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Karnataka 2nd PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
2nd PUC Biology Reproductive Health NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers
What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?
The significance of reproductive health in a society is:
- Creating awareness among people about various reproduction-related aspects.
- Providing facilities and support for building up a reproductively healthy society.
- Various health centres ensure the safe delivery of infant and postnatal care.
- Immunization of infants against various diseases.
- Various family planning techniques and preventive methods against sexually transmitted diseases.
- Creating awareness about the consequences of uncontrolled population growth and social evils (sex abuses and sex-related crimes, use of drugs, tobacco, and alcohol, etc.) among young people.
- Introduction of sex education in schools.
Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.
Increased health facilities along with better living conditions had an explosive impact on the growth of the population. In this light, we must take care of the population explosion and try to minimise the birth rate. Otherwise, we will face an absolute scarcity of basic requirements.
Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Sex education is necessary in schools in order to give the right information to young minds about reproductive organs, adolescence related changes, safe sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. All this knowledge will save them from myths and misconceptions about sex-related aspects and also help them to lead a reproductively healthy life later in the future.
Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.
Yes. Some such areas of improvement are the following.
- Made awareness among the people about reproduction-related aspects through audiovisual and printed media by governmental as well as non-governmental agencies.
- Motivated smaller families by using various contraceptive methods.
- Incentives given to couples with small families.
- Specialized health care units (infertility clinics etc.) could help couples suffering from infertility through assisted reproductive technologies (ART).
What are the suggested reasons for the population explosion?
The reasons for the population explosion are:
- Decline in death rate.
- Decline in maternal mortality rate.
- Decline in infant mortality rate (IMR).
- Increase in the number of people in the reproductive age.
- Advancement in technology avoiding hunger death.
Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
An ideal contraceptive should be user-friendly, easily available, effective, and reversible with no or least side effects. It should also not interfere with the sexual drive, desire, and the sexual act of the user. So it is advisable to use contraceptives to check the population explosion.
Removal of gonads can not be considered as a contraceptive option, why?
Devices or other agents that are used in artificial methods of preventing pregnancy are known as contraceptives. An ideal contraceptive should be user-friendly, easily available, effective with least or no side effects, should not interfere with the sexual drive, desire, or the sexual act of the user. It should also be reversible. But the removal of gonads is an irreversible process and will lead to infertility in both males and females. Moreover, gonads also produce hormones which are essential for the body. Thus, the removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option.
Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.
Amniocentesis is a prenatal diagnostic technique used to determine chromosome abnormalities of the foetus. If the embryo contains any hereditary defects, the parents may be advised for abortion. But nowadays this technique is misused for determining fetal sex. So the statutory ban on amniocentesis is necessary. Otherwise, it will lead to female foeticides and sexual imbalance.
Suggest some method to assist infertile couples to have children.
Some methods to assist infertile couples to have children are:
- Test tube babies – In this the fusion of ovum and sperm is done outside the body of a woman to form a zygote which is allowed to divide to form embryo. This embryo is then implanted in the uterus where it develops into a foetus.
- Artificial insemination Technique (AIT)- In this, the semen collected either from a husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced either into the vagina or into the uterus (IUI – Intra Uterine Insemination) of the female.
- Gamete intra Fallopian transfer (GIFT)- This method is used in females who cannot produce ova but can provide a suitable environment for fertilisation and further development of embryos in the oviducts. In such cases, ovum from the donor female is introduced into the Fallopian tube of such females. Such women then accept sperms from their husbands during copulation.
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)- This is another specialized technique to form an embryo in the laboratory in which a sperm is directly injected into the ovum placed in a nutrient broth. The zygote or early embryo is later transferred to the Fallopian tube of the woman by ZIFT.
What are the measures one has to take to prevent STDs?
- Avoid sex with unknown/multiple partners.
- Always use condoms.
- Avoid early or late marriages.
- Early detection and complete cure in case of doubt.
Correct the following statements.
- Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
- All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
- Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among rural women.
- In E. T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
- Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete transport and hence prevent fertilisation.
- Only a few sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable if detected early and treated properly.
- Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among educated urban women.
- In E.T techniques, 8 celled embryos are transferred into Fallopian tubes and more than 8 celled embryos are transferred into the uterus.
Correct the following statements.
a. Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
b. All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
c. Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among rural women.
d. In E. T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
a. Surgical methods of contraception prevent unwanted pregnancy.
b. Except for hepatitis B, genital herpes, and HIV, other diseases are completely curable if detected early and treated properly.
c. Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among women.
d. In E.T. techniques, embryos formed by IVF (in vitro fertilisation) are transferred into the uterus.
2nd PUC Biology Reproductive Health Additional Questions and Answers
2nd PUC Biology Reproductive Health One Mark Questions
What do you understand by the term “Reproductive health”?
The term reproductive health refers to healthy reproductive organs and then normal functioning.
What is reproductive health according to the World Health Organisation ?
According to the World Health Organisation, reproductive health means total well-being in physical, emotional, behavioural, and social aspects of reproduction.
Expand MMR and IMR.
- MMR – Maternal Mortality Rate.
- IMR – Infant Mortality Rate.
Write one reason for the ban on amniocentesis.
Amniocentesis is used to find out the sex of the foetus and it leads to female foeticide
i. e., killing of female foetus.
Mention any 2 probable reasons for rapid rise of population in our country from about 350 millions at the time of independence to about 1 billion by the year 2000.
The reasons are
- Decline in death rate
- Decline in maternal mortality rate
- Decline in IMR.
Which of the following represents an increase or decrease in population
- Decrease in population : Mortality and emigration.
- Increase hi population: Immigration and Natality.
Give 2 important measures taken by the government to tackle the problem of population explosion.
- Statutory rising of marriageable age of the female to 18 years and that of the male 21 years.
- Incentives given to the couples with micro family.
Expand MTP and STD.
- MTP – Medical termination of pregnancy.
- STD – Sexually transmitted disease.
Name 2 viral STDs that are incurable.
Genital herpes, AIDS.
What are Assisted reproduction technologies. [ART]? [Delhi 2008]
ART are the special techniques to help the infertile couples to produce children.
What are the different ways in which progesterone or progesterone – estrogen combination can be taken for contraception?
- Oral pills
Write the other 2 names given for STDs.
Venereal Diseases (VDs) and Reproductive tract infections (RTI).
Name 2 STDs that can be transmitted by sharing injection needles or surgical instruments.
Hepatitis – B, AIDS.
What is In vitro fertilization?
It involves fertilization of the ovum outside the body followed by the transfer of the embryo inside the uterus.
- IVF – In Vitro Fertilization
- ZIFT – Zygote intra fallopian transfer
- IUT – Intra Uterine Transfer
- GIFT – Gamete intra fallopian transfer.
- ICSI – Intra cytoplasmic Sperm Injection.
- AI – Artificial insemination.
- IUI – Intra uterine Insemination
- ART – Assisted Reproductive Technologies.
After a successful invitro fertilization, the fertile egg begins to divide. Where is this egg transferred before it reaches the 8 cells stage and What is this technique named ?
It will be (egg) transferred into the fallopian tube; the technique is called zygote intra fallopian transfer (ZIFT).
2nd PUC Biology Reproductive Health Two Marks Questions
Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment. [CBSE – 2006]
Since the amniocentesis is misused for female foeticide, the ban is necessary. But by banning this, its advantage of finding out any chromosomal disorders and / or metabolic disorders of the foetus is lost. So, it should be legalized with some strict conditions to avoid its misuse.
Why is hormone releasing IUD considered a good contraceptive to space children? [CBSE – 2008]
Hormone releasing IUDs
- Make the uterus unsuitable for implantation.
- Make the cervix hostile to sperms.
- Increase the phagocytosis of sperm within the uterus.
Differentiate between coitus interruptus and lactational amenorrhea.
Coitus interruptus: In this, the male partner withdraws his penis just before ejaculation.
Lactational amenorrhea: During intense lactation following delivery, the menstrual cycle does not occur. Therefore as long as the mother breastfeeds the child, the chance of conception is almost nil. This is to be effective only upto six months following delivery.
How do pills act as contraceptives in human females ?
Name the hormonal composition of the oral contraceptive used by human females. Explain how does it act as a contraceptive.
- Pills contain progesterone or
- progesterone-estrogen combination.
- They inhibit ovulation
- They alter the quality of cervical mucus and retard the entry of sperms into cervix.
How are pills more effective than other contraceptives?
The pills are mainly a combination of hormones. These are to be taken daily for a period of 21 days starting within the first five days of the menstrual cycle. After a gap of 7 days repeat the same pattern till the female desires to prevent pregnancy. This is effective because of lesser side effects.
Family planning techniques are not adopted by all in our country. Why?
- Religious belief
- People are not fully aware of the method.
- Emotional and social factors
- Fear of some of the ill effects.
In India, there are thousands of couples without children. Is adoption a better method for them?
Yes. In India, we have a lot of orphaned and destitute children, and our laws permit legal adoption. Even then the couples go for their ultimate ambition of parenthood.
2nd PUC Biology Reproductive Health Three/Five Marks Questions
Give any six reproduction related issues.
- Child birth / Parturition
- Menstrual problem
- conceptive methods.
How lUDs prevent pregnancy?
- IUDs increase phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus.
- The Cu ions released by IUDs suppress the term motility and their fertilizing capacity.
- The hormone releasing IUDs make the uterus unsuitable for implantation and cervix hostile to the sperms.
Represent diagrammatically the sterilization method, vasectomy in male reproductive system and tubectomy in female reproductive system.
A couple having no child approaches a doctor. The lady failed to conceive due to two previous unexpected abortions. The doctor proposed a hormone treatment.
a. Name the hormone that would be useful for this treatment
b. Name the organs which secrete these hormones in females
c. List out the physiological functions of this hormone
b. Ovary and Placenta
c. i. Implantation
ii. Maintains pregnancy
iii. Prepares mammary glands for lactation
iv. Regulates oogenesis
v. Inhibits ovulation