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Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Model Question Paper 4 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs
Max. Marks: 100
Section – A
I. Answer the following in one sentence each: ( 1 × 10 = 10 )
Write the three components of HDI
- Decent standard of living.
What is Lumbering?
Lumbering is art of gathering forest products for livelihood by man.
What is pipelines transport?
Pipeline is the means of carrying the liquid, slary and garses through the pipes from one place to another.
Which is the first million city of the world?
London by around 1810.
In which year family planning programme was introduced in India?
Who is called as ‘water man’ and why?
Myagassessay award winner Sri Rajendra Singh is called water man because he was nicely used. The rain water harvesting by check dams method.
Who is the father of ‘Green Revolution’?
‘Norman Ernest Borlaug’.
What are the source of energy?
The two source of energy are
- Conventional source of energy.
- Non-conventional source of energy.
What are the forest based Industry?
The group of industries which are depending on forest products for the raw material purpose are called as forest based industry.
What is trade?
The process of buying of selling of goods and commadities is called as trade.
Section – B
II. Answer any TEN of the following in 2-3 sentences each ( 2 × 10 = 20 )
What are the different types of fishing?
The different types of fishing are :
- Fresh water fishing
- Coastal fishing and
- Open sea fishing.
Name any four important hunting region of the world.
- The Indians of Amazon basin
- The pigmies of the congo basin (zaire)
- The semangs of Malaysia and
- The Bushman of Kalahari desert.
What are ’dry point’ settlements’.
The houses are built on stilts to protect from floods as well as from the wild animals those are called ‘dry point settlements’.
Give any four causes for high birth rate in India.
- Early marriage
- Universal marrige
- Religious and social supertitions
- Illiteracy etc.
Black soil is quiet suitable for cotton cultivation, why?
- It keeps the moisture for the long time.
- This soil is capable of retaining moisture to the crops. Therefore it is quiet suitable for Cultivation.
What is the need for non-conventional sousces of energy in India.
They are capable of solving the requirements such as supply of energy in a decentralized manner and have sustainable invironment. Thus the development of these power resources is very essential! ‘
Mention the types of coal.
What are the raw materials used in cement industry?
Linestone, sea shalls, slag, silica, alumina, clay and gypsum are the raw materials used in the cement industry.
Mention the four important types of roads in India?
- National highways
- State highways
- District roads and
- Village roads.
State the significance of air transport in India.
- It is very efficient means for speedy transport of people, mail and goods.
- It is very essential in times of peace as well as emergencies.
What are the causes of water pollution?
- Sewage disposal
- Urban run-off
- Toxic effluents from industries
- Run-off over cultivated lands and nculear power plants.
Name any four most polluted cities in the world.
(a) Ahwaz – Iran
(b) Quetta – Pakistan
(c) Ludhiana – India and
(d) Yasouj – Iran
Section – C
III. Answer any Eight of the following in 25-30 sentences each: ( 5 × 8 = 40 )
Explain the different definition of human geography in Detail.
For understanding the nature of human geography we can look into a few well known definitions.
- According to Friedrich Ratzel (1844 – 1904): It is the synthetic study of relationship between human societies and earth’s surface.
- Ellen C. Semple (1863 – 1932): It is the study of the changing relationship between the unresting man and unstable earth.
- Paul Vidal-dc-la-Blache (1845 – 1918): The study of knowledge of physical laws on the earth surface in relation between the liking beings which inhabit it.
- Ellesworth Huntington (1876 – 1947): It is the study of nature and distribution of the relationship between geographical environment & human activities & qualities.
Explain the distribution of population in the world.
The population of the world is unevenly distributed. The distribution of population is expressed in terms of density. The density is the ratio between the numbers of people in to the size of land.
Distribution of population of the world has been divided into three regions.
I. Area of high density: The three principal high density zones are:
- Eastern, Southern and South – Eastern part of Asia.
- North – Western part of Europe.
- North – Eastern part of USA and South Eastern part of Canada.
II. Area of high density: The population moderately dense in tropical regions of the world and moist temperature cold desertes and high rain fall zones near the equator have very low density of population.
- Asia is the most populous continent. It accounts about ‘61 percent’ of the world population.
- Africa is second most populated continent with 13 percent.
- Europe has 12 percent.
- South America 8.5 percent.
- Northern America 5 percent.
- Oceania is the least – populated region which has 0.5 percent.
- Antarctica is uninhabited permanently.
Describe effects of rapid growth of population and measures to control.
Effects of over population:
- Increased levels of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and noise pollution.
- Deforestation and loss of ecosystem.
- Increasing temperature in the atmosphere which results of Global Warming.
- Starvation, Malnutrition.
- Unhygienic living condition for many due to water scarcity, discharge of sewage water & solid waste disposal.
- Depletion of natural resources.
- Political instability.
- Increasing of unemployment.
- Lack of civic amentities (Food, Clothing & Shelter).
Measurements to Control the population:
- Adoption and Propoganda of Family planning methods.
- Practice of celibacy.
- Self control.
- Remaining unmarried.
- Improving women’s status and health.
- Provide education.
- Increasing the food production.
Explain the importance of Mass communication
- Communication plays a significant role in the Modem World. They create awareness about the policies, programme of developments, learning.
- Adopt new technological innovations in agriculture and industry as well as transportation.
- People can acquire information of day’s affairs of the world.
- It brings out the unity, integrity and stability of the country.
- It helps in the development of cultural, political and social aspects as well as trade and commerce.
- They have laid a base for modem business. Thus, communication plays a vital role in the development of a nation.
- Speed with messages could be sent across the world with in a second.
- The Telephone or Radio are linked the people Worldwide and they can speak each other directly.
- Even today newspaper touch everypart of the country as it coves international, national and local news as well as entertainments with other information.
- The radio has its own name by broadcasting news and information which will reach all comers of country and abroad.
- Television allows the audio and video facilities to gain information for public.
- It has a profound role to play in the forecasting of weather, the direction of aircraft, shipping and warning of usual events such as Hirricanes, snow fall and rainfalls as well as floods.
- Rapid communication have great political implication for leaders can speak to people all over the country.
Describe the effects of migration.
The Effects of Migration can be classified into two namely:-
- Positive effects.
- Negative effects.
1. Positive effects of Migration :
- Migration controls the high density of population.
- It helps the people to get employment.
- It reduces the problem of scarcity of Labour.
- Migration leads to the change in the demographic structure of a region.
- It helps to reduce the inequality of the society.
2. Negative effects of Migration :
- It affects on density and distribution of population.
- Large-scale migration from rural to urban centres results in creation of slums.
- It also leads to many social problems such as debauchery and immoral activities.
- Their will be pressure on civic amenties, like electricity etc.
- Migration causes ethnics, religious and language problems.
- It will effects on the job opportunities of local people.
Explain the effects of rapid growth of population in India.
The Rapid growth of population has led to a number of problems as follows:- ‘
- Unemployment and Underemployment : It has been increasing from year to year. It has badly affected on young educated people both in rural and urban areas.
- Shortage of food & -Malnutrition : A large number of people are poorly fed. Malnutrition is prevailing throughout the country. It is fatal for the development of the country.
- Burden on Civic & Social Amenities : Education, health and medical, housing, drinking water, electricity and problems increases.
- Low per capita income : The increase in per capita income is only 15% annually. Low per capita income has a direct impact on the economic condition of the people.
- Increase of Unproductive population : Below 15 years (Infants) and above 60 years (old age) are unproductive. They are dependent on earning persons. Thus rapid growth has increased dependents rather than producers. ‘
- Others : Slow in economic development, mass poverty, low standard of living, political unrest and the social problems like theft robbery, immortality, corruption and the growth of slums, environment pollution are also directly related to the popualtion explosion.
Discuss the importance of land capability.
- Land capability is the ability of a piece of land to provide sustainable support for a specific land use.
- Land capability is based on the understanding that every components of land has its own particular capacity to provide ecosystem services.
- Land capability assessment enables the reconciliation of production and protection.
- Land capability does not include social or economic components. It focuses entirely on requirements for sustainability of the ecosystem. There is the requirement to overlay this with the social and economic constraints. Thus we have land suitability assessment.
- Land capability is the inherent physical capacity of the land to sustain a range of land uses and management practices in long term without degradation to soil, air and water resources. .
- If land is used beyond its capacity, degradation is the consequence, which leads to a decline in natural ecosystem values, agricultural productivity and infrastructure functionality.
What is the meaning of irrigation and explain the need of irrigation in India.
It is an artificial means of watering the crops or an art of supplying water to the crops.
Need for Irrigation : Distribution of water resources are highly varied. While some areas are dry some are wet and humid in such circumstances, we have to arrange water for crops through artificial means for fulfilling their needs. Thus, irrigation becomes necessary on account of following reasons.
- Nature of rainfall Due to irregular, uncertain and limited rainfall scarcity of water is caused so, need for irrigation arises.
- Nature of soil There is greater need of irrigation in sandy soil.
- Probability of DroughtAt places of droughts irrigation is essential.
- Need of Irrigation in dry areas In dry areas, where rainfall is less than 40 to 50 cm per year, the need arises for irrigation.
- More need of w;ater for special crops like rice, jute, sugar cane etc.
- More need of water to improve new and high yielding varieties of seeds for higher productivity.
- Water is essential to develop pastures for cattle and dairy development.
- Population of India is Multiplying fast, and it needs additional food production. This can be possible only through irrigation.
Explain the chief advantages of plant tissue culture.
The chief advantages of plant tissue culture arc as follows:
- Rapid multiplication, means thousands of plants can be produced within a year starting
from a single explant.
- Freedom from pests and pathogens. It refers to the production of disease free plants & production of disease & pest-resistant plants.
- Economy of space & resources, that thousands of plants can be raised in a few square meters of laboratory space.
- Round the year multiplication as per demand.
- Easy transport due to miniaturization.
- Selective multiplication of desired plants.
Give an account of the distribution and production of sugarcane in India.
Distribution of sugarcane in India : The distribution of sugarcane cultivation in India is uneven. Sugarcane is grown in almost in all the stats of the country. But it is mainly concentrated in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, TamilNadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Haryana & Uttaranchal.
1. Uttar Pradesh : Uttar Pradesh occupies first place both in terms of production & area under sugarcane in the country.
- The largest concentration is upper Ganga-Yamuna doab & Rohilkhand areas which together produce about 70% of the sugarcane produced in the state.
- Its share is about 36.02% under total production.
2. Maharashtra : Maharashtra is in second place both in area & production of sugarcane in the country.
- The production of sugarcane comes from Kolhapur, Pune, Ahmednagar, Nasik.
- Its share is about 22.89% under total production.
3. TamilNadu : TamilNadu is the third largest producer of sugarcane in India.
- It has highest yield per hectare in India.
- Arcot, Periyar, Salem, Tiruchirapalli & Coimbatore are the important sugarcane growing districts.
- Its share is about 10.98% under total production.
4. Karnataka: Karnataka is fourth largest sugarcane producing state in India.
- Most of the Sugarcane is grown with the help of irrigation.
- Belgaum, Mysore, Mandhva, Bijapur, Shimoga & Chitradurga arc the important sugarcane producing districts.
- Its share is about 10.85% under total production
5. Andhra Pradesh : Andhra Pradesh is in fifth place of sugarcane production in India.
- West & East Godavari. Vishakapatnam & Nellore are the important sugarcane producing districts.
- Its share is about 4.68% of total production.
6. Others : Gujarat, Bihar, Haryana, etc
- India is second largest produces of Sugarcane next to Brazil. –
- The total cultivated area under sugarcane was reported as 5.09 million hectares in 2011-12.
Explain the development of railways in India?
- The first railway line in India was from Bombay (V.T) to Thane, a distance of 34 km, opened on 16th April, 1853.
- It was followed by a railway line in 1856, from Madras to Arkonam (70 km).
- A Railway line in 1874 from Kolkata to Raniganj (180 km).
- Then gradually railway lines were constructed to link different parts of the country.
- At the time of Independence, the length of the railway line was 54,96 km.
- During post-Independence period, because of the Five year plans, the Indian railway has recorded spectacular progress.
- There were 43 steam, 4,963 diesel and 3585 electric locomotives 55,065 coaches 2,11,763 wagons.
- The trains moved everyday through more than 7,030 stations.
- On an average they carried 17 million passengers and 2.8 million lakh tones of freight every day.
- At present all the rail operations in India are managed by Ministry of Indian railways.
- The country’s railways is about 64,460 km of length which is fourth largest railway network in the world and first in Asia.
- It has transported 7651 million passengers and 921 million tonnes of frieght annually.
- The Network operates 28 states and 3 union territories.
What do you mean by the term ‘Planning’? which are the two approaches to planning? Explain each of them.
Planning is the process by which an individual or organization decides in advance on some future course of action.
It involves the proces of thinking, formulation of a scheme or programme and implementation of a set of actions to achieve some goal.
There are two approaches to planning, sectorial planning and regional planning.
- The sectoral planning means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or programmes aimed at Development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure and services.
- Some areas are more developed and some lag behind.
- This uneven pattern of developed over space necessitates that the Planners should have spatial perspective and draws the plans to reduce regional imbalance in development
This type of Planning is termed as regional planning.
Section – D
IV. Answer any One of the following: ( 10 × 1 = 10 )
Give reason why sugar industry of India is moving Southwards?
In the recent years, there is remarkable change in the development of sugar industry. The sugar industry has developed more in the southern states, namely Maharashtra, TamilNadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. It is described as the geographical redistribution of sugar
The geographical shift is due to :
- The Southern states located in the tropical region are highly suitable for sugarcane cultivation.
- The yeild of sugarcane in these states is much higher than the Northern states.
- Extension of irrigation in the southern states has brought large tracts under sugarcane cultivation. It has favoured the establishment of many sugar industries.
- Being located in the tropical region, sugarcane ripening period and crushing period.
- Supply of hydro-electricity, transport and market facilities.
Give an account of thermal and nuclear energy of India.
Nuclear Energy :
- The energy generated from the fission of the atomic minerals such as Uranium, Thorium, Plutonium is called ‘Nuclear Energy’. It has played an important role in the power development of India.
- The demand for energy has been increased with the increase of population in the country.
- The country has power crises as the production is insufficient to meet the requirement.
- To meet energy needs of the country nuclear power programme was formulated.
- The first nuclear power plant was started in 1969 at Tarapur near Mumbai with U.S.A assistance. Now there are 7 nuclear power stations in India.
Thermal Energy :
- The Energy generated by using fossil fuels like Coal, Petroleum and Natural gas ia called thermal energy. It can be produced even from Nuclear fission and wood.
- It has certain advantages as against hydro-electricity. The initial capital involved in the construction of thermal plant is low and time requirement is short.
- The disavantages of thermal electricity are low efficiency in terms of heating value and higher operation cost.
Section – E
V. Answer any TWO of the following. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )
Construct a pie diagram using the following data.
India : Area under selected kharif crops [in lakh heetare]
(a) Construct a double line graph by using following data Karnataka: district wise decade growth rate of population [in percentage]
(b) Construct a double bar graph by using the following Karnataka: Selected district wise density of population data [per sq km]
Answer any two of the following: ( 10 x 2 = 20 )
(a) Explain the secondary sources of data.
Meaning – The data those have been collected and analyzed already by some departments, organizations, NGO’s etc … are called Secondary data.
Types of Secondary sources of data
1. Published sources – There are 5 types
- International publications: In this publications-year books, monographs and reports are published by different agencies of the united nations.
- Government publication: These publications comprise the census of India published by office of the register general of India.
- Semi Government publication : In this category the publications and reports of corporations, boards, urban development authorities etc …
- Private publication : The research reports, surveys, year-books and monographs are published.
- Newspapers and Periodicals : The daily news papers and periodicals or magazines are easily accessible.
2. Unpublished sources – There are 3 types.
- Government Documents : The reportš, papers, findings, monographs and documents are prepared and maintained as unpublished records at different levels of Government.
- Government Records : The corporations, boards, district councils and civil departments prepare and maintain the periodical reports and the development plans.
- Private Documents : The companies, trade unions, different political and non-political organizations and resident welfare associations arc having unpublished reports and records.
(b) Explain the functions of GIS.
- Capture data : Geographical data can be collected/captured from various sources like hard copy, map through tophosheet, digital data, through GPS, Secondary data through published tables.
- Storing data : Geographical data once captured, it needs to transform from Analogy into digital format and to be stored in computer for further analysis.
- Query : Once you have a functional GIS containing your geographical information, you can begin to ask a simple questions.
- Analysis : There are 3 types
- Proximity Analysis : Proximity queries find features with in a certain distance of other features.
- Overlay Analysis : It is simplest, this could be a visual operation, but analytical operations require One or more data layers to be joined physically.
- Network Analysis : Anetwork is a set of edges and junctions that are Topologically connected to each other.
- Display : Once analysis is done maps, diagrams, graphs and tables are to be designed and same has to be displayed over computer moniter.
- Output: This is final, stage of GIS function where in the maps, data tables etc…. can be printed to have hard copy as output.
(c) Explain the elements of remote sensing.
- Energy source of Illumination (A) – The first requirement for remote sensing is to have an energy source which illuminates or provides electromagnetic energy to acquire information of the earth’s surface.
- Radiation and the Atmosphere (B) – As the energy travels from its source to the target, it will come in contact with and interact with the atmosphere it passes through. 3.,Interaction with the Target (C) – Once the energy makes its way to the target through the atmosphere.
- Recording of energy by the sensor (D) – After the energy has been scattered by, or emitted from the target we require a sensor to collect and record the electromangnetic radation.
- Transmission, Reception and Processing (E) – The energy recorded by the sensor has to be transmitted, often in electronic form, to a receiving and processing station where the data are processed into an image.
- Interpretation and Analysis (F) – The processed image is interpreted, visually/or digitally or electronically, to extract information about the target which was illuminated.
- Application (G) – The final elements of the remote sensing process is acheived when we apply the information to better understand it and solve a particular problem.