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Karnataka 2nd PUC English Grammar Notes Report Writing
1. A survey was conducted on the use of chemical fertilisers and organic manure per acre from 1951 to 2001. The findings of the survey have been represented in the following bar chart. Using the information, write a report in about 120 words.
Chemical Fertilisers K? Organic Manure
The bar chart makes an interesting study of the use of chemical fertilisers and organic manure in 50 years from 1951 to 2001. Interestingly it’s a full circle for chemical fertilisers because if it was 70 kilogram per acre in 1951, in 2001 also the usage remained the same. Nevertheless, the use of chemical fertilisers steadily went down, the usage coming down to mere 30 kilograms per acre, the lowest ever, in 1981. However, it picked up again, shooting up to 60 kilograms per acre in 1991, to come back finally to the original figure of 70 kilograms per acre in 2001. The story of organic manure is the same, though in the reverse order. The use which was as low as 10 kilograms per acre in 1951 rose to 30 kilograms in 1961.1971 and 1981 witnessed a similar rise, the figures being 50 and 70. But, 1991 witnessed a fall with the usage coming down to 50 kilograms. 2001 recorded a further fall with the usage standing at 30 kilograms per acre.
2. The following pie charts represent information about the voters’ turnout in the general elections held in post-independent India over a span of more than fifty years. Use this data to write a report on the polling trends in about 120 words.
The pie charts which show the voters’ turnout in the general elections in the post-independent India in fifty years make a few interesting revelations. If we take the two charts as before and after fifty years, we see that the percentage of male voters has remained constant at 45%. However, female franchise has increased from 25% to 35% and freshers’ voting from 10% to 15%. The only section wherein there is a drop in the voting percentage is of senior citizens whose representation has dropped from 20% to 5%.
3. The following line graph provides information about the growth of population in India over a period of 50 years. Using the information, write a report in about 120 words.
The line graph shows the growth of population in India over a period of 50 years from 1961 to 2011. We can see that population that was below 400 million in 1961 has tripled in 50 years and is more than 1200 million in 2011. However, it is seen from the graph that in the last one decade between 2001 and 2011, there is a control on the population growth and the increase is negligible. This matches the negligible growth in the decade between 1961 and 1971. Other three decades from 1971 and 2001 witnessed an increase of two million in each decade.
This could be the result of the various government schemes and awareness programmes. However, we need to go on a more rigorous campaign and bring about further reduction especially in the families of people who are below the poverty line. Only then India as a nation can develop.
4. The following bar graph shows the pass percentage of boys and girls of a Government P.U. College in II PUC Annual Examination of April 2009. Based on the information, prepare a report in about 120 words.
Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Boys and Girls
The bar graph shows the pass percentage of the II PU students of a Government College in the Annual Examination of April 2009 in four subjects in Arts and two languages. We see that girls have performed either as good as or better than boys in all papers except Economics. In Kannada, if girls have the pass percentage as 100, boys are at only 90. In English, girls have 40 as pass percentage and boys 30. In History and Sociology, girls and boys stand at the same level with 50 and 60 as pass percentages respectively In Political Science 70% girls and 60% boys have passed. Only in Economics boys have an upper hand over girls by 10% and are at 50%.
The bar graph also shows that if the best performance of students is in the Kannada language, their worst performance is in English. This could be because most of the students are first generation learners of English. Hence it is necessary for the college to conduct remedial classes in English. Otherwise, the success rate of the college will be very low despite the fact that the students perform well in all the subjects.
5. Write a report on age composition of the population of India in 2001 and 2011 based on the data given in the pie chart below:
The two pie charts compare the age composition of the population of India in 2001 and 2011.1n the period of 10 years, except for slight variations, the age composition has remained more or less the same.
In the category of 0 – 14 years there is a drop of 5% in the age composition. If it was 34% in 2001, it came down to 29% in 2011. However, in both the other categories there was an increase. In the 15 – 59 years’ category, there was an increase of 4%. In the 60 and above category, the increase was by 1% only. The charts make it clear that while the longevity of life span has gone up by 1%, infant mortality rate also has gone up by 5%. It is surprising that the age composition of 0 – 14 years has gone down despite the scientific advances. Perhaps the breakthrough in the medical field explains the longer life span. Probably and sadly the advancement in science is also responsible for the decrease in the number of children in the first category as in the rural areas female infanticide is not uncommon.
6. Here is a bar chart showing the literacy rate of male and female population ¡n Karnataka. Based on this data, write a report ¡n about 120 words.
Literacy Rate in Karnataka
The vertical bar graph on the Literacy Rate from 1950 to 2000 in Karnataka shows that in the period of 50 years women have always had lower literacy rates than men. However, the overall literacy rate of both men and women has shown a tremendous improvement in half a century in independent India. In the year 1950, if only 10 percent men were literate, in the year 2000, 70 percent men were literate. When it came to women, the progress was from 5% to 60%. The bigger gap of 10% in the literacy rate of men and women was in the years 1960,1980,1990 and 2000. The smaller gap of 5% was in the years 1950 and 1970.
The graphs make it clear that unless the government makes special provisions to bring inequality, more number of women than men will continue to remain illiterate.
7. The following vertical bar graph represents data about two major crops i.e., maize and sugar cane, grown in Karnataka State from 1960 to 2000. Based on the information, write a report in about 120 words.
Maize and Sugar Cane in Karnataka
The vertical bar graph about the land used for growing maize and sugar cane in Karnataka between 1960 and 2000 reveals interesting facts. We see that in four decades there has been a complete reversal of the situation. In 1960 maize was grown in 20 lakh acres of land and sugar cane was grown in only 5 lakh acres. In 1970, after a decade, the situation remained the same. But in 1980 the land under maize crop came down to 15 lakh acres and that under sugar cane shot up to 10 lakh acres. The same trend continued in 1990 and 2000, with the land used for maize falling down to 10 lakh and less than 10 lakh acres, and the land used for growing sugar cane rising up to 15 lakh and 20 lakh acres.
Thus it is very clear that the demand for sugarcane has been steadily increasing resulting in more and more land being used for growing it.
8. Given below is a representation of the number of people migrating from villages to cities in the past few decades. Write a report for the local newspaper in about 120 words.
From Villages to Cities – In Search of Greener Pastures
Ever since the world became industrialized, there has been a steady exodus of people from villages to cities. The graph is a proof of this disturbing phenomenon and shows the increase in the number of people coming to the urban areas from the rural areas. In 1970, if only 20% migrated from the countryside to the cities, in 1980 the percentage rose to 30. Even in the next two decades the same increase continued and hence in 2000 the increase went up to 50%. This trend is owing to the misconception that people can make easy money in cities. It is also owing to the false notion that city life is easy and full of pleasures. Very often people go through pathetic hardships in cities. But they don’t go back to villages because either they feel ashamed to do that or they have nothing left in the village to go back to. The government should study the problem and take appropriate steps to curb the inflow of people into the cities as it is against the development of both cities and villages.
9. The following pie charts represent the information about the students who got scholarship during 2013-14 and 2014-15 academic years for different courses. Use this data to write a report in about 120 words.
A report on the scholarships received by students in the years 2013-14 and 2014-15 In the years 2013-14 and 2014-15 students received scholarships for four different courses. The scholarships received for Engineering and Medical courses in the two years remained the same. For Engineering it was 15% and for Medical, it was 10%. A noticeable change was seen in the Arts and Commerce courses. If the Arts scholarship was 35% in 2013-14, it dropped to 20% in 2014-15. On the other hand, Commerce Course which was 40% in 2013-14, increased to 55% in 2014-15. It is an indicator to the popularity of Commerce over Arts in the recent years.
10. Student-teacher ratio plays an important role in imparting education. Given below is the bar graph that represents data pertaining to this ratio in different states of our country.
India is a land that has the gurukula system as a model for ideal education. The ancient system teaching was done on a one-to-one basis. However, over the years things have changed and now education is commercialised to such an extent that the only rule followed by educational institutions is, ‘The more, the merrier.’ That is why a survey was conducted to study the student-teacher ratio in five states of India. In each state the survey included both private and government schools. The same number of schools was studied in each state. The survey revealed that the capital of India – Delhi – had the healthiest ratio of one teacher for 30 students (1:30). At the other extreme was Assam with 70 students for one teacher (1:70). Close on the heels of Assam was Odisha with the ratio of 1: 60. Kerala and Bihar were both at 1:40. It’s a well-known fact that unless individual attention is given, students cannot have a holistic development. So, it is the responsibility of the government to invest more on the education sector and appoint more teachers so that education becomes more meaningful and pleasurable for students.
11. The following two pie charts give a graphic representation of the area of land used for different purposes in and around Bangalore. Prepare a report in about 120 words.
A report on the land used for different purposes in and around Bangalore in 1970 and 2010:
The pie charts giving the graphic representation of the area of land used for different purposes in and around Bangalore in 1970 and 2010 clearly show the disturbing aspects of growth in 40 years. It is clear that the urban residential area and industrial area have grown at the cost of lakes, gardens and agricultural land. The residential area which comprised only 30% of the land in 1970, increased to 45% in 2010. Likewise, the industrial area, which was only 15% in 1970, increased to 25% in 2010. These two increases led to the reduction of the area under lakes and gardens from 10% to 5% and a greater reduction of the agricultural land from 45% to 25%. This can have serious implications. On the one hand, if it means a blow to the beauty of Bangalore city with the reduction of lakes and gardens, on the other, it can mean a serious blow to the very sustenance of life with the reduction of agricultural land. Hence it is necessary for both authorities and citizens to fight urbanisation and retain the health and beauty of Bangalore.
12. Write a report on how students acquire knowledge to get success in their exams between the age group of 15 to 20 years, based on the information given in the pie chart below.
Acquisition of Knowledge
The Pie Chart gives information on the various modes of acquisition of knowledge for success in exams, with reference to students belonging to the age group of 15 to 20 years. It is interesting to note that the maximum acquisition of knowledge is through the Internet and Electronic Gadgets as it comes up to 30%. Next is through Private Tuitions which is 25%. If Classroom and Self Study is at 20%, Guides and Notes contribute 15% towards the acquisition of knowledge. The least is through Books and Magazines as it constitutes only 10%.
The Chart makes it very clear that students should be encouraged to use the Internet and Electronic Gadgets to succeed in examinations. Schools and colleges should bear this in mind and teachers themselves should create awareness among students about the use of the Internet and the Electronic Gadgets.
13. The following Pie-chart gives a graphic representation on the hobbies of students in the age group of 15-20 years. Using the Information, write a report In about 120 words.
The pie chart makes it very clear that our youngsters are growing more and more passive in their hobbies. Statistics show that among students belonging to the age group of 15 to 20, only 5% have taken to the hobby of gardening. 10% have reading as their hobby. However, the youth seem to be active when it comes to music and dance as 20% indulge in these artistic pursuits. They are active in the field of sports as the percentage of youth interested in this hobby is 25. It is also heartening to know that at least 5% serve the less fortunate by having social service as their hobby. But the majority of the youth, that is 35%, watch T.V.serials as their pastime.
While watching T.V. is not a crime, it would be healthier if more and more youth indulged in more and more physical activities because sedentary lifestyle can lead to many physical problems. The youth of today should use their potential and carve a bright future for themselves.
14. The given bar graph represents data about the favourite after-school activities of boys and girls in Karnataka. Based on the information, prepare a report in about 120 words.
Comparative Study of Favourite After-School Activities of Boys and Girls
The bar graph presents interesting statistics about the favourite after-school activities of boys and girls in Karnataka. Of the five activities, visiting friends is the most preferred after-school activity of boys as 80 percent of them choose to do it compared to only 40 percent girls who have chosen this.
Interestingly, talking on the phone is chosen by both girls and boys to the same extent and 70 percent of boys and girls are fond of this activity.
If 60 percent of boys prefer both chatting online and playing sports, only 40 and 20 percent of girls indulge in these two activities respectively.
If watching TV is chosen by nearly 70 percent girls, only 30 percent boys prefer this over other activities.
The preference of boys for outdoor activities could be because of the gender stereotypes. It is better that we encourage girls to take up outdoor games as it is healthy.
15. The following pie chart represents information about percentage of weightage allotted to different types of questions in graduate courses. Based on the information, write a report in about 120 words:
The given pie chart represents the percentage of weightage allotted to different types of questions in graduate courses. As per the chart, 40% is allotted to descriptive answers, 10% to language functions, 20% to writing skills, 10% to structural grammar and 20% to comprehension. Based on the study, it can be derived that a person’s ability to explain is given the highest value (with 40%), followed by the ability to understand and write (with.20%) and lastly language functions and structural grammar (with 10% each). This shows that a person with the ability to communicate and understand what is communicated to him/her has valued more than a person possessing only the know-how of language and grammar.
The given graphical report represents the growth of urban and rural populations in India from the year 1951 to 2011. As per the graph, the population of India in 1951 was 298 million in the rural areas and 62 million in the urban areas. There has been a steady increase in the population over the years. As reported in 2011, there were 833 million people in rural areas and 377 million people in urban areas. As per the study, it is evident that the percentage of increase in population in the urban areas in 60 years is higher than that in the rural areas proving that Indians prefer to live in urban areas owing to more job opportunities, higher standards of living, better facilities, etc.
16. The following line graph represents the growth of urban and rural population from 1951 to 2011 in India. Use the information to write a report In 100 words:
The given graphical report represents the growth of urban and rural population in India from the year 1951 to 2011. As per the graph, the population of India in 1951 was 298 million in the rural areas and 62 million in the urban areas. There has been a steady increase in the population over the years. As reported in 2011, there were 833 million people in rural areas and 377 million people in urban areas. As per the study, it is evident that the percentage of increase in population in the urban areas in 60 years Is higher than that in the rural areas proving that Indians prefer to live in urban areas owing to more job opportunities, higher standards of living, better facilities, etc.
17. The following bar graph represents information about the sources of irrigation in India in 2011. Based on the information, write a report in about 120 words.
The given bar graph represents the information on the sources of irrigation in India in 2011. As per the graph, 4% of the water supply is from tanks, 30% from canals, 20% from open wells, 40% from tube wells and 6% from other sources. This study shows that the maximum amount of water supply (40%) relies on tube wells as they have the ability to supply water to a larger area, and are more useful in times of drought, when surface water sources dry up. However, it can be noticed that in close succession are sources such as canals (30%) and open wells (20%). Tanks (4%) are not preferred as they take up a lot of open space which could rather be used for agriculture.
18. A survey was conducted on software job locations in India and the results are shown in the following pie chart. Using the data, write a report in about 120 words.
The given pie chart represents the results of the survey conducted on software job locations in India. The chart shows that 30% of the software jobs are located in Bengaluru, 17% in Delhi, 11% in Mumbai, 12% in Ahmedabad, 11% in Chennai and 19% in Hyderabad. The study reveals that the highest number of software professionals in India are employed in Bengaluru (with 30%) and the least in Mumbai and Chennai (with 11%). The reasons for Bengaluru to be considered the best location in India for software companies to set up their business are the weather, access to apt talent pool and the cultural diversity.
19. The following bar graph represents data regarding X standard students’ preference of subjects. Based on the information, write a report in 120 words.
The given bar graph represents data regarding X standard students’ preference of subjects. The graph shows that 30% of the students prefer Maths, 35% prefer Science, 40% prefer Social Science, 60% prefer English, 70% prefer Kannada, 45% prefer Hindi and 65% prefer Physical Education. Based on the study, it can be derived that the most preferred language is Kannada (with 70%), most preferred subject is Social Science (with 40%), and additionally Physical Education is also preferred by a large percentage (with 65%). However, it can be noticed that languages (with 60%, 70% and 45%) are preferred over subjects (with 30%, 35% and 45%) by the class X students.
20. The pie chart given below represents the percentage of time spent by students on an average in a day for several activities. Based on the information, write a report in 120 words.
The given pie chart represents the percentage of time spent by students on an average in a day for several activities. The chart shows that the students spend 25% of their time at college, 25% sleeping, 17% with friends, 17% watching TV, 8% doing their homework and 8% in miscellaneous activities. The study reveals that other than fixed activities such as attending college and sleeping, they spend time with friends and watching TV (with 17% each) approximately four times more than the time spent on doing their homework (with 8%). This shows the importance given to studies in the daily life of the present generation.
21. The bar graph given below shows information regarding the factors that affect performance of employees working in an IT company. The employees fall under two age groups viz. 20-35 and 35-50.
The given bar graph represents the information regarding the factors that affect the performance of employees working in an IT company. The employees fall under two age groups viz. 20 – 35 years and 35 – 50 years. The graph shows that in the age group of 20 – 35 years, 50% employees consider team spirit, 60% working environment, 70% job security, 65% promotion and 80% monetary benefits as the main factors that affect their performance. In the age group of 35 – 50 years, 40% employees consider team spirit, 50% working environment, 50% job security, 45% promotion and 70% monetary benefits as the main factors that affect their performance. Thus, it can be derived that in both the age groups, maximum percentage believes that monetary benefits is the main factor that affects their performance.
22. The following line graph represents gender-wise population (In Iakh) of selected districts of Karnataka. Use the information to write a report In loo words.
The given line graph represents gender-wise population (in lakhs) of selected districts of Karnataka. As per the graph, the male population of Haveri is 10.5 lakhs, Shimoga is 12 lakhs, Bellary is 12.4 lakhs, Gulbarga is 14.5 lakhs, Mysore is 15.1 lakhs and Bengaluru is 50.2 lakhs. The female population of Haveri is 8 lakhs, Shimoga is 8.7 lakhs, Bellary is 10 lakhs, Gulbarga is 11.5 lakhs, Mysore is 12 lakhs and Bengaluru is 46 lakhs. The study reveals that Bengaluru has the maximum male and female population. More importantly, it can be noticed that the male population is higher than the female population in all the districts in Karnataka.
23. The following pie chart represents the percentage of different categories of roads in our country in 2015. Use the information and write a report in 100 words.
The given pie chart represents the percentage of different categories of roads in our country in 2015. The chart shows that 59% of the roads are rural roads, 9% urban roads, 6% project roads, 2% national highways, 3% state highways and 21% other roads. From the study, It can be noticed that maximum percentage of roads fall under the category of rural roads (with 59%) and the least under the category of national highways (with 2%). This shows that maximum population of our country still resides in rural areas and it is important to develop better connectivity for these people to easily access the facilities available ¡n the urban areas.
24. The following bar graph represents the yield of cotton In kg. per hectare In some states of our country. Use this Information to write a report In loo words.
The given bar graph represents the yield of cotton in kg. per hectare in some states of our country. The graph shows that the per hectare yield of cotton in Gujarat is 689 kgs, Maharashtra is 297 kgs, Andhra Pradesh is 443 kgs, Haryana is 703 kgs, Karnataka is 368 kgs and Tamil Nadu is 575 kgs. The study reveals that the highest yield per hectare of cotton is in Haryana (with 703 kgs) closely followed by Gujarat (with 689 kgs). This proves that the conditions in these states are most suitable for the cultivation of cotton crops probably in terms of weather conditions, water supply, soil quality, etc.
25. ‘The following pie chart represents the amount of child labourers in different Industries in India In 2012. Based on the information, write a report In about 120 words.
The given pie chart represents the amount of child labourers indifferent industries in India in 2012. As per the chart, 52% of child labourers are employed in the hand-knotted carpet industry 14% in gem stone polishing, 7% in brassware, 4% in footwear, 1% in silk and 8% In matches and fireworks. ¡t can be noticed that the highest percentage is involved in hand-knotted carpet industry (with 52%) followed by gem stone polishing (with 14%). This shows that the children are highly skilled and with proper education and training their skills can be enhanced. It can also be seen that a comparatively large percentage (with 8%) are involved in the manufacture of matches and fireworks which needs to be controlled as It Is hazardous to the health of the children.
26. The following bar graph represents the number of one day cricket matches won and lost by four leading teams In the year 1998. Based on the Information, write a report in about 120 words.
The given bar graph represents the number of one day cricket matches won and lost by four leading teams in the year 1998. The graph shows that India has won 25 one day cricket matches and lost 5, Sri Lanka has won 20 and lost 15, South Africa has won 20 and lost 10 and England has won 15 and lost 20. The study reveals that among the four leading teams, the team that has won the most number of one day cricket matches is India (25) and the team that has lost the most number of matches is England (20). However, it can also be seen that though England has lost the most number of matches, it has also played the most number of one day cricket matches (35).
27. The following line graph represents the gender-wise percentage of literacy rate of six districts of Karnataka In 2011. Based on the Information, write a report in 100 words.
The given line graph represents the gender-wise percentage of literacy rate of six districts of Karnataka in 2011. As per the graph, the literate male population of Dakshina Kannada is 93.3 1%, Have is 83.89%, Tumkur is 82.05%, Mandya is 78.14%, Koppal is 78.21% and Bagalkot is 80.1 6%. The literate female population of Dakshina Kannada is 84.8%, Haven is 70.65%, Tumkur is 66.45%, Mandya is 62.1%, Koppal is 56.22% and Bagalkot is 58.55%. From this study it can be derived that Dakshina Kannada has the maximum literate percentage among the male and female population. More importantly, it can be noticed that the literate male population ¡s higher than the literate female population in all the districts of Karnataka.