1st PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 8 Environment and Society

Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 8 Environment and Society

You can Download Chapter 8 Environment and Society Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Sociology Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

1st PUC Sociology Environment and Society One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is Environment?
Answer:
Environment means “That which surrounded us” or “environus”, which is helpful to man’s existence and progress has been divided into physical, biological and social environments.

Question 2.
How the term environment derived?
Answer:
The word environment is derived from the French word ‘Environ’ which means all that surrounds us.

Question 3.
What do you understand by the term Ecology?
Answer:
The term “eco” derived from Greek word, which means home. The concept of ecology indicate the entire world is a home for all living things and they are mutually related in the total environment.

Question 4.
Define Social Ecology.
Answer:
Social ecology to carry out studies on how living begins continuously adjust themselves to the environment around them.

Question 5.
What is pollution?
Answer:
According to P. H. Collin “pollution refers centralization of polluting things, created by man”.

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Question 6.
What is Air Pollution?
Answer:
According to oxford dictionary, air pollution means “The compounds that get mixed with the atmosphere causes dangerous effects on useful plants, animals and human begins”.

Question 7.
What is Water Pollution?
Answer:
Any activity of human begins resulting in variations in the water quality is known as water pollution.

Question 8.
What is Social pollution?
Answer:
The decreases in the quality of the soil and changes in it due to various activities of the human is called as soil pollution.

Question 9.
What is pollution by Solid Waste?
Answer:
A Pollution, chemical fertilizers, medicine and pesticides usage, industrial wastages and agricultural wastes are causing soil pollution.

Question 10.
Who introduced the concept of Greenhouse effect?
Answer:
Joseph Fourier.

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Question 11.
What is Ozone layer?
Answer:
Ozone layer is a natural protation. This gas layer protects the Earth from Sun’s ultraviolet rays entering it.

1st PUC Sociology Environment and Society Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 12.
What are the types of environment?
Answer:
They are four types of environment they are:

  • Physical environment
  • Biological environment
  • Social environment
  • The science of ecology

Question 13.
Mention branches of Ecology.
Answer:

  • Animal Ecology
  • Plant Ecology
  • Human or Social Ecology.

Question 14.
What are the sources of pollution?
Answer:
The sources of pollution are:

  • Air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • Solid pollution.

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Question 15.
Mention any two natural environment disasters.
Answer:

  1. Earth quakes
  2. Floods
  3. Nature calamites etc.
  4. Air pollution
  5. Soil Pullution.

Question 16.
Mention any two Manmade environment disasters.
Answer:
Spreading pollutants like smoke tar and dust

  • More population growing now days
  • Introducing more factor, industry etc.

Question 17.
What is Global warming?
Answer:
Mother earth in the essence of the birth and fastening of all living creatures, the earth’s temperature increases when water vapour, carbon di oxide, methane, other harmful gases get collected in environment and this gases do not find an other naturally increases the earth’s temperature is known as Global warming.

Question 18.
What is Acid rain?
Answer:
Factories and vehicles excrete sulphuric, Nitrogen oxides. These remain the environment for longtime. By chemical and photo chemical reac tions, sulphuric acid and nitric acid are formed and combines with water vapors in the environment, This is called ‘Acid Rain’.

Question 19.
What is Green house effect?
Answer:
Deforestation is one of the main reasons for this global warming Co2, Methane, Carbon Monoxide, Nitric acid etc, results in increase in temperature of the globe. Joseph Fourier frend out this facts and called it as Green House Effects.

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Question 20.
What is Biodiversity?
Answer:
It is the existence of a wide variety of species plants, animals and micro organisms in a natural habitatant within a particular environment or of genetic variation with in a species. All living organism have maintained their specific quality we find air water and temperature on this – earth including micro organisms birds and butterflies, aquatic plants and animals, wild animals like dinosaurs etc. all live on the earth

Question 21.
Mention any two environment movements.
Answer:

  1. In 1993 chipco movement
  2. 1983 Appiko movement.

1st PUC Sociology Environment and Society Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain types of Environment.
Answer:
The word Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means all that surrounds us.
Environment which is helpful to man’s existence and progress has been divided into physical, biological and social environments

Physical Environment: It consists of earth, water, mountains and hills, forests, planets, stars, lakes, minerals sources etc., This is called Physical or Natural Environment. The Physical Environment is not created by man: hence it is called the Natural environment.

Biological Environment: This category of environment includes all living things on • earth. For the production and growth of all living creatures, environment is complimentary and protecting.

Social Environment: Social Environment is man-made. Social environment is nothing but the collective and cooperative life of human beings. Sociologists feel that “man is a social animal and one cannot live without society”. For the survival of mankind there must be a cordial relationship with environment.

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Question 2.
Write a note on types of pollution.
Answer:
The types of environment pollution are:
Air PollutionrAir pollution is caused by unwanted and rejected things in the atmosphere around us. According to Oxford dictionary air pollution means “The compound’s that get mixed with the atmosphere causes dangerous effects on useful plants, animals and human being.-,

Water Pollution: Water is essemial for all living things 2/3 portion on the earth is covered by watei, 97.2% of water on earth is mixed with solids and rest 2.8% only is left for drinking purpose Watei pollution occurs in three different forms

  • Inland pollution.
  • Underground pollution
  • Sea pollution.

Noise Pollution: Intolerable sound is considered as sound pollution, because intense sound result in physical and mental stress and also irritation. Sound pollution is also result due to various activities of human begins. Intensity of sound is measured in decibels while talking usual intensity of sound is 60 decibels.

Soil Pollution: The upper most layer of the earth is consisted of “Soil” This soil layer is * formed by the natural processes from millions of years. This layer supplies the necessary nutrients essential for the growth of the plants. The soil which feeds the plants is the reason for the existence of all biological system.

The decrease in the quality of the soil and changes in it due to various activities of the humans is called as soil pollution. Soil pollution lessens the productive nature of the soil and destroys the living beings in it and also its rejuvinable process.

Question 3.
What is Bio diversity? Describe.
Answer:
Only the earth has provided essential environment to all kinds of species. The earth has been evolved since 460 billions of years. Since then evolution has been taking place stage by stage It is the existence of a wide variety of species- plants, animals and micro-organisms in a natural habitant within a particular environment or of genetic variation with in a species.

All living organisms have maintained their specific quality. We find air, water and temperature on this earth including micro organisms, birds and butterflies, aquatic plants and animals, wild animals like Dinosaurs etc., all live on this earth.

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Question 4.
What are the effects of Global warming?
Answer:
The effects of Global warming
Mother earth is the essence for the birth and fastening of all living creatures. The earth’s temperature increases when water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, other harmful gases get collected in environment and when these gases do not find, an outlet naturally increase the earth’s temperature.

The whole ecological system is endangered by global warming. Wind movement is affected untimely rains, increase in temperature are the changes that occur It is a serious responsibility of the civilized world to control global warming and greenhouse effects. Preventive measures to be undertaken to control warming to protect the environment from greenhouse effects should impose strict laws on the excessive use of fuels. Use of chloro-phoro carbon chemicals should be banned totally.

Question 5.
What do you know about Acid Rain?
Answer:
Acid rain: Factories and vehicles excrete sulphur, Nitrogen oxide. These remain the environment for longtime. By chemical and photo chemical reactions, sulphuric acid and nitric acid are formed and combines with water vapor in the environment. This is called ‘Acid Rain’.

One country’s waste will be result in another countries acid rain. For example waste from factories and vehicles in India reaches environment and sulphur, corbondioxide will causes acid rain in Pakistan and China.

Acid rain refers to the ways in which acid form the atmosphere is deposited on the earth’s surface. Polluted things like sulphur, oxides and nitrogen oxides, coal, petroleum based coal then bum the smoke contributes to acid rain. Idol/ marbles will be leached because of acid rain. Leaves in the forests will be dropped down. Acid rain when they falls on the leaves destroys it.

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Question 6.
What is geographic environment and manmade environment ?
Answer:
Geographic environment is also called natural environment for it consists of things that are provided by nature, this can also be called physical environment for it includes the physical conditions of life. The geographic or physical conditions exist independently of man’s existence. Man has limited and sometimes no control over them. This environment includes; the surface of the earth, natural resources, land and water, mountains and plains, fertile lands, and deserts, oceans, storms and cyclones, weather and climatic factors, seasons, etc. it includes biological conditions such as plants and animals with all theory complexities.

In order to control the conditions of his life man has created a new environment which can be called man made environment and some have called it socio cultural environment. Man through the introduction of science and technology has tried to modify the conditions of physical environment. It can be understood as outer environment, we what we are today, is because of the modifications of physical environment introduced by man’s technology.

It includes our hoses and cities our means of transport and communication, our comforts and conveniences, it also includes the vast systems of industry and machinery create by man. It covers in brief the whole apparatus of our civilization. Some anthropologists have called this part of socio¬cultural environment, material culture.

Question 7.
What is the functional importance of natural environment for the human beings?
Answer:
The application of human ecological perspective points out at the three basic functions of natural environment for the human beings and also for many other animal species.

The Environment provides the resources essential for life. These resources include air, water and materials used to create shelter, transportation and such other needed products. If human beings exhaust these resources in an irresponsible way for example by polluting the water supply or destroying rain forests then serious consequences will be the result The environment houses our species: Environment is our home, our living space, the place where we reside work and play, at times we take this truth for granted, but some others times we forget it and make our own living conditions very unpleasant and horrible.

It is only when our air becomes heavy with smoke, dust etc., if our tap water turns brown, if toxic chemicals seep into our garden- only then we remember why it is vital to live in a healthy environment The environment serves as a waste respiratory: more than any other species on earth human beings produce a huge quantity and variety of products- bottles, boxes, papers, plastics, sewage, garbage, and so on. Various types of pollution have become more common ‘ because human societies are generating more waste than the environment can safely absorb.

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1st PUC Sociology Environment and Society Ten Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What are the causes for environmental pollution?
Answer:
The word Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means all that surrounds us.

Air Pollution:
Air pollution is caused by unwanted and rejected things in the atmosphere around us. According to Oxford dictionary air pollution means “The compounds that get mixed with the atmosphere causes dangerous effects on useful plants, animals and human beings”.

Causes for Air pollution: Man’s activities in the name of the modernization have damaged the living species. Man’s activities are also responsible for polluting air, causing dirt, dust and smoke. The Natural disasters like volcanic eruption, forest fire and bacteria also cause air pollution. Man has created industries, vehicles, atomic energy, excessive use of Petrol and other source of energy like Coal, and different types of mining also cause air pollution.

Water Pollution:
Water is essential for all living things 2/3 portion on the earth is covered by water, 97.2% of water on earth is mixed with solids and rest 2.8% only is left for drinking purpose.

Water pollution occurs in three different forms.

  • Inland pollution.
  • Underground pollution
  • Sea pollution.

Causes for water pollution: Water pollution is due to many factors. Factory wastes, Houses hold wastes and water from agricultural land, all these contributions to water pollution. Biological contamination like gutter water, food processing factories, skin and hide processing factories, insecticides,.drugs, various chemical colours contributes to water pollution.

Noise Pollution
Intolerable sound is considered as sound pollution, because intense sound result in physical and mental stress and also irritation. Sound pollution is also result due to various activities of human begins. Intensity of sound is measured in decibels while talking usual intensity of sound is 60 decibels.

Soil Pollution
The upper most layer of the earth is consisted of “Soil” This soil layer is formed by the natural processes from millions of years. This layer supplies the necessary nutrients essential for the growth of the plants. The soil which feeds the plants is the reason for the existence of all biological system.

The decrease in the quality of the soil and changes in it due to various activities of the humans is called as soil pollution. Soil pollution lessens the productive nature of the soil and destroys the living beings in it and also its rejuvinable process.

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Question 2.
Explain the effects of environment pollution on society.
Answer:
Effects of Air pollution
Air pollution is a extensive problem badly affecting Man’s health, plants and Animals.

  • The minute particles of Sulphuric Dioxide, Coal, Silica, Barium and other chemicals cause lung cancer, heart diseases like hypertension.
  • Due to rapid technological radiation anemia, Leukemia, Cancer, Physical weakness are caused.
  • Due to air pollution world famous marble Taj Mahal is getting destroyed stage by stage. The rare intricate carvings are getting spoiled day by day.
  • Due to use of different fuels the temperature of the earth is increasing. This is called as Green house effect
  • The photo synthesis activities of plants and trees are showing down due to dirt and dust getting collected on leaves every day. This is sole reason for decreasing levels of oxygen in the air.

Effects of water pollution:

Water pollution leads to so many side effects. Those are:

  • Contaminated water results in various water borne diseases like cholera, typhoid, Diarrhea, dysentery and other infectious diseases.
  • Contaminated water prevents photosynthesis and retards the growth of Plants and trees.
  • Because of oil leakage into the sea plants, sea animals and birds die. Every’ year nearly 50000 to 250000 birds die due to oil pollution of sea water.
  • Water pollution leads to damage of ozone layer.
  • If polluted water is used for agriculture, Poisonous/ dangerous molecules are added to the food by products. Agriculture yield also reduced by 17% to 30% if polluted water is used Effects of noise pollution

Sound pollution result in various effects. These are as follows:

  • If the sound is more than 120-150 decibels, it results in respiratory disorders, physical imbalance, vomiting and deafness.
  • Sound pollution results in mental problem, disinterest in the work and leads to many mistakes. It also has effects on Animals and birds behavior
  • It increase heart rate, B.P and other heart related problems
  • Contribution is affected resulting in loss of memory.

Effects on soil Pollution
Soil is one of the main source of the nature of pollution of the soil will leads to so many negative effects.

  • Reduction in the crop yield
  • The food obtained by the contaminated soil will spoil the human health
  • Soil contamination leads to the water scarcity in some regions causing the death of animal multitude
  • Contamination of soil will leads to the water pollution

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Question 3.
Explain why environmental problems are also social problems?
Answer:
Pollution from the solid waste: The waste things those thrown out by the human beings that is domestic things and the pollution caused by their processing is the pollution of solid waste, if the thrown out things are put in a particular place in a cone shape in one year, height will equal to that of mount Everest every year in whole the world, 1000 tonnes of solid wastes thrown out.

The responsibility of recycling the solids wastes does by preventing the damage to the environment is on the modern society. The solid wastes must be controlled in the production stage itself the wastes must be divided and processed, and be used for compost manufacturing. The technology must improve for recycling the solid wastes and for preventing the harm.

Sea pollution: Even the sea water is not out of pollution. The industrial wastes chemicals, the . oil leakage occurred by the petroleum transporting, ships will imbalance the biological system of the sea. Mow the sea atmosphere is so much polluted so that the aqueous animals cannot be live there. Pouring of pollution causing things to the sea., thereby making the sea water unfit for the life of aqueous animals is called as sea pollution.

Global warming:Mother earth is the essence for the birth and fastening of all living creatures. The earth’s temperature increases when water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, other harmful gases get collected in environment and when these gases do not find, an outlet naturally increase the earth’s temperature.

The whole ecological system is endangered by global warming. Wind movement is affected untimely rains, increase in temperature are the changes that occur.

It is a serious responsibility of the civilized world to control global warming and green house effects. Preventive measures to be under taken to control warming to protect the environment from greenhouse effects should be impose strict laws on the excessive use of fuels. Use of chloro-phoro carbon chemicals should be banned totally.

Destruction of Ozone layer: In 1982 Foreman the scientist reported about the hole in ozone layer. On Antarctic earth surface. Ozone layer is a natural protection. This gas layer protects the earth surface from sun’s ultraviolet rays entering it.

As the ozone layer slowly getting damaged by the global warming threatening living species on the earth. Ultraviolet rays causes skin cancer. If man is continuously exposed to ultra violet rays his resistance power will decrease. This leads to health related problems like herpes, eyesight and cataract.

Acid rain: Factories and vehicles excrete sulphur, Nitrogen oxide. These remain the environment for longtime. By chemical and photo chemical reactions, sulphuric acid and nitric acid are formed and combines with water vapor in the environment.

Acid rain refers to the ways in which acid form the atmosphere is deposited on the earth’s surface. Polluted things like sulphur, oxides and nitrogen oxides, coal, petroleum based coal then burn the smoke contributes to acid rain. Idol/ marbles will be leached because of acid rain. Leaves in the forests will be dropped down. Acid rain when they falls on the leaves destroys it.

One country’s waste will be result in another countries acid rain. For example waste from factories and vehicles in India reaches environment and sulphur, Corbondioxide will causes acid rain in Pakistan and China.

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Question 4.
Explain legal and constitutional measures for Environmental pollution.
Answer:
The legal and constitutional measures are:

As per 1948 rule it’s a mandatory to get permission from the granting commissions for establishment and extension of the factories. From this policy which directs the factories will have the full information about the chemical that can spill out from the factories .

The Atomic energy rule (1962). Each and every matter relating to the atomic energy will be directly affiliated to the Central government. This rule controls and directs the atomic energy related matters.

The 1972 rule of Wild life protection provided complete protection to the wild life and birds. As per the directed of this rule every state government and centralized states must create a committee for wild life suggestion. This law restricts the hunting of wild animals violates of this law will be punished .

Control and prevention of Water pollution act (1974) has enforced and the water pollution is prohibited through this law and for prevention of water pollution a special rule in 1981 is introduced( prevention on control of air pollution)

Environment protection act (1986) have intended to protect and improve the environment; it implements nationwide programs on environment pollution and encourages the researches on Environment Pollution.

The Motor vehicles act 1988 control the air pollution caused by the vehicle traffic.

The noise pollution act of 1989: This law controls the decibels of the sounds residential places, schools and colleges, hospitals, courts premises are declared as silent zones and prohibits using mikes crackers etc. in these areas.

1991 rule of Public Security: the Government of India has introduced this law in 1991 this law suggested to establish a environment solution fund and provided security to the citizen, it enables to lodge a criminal cases on the law breakers.

State pollution control board is active in state level and with the co-ordination of central pollution control board is engaged in the environment protection. Environment department will implement many works regarding environment protection.

Question 5.
What is the role of individual and society in environment protection?
Answer:
The role of individual and society in environment pollution
Environment pollution is the Global problem caused by the modern industrial society, it’s a primary duty of every governments and sensible civilians:

  • To bring out the policies of environment and industries which are coordinate to environment protection
  • To control the uncontrolled urbanization and un-scientific urbanization through good city planning.
  • The water from the factories and domestic usage must be processed and let<to rivers and sea.
  • Prohibit the plastic use, inorganic waste things must be processed in for away places and can made to re-use
  • To establish separate dust bins to dry and raw wastes to help the public
  • Environment protection must be a main agenda for the public
  • Each and every one of the workers belt, with collars, and everyone must feel that the protection of environment is their first duty.
  • The researches about the environment protection must be encouraged through funding
  • All the projects regarding the Environment Protection must be implemented duly and succeed.
  • Use toilets must be mandatory
  • Bringing awareness in the public regarding the side effects of pesticides and the medicines.
  • To encourage organic agriculture.

The Government and private organizations role in India’s environment protection is important. In 1969 on the request by the Government of India for the protection of nature a fund for the nature protection is established. In 1980 Environment department and in 1983 environment, forestry and wild life departments are established.

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Question 6.
What is the major environment issues associated with pollution?
Answer:
The environment loses in balance due to man’s activities and this in turn affects the all living things on this plant in harmful way. American arthoropologist Margaret Mead has remarked that “Pollution in the greatest challenge created by the growing mofem and technological civilization of the city.

Question 7.
What are the causes of Environmental pollution?
Answer:
Population is caused by many factors among which the following may be noted:
Abuse of Nature by man for his Greed: Of all the living organisms it is only man who is causing pollution. Man’s attempts to use natural resources for genuine purposes are not problematic; but their greed by him, is causing this problem. According Write- “human greed and ignorance have allowed our culture to develop an ecological crisis like pollution”.

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