2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 4 Everything I Need to Know I Learned in the Forest

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Karnataka 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 4 Everything I Need to Know I Learned in the Forest

Everything I Need to Know I Learned in the Forest Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

Everything I Need to Know I Learned in the Forest Comprehension I

Question 1.
Trace the childhood experiences that shaped the author’s interest in ecology.
Answer:
Vandana Shiva’s father was a conservator of forests in the Himalaya region. This implies that she lived and was brought up in forest surroundings. Hence she declares that whatever she knows about ecology was learned from the Himalayan forests and eco-systems. Her mother was a farmer and she used to compose songs and poems about trees, forests and India’s forest civilizations. Thus, her parents and their profession undoubtedly shaped the author’s interest in ecology.

Question 2.
How does the scarcity of water, fodder and fuel affect women?
Answer:
The ruthless cutting down of trees results in floods, landslides, scarcity of water, fodder for cattle and fuel. This affects the womenfolk in particular because they have to walk long distances for collecting water and firewood which is quite burdensome.

Question 3.
What features of the ‘Chipko’ movement does the author highlight?
Answer:
The features of chipko movement are that it was a nonviolent response to the large scale deforestation like doing padayatras, documenting the deforestation, and the work of the – forest activists, hugging the trees to prevent them from being cut down. One such Chipko action took place in the Himalayan village of Adwani in 1977. A woman led the resistance against her own husband, who had obtained a contract to cut trees. She protested with lighted lanterns in bright daylight.

Question 4.
The real value of the forest for women was
a. timber from dead trees.
b. source of basic needs.
c. springs and streams.
Answer:
(b, c) source of basic needs/springs and streams.

Question 5.
List the activities that Vandana undertook after her involvement with the ‘Chipko’movement’.
Answer:

  • She spent every vacation doing padayatras, documenting the deforestation, and the work of the forest activists.
  • She spread the message of the Chipko movement and created awareness in the people about the value of forests.
  • She put emphasis on organic farming.
  • She set up 100 community seed banks.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
The conservation of biodiversity in agriculture leads to
a. increase in the quantity of food production.
b. a developing variety of food grains.
c. more quality food and higher nutrition.
Answer:
(c) more quality food and higher nutrition.

Question 7.
Why is it important to change the fossil-fuel and chemical-based monoculture?
Answer:
It is important to change the fossil-fuel and chemical-based monoculture because it impoverishes nature and culture.

Question 8.
What prompted the UN to initiate a discussion on the rights of Mother Earth?
OR
Name one of the factors that prompted the U.N. to initiate a discussion on the rights of Mother Earth.
Answer:
The Constitution of Ecuador in which were recorded the rights of nature and the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth initiated by Bolivia prompted the UN General Assembly to organize a conference so as to initiate a discussion on the rights of Mother Earth.

Question 9.
The conference organized by the UN General Assembly aimed at transforming the domination of
a. people over nature.
b. men over women.
c. rich over the poor.
d. all of the above.
Answer:
(d) All of the above.

Question 10.
What, according to the author, is eco-apartheid? Why is it necessary to end this?
Answer:
According to the author, eco-apartheid means holding the illusion in our minds and lives that humans are separate from nature. It is necessary to remove such an illusion from our minds and lives because it leads to disharmony with nature and finally to violence against nature and people. In short, human beings start exploiting nature and perpetuate violence against themselves.

Question 11.
Which event in human history marked the beginning of the separation of humans from nature?
Answer:
The industrial revolution which was facilitated by the belief that Earth was dead matter marked the beginning of the separation of humans from nature.

Question 12.
How do Carolyn Merchant and Francis Bacon differ in their views?
Answer:
Francis Bacon the father of modern science believed that science and the inventions that result do not “merely exert a gentle guidance over nature’s course, they have the power to conquer and subdue her, to shake her to her foundation. But. Carolyn Merchant points out that due to this over greed, nature has been destroyed by man to suit his capitalism. But then, he realised the importance of nature, and instead of destroying he slowly started to think about nature and nurturing Earth by removing his blind superstitious cultural beliefs. At last, she says “One does not readily slay a mother, dig into her entrails for gold, or mutilate her body”.

Question 13.
What ideas of Tagore inspired Vandana Shiva to start Earth University?
Answer:
The author states that the Earth University located at Navdanya farm was inspired by Rabindranath Tagore’s ideas expressed in his essay ‘Tapovan’ (Forest of Purity). Tagore says that India’s best ideas have come from the forests where the man was in communion with trees and rivers and lakes, away from the crowds. The peace of the forest has helped the intellectual evolution of man and the culture of the forest has fueled the culture of Indian society.

The culture that has arisen from the forest has been influenced by the diverse processes of renewal of life, which are always at play in the forest, varying from species to species, from season to season, in sight and sound and smell. The unifying principle of life in diversity, of democratic pluralism, thus became the principle of Indian civilization.

Question 14.
How are unity and diversity related to each other?
Answer:
Unity and diversity are related to each other. This unity in diversity that is the basis of both ecological sustainability and democracy. Diversity without unity becomes the source of conflict and contest. Unity without diversity becomes the ground for external control. The forest is a unity in its diversity and we are united with nature through our relationship with the forest.

Everything I Need to Know I Learned in the Forest Comprehension II

Question 1.
How did the women led by Bachni Devi put up resistance to the felling of trees? Do you think it was effective?
Answer:
In 1977, in the Himalayan village of Adwani, a village woman named Bachni Devi led the resistance against her own husband, who had obtained a contract to cut trees. When officials arrived at the forest, the women held up lighted lanterns in broad daylight. When the forester asked them to explain their action, the women told him that they had come there to teach them forestry.

When the forester retorted, calling them foolish women and asked them whether they knew the real value of the forests and asked them whether they knew what the forests bore, the women retorted and sang in chorus saying that the forests bore soil, water, and pure air which sustain the Earth and all she bears.

Their demonstration was very effective because, the menfolk including the forester believed that the village women were naive and ignorant, but on the contrary, they proved that they were quite knowledgeable about the benefits of forestry.

Question 2.
Why is it important to promote biodiversity-intensive farming? How did the author achieve it?
Answer:
Bio-diversity promotes democratic pluralism where every species gets opportunities to sustain itself in co-operation with others and no species in a forest appropriates the share of another species. Since failure to understand biodiversity and its many functions leads to an impoverishment of nature and culture, it becomes imperative to practice bio-diversity-intensive farming.

The author started Navdanya Farm in 1994 in the Doon Valley where she practiced biodiversity-intensive farming. Initially, she started saving seeds from farmers’ fields and today they are able to conserve and grow 630 varieties of rice, 150 varieties of wheat, and hundreds of other species. She opines that bio-diversity-intensive farming produces more food and nutrition per acre and hence bio-diversity is the answer to the food and nutrition crisis.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
‘Rights of Nature’ means
a. the right of people to use nature.
b. the duty of human beings to conserve nature.
c. preserving nature for seif-protection.
Answer:
(b) and (c) the duty of human beings to conserve nature/ preserving nature for self-protection.

Question 4.
What does the concept of the Earth University convey? How is this different from that of the other universities?
OR
Write a note on Earth University mentioned in Vandana Shiva’s essay.
Answer:
The Earth University located at Navdanya, a biodiversity farm in the Doon Valley of the Himalaya, teaches Earth Democracy. It means freedom for all species to evolve within the web of life, and the freedom and responsibility of humans, as members of the Earth family, to recognize, protect, and respect the rights of other species. Earth University is different from other universities because it is eco-centric, while the other universities are anthropocentric.

Eco-centrism refers to the system of thought where the focus is on conserving the existing eco-systems that are needed to protect and sustain the web of life on the Earth. On the contrary, the other universities are anthropocentric. They focus on protecting and sustaining the life of human beings only.

Everything I Need to Know I Learned in the Forest Comprehension III

Question 1.
“Tagore saw unity with nature as the highest stage of human evolution.” Do you think consumerism and accumulation of wealth come in the way of realizing Tagore’s vision of human evolution?
Answer:
Yes. Undoubtedly consumerism and accumulation of wealth come in the way of realizing Tagore’s vision of human evolution. Tagore firmly believed that Indian civilization found its source of regeneration – both material and intellectual – in the forest. Tagore was convinced that India’s best ideas have come from the place where the man was in communion with trees and rivers and lakes, away from the crowds. The peace of the forest has helped the intellectual evolution of man. The culture that has arisen from the forest has been influenced by the diverse processes of renewal of life, which are always at play in the forest, varying from species to species, from season to season, in sight, sound and smell. Thus, the unifying principle of life in diversity, of democratic pluralism, became the principle of Indian civilization. It is this unity in diversity that supports ecological sustainability and democracy.

On the contrary, consumerism and accumulation work against the idea of unity in diversity and ecological sustainability, because both consumerism and accumulation of wealth are external manifestations of our vices like gluttony, greed, avarice, self-indulgence, self-centeredness, domination and exploitation. These vices ultimately lead to ruthless and barbaric exploitation of nature and cause impoverishment of nature and culture.

Question 2.
“The conservation of biodiversity is the answer to the food and nutrition crisis.” Do you agree?
OR
“Biodiversity-based intensive farming is the answer to the food and nutrition crisis”. Discuss.
Answer:
Yes. The conservation of biodiversity is the right step to help the people overcome the nutrition crisis because bio-diversity works on the paradigm of Earth Democracy and democratic pluralism wherein there is freedom for all species to evolve within the web of life. As members of the Earth family, it is the freedom and responsibility of humans to recognize, protect and respect the rights of other species. This way we bring into play the principle of equity. No species in such an ecosystem appropriates the share of another species and every species sustains itself in co-operation with others.

Secondly, bio-diversity sustains democratic pluralism because there are diverse processes of renewal of life always at play in natural eco-systems and they vary from species to species and from season to season in sight, sound and smell. All the species live in perfect harmony. Thus bio-diversity paves the way for enrichment of the web of life leading to abundance.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
“Conservation of biodiversity is crucial for the sustenance of both nature and human society.” Discuss.
OR
Conservation of biodiversity sustains both nature and culture. Discuss in the light of Vandana Shiva’s essay.
OR
Write a note on biodiversity.
Answer:
The Earth houses millions of eco-systems and nurtures bio-diversity. Bio-diversity ensures abundance, freedom, co-operation and mutual giving. Tagore argues that the forests have served as sources of material and intellectual regeneration since time immemorial and the culture of the forest has fueled the culture of Indian society. The culture that has arisen from the forest is nurtured by the unifying principle of life in diversity and of democratic pluralism. It is this unity in diversity that is the basis of both ecological sustainability and democracy. This is true of both nature and culture. We are united with nature through our relationship with the forest. The forest teaches us union, compassion and enoughness.

No species in a forest appropriates the share of another species and every species sustains itself in co-operation with others. This unity in diversity seen in the forest should serve as a model for human society, otherwise, it will lead to conflict, greed, exploitation and finally to the impoverishment of our culture. Therefore, the conservation of diversity is crucial for the sustenance of both nature and human society.

Question 4.
In light of this essay, how does one synthesize the wisdom of the past with the modern knowledge systems?
Answer:
The essay ‘Everything I need to know 1 Learned in the Forest’, by Vandana Shiva, highlights the importance of sustaining biodiversity in nature. However, the author does not dismiss scientific inventions and discoveries as useless. Scientific inventions and discoveries have proved successful in controlling infant mortality, increasing longevity. But some of the discoveries and inventions have resulted in damaging our eco-systems and are now threatening to wipe out life on this earth. Secondly, some scientific practices might create a crisis in the food chain itself.

Under such circumstances, we need to synthesize the wisdom of the past with modern knowledge systems. This has several advantages. For example, traditional knowledge is vital for the sustenance of natural resources including forests, water and agro eco-systems across landscape continuum, spanning from households through farms, village and wilderness.

An expert by name Caval Canti (2002) notes that a limitation of economic development is that it is pursued without any considerations in practice as to its implications on ecosystems. The prevailing economic theories treat the economic process from a purely mechanistic standpoint. Different ways exist, however, to deal with the choices that humans have to make with respect to the allocation of resources, the distribution of the returns and the fulfilment of purposes of material progress.

KSEEB Solutions

To understand how local people solve their economic problems in a sustainable fashion is a serious challenge. A better grasp of this issue could possibly be accomplished with the use of ethno economics or ethno ecological economics. Application of scientific research and local knowledge contributes both to the equity, opportunity, security, and empowerment of local communities, as well as to the sustainability of the natural resources. Local knowledge helps in scenario analysis, data collection, management planning, designing of the adaptive strategies to learn, and get feedback and institutional support to put policies into practice.

Science, on the other hand, provides new technologies or helps in the improvement of the existing ones. It also provides tools for networking, storing, visualizing, and analyzing information. Thus, by developing sustainability science and ethno economics, we can synthesise the wisdom of the past with modern knowledge systems.

Everything I Need to Know I Learned in the Forest Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in a word, a phrase, or a sentence each:

Question 1.
Where, according to Vandana Shiva, did her ecological journey start?
Answer:
In the forests of the Himalaya.

Question 2.
What is the Chipko movement, according to Vandana Shiva?
Answer:
Chipko movement is a non-violent response led by peasant women to the large-scale deforestation that was taking place in the Himalayan region.

Question 3.
According to the women of Garhwal, ‘the real value of forests’ was
(a) timber from a dead tree
(b) springs and streams
(c) fodder and fuel.
Answer:
(b) springs and streams.

Question 4.
What was the real value of forests, according to the women of Garhwal?
Answer:
According to the women of Garhwal, the real value of forests was not the timber from a dead tree, but the springs and streams, food for their cattle, and fuel for their hearths.

Question 5.
Name the woman who led the resistance against cutting down of trees in the village of Adwani.
OR
Name the woman who led the resistance against her own husband, according to Vandana Shiva.
Answer:
Bachni Devi.

Question 6.
What, according to Bachni Devi’s husband, was the value of forests?
OR
Mention any one of the things produced by forests, according to the forester.
Answer:
According to Bachni Devi’s husband, the forests produced resin, timber, and profit.

Question 7.
What did Vandana learn from the Chipko movement?
Answer:
Vandana learned about bio-diversity and bio-diversity-based living economies, from the Chipko movement.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Name Vandana Shiva’s book mentioned in the essay.
Answer:
‘Monocultures of the Mind’.

Question 9.
What is at the root of the impoverishment of nature?
Answer:
Failure to understand biodiversity and its many functions is at the root of the impoverishment of nature and culture.

Question 10.
What is the Navdanya movement?
Answer:
Navdanya is a movement for biodiversity conservation and organic farming.

Question 11.
In which year was the Navdanya movement started?
Answer:
In 1987.

Question 12.
When and where was the Navdanya farm started by Vandana Shiva?
Answer:
In 1994 in the Doon Valley.

Question 13.
Which country has recognised the ‘Rights of Nature’ in its Constitution?
Answer:
Ecuador.

Question 14.
What has Ecuador, according to Vandana Shiva, recognised in its Constitution?
Answer:
The Rights of Nature.

Question 15.
Name the country that has initiated the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth.
Answer:
Bolivia.

Question 16.
Whom does Vandana Shiva refer to as the father of modem science?
Answer:
Francis Bacon.

Question 17.
What does the Earth University teach?
Answer:
Earth University teaches Earth Democracy.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 18.
Where is the Earth University started by Vandana Shiva located?
Answer:
The Earth University started by Vandana Shiva is located at Navdanya, a biodiversity farm located in the Doon Valley of the Himalaya.

Question 19.
Name two of the most popular courses offered at Earth University.
Answer:
‘The A-Z of Organic Farming and Agroecology’, and ‘Gandhi and Globalization’.

Question 20.
Who is the inspiration behind the Earth University started by Vandana Shiva?
Answer:
Rabindranath Tagore.

Question 21.
Where did Rabindranath Tagore start a learning centre?
Answer:
In Shantiniketan in West Bengal.

Question 22.
Why did Rabindranath Tagore start a learning centre in Shantiniketan?
OR
Why did Tagore start Shantiniketan as a forest school?
Answer:
Rabindranath Tagore started a learning centre in Shantiniketan in West Bengal, as a forest school, both to take inspiration from Nature and to create an Indian cultural renaissance.

Question 23.
In which year did Shantiniketan become a university?
Answer:
In 1921.

Question 24.
What does ‘Tapovan’ mean?
Answer:
‘Forest of purity’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 25.
Where, according to Vandana Shiva, should we look for ‘lessons in freedom’?
Answer:
According to Vandana Shiva, we should turn to nature and the forest for lessons in freedom.

Question 26.
In Tagore’s writings, what do the forests symbolise?
Answer:
In Tagore’s writings, the forests symbolise the universe.

Question 27.
According to Vandana Shiva, what values do the forests teach us?
Answer:
The values of diversity, freedom, and coexistence.

Question 28.
What is the root cause of disharmony with nature and violence against nature and people?
Answer:
Separatism is the root cause of disharmony with nature and violence against nature and people.

Question 29.
What feature of the Chipko movement does the author highlight?
Answer:
The author highlights the role of peasant women and the non-violent nature of the chipko movement.

Question 30.
What does ‘Terra Madre’ mean?
Answer:
‘Terra Madre’ means Mother Earth.

Question 31.
What has replaced bio-diversity, according to Vandana Shiva?
Answer:
According to Vandana Shiva, monocultures have replaced bio-diversity.

Question 32.
Where, according to Vandana Shiva, did one of the dramatic Chipko actions take place?
Answer:
One of the dramatic chipko actions took place in the Himalayan village of Adwani in 1977.

Question 33.
Mention any one of the things that have replaced a ‘vibrant earth’, according to Vandana Shiva.
OR
What has replaced the vibrant earth?
Answer:
‘Raw materials’/ ‘dead matter’ has replaced the vibrant earth.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 34.
What has replaced diversity, according to Vandana Shiva?
Answer:
Monoculture.

Question 35.
When, according to Vandana Shiva, did the war against the earth begin?
Answer:
According to Vandana Shiva, the war against the earth began with the idea that the earth is dead matter and that human beings and the earth we are living in are separate entities.

Question 36.
Name the author of the essay ‘Tapovan’.
Answer:
Rabindranath Tagore.

Question 37.
According to the women of Adwani village, what did the forest bear?
Answer:
According to the women of Adwani, the forests bare soil, water, and pure air which sustains the and all she bears.

Question 38.
What is the only answer to the food and nutrition crisis?
Answer:
The conservation of biodiversity is the only answer to the food and nutrition crisis.

Question 39.
Who has been the teacher of abundance and freedom, co-operation and mutual giving, according to Vandana Shiva?
Answer:
Bio-diversity.

Question 40.
What have human beings failed to recognise about nature, according to Vandana Shiva?
Answer:
Human beings have failed to recognize that they are an inseparable part of nature and that they cannot damage it without severely damaging themselves.

Question 41.
What is eco-apartheid?
Answer:
‘Eco-apartheid’ refers to our beliefs and activities, which treat nature and humans as separate entities.

Question 42.
With what idea did the war against the earth begin?
Answer:
The war against the earth began with the idea of‘separateness’.

Question 43.
Why was the earth transformed into the dead matter?
Answer:
The earth was transformed into the dead matter to facilitate the industrial revolution.

Question 44.
What teaches us to move to an ecological paradigm?
Answer:
Globalization teaches us to move to an ecological paradigm.

Question 45.
Where do we get ecological sustainability and democracy?
Answer:
It is in the forest which is a unity in its diversity, that we get ecological sustainability and democracy.

Question 46.
What does Vandana Shiva term the empty land ready for occupation?
Answer:
Terra Nullius.

Question 47.
What does’Terra Nullius’ mean?
OR
What does Vandana Shiva term the empty land ready for occupation?
Answer:
‘Terra Nullius’ means empty land, ready for occupation regardless of the presence of indigenous peoples.

Question 48.
Who, according to Vandana Shiva, composed songs and poems about trees and forests?
Answer:
Vandana Shiva’s mother composed songs and poems about trees, forests, and India’s forest civilizations.

Question 49.
Name the movement which took place in the Himalayan region to save the trees.
Answer:
‘Chipko’ is the non-violent movement that began in the Himalayan region to save the trees.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 50.
Name the movement that Vandana Shiva started for biodiversity conservation and organic farming in 1987.
OR
Why did Vandana Shiva start the Navdanya Movement?
Answer:
Vandana Shiva started the ‘Navdanya’ movement for biodiversity conservation and organic farming in 1987.

Question 51.
What is eco-apartheid based on?
Answer:
Eco-apartheid is based on the illusion of separateness of humans from nature in our minds and lively

Question 52.
What has replaced ‘Terra Madre’?
Answer:
Terra Nullius.

Question 53.
What power, according to Francis Bacon, do science and technology have over nature?
Answer:
According to Francis Bacon, science and technology have the power to conquer and subdue nature and to shake her to her foundations.

Question 54.
What, according to Carolyn Merchant, would lead to capitalism?
Answer:
According to Carolyn Merchant, the shift of perspective from nature as a living, nurturing mother to inert dead and manipulate matter would lead to capitalism.

Question 55.
What major shift has earth democracy brought in?
Answer:
Earth democracy has brought in a major shift from anthropocentrism to eco-centrism.

Question 56.
According to Tagore, what has helped the intellectual evolution of man?
Answer:
According to Tagore, the peace of the forest has helped the intellectual evolution of man.

Question 57.
When do people discover the joy of living, according to Vandana Shiva?
Answer:
According to Vandana Shiva, the end of consumerism and accumulation is the beginning of the joy of living.

Question 58.
What surprised Vandana Shiva when she went swimming in her favourite stream?
Answer:
When Vandana Shiva went swimming in her favourite stream, she was surprised to see that the forests were no longer there and the stream had been reduced to a trickle.

Question 59.
Name the author of ‘Monocultures of the Mind’ mentioned in ‘Everything I Need To Know I Learned In The Forest’
Answer:
Vandana Shiva is the author monocultures of the Mind’, as mentioned in ‘Everything I Need to Know 1 Learned in the Forest’.

Question 60.
What did the UN General Assembly organize in April 2011, according to Vandana Shiva?
Answer:
According to Vandana Shiva, the UN General Assembly organized a conference on harmony with nature as part of Earth Day celebrations, in April 2011.

Question 61.
According to the prominent South African environmentalist Cormac Cullinan, apartheid means
(a) separateness
(b) monoculture
(c) diversity.
Answer:
(a) separateness.

Question 62.
In Tagore’s writings, the forest symbolizes
(a) a university
(b) the universe
(c) a union.
Answer:
(b) the universe.

Question 63.
Every species sustains itself in with others, according to Vandana Shiva.
(a) peace
(b) co-operation
(c) freedom.
Answer:
(b) co-operation.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 64.
What becomes the source of conflict and contest, according to Vandana Shiva?
Answer:
According to Vandana Shiva, ‘Diversity without unity becomes the source of conflict and contest’.

Question 65.
Mention any one conflict that Vandana Shiva mentions in her essay.
Answer:
In her essay, Vandana Shiva mentions three conflicts: the conflict between

  • greed and compassion
  • conquest and co-operation
  • violence and harmony.

II. Answer the following questions in a paragraph of 80-100 words each:

Question 1.
How has the Navdanya movement helped the farmers?
OR
Write a note on Navdanya Movement
Answer:
The Navdanya movement is a movement for biodiversity conservation and organic farming which was started in 1987. They have been able to conserve and grow 630 varieties of rice, 150 varieties of wheat, and hundreds of other species. They have also worked with farmers to set up more than 100 community seed banks across India. They have also been able to save more than 3000 rice varieties. They also help farmers make a transition from fossil-fuel and chemical-based monocultures to bio-diverse ecological systems nourished by the sun and the soil.

Question 2.
Explain the idea of separateness as perceived by Vandana Shiva.
Answer:
The idea of separateness refers to the illusion that human beings and nature are different entities. Secondly, the Earth/nature is dead matter and human beings have the capacity to conquer nature, subdue her, and shake her to her foundations. This idea was popularized by Francis Bacon and other leaders of the scientific revolution. Further, it triggered many scientific experiments which culminated in new inventions and discoveries. These scientific inventions and discoveries served as the basis for the industrial revolution. Cormac Cullinan, a South African environmentalist, calls it ‘eco-apartheid’ and urges us to overcome it just like the apartheid in South Africa.

Question 3.
How does Vandana Shiva bring out the importance of ‘The Earth Democracy’?
OR
‘Earth University teaches Earth Democracy.’ Explain with reference to Vandana Shiva’s essay ‘Everything I Need To Know I Learned In The Forest’.
Answer:
Vandana Shiva borrows the model of the Earth University from Shantiniketan, the forest school, which later became a university. It was established by Rabindranath Tagore in 1921. According to the writer, Earth University teaches Earth Democracy, which ensures freedom for all species to evolve within the web of life. It also confers freedom and responsibility on humans, as members of the Earth family, to recognize, protect, and respect the rights of other species. Earth Democracy is a shift from anthropocentrism to eco-centrism. Earth Democracy translates into human rights to food and water, to freedom from hunger and thirst.

Question 4.
How does Rabindranath Tagore highlight the importance of forests, according to Vandana Shiva?
OR
How, according to Vandana Shiva, has Tagore brought out the role of forests in Indian civilisation?
Answer:
Vandana Shiva opines that Rabindranath Tagore started Shantiniketan, a forest school, with a view to getting inspiration from nature and to create an Indian cultural renaissance. His views on the importance of forests are expressed in his essay ‘Tapovan’ (Forest of Purity). Tagore asserts that Indian civilization has been distinctive in locating its source of regeneration – both material and intellectual – in the forest, and not in the city. He states that India’s best ideas have come from the place where the man was in communion with trees and rivers and lakes, away from the crowd. He remarks that the peace of the forest has helped the intellectual evolution of man.

Next, he states that the culture of the forest has fueled the culture of Indian society. This forest culture has been influenced by the diverse processes of renewal of life, which are always at play in the forest, varying from species to species, from season to season, in sight and sound and smell. Finally, forest culture is a symbol of life in diversity. This unifying principle of life in diversity, of democratic pluralism, thus became the principle of Indian civilization.

Question 5.
How does Vandana Shiva describe the Navdanya farm?
OR
Write a short note on the Navdanya farm.
OR
Explain Vandana Shiva’s efforts to conserve biodiversity in the Navdanya farm.
OR
Write a note on the activities of the Navdanya farm.
Answer:
Vandana Shiva describes ‘Navdanya’ as a movement for biodiversity conservation and organic farming which she started in 1987. Later, when she realized that they needed a farm for demonstration and training, she set up the Navdanya Farm in 1994 in the Doon Valley in the lower elevation Himalayan region of Uttarakhand province. She states that they have conserved and grown 630 varieties of rice, 150 varieties of wheat and hundreds of other species. She also says that they have set up more than 100 community seed banks across India. She also claims to help farmers make a transition from fossil-fuel and chemical-based monocultures to bio-diverse ecological systems nourished by the sun and the soil.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Bring out the significance of the rights of nature as explained by Vandana Shiva in her essay.
Answer:
The United Nations General Assembly organised a conference on harmony with nature as part of Earth Day celebrations in 2011. This conference was inspired by the recognition given to ‘rights of nature’ by Ecuador in her Constitution. Much of the discussion in the conference centred on ways to transform systems based on the domination of people over nature, men over women, and rich over poor into new systems based on partnership.

The U.N. Secretary-General issued a report titled ‘Harmony with Nature’ in conjunction with the conference, in which he elaborated on the importance of reconnecting with nature.

Vandana Shiva suggests that at a time of multiple crises intensified by globalisation, we need to move to an ecological paradigm for which the best teacher is nature herself. The earth teaches earth democracy which means freedom for all species to evolve within the web of life and the freedom and responsibility of humans, as members of the Earth family to recognize, protect and respect the rights of other species. Vandana Shiva argues that since we all depend on the Earth, Earth Democracy translates into human rights to food and water, to freedom from hunger and thirst. It can be inferred that all forms of life existing on this Earth have the right to life and hence we should protect the rights of nature so as to sustain our life on the Earth.

Question 7.
Write a note on Vandana Shiva’s involvement in the Chipko movement
OR
Write a brief note on the Chipko movement that took place in the Himalayan region.
Answer:
Vandana Shiva’s involvement in the contemporary ecology movement began with the Chipko movement which was a non-violent response to the large-scale deforestation that was taking place in the Himalayan region in the 1970s. During this period, the peasant women from the Garhwal Himalaya, having realised that the forests were the real source of springs and streams, fodder, and fuel, declared that they would hug the trees, and the loggers would have to kill them before cutting the trees.

In 1973, when Vandana Shiva went to the Himalaya to visit her favourite forests and swim in her favourite stream, the forests were not there and the stream had become a trickle. It was at this moment that she decided to become a volunteer for the Chipko movement. She spent every vacation doing padayatra, documenting the deforestation, the work of the forest activists, and spreading the message of Chipko.

Question 8.
Trace Vandana Shiva’s childhood experiences that ted to her interest in Ecology.
Answer:
Vandana Shiva’s father was a conservator of forests in the Himalayan region. Naturally, Vandana Shiva lived and was brought up in forest surroundings. That is why she declares that whatever she knows about ecology was learned from the Himalayan forests and eco-systems. Her mother was a farmer and she used to compose songs and poems about trees, forests, and India’s forest civilizations. Thus, her parents and their profession undoubtedly shaped Vandana Shiva’s interest in ecology.

Question 9.
What are Cormac Cullinan’s views on eco-apartheid mentioned by Vandana Shiva in her essay?
Answer:
Vandana Shiva opines that separation is indeed at the root of disharmony with nature and violence against nature and people. She mentions Cormac Cullinan’s views on eco-apartheid in this context.

Cormac Cullinan is a prominent South African environmentalist. He points out that apartheid means separateness. He declares that the world joined the anti-apartheid movement to end the violent separation of people on the basis of colour and so they were able to end apartheid in South Africa. Cullinan suggests that we need to overcome the wider and deeper apartheid – an eco-apartheid based on the illusion of separateness of humans from nature – in our minds and lives.

III. Answer the following questions in about 200 words each:

Question 1.
How does Tagore’s essay ‘Tapovan’bring out the influence of the environment on the Indian civilisation?
OR
What makes Indian civilisation distinctive, according to Tagore? Explain with reference to ‘Everything I need to know I learned in the Forest’.
Answer:
In his essay ‘Tapovan’, Tagore has expressed his understanding of the Indian civilization. Tagore states that “Indian civilization has been distinctive in locating its source of regeneration, material and intellectual, in the forest, not the city.” Tagore asserts that India’s best ideas have come from where the man was in communion with trees and rivers and lakes, away from the crowds. He adds that the peace of the forest has helped the intellectual evolution of man.

Furthermore, he says that the culture that has arisen from the forest has been influenced by the diverse processes of renewal of life and these processes of renewal of life are always at play in the forest, varying from season to season, in sight, sound and smell. This culture of the forest has fueled the culture of Indian society. He concludes by saying that the unifying principle of life in diversity, of democratic pluralism, thus became the principle of Indian civilization.

Question 2.
How do the forests teach us the values of diversity, freedom, and co-existence, according to Vandana Shiva?
OR
What inspires Vandana Shiva to say that biodiversity has been her teacher of abundance and freedom, of cooperation and mutual giving?
OR
What are the basic lessons that are taught by the living world to mankind? Discuss in the light of the essay.
Answer:
In his essay ‘Tapovan’, Tagore asserts that India’s best ideas have come from where the man was in communion with trees and rivers and lakes, away from the crowds. He adds that the peace of the forest has helped the intellectual evolution of man.

KSEEB Solutions

Furthermore, he says that the culture that has arisen from the forest has been influenced by the diverse processes of renewal of life and these processes of renewal of life are always at play in the forest, varying from season to season, in sight, sound and smell. This culture of the forest has fueled the culture of Indian society. He concludes by saying that the unifying principle of life in diversity, of democratic pluralism, thus became the principle of Indian civilization.

Vandana Shiva says that this unity in diversity is the basis of both ecological sustainability and democracy. She asserts that “Diversity without unity becomes the source of conflict and contest, and unity without diversity becomes the ground for external control.” She adds that this is true of both nature and culture. She concludes by saying that the forest is unity in its diversity, and through our relationship with the forest, we are united with nature.

Vandana Shiva says that the forest teaches us union and compassion. It also teaches us ‘enoughness’. It means it teaches us the principle of equity. It shows us how to enjoy the gifts of nature without exploitation. Furthermore, she says that no species in a forest takes away the share of another species and every species sustains itself in co-operation with others.

Question 3.
What role does the forest play in Vandana Shiva’s life? Explain.
Answer:
Vandana Shiva says that she learned her first lesson in ecology and eco-system in the Himalayan forests which she later put to practice in her farms. Her ideas about bio-diversity and bio-diversity- based living economies prompted her to begin the Navdanya movement for biodiversity conservation and organic farming which she started in 1987. Later, in 1994, she set up the Navdanya farm in the Doon Valley where she claims to have conserved and grown 630 varieties of rice, 150 varieties of wheat, and hundreds of other species. Based on these practices she tells the reader that the forests teach us union and compassion, the principle of equity, and how to enjoy the gifts of nature without exploitation and accumulation and mutual co-operation.

Question 4.
“The forest teaches us union and compassion. It symbolises the universe”. Discuss with reference to Tagore’s views in ‘Tapovan’.
Answer:
Vandana Shiva makes a reference to the views of Rabindranath Tagore about ‘Forest as a school’. In his essay titled ‘Tapovan’ (which means Forest of Purity), Tagore highlights the unique features of Indian civilization. He opines that Indian civilization originated in the forest and the forest served as a source of material and intellectual regeneration.

Further, he argues that the culture of the forest has fuelled the culture of Indian society. Next, he offers a convincing explanation as to how the culture of the forest could have helped the Indian civilization. He opines that the culture of the forest has been influenced by the diverse processes of renewal of life which are always at play in the forest. The diverse processes of renewal of life vary from species to species, from season to season, in sight and sound and smell. This unifying principle of life in diversity, democratic pluralism, thus became the principle of Indian civilization.

Vandana Shiva further elaborates on Tagore’s views about the culture of the forest. She adds that in Tagore’s writings, “the forest was not just the source of knowledge and freedom but was also the source of beauty and joy, art and aesthetics, of harmony and perfection. She concludes that the forest where we learn union and compassion symbolizes the universe.

Question 5.
‘The end of consumerism and accumulation is the beginning of the joy of living’. Discuss in the light of ‘Everything I Need To Know I Learned In The Forest’.
Answer:
Man has been calling the Earth ‘Terra Madre’ (Mother Earth) for centuries. But a change came about in his attitude and action later. The vibrant view of the Earth as mother nature receded and a man started plundering the rich resources of the Earth for his luxurious lifestyle. Now, Mother Earth is becoming Terra Nullius (empty land, raw materials and dead matter) owing to his greed for accumulating material wealth.

The greed for consuming the Earth’s resources was kindled by the philosophy of Francis Bacon (a 17th-century scientist) who declared that science and its inventions have the power to conquer ‘Nature’ and to subdue her and to shake her to her foundations. It is this idea that paved the way for the industrial revolution, capitalism and the current global consumerism. Social thinkers, scientists, statesmen, governments, and environmentalists have now come to realize that human beings are an inseparable part of Nature and they cannot damage Nature without severely damaging themselves.

To save themselves they need to change from anthropomorphism to eco-centrism. Instead of altering Nature to suit his lifestyle man must adapt himself to the demands of Nature. He must learn lessons from our forests which serve as Earth University and teach us Earth democracy. Forests teach us enoughness, union and compassion, and the principle of equity. No species in a forest appropriates the share of another species. Every species sustains itself in co-operation with others. This principle of equity will put an end to consumerism and accumulation which will usher in the joy of living.

Question 6.
‘The peace of the forest has helped the evolution of man’. How does Tagore elaborate this statement in ‘Everything l Need To Know I Learned In The Forest’?
Answer:
Rabindranath Tagore started Shantiniketan, a forest school, with a view to getting inspiration from nature and to create an Indian cultural renaissance. His views on the importance of forests are’expressed in his essay ‘Tapovan’ (Forest of Purity). Tagore asserts that Indian civilization has been distinctive in locating its source of regeneration – both material and intellectual – in the forest, and not in the city. He states that India’s best ideas have come from the place where the man was in communion with trees and rivers and lakes, away from the crowd. He remarks that the peace of the forest has helped the intellectual evolution of man.

KSEEB Solutions

Next, he states that the culture of the forest has fueled the culture of Indian society. This forest culture has been influenced by the diverse processes of renewal of life, which are always at play in the forest, varying from species to species, from season to season, in sight and sound and smell. Finally, forest culture is a symbol of life in diversity. This unifying principle of life in diversity, of democratic pluralism, thus became the principle of Indian civilization.

Everything I Need To Know I Learned In The Forest Vocabulary

A prefix is a word or a syllable added to the beginning of a root word, to qualify or change the meaning of that word.

Question A.
When some prefixes like dis-, im-, non-, in-, de-, anti-are added, the words get a negative connotation.
E.g.: disharmony, impossible, nonviolent, inseparable, deforestation, antiapartheid.
Lookup a dictionary and find suitable prefixes for the following words: responsible, human, practical, natural, active, material, civilized, perfect.
Answer:
irresponsible, inhuman, impractical, unnatural, inactive, immaterial, uncivilized, imperfect.
A suffix is a syllable or word added to the end of a root word to qualify its meaning or form a new word.

Question B.
By adding suffixes like -al, -ism, -ion, -ment, -ship, etc., we can form different words. Some are given below:
arrival, consumerism, movement, relationship.
Pick out more such words from the lesson.
Answer:
Ecological, partition, learned, involvement, scarcity, heavier, longer, vacation, resistance, forestry, foolish, protection, failure, demonstration, conservation, transition, constitution, declaration, discussion, domination, partnership, environmentally, severely, separatism, environmentalist, separateness, separation, deeper, diversity, occupation, merely, guidance, philosopher, historian, manipulable, capitalism, scientific, revolution, cultural, readily, freedom, responsibility, globalisation, inspiration, cultural, purity, distinctive, intellectual, evolution, diversity, democratic, pluralism, sustainability, perfection, enoughness, exploitation, accumulation, enjoyment, renunciation, possession, co-operation, consumerism, accumulation.

Question C.
In Vandana Shiva’s essay, you have come across many unfamiliar words such as eco-systems, eco-centrism, eco-apartheid, bio-diversity, biodiversity-intensive, monoculture, fossil-fuel.
With the help of a dictionary find out what they mean.
Answer:

  • Eco-systems: An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) as well as the nonliving components (air, water and mineral soil) of the environment, interacting as a system.
  • Eco-centrism: Eco-centrism (meaning values centred on ecology) is a view that considers the whole environment or ecosphere as being important without preference to organisms such as animals and humans.
  • Eco-apartheid: Eco-apartheid means holding the illusion in our minds and lives that humans are separate from nature.
  • Bio-diversity: The existence of a large number of different kinds of animals and plants which make a balanced environment.
  • Biodiversity-intensive (farming): It refers to growing of different varieties of plants.
  • Mono-culture: It is the agricultural practise of producing or growing a single crop or plant species.
  • Fossil-fuel: They are fuels formed by natural processes such as the decomposition of buried dead organisms. Fossil fuels include coal, petroleum, and natural gas.

Additional Exercises

A. Passive Voice:

Question 1.
Shantiniketan _____ (start) by Rabindranath Tagore in 1921. Today, it _____ (consider) as one of the best learning centres in the world. The Earth University ______ (inspire) by Rabindranath Tagore.
Answer:
was started; is considered; is inspired.

Question 2.
The war against the earth began with this idea of separateness. Its contemporary seeds _____ (sow) when the living earth ____ (transform) into the dead matter to facilitate the industrial revolution. Diversity ______ (replace) by monocultures.
Answer:
were sown; was transformed; was replaced.

Question 3.
Navdanya, the movement for biodiversity conservation and organic farming _____ (start) in 1987. More than 3000 rice varieties ______ (save). Now bio-diversity intensive form of farming ______ (practice) by many farmers across the country.
Answer:
was started; were saved; is practised or is being practised.

Question 4.
Forest plays an important role in shaping civilization. The culture of Indian civilization _____ (fuel) by the culture of the forest. This culture _____ (influence) by the diverse processes of renewal of life which are at play in the forest. Besides, human beings _____ (teach) union and compassion by it.
Answer:
was fuelled; was influenced; were taught.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
The lessons learnt by Vandana Shiva about diversity ______ (transfer) to the protection of biodiversity. Thus Navdanya farm ____ (start) in the Doon Valley and it ______ (locate) in the lower elevation Himalayan region.
Answer:
were transferred; was started; is located.

B. Fill in the blanks by choosing the appropriate expressions given in brackets:

Question 1.
The women of Adwani resisted the felling of trees. Besides, they decided to teach forestry to the forest officials. They ____ lighted lanterns although it was ______ (broad daylight, held up, put behind)
Answer:
held up; broad daylight.

Question 2.
According to Cullinan, apartheid in South Africa was ______. But nobody knew that a wider and deeper eco-apartheid would come in its place and _____ a problem that would create another kind of separatism. (at play, grow into, put behind)
Answer:
put behind; grow into.

C. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linkers:

Question 1.
Vandana Shiva started to save seeds from farmers’ fields. _____ she realized that a farm was needed for demonstration and training. _____ Navdanya farm was started. _____ many varieties of seeds were conserved in this farm ______ practise and promote a biodiversity-intensive form of farming. (as a result, then, thus, in order to)
Answer:
Then; Thus; As a result; in order to.

Question 2.
The Earth University teaches Earth Democracy ______ is the freedom for all species. _____ we all depend on the earth, it is our duty to respect the rights of other species ______ these species have to evolve within the web of life. ______ Earth Democracy is a shift from anthropocentrism to ecocentrism. (as, which, moreover, since)
Answer:
which; As; since; Moreover.

Question 3.
Tagore started Shantiniketan in West Bengal ______ create an Indian cultural renaissance. _____ this became a university _____ received acclaim as the most famous centre of learning. Shantiniketan was started as a forest school, amidst trees _____ forests were thought to be a source of regeneration. (because, in order to, which, later on)
Answer:
in order to; Later on; which; because.

Everything I Need to Know I Learned in the Forest by Vandana Shiva About the writer:

Born in India in 1952, Vandana Shiva is a world-renowned environmental leader and thinker. Director of the Research Foundation on Science, Technology, and Ecology, she is the author of many books, including’Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development’,‘Soil Not Oil: Climate Change, Peak Oil and Food Insecurity’, ‘Earth Democracy: Justice, Sustainability, and Peace’, ‘Water Wars: Privatisation, Pollution and Profit’, ‘Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge’, ‘Monocultures of the Mind’, and ‘The Violence of the Green Revolution’.

Vandana Shiva is a leader in the International Forum on Globalization. In 1993, she won the Alternative Nobel Peace Prize (the Right Livelihood Award). In 2010, she was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize for her commitment to social justice. The founder of Navdanya (‘nine seeds’), a movement promoting diversity and use of native seeds, she also set up the Research Foundation for Science, Technology, and Ecology in her mother’s cowshed in 1997. Its studies have validated the ecological value of traditional farming and been instrumental in fighting destructive development projects in India.

Background:

This lesson is based on two articles written by Vandana Shiva. The first part of the lesson titled, ‘Everything I need to know I learned in the forest* was published in the winter issue of‘Yes!’ magazine 2012. The title of the winter issue was ‘What Would Nature Do?’ The second part titled, ‘Right of Nature on the Global Stage’, was adopted by the author from her own article ‘Forest and Freedom’, which was published in the May-June 2011 edition of‘Resurgence Magazine’.

The two parts are thematically interlinked and supplement each other. In the first part, the author tells the reader how she learnt the basic principles of environmentalism from the uneducated women of Garhwal, Himalaya and how she became a proactive environmentalist.

In the second part, she presents a historical account of how the concept of Earth as a living entity got transformed to Earth as dead matter and its consequences.

KSEEB Solutions

The whole lesson talks about environmental concepts like bio-diversity, Earth as a living organism, Earth Democracy, ecological sustainability etc.

Everything I Need to Know I Learned in the Forest Summary in English

In the first part of the lesson, the writer narrates how she learnt the basic principles of ecology. She says that her study of ecology started in the forests of the Himalaya because her father was a forest conservator. Hence, she declares that whatever she knows about ecology was learned from the Himalayan forests and ecosystems. Incidentally, her mother who was brought up in Lahore (which became Pakistan later) settled in India after partition and became a farmer.

In the next few paragraphs, she narrates the history of the Chipko’ movement. It was a non-violent response to the large-scale deforestation that was taking place in the Himalayan region in the 1970s. In this context, Vandana Shiva tells us that her involvement in the contemporary ecology movement began with the Chipko movement. During this period, the peasant women from the Garhwal Himalaya had come out in defence of the forests protesting against the ruthless cutting down of trees on a large scale for logging. This had resulted in landslides and floods, scarcity of water, fodder and fuel. Consequently, women had become the worst sufferers because they were in charge of fulfilling the daily requirements for cooking, washing and other household chores. They had to walk long distances for collecting water and firewood which was a heavy burden.

Fortunately, the women had realized that the forests were the real source of springs and streams, food for their cattle and fuel for their hearths. Therefore, the women declared that they would hug the trees, and the loggers would have to kill them before killing the trees. They appealed to the loggers not to cut them and to keep those trees alive.

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In 1973 she went to the Himalaya to visit her favourite forests and swim in her favourite stream. She wanted to see these spots before leaving for Canada to do her Ph.D., but the forests were not there and the stream had become a trickle. It was at this moment that she decided to become a volunteer for the Chipko movement. She spent every vacation doing padayatra (walking pilgrimages), documenting the deforestation, the work of the forest activists and spreading the message of Chipko.

Next, the author narrates the Chipko action that took place in the Himalayan village of Adwani in 1977. She recalls how a village woman named Bachni Devi led a movement of resistance against her own husband who had obtained a contract to cut trees. When the logging officials arrived at the forest, the women held up lighted lanterns although it was broad daylight. The forester admonished them saying that they were foolish women and did not know the value of the forest. He added that the forests produced a profit, resin and timber. The women sang back in chorus replying that the forests bore soils, water and pure air and also sustained the Earth and all that she bears.

In the next section titled ‘Beyond Monocultures’, Vandana Shiva tells the readers that she learned about bio-diversity and bio-diversity-based living economies, from the Chipko movement. Further, she remarks that our failure to understand biodiversity and its many functions is the root cause of the impoverishment of nature and culture. Then she says that the lessons she learned about diversity in the Himalayan forests she transferred to the protection of bio-diversity on her farms. She started saving seeds from farmers’ fields and incidentally realized that they needed a farm for demonstration and training. This led to the establishment of Navdanya Farm.

She declares that now they conserve and grow 630 varieties of rice, 150 varieties of wheat, and hundreds of other species. She proudly says that they practice and promote a bio-diversity intensive form of farming that produces more food and nutrition per acre. Finally, she observes that the conservation of biodiversity is, therefore, the answer to the food and nutrition crisis being faced in our country.

The Navdanya organisation helps farmers make a transition from fossil-fuel and chemical-based monocultures to bio-diverse ecological systems nourished by the sun and the soil. She concludes saying that bio-diversity has been her teacher of abundance and freedom, of co-operation and mutual giving.

The second part of the lesson begins with the title ‘Rights of Nature on the Global Stage’.
In the first section, she suggests that we accept nature as a teacher and when we do so we co-create with her and also recognize her agency and her rights. Incidentally, she says that Ecuador has recognized the ‘Rights of Nature’ in its Constitution and calls it a significant step. As a sequel, the United Nations General Assembly organized a conference on harmony with nature as part of Earth Day celebrations in April 2011. She makes a reference to the report of the UN Secretary-General titled ‘Harmony with Nature’, that was issued in conjunction with the conference. The report highlighted the importance of reconnecting with nature.

Vandana Shiva opines that separatism is indeed at the root of disharmony with nature and violence against nature and people. The author supports her statement citing the opinion of Cormac Cullinan, a prominent South African environmentalist. According to him, “apartheid means separateness”. The author says that the whole world joined the anti-apartheid movement in order to end the violent separation of people on the basis of colour. Now that apartheid in South Africa has been put behind us, we need to overcome the wider and deeper apartheid – an eco-apartheid based on the illusion of separateness of humans from nature in our minds and lives.

The author makes an attempt to trace the origin of the idea of separateness. The author recalls our beliefs about the Earth in the pre-industrial era when ‘Man’ believed that living beings were an inseparable part of nature. But, later with the advent of scientific thinking man came under the illusion that the living Earth was dead matter and there was no connection between the living Earth and the other living creatures. Vandana Shiva remarks that it was at this moment in history that the war against the Earth began. She observes that the seeds of separateness were sown when the living Earth was considered as a dead matter to facilitate the industrial revolution.

She adds here that monocultures replaced diversity; ‘raw materials’ and ‘dead matter’ replaced vibrant earth. The Earth came to be termed as Terra Nullius, which means ’empty land’, ready for occupation regardless of the fact that the Mother Earth (Terra Madre) was home to tens of thousands of indigenous peoples (people of different races, tribes, ethnicities).

KSEEB Solutions

Vandana Shiva next mentions Carolyn Merchant, a philosopher and historian, in her support and says that “this shift of perspective from nature as a living, nurturing mother to inert, dead and manipulable matter” was well suited to the activities that led to capitalism. Furthermore, Vandana Shiva says that the images of domination of the Earth by scientific methods, created by Francis Bacon and other leaders of the scientific revolution replaced the idea that the Earth nurtures life/living beings. They also successfully removed a cultural constraint on the exploitation of nature. Until then, people did not dare to “readily slay a mother, dig into her entrails for gold, or mutilate her body” as observed by Merchant.

It is to be inferred here that once Francis Bacon popularized the idea that the Earth can serve as a source of raw materials for scientific experiments, many new scientific discoveries and inventions were made which later led to the exploitation of iron, gold, copper, wood and metals from the earth and heralded the industrial revolution, modernization, growth of cities, increase in the number of rich people and urban culture, displacing other cultures.

In the next section titled ‘What Nature Teaches’, Vandana Shiva tells the reader what we need to do now. She says that we are facing multiple crises and hence we need to move away from the paradigm of nature as dead matter and move towards an ecological paradigm. Vandana Shiva tells us that to understand what an ecological paradigm means, we need to go to ‘nature’ herself and nature is the best teacher.

Vandana Shiva presents a model of the Earth University which she says is located at ‘Navdanya’, a bio-diversity farm. She says that Earth University teaches Earth democracy. The concept of Earth Democracy symbolizes “freedom for all species to evolve within the web of life”. It also refers to the freedom and responsibilities of humans as members of the Earth family, to recognize, protect and respect the rights of other species.

Vandana Shiva explains that the idea of ‘Earth Democracy’ is a shift from anthropocentrism to eco-centrism. Anthropocentrism is a school of thought which argues that humans are the central element of the universe. Now we need to accept that ‘eco-systems’ are the main elements of the universe and not Man, and the Earth nurtures diverse eco-systems. It also means that it is man’s responsibility to preserve these ecosystems. Since we all depend on the Earth for our survival, Earth democracy gives every human being rights to food and water, to freedom from hunger and thirst.

Vandana Shiva mentions the activities at Navdanya. She says that it is a bio-diversity farm where participants learn to work with living seeds, living soil, and the web of life.

In the next section titled ‘The Poetry of the Forest’, Vandana Shiva talks about the original source of the idea of ‘The Earth University’. She states that the concept of Earth University originated from Rabindranath Tagore’s Shantiniketan in West Bengal. Tagore started a learning centre in Shantiniketan in West Bengal as a forest school. The school became a university in 1921, growing into one of India’s most famous centres of learning. Vandana takes this forest school as a model and tells the readers that just as in Tagore’s time, we need to turn to nature and the forest for lessons in freedom. Then she refers to Tagore’s essay ‘Tapovan’ (Forest of Purity) in which Tagore has expressed his understanding of the Indian civilization.

Tagore asserts that India’s best ideas have come from where the man was in communion with trees and rivers and lakes, away from the crowds. He adds that the peace of the forest has helped the intellectual evolution of man. Furthermore, he says that the culture that has arisen from the forest has been influenced by the diverse processes of renewal of life and these processes of renewal of life are always at play in the forest, varying from season to season, in sight, sound and smell. This culture of the forest has fueled the culture of Indian society.

Vandana Shiva says that unity in diversity is the basis of both ecological sustainability and democracy. She adds that this is true of both nature and culture, and through our relationship with the forest we are united with nature.

KSEEB Solutions

Vandana Shiva further elaborates the features of the culture of the forest. She refers to Tagore’s writings and says that in his writings the forest was not just the source of knowledge and freedom, but was also the source of beauty and joy, of art and aesthetics, of harmony and perfection. It symbolized the universe. Vandana Shiva says that the forest teaches us union and compassion. It also teaches us ‘enoughness’. It means, it teaches us the principle of equity. It shows us how to enjoy the gifts of nature without exploitation. Furthermore, she says that no species in a forest takes away the share of another species and every species sustains itself in co-operation with others. She concludes saying that the end of consumerism and accumulation is the beginning of the joy of living.

Finally, Vandana rounds off her article saying that the conflict between greed and compassion, conquest and co-operation, violence and harmony continues even today and in this situation, it is the forest that can show us the way beyond this conflict. Thus, Vandana Shiva wants to assure us that the forests teach us the values of diversity, freedom and co-existence.

Everything I Need to Know I Learned in the Forest Summary in Kannada

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Glossary:

  • Ecology: the study of relationships of organisms with each other and their surroundings.
  • Bio-diversity: the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.
  • Monoculture: the cultivation of a single crop (on a farm or area or country).
  • Earth Democracy: the freedom for all species to evolve within the web of life.
  • Anthropocentrism: Regarding humans as the central element of the universe.
  • Organic farming: ಸಾವಯವ ಕೃಷಿ
  • Pluralism: a condition or system in which two or more states, groups, principles, sources of authority, etc., coexist.
  • Equity: the quality of being fair and impartial.
  • Renunciation: the formal rejection of a belief, claim, or a course of action.
  • Consumerism: the protection or promotion of the interests of consumers
  • logging: the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks

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