a formal group organised for a specialised and specifically stated pupose”.

Characteristics of Association.

(a) Association – A Human Group: An association is formed by people. It is basically a social group. Without people there can be no association. However all groups are not associations. Because an association is basically an organized group. An unorganized group like a crowd or a mob cannot be an association.

(b) Specific Interest or Interests: An association is not only collection of individuals. But also consists of those individuals who have more or less the same interests. According those who have political interests may join political parties and those who have sports interest may join sports association and so on.

(c) Co-operative Spirit: An association is based on the co-operative spirit of its members. People work together to achieve common purpose. For example: Workers to work together on a co-operative basis in order to fulfill their objective of getting good working conditions.

(d) Organized Group : Association is not just a collection of individuals. It is an organized collections for some specific ends. Organization gives stability and proper shape to an association, organization refers to the way in which the status and roles are distributed among its members.

(e) Regulation of Relations: Every association has its own rules and regulation applicable to its members. These are called associational norms. Organization depends on this elements of regulation. Association resorts to formal or informal means to regulate the relations of its members. For Example: Family through the institution of marriage controls the sexual behavior of its members, professional organization have formal norms to control members.

(f) Element of Stability: An association may be permanent or temporary. There are some long standing association like the political parties, trade union etc. Some associations may be purely temporary in nature, Example rAssociation that are established to felicitate some great writers, scientists and religious leaders.

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Question 4.
What is institution? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
The concept of institution is another important concept in the field to sociology. It is basic to the understanding of society. Therefore French sociologist Durkheim has gone to the extent of defining “sociology as the science of social institutions. “F.H.Giddings regards “Institutions are the organ that conserve what is best in the part of human race.

Characteristics of institution

(a) Universal: Social institution are universal in nature. They are found everywhere and at all stages of social development. There can be no society in the absence of institutions. The basic institutions such as marriage, family, property. Religion are observed even in the tribal or primitive societies.

(b) Institutions are Standardized Norms: Social institution must be understood as well recognized or standardized procedures and norms. They prescribe the way of doing thing. They also prescribe rules and regulations that are to be followed. For example – marriage, as an institution that governs the relation between the husband and wife. Similarly the school or college has its own established or standardized rules and procedures.

(c) Institutions are Controlling Mechanism: Institutions like religion, education, morality, state, government, legislation etc Control the behavior of man. These mechanisms preserve the social order and give stability to it. Institutions is the machinery through which human society carries on its activities. They are like wheels on which human society marches on towards the desirable goals.

(d) Institutions are Relatively Permanent:Institutions normally do not undergo sudden or rapid changes. Changes take place gradually. Many institutions are rigid and enduring. They in course of time became the conservative element in society. Examples- caste, religion etc. But under the pressure of circumstances they also undergo changes.

(e) Abstract in Nature:Institutions are not external visible or tangible things. They are abstract. Thus marriage cannot be kept in a museum. Religion cannot be brought to the laboratory experiments and so on. However They can be compared and evaluated on the basis of values and ideologies.

(f) Oral and Written Traditions institutions may persist in the form of oral or written traditions. In simple and preliterate societies, institutions, were in the oral form, Institutions are based on either customs and dogmas. But in modem societies, they are found in written as well as oral forms. There may be institutional forms like law, constitution, Sacred text, governmental orders, business contracts, political, educational and economic institutions and so on.

(g) Symbolic Traits: Every social institution may have their own symbols, material or non-material. Examples: The Nation has flag, emblem and anthem as its symbols. Religion may have its own symbols like Idol, holy cross, crescent, star, swastika, Marriage may have own wedding ring or mangle-sutra and so on: Symbolic traits are common to all well established institutions of the modem society.

(h) Institutions are Interrelated: Institutions are interrelated. Understanding of one institution requires an understanding of other related institutions. Example: religious, moral, educational, political, economic, and other types of institutions are essentially interlinked.

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Question 5.
What is social groups? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
According to Marshal Jones is of the opinion that a social group is ‘two or more people between whom there is’an established patter of interaction’.
Characteristics of social group:

1. Collection of interacting individuals: Social groups consists of people. Social interaction is the very basis of group life, there more collection of individual does not make a group. The members must have interaction. A social group is, in fact, a system of social interaction. Different interaction patterns exists in different groups such as family, friendship, and recreational associations etc.

2. Sense of group unity and solidarity: Depending on the nature of the group, its members are tied together by a sense of unity. The solidarity or unity of a group is largely dependent upon the frequency, the variety, and the emotional quality of the interactions of its members. A friends group, or a peer group, or a professional association is highly united because its members are related by several common interests.

3. Group goals and interests: The interest and goal of a group are said to be common. Groups are mostly formed or established for the fulfillment of certain interests. In fact, men not join groups but also form groups for the realization of their objectives or interests. Forms of the group differ depending upon the interests of the groups, educational groups, professional groups, recreational groups and so on.

4. Groups are stronger than their individual members: A group is more than the sum of its parts. As Durkheim noted a group has a reality of its own or “suigeneris”. For example, the age and size of a group are not simple derived from the ages and sizes of its members. As Wallace and Wallace have pointed out. “Groups are generally stronger collectively than even the strongest individual members”.

5. Group Norms: Every group has its own rules or norms which the members are supposed to follow. These norms may be in the form of customs, folkways, mores, traditions, conventions, laws etc. They may be written or unwritten norms or standards. Every group has its own ways and means of correcting those who go against the rules. The continued groups-life of man practically becomes impossible without some norms.

6. Size of the Group: Every group involves an idea of size. Social groups vary in size. A group may be small as that of a dyad as big as that of a political party having lakhs of members. Size will have its own impact on the character of the group. Membership is limited or unlimited depending on its purpose.

7. Groups are Dynamic: Social groups are but dynamic. They are subject to changes whether slow or rapid. Old members die and new members are bom. Some existing groups may disintegrate and new groups may come to be formed. Small groups may develop into gigantic groups, and the larger ones may shrink in size.

8. Degree of Stability: Groups are formed to.be stable or unstable: permanent or temporary in character. Some groups like, the crowd, mob, audience, spectators, groups etc. are purely temporary and unstable. But many groups such as political parties, student’s union, professional organizations and trade unions are relatively permanent and stable in character.

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Question 6.
What is social control? Explain its features.
Answer:
Social control is one of the mechanisms of society. E.A. Ross was the first sociologist to the concept of “Social Control” in his famous book “Social Control” published in 1901. Since then, the concept has become quite popular. Society has to make use of its mechanisms to accomplish the necessary order and discipline. RosS has stressed upon the roles of public opinion, law, belief, suggestion, religion, ideals, ceremony, etc., in establishing social control.
Types of Social Control
(a) Informal control, (b) Formal control.

(a) Informal control: Refers to that types of social control. Which is not purposefully created, but spontaneously evolved and which includes informal ways and means for maintenance of social control. Eg Folkways mores, customs, morality etc., ‘

(b) Formal control: Refers to those types of social control which is desperately created and which includes some fixed formal means and procedures for the maintenance of social control. Eglaws and legislation, courts, police Jainl, armed force, Bureaucracy etc.

Question 7.
What are primary groups? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
The concept of ‘primary groups’ is a significant of C.H. Cooley to the social thought. Building black of human societies throughout the world history.

Characteristics of Primary Group:

(a) Dominance of primary or face-to-face relationships: Primary groups are characterized by close and intimate relationships. These exists a face-to-face relationship among the members. In primary Groups everyone knows everyone else; one’s name and fame, one’s status, wealth, occupation, level of education etc.

(b) Small in size: Primary groups are generally small in size, because its consists of few
members. Size of primary groups should be small if the relations among members are to be close personal and intimate. ‘

(c) Physical proximity or nearness: Face-to-face relations can be found only when members reside in particular area more or less permanently. Seeing and talking with each other facilitates the exchange of ideas, opinions and sentiments.

(d) Durability of the groups: Primary groups are relatively a permanent groups. Other things equal, the longer the groups remains together, the more numerous and deeper are the contacts between its members.

(e) Similarity of background: The members of the primary groups may have more or less
the same background. These must be some approximations in their levels of experience. Each must have something to contribute to give as well as to take.

(f) Shared interest: The shared interests of the groups also hold them together, any interest becomes focused and enriched in the group process. Since all are working for a common cause each acquires stimulation and a heightening of the emotional significance of the interest.

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Question 8.
What is secondary groups? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
In the secondary groups, the relationships secondary, relatively impersonal contractual task oriented, hence limited focus of its activities.
(a) Dominance of secondary relations: The relationships that are found with hi secondary groups are formal indirect impersonal and secondary for example the relationship between teacher and students.

(b) Large in size: The secondary groups are generally large in size incomparision to primary groups that may thousands of members. Trade union, corporation, international association, etc. are secondary groups and they have thousands of members. .

(c) No physical basis: Secondary groups are not necessarily characterized by physical proximity. Many secondary groups are not limited to any definite area. The members such a groups are scattered over vast area.

(d) Nature of membership: Membership in the case of secondaiy groups in mainly voluntary. Individuals are at liberty to join or go away from the groups, for example : they are at liberty to join political parties.

(e) Specific ends and interest: Secondary groups are formed for the realization of some specific interest’s ends. They are often called ‘Special interest groups’. Members are interested in the groups because they have specific ends to aim at.

(f) Nature of group control: Informal means of social control are loss effective in regulating the relations of members. Moral control is only secondary formal means of social control such as law, legislation, police, court etc. are made use of to control the behavior of members.

Question 9.
What is a folkway? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
The term folkways was introduced to the sociological literature by W.G. Summer in his book with the little “Folkways” published in 1906. The word literately means “The ways of the floor people”. Folkways are the accepted ways of behavior.

Characteristics
(a) Social in Nature: Folkways are the product of man’s group life. They are created by the groups for their sustenance and maintenance. Individuals get social recognition by conforming to the folkways. Every new generation absorbs folkways partly by deliberate teaching but mainly by observing and talking part in life about them.

(b) Unplanned Origin: The origin of folkways are very obscure. Sumner believed that they arise automatically and unconsciously. They are not result of any advance planning.

(c) Informal Enforcement: Folkways are not as compulsive and obligatory as those of laws or morals. Conformity to the folkways is neither required by law nor enforced by any special agency of the society.

(d) Folkways are Innumerable: It is not possible for anyone to enlist all the folkways. No encyclopedia could contain all the folkways observed by all of the people of history. They are very diverse and numerous.

(e) Folkways are subject to change: Folkways are not static, but dynamic; folkways are change with changing social conditions. Some folkways undergo relatively rapid change; some are resist change very often.

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Question 10.
What are mores? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
According to Maclver and Page “When the folkways have added to them conceptions of groups welfare, standards of right and wrong they are converted into mores”.

Characteristics of Mores are:

More are the regulators of social life: Mores represent the living character of the group or community. They are always considered right by the people who share them. They are morally right and their violation morally wrong. Hence they are more compulsive in nature. They put restrictions on our behavior.

Mores are relatively more persistent: More are relatively long lasting than ordinary folkways. In fact, they even become conservative elements in society. They also put up resistance to change.

Mores vary from group to group or time to time: What is prescribed in one group is prohibited in another Eskimos for example: often practice female infanticide, whereas such a practice is strictly forbidden in the modern societies. Mores not only differ with culture but also with time. What is right at one time may be wrong at another and vice versa. Ex; the practice of “Sati” was “moral” then, but today it is illegal and immoral.

Mores are often backed by values and religion: More normally receive the sanction and backing of values and religion. When this occurs they become still more powerful and binding. Mores backed by religious sanctions are strongly justified people.

Question 11.
What is law? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
Law is the most powerful formal, means of social control in the modem society. It is an indispensable part of the modem social life. Laws appear only in societies where a political organization called “Government” is found.
According to J.S. Roucek “Laws are a form of social rule emanating from political agencies”

Characteristics:

  • Laws are the general condition of human activity prescribed by the state for its members.
  • Law is called law, only if enacted by a proper law making authority. Hence it is a product of conscious thought deliberate attempts and careful planning.
  • Law is written definite, clear, precise and unambiguous.
  • Law applies equally to all without exception in identical circumstances.
  • Violation of law is followed by penalties and punishments determined by the authority of the state.
  • Laws are always written down and recorded.
  • Laws are not the result of voluntary consent of persons against whom they are directed.

Laws a dynamic and subject to change. Law is not a static body of rules handed down from generation to generation. Rather, it reflects continually changing standards of what is right and wrong of how violations are to be determined, and of what sanctions are to be applied.

Laws differ from country to country. Though the outward pattern of the legal system to be same every where the content of laws often differ significantly.

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Question 12.
Explain briefly pre-modern society.
Answer:
Societies can be divided into pre-modem and modem societies. In the pre-modem societies

(1) Hunting and food gathering societies, characterized by small number of people gaining their livelihood from hunting, fishing and gathering of edible plants. There were few differences based on age and gender.

(2) Agrarians societies based on small rural communities without towns or cities. Lively hood gained through agriculture, often supplemented by hunting and gathering. It was ruled be a chief and inequalities existed among themselves.

(3) Pastoral Societies Size of this society ranges from few hundred people to many thousands depends on-the tending of domesticated animals for their subsistence. It is marked by distinct inequalities and ruled by a chief or warrior kings.

(4) Traditional societies: This kind of societies were existed from 6000B.C to 19th century. These were relatively disappeared. Traditional societies were large in size some numbering millions of people though small compared with industrialized societies. Some cities exists in which trade and manufacturing are concentrated.

Societies in the modern world are divided into:

(1) The first world societies which existed since 18th century to the present. First world societies are based on industrial production and generally free enterprise. Majority of the people live in towns and cities, a few work in rural agricultural persists.

(2) Second world societies-These societies period of existence: In early 20th century to ’ the early 1990s. It is based on industry, but the economic system is centrally planned. Small proportion of the population work in agriculture, most live in towns and cities major class inequalities persists. Distinct political communities are Nations State. Until 1989, composed of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. But Social and Political changes began to transform them into free enterprise, economic system according to the model of first world’s societies.

(3) Developing societies These societies existed from 18th century to the present day. Majority of the population work in agriculture, using traditional methods of production. Some have free enterprise system while others are centrally planned distinct political communities are Notions State, including China, India, and most Africa and South American Nations come under this category.

(4) Newly Industrialized societies: These societies come into existence since 1970 onwards. Former developing societies now based on industrial production and generally free enterprises. Majority of the people live in towns and cities, a few work in agricultural pursuits. Major class inequalities found than the first world societies. Average per capital income considerably less than first world societies. The countries like Hong Kong, South, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Brazil, and Mexico etc.

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Question 13.
Explain briefly the types of modern societies.
Answer:
Our social world consists of thousands of human societies. For the sake of comparison, and analysis, it is necessary for us to classify them on some basis. According to Lenski, these diverse societies which are existing at present can be classified into a limited number of basic types depending upon the technologies or the subsistence strategies that they use to exploit the natural environment. Different societies have used different subsistence strategies, and those societies that have tended to grow larger and more complex. These complex societies often enjoy their success at the expense of societies using more primitive technologies.

Thus, it is on the basis of the level of technology or reliance on the basic type of subsistence  strategy, societies can be generally classified into the following types:

  • Hunting and Gathering Societies.
  • Pastoralism or Pastoral Societies.
  • Horticultural Societies
  • Agricultural Societies, and Industrial Societies

Hunting and Gathering Societies.
As Gerhard Lenki pointed out in his “Human Societies” the oldest and the simplest type of society is the “Hunting and Gathering a nomadic way of life and a very primitive technology. They have the most primitive tools such as stone axes, spears and knives.

Characteristics: Hunting-gathering societies consist of small but scattered groups. They are nomadic in nature. There is limited or no division of labour among them for there is no scope for different occupation roles. Since they are wandering in nature they need to face danger constantly. Family and kinship are the only defined institutions among them and there is no – ground for the development of political institutions. Even their religious faith is also very simple and it has not developed into a complex institution. It is interesting to note that they do not have desire to acquire wealth for sharing is a norm in such societies. Also, there is no wealth worth. calling, to be acquired among them.

Herding or Pastoral Societies.
“Herding society refers to any form of society whose main subsistence comes from tending flocks and herds of domesticated animals. In practice, subsistence needs are often met by a combination of herding with hunting and gathering and other forms of agriculture”.

Characteristics: Herding societies are relatively larger in size and their size ranges between some hundred to a few thousands of members. Herding people like the hunters and gatherers, are nomadic because of their seasonal need to find sufficient grazing areas for their herds. Pastoralism has proved to be a better productive strategy than hunting and gathering for it provides an assured food supply and permits the accumulation of surplus resources. Accumulation of surplus resources has contributed to the beginning of inequality among them.

Horticultural Societies: “A horticultural society is a society system based on horticulture, a mode of production in which digging sticks are used to cultivate small gardens”

Characteristics: Horticulturists specialize in the domestication of plants such as wheat, rice etc. the simplest horticulturalists cultivate manually with hoes or digging sticks in relatively , small gardens without using the metal tools and weapons. The subsistence’s strategy of the horticulturists is typically based on a “slash and bum” technology. Horticulturalists are better settled than pastoralists.

This society assures better food supply and the possibility of surplus. Existence of surplus leads to specialization of roles, such as those of Shaman trader, or craft worker. We find the emergence of political allows institutions among these people. The surplus production allows some wealthy individuals to become more powerful than others. This leads to the emergence of political institutions in the form of chieftainships.

Agricultural or Agrarian Societies
Around 3000 B. C, the invention of the plough led to the beginning of the agrarian society. Agrarian societies first arose in ancient Egypt and were based on the introduction of the plough and the harnessing of animal power “An agricultural society focuses its mode of production primarily on agriculture and the cultivation of larga fields”

Characteristics: Cultivation of land through the plough is the main feature of this society. Based on the invention of the plough around 3000 B.C the agrarian revolution marked its beginning. This invention enables animal power to pull the plough enables a person to achieve great productivity. Size of the agricultural societies is much greater than that of horticultural or pastoral communities. The full-time specialists who engage themselves in non agricultural activities tend to concentrate in some compact places which ultimately led to the birth of cities. Agricultural societies, in source of time, lead to the establishment of more elaborate political institutions.

Industrial societies
The industrial mode of production began in England about 250 years ago. The very invention of machines of produce goods has proved to be an event of great historical importance. Industrial societies have existed only in the very modem era, dating from the industrialization of Great Britain in the late 18th century.

Characteristics: Industrial society is associated with Industrial Revolution and industrialism. Industrialism is based on the application of scientific knowledge to the technology of production, enabling new energy sources to be harnessed. Technology based on modern scientific knowledge leads to higher rate of technology innovations. These innovations in turn, bring about a flood of social changes.

Industrial societies have huge populations and large scale division of lab our. Division of labor is also complex for it gives scope for thousand of new specialized jobs. Science and education assume more importance here and at the same time, family and kind ship and religion start losing their hold and control over the members.

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