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Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper March 2015
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)
Who is the founder of population Geography?
G.T. Trewartha is the founder of population Geography.
What is meant by Animal Rearing?
Domestication of animals for a specific purpose such as milk, meat, bones, skins, hair and wool is known as Animal Rearing.
“Indian Space Research Organisation”.
What is a city?
It is a Urban center with 1 lakh and more population and larger than the town is called a city.
Which State has the highest sex ratio?
Kerala has highest sex ratio.
Across which river is Bhakra-Nangal dam constructed?
Which State is popular for the production of Basumati rice in India?
Punjab state is popular for the production of Basmati Rice.
Which mineral is called “Black Diamond”?
Coal is called “Black Diamond”.
What is industrial region?
The region which has large concentration of different types of industries is known as industrial region.
What do you mean by communication?
Communication refers to exchange of ideas, messages, information from one person to another person.
II. Answer any ten questions in 2 to 3 sentences each:
Mention the different techniques of mining.
- Open cast mining.
- Underground mining.
Bring out the importance of secondary occupation.
- They provide employment to the people.
- They help to modernize the agricultural sector by providing tractors, fertilizers, manures and scientific technology.
Give two examples of educational towns.
What is population density?
The total number of population per square kilometer area is known as density of population.
Name the varieties of wheat in India.
- Bread wheat
- Macaroni wheat
- Emmer wheat
- Indian dwarf wheat
Mention the types of Iron ore.
What are the purposes of solar energy?
- Thermal solar power
- Solar photovoltaic
Name the places where software technology parks are located in Karnataka.
Mention the 3 important railway gauges.
Mention the advantages of radio.
- Radio reaches both to the literate and illiterate as well as to people of all ages.
- It creates .awareness among the people about the world.
- It provides educative value.
- The production costs are lower.
What are the causes of water pollution?
- Sewage disposal.
- Urban run-off
- Toxic effluents from industries.
- Run-off over cultivated lands and nuclear power plants.
Mention two sources of solid wastes.
- Household or Domestic Establishment.
- Industrial or Commercial Establishment.
III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 25 to 30 sentences each: (5 × 8 = 40)
Describe the branches of human geography.
1. Economic Geography: It deals with the study of influence of Geographical factors on the economic activities man like agriculture, industries, transport etc.
2. Political Geography: It deals with the influences of geographical environment on political aspects such as states nations & boundaries etc.
3. Urban Geography: the study of urban location, development, morphology interaction and movement of urban population.
4. Cultural and Social Geography: It helps us to study the cultural evolution, distribution, age, structure and social life of the world.
5. Population Geography: It deals with geographical environment on population growth, density, distribution & migration etc.
6. Settlement Geography: The study of location of settlements, distribution, density, form, function & morphologes.
Discuss the measurement of human development.
Meaning of Human development:
Human development is “development that enlarges people’s choice and improves their lives”. Standard of living & where people can live meaningful lives. Such as healthy, able to develop their talent, Participate in the activities of society etc.
Measurements of Human Development:
Human development is measured with
1. The Human development Index.
2. The Human poverty Index.
1. The Human development index: It is measured in three dimensions.
- Health: Good health results of higher life expectancy means the people have a greater chance of living longer and health.
- Education: Based on the literacy rate development and status of a persons decides.
- Decent standard of living: It is measured in terms of purchasing power (in US dollars).
2. The Human poverty index: It measures the short fall in human development in following indices.
- The probability of not surviving till the age of 40.
- The adult illiteracy rate.
- The number of people who are not able drink pure water.
- The number of small children who are under weight.
Explain the effects of over population.
Effects of over population:
- Increased levels of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and noise pollution.
- Deforestation and loss of ecosystem.
- Increasing temperature in the atmosphere which results of Global Warming.
- Starvation, Malnutrition.
- Unhygienic living condition for many due to water scarcity, discharge of sewage water & solid waste disposal.
- Depletion of natural resources.
- Political instability.
- Increasing of unemployment.
- Lack of civic amentities (Food, Clothing & Shelter).
Measurements to Control the population:
- Adoption and Propoganda of Family planning methods.
- Practice of celibacy.
- Self control.
- Remaining unmarried.
- Improving women’s status and health.
- Provide education.
- Increasing the food production
Explain the significance of transportation.
- Transport is a service to facilitate the movements of goods and persons from one place to other by humans, animals and different, kinds of vehicles.
- Transport network is essential for economic development and commerce it helps agriculture, industry, forestry, mining, fishing, animal husbandary etc.
- To carry the raw materials from their source to the industries and the finished goods from industry’ to market.
- It also helps in the promotion of trade. Economic development of a nation.
- Requires the quick and efficient transportation.
- It is also required to establish tourism, conservation of culture and tradition as well as integration of a country.
- Thus The Agriculture and Industry are the body and bones of the nation, transport and communication are the nervous system. Transport also help in unifying the scattered people of the globe.
Discuss the composition of population in India.
The Composition of population includes the study of Sex ratio, Literacy, age structure rural and urban population etc.
1. Sex ratio – The number of females per 1000 males is known as ‘sex ratio’.
- As per 2011 census,the averages sex ratio of the country was 940 females for every 1000 males.
- There are 1084 females for every 1000 male in Kerala. In Contrast, Haryana has 877 females for every 1000 males
2. Literacy – In recent years, literacy rate has increased in the country. The average literacy in 1951 was only 18.33%. It has increased to (74.4%) in 2011. Kerala with 93.91%isthehighestliteracystateinlndia. In Contrast, Biharwith 63.82% is the lowest literacy state.
3. Age structure – On the basis of the age the entire population is divided into three major categories namely infants (0-14 year). Adults (15-59 years) and aged group (above 60 years).
- According to 2011 census, about 31.10% of the total population of the country is infants, 5.3% are old age and adults are only 63.60%.
- Infants and aged people have become unproductive.
- Thus, the number of working population is also increasing. It is highly favourable for the development of the country.
4. Rural & Urban population: According to 2011 census, in India 76.4% of the people
lives in rural areas and 23.6 lives in Urban areas.
- Maharashtra has highest urban population.
- In Contrast, Sikkim has lowest urban population. Thus, Uttar Pradesh has more rural population and Mizoram has low rural population in the country.
Explain the types of Migration.
1. Internal Migration :
Movement of people from one region to another within the same country’ is called internal migration. In India there are four streams of internal migration. They are
(a) Rural to Rural
(b) Rural to urban
(c) Urban to Urban
(d) Urban to Rural.
(a) Rural to Rural: This is estimated that about 65.2% of total migration is of this category’.
- Female migrants dominated in this stream. Thus it is an important example for matrimonal migration and it is called women migration.
(b) Rural to Urban: Rural to Urban migration (17.6%) is second important type of migration. Rural-Urban migration is caused by both push of the rural areas as well as pull of the urban areas.
(c) Urban to Urban: Generally, people like to move from small town with less facility to large cities with more facilities.
(d) Urban to Rural: Urban areas are usually affected by the pollution.
- The retired and aged people prefer to spend their old age life in nearby villages. Thus people move from Urban to Rural.
2. International Migration: Movement of people from one country to another across international borders is called International migration.
Explain the main objectives and importance of Bhakra-Nangal project.
1. The Bhakra – Nangal Project is a joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. It has been named after the two dams constructed at Bhakra and Nangal on the Sutlej river in Himachal Pradesh.
2. Flood control, irrigation facilities, hydel power generation, promote afforestation.
3. The main objectives of the project are :
1. Flood control
2. Irrigation facilities
3. Hydel power generation
4. Promote afforestation
5. Soil Conservation etc.
- The Bhakra dam is constructed across the Sutlej river at Bhakra in Himachal Pradesh.
- It is 518 meters long & 226 meters high.
- The Reservoir created by the Bhakra-dam covers an area of 173.8 Kms and has a gross storage capacity of 9,867 million cubic meters. This reservoir is called the ‘Govindsagar’.
- The canals have a total length of about 1104 kms, & their length of their distributaries is 3,360 kms.
- They provide irrigation to 27.4 Lakh hectares of land-in Haryana, Rajasthan and some parts of Punjab.
- The Nangal dam is constructed across the Sutlej river at Nangal, 13kms below the Bhakra dam.
- It is 305 meters long and 29 meters high.
- The Nangal canal irrigates 26.4 lakh hectares of land in Haryana and 50.2 lakh hectares of land in Punjab.
- This project plays an important role on Agriculture in the North Western part of India by providing irrigation where rainfall is scanty.
Discuss about the Rainwater harvesting.
1. Controlling the runoff of rain water and make it to perculate to increase ground water table for future purpose.
2. It involves collection and storage of rainwater at surface or in sub-surface aquifier, before it is lost as surface runoff. It not only increases water availability but also checks the declining water table.
Objectives: The following are the main objectives of rain water harvesting.
- It checks runoff water & avoid flooding.
- It replenishes the ground water table and enables the wells.
- It helps to overcome the adequancy of surface water to meet demand of water.
- If the ground water is blackish, it will reduce the salinity.
- It also reduces ground water contamination and improve water quality.
- It helps to increase agricultural product and improves ecology of an area.
Methods of Rain Water Harvesting :
1. In-situ method The method of percolating the rain at the point of its fall itself is called In-situ rainwater harvesting.
For example –
- Infilteration pits: The rain water can be collected and stored in pits, dug in farm lands and used for irrigation.
- Contour bunds and trenches: The Construction of bunds, trenches or check dams.
- Roof top water harvesting: The Rain water that falls on the roofs of buildings or in courtyards is collected and stored in underground. Sumps, or wells or in drums and used for domestic purpose such as cleaning, washing etc.
2. Ex-situ method: This method of rainwater harvesting involves storing of running water. It is collected in check dams, huge percolation tanks etc. It is an expensive method.
Given an account on floriculture in India.
- Cultivation of different types of flowers for commercial purpose is known as ‘Floriculture’.
- Floriculture has blossomed into a profitable business only in recent years.
- India’s agro climatic conditions are very suitable for the cultivation of high quality flowers.
- Floriculture has plays a significant role in India for following reasons :
- It has a capacity to elevate income of the farmers.
- It engages even the women in this farming and eradicates unemployement to rural people.
- It supports to the export of the country.
- Considering the potentiality of this sector produces an income & employment opportunities, floriculture has been taken up by the Government of India.
- India has been known for growing traditional flowers such as Jasmine, Mari gold, Chrysanthemum, Tuberose, Crossandra & Aster. Commercial cultivation of cut flowers like roses, orchids, gladious, carnation, gerbera, lilum & anthyrium has become popular in recent years.
- In India the state of Andhra Pradesh has the maximum area under floriculture & followed by TamilNadu, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Haryana & West Bengal.
Give an account of the production and distribution of rice in India.
Rice Cultivation is widely distributed in India. Its cultivation is concentrated in River valleys, deltas, flood plains, low lying coastal areas of North-Eastern & Southern India etc are important rice growing areas.
1. West Bengal: West Bengal is the largest producer of rice in India.
- About three fourth of the Total state’s cropped area is under the rice cultivation.
- Rice is growing in three seasons. They are called in different names.
- Aman and
- Boro, Medinipur, Bardhaman 24 parganas, Bankura & Cochbehar are important rice producing districts in the state West Bengal producer 14.2% under total production of Rice in India.
2. Uttar Pradesh : This is second largest producer of rice in India.
- The rice cultivated area is concentrated in Gorakhpur, Basti, Varanasi, Allahabad, Shaharanpur, Azamgarh & Shajahanpur etc are important districts & major rice growing areas.
- Uttar Pradesh produces 13.44% of Rice under total production of Rice in India.
3: Andhra Pradesh : It is the third largest producer of rice in India.
- The delta of Godavari-Krishna & coastal plains are suitable for rice cultivation in the state.
- It contributes 12.3 5 % of Rice under total production of rice in India.
4. Punjab : Punjab is the fourth largest producer of rice in India.
- Amritsar, Patiala, Ropar, Firozepur districts are the major produces of rice in Punjab. Its share 10.11% under total production of Rice in India.
5. Bihar : Bihar is fifth leading producer of rice in India.
- Gaya, Rohtas, Bhajpur, Darbhanga, Champaran, Purenea, Bhagalpur & Patna districts.
- It produces 6.90% under total output of rice in India.
6. TamilNadu: It is the sixth largest producer of rice in India.
- Tirunelveli, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Madhurai, Coimbatore.
- Its production is 6.61 % under total production of total Rice in India.
7. Chattisgarh : It is the important producer of rice in country.
- Bastar, Bilaspur, Duig, Saiguja, Raipur, Raigarh& Janjgir are the main rice producing districts;
- Its production is 5.78% under total production of Rice in India.
8. Karnataka : Karnataka has rapid progress in rice cultivation during last few years. The important rice producing districts are Raichur, Davangere, Mysore, Bellary, Shimoga, Mandhya & Koppal.
- Its production is 3.87% under total production of Rice.
Production of rice : India is the second largest producer of rice in the world next to the China. It produceses 104.3 million tonnes of rice during 2011-12, it accounts for 22% of the worlds production. Now India is self sufficient in rice production.
Explain any two major ports of west coast in India.
The major ports located in the west coast of India are (a) Kandla (b) Mumbai.
(a) Kandla : It is a tidal port located at Eastern end of Gulf of Kachchh (Gujarat).
- It has a natural harbour and has a vast hinterland, rich in agriculture and animal husbandary.
- Its main exports consists of leather, petroleum products, chemicals, salt, cement, cotton and silk textiles and edible oils.
- The imports include crude oil, potash, fertilizers, machines and synthetic rubber.
(b) Mumbai: Mumbai is the biggest, most spacious, natural, well shelter, and capital of the Maharashtra state.
- The port is situated towards the eastern side of Mumbai island which runs in a north-east to south-east direction.
- The length of this port is 20kms and width is 6-10 kms.
- There are 54 berths in its wet dock. This port has become India’s largest oil terminal.
- It has rich hinterland.
- Important items of imports are foodgrains, crude oil, machinery, chemicals, fertilizers and transport equipment
- The main items of exports are cotton textiles oilseeds, hides and skin, iron and manganese ore.
Mention the processes that induce land degradation in India.
- The land serves as storage of water and materials for plants and other living micro macro organisms.
- Pressure on agricultural land increases not only due to the limited availability but also by deterioration of quality of agriculture land due to soil erosion, water logging, salinisation and alkalisation which is called degradation.
- The land degradation ultimately affect on agricultural productivity.
- In addition to degradation by natural process such as gullied or ravenous land deserted or coastal sands, barren rocky area land degradation is caused by man.
- These have caused water logged and marshy areas, land affected by salinity and alkalinity.
- Degraded shifting cultivation area and under plantation crops, degraded forests, degraded pastures and mining and industrial waste lands.
IV. Answer any one of the following: (1 × 10 = 10)
Describe the non-conventional energy resources in India.
The Power resources other than the traditional fossil and Mineral sources are known as ‘Non Conventional Power Resources’. They include Solar energy, Wind energy, Bio-gas, Sea waves, Biomass and geo-thermal etc. These reasources are inexhaustible and renewable in nature.
- These Power resources are found in abudance, pollution free, eco-friendly and not harm to the eco-system.
- They can be very conveniently supplied to urban as well as rural areas.
- In India conventional power resources are inadequate. Recently the rate of energy consumption has been increased.
- Hence there is urgent need to harness other alternative power resources.
- Top priority has been given for the development of non-conventional power resources.
- They are capable of solving the requirements. Such as supply of energy in decentralized manner and have sustainable environment.
- Thus the development of the these power resources is very essential.
Give an account of Iron and Steel Industry in India.
- The Iron and Steel industry is described as a basic Industry.
- Iron and Steel supplied by this industry such as machineries, irrigation projects, ship build¬ing, power projects, construction of bridges, buildings, transport equipment, machine tools and so on.
- The Production and Consumption of Iron and Steel is an index level of the economic develpoment of a country.
There are nine major Iron and Steel industries in India.
1. Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO), Jamshedpur :- It was established in 1907. It was the first largest steel plant of the country.
2. Vishveswariah Iron and Steel Co. Ltd (VISL) Bhadravathi 11 was first estab¬lished in 1923 by the princely state of Mysore located at Bhadravathi in Shimoga district of Karnataka.
3. India Iron and Steel Company Ltd (IISCO) Bunpur:- It was established in 1919 at Bumpur in West Bengal. It was the second largest integrated steel plant after Tata Iron and Steel Ltd.
4. Hindustan Steel Company Ltd, Rourkela :- It was completed with the German collaboration. The steel plant was commissioned in 1955.
5. Bhilai Steel Plant:- It has the largest steel production plant of the public sector. It is located at Bilai near Raipur in Chhatisgarh.
6. Durgapur Steel Plant:- The steel plant in Durgapur in West Bengal was established with British collaboration and was commissioned in 1956.
7. Salem Steel Plant:- It is located at Salem in TamilNadu and the production was started from 1982.
8. Vishakapatnam Steel Plant:- Established by National Ispat Nigam Ltd in Andhra Pradesh.
9. New Steel Plants Some private sectors plants are.
- Jindal Vijaynagar Steel Ltd (JVSL) This steel plant is located at Tomagal, Bellary district in Karnataka.
- Essar Steel Ltd (ESL) It is situated at Hazira in Gujarat.
- Ispat Insutries Ltd (IIL) It is situated at Dovi, Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra.
- Neelachal Ispat Nigam Ltd (NINL)It is a new steel plant located at Dubai, Odisha.
- Mini Steel Plants Presently, 199 licensed electric ore furnace units with an installed capacity of 7.8 million tonnes have been commissioned and hence started commercial production.
V. Answer any two of the following: (2 × 10 = 20)
Construct a Pie-Diagram by using data given in the table.
India: Source of Irrigation – 2011
|Sources||% of Irrigation|
Construct a Line-graph by using in following data
Karnataka: Selected District-Wise population (in Lakh ) – 2011
|District||Population (in Lakh)|
Construct a single Bar-Graph by using the following data:
Karnataka: Decade-wise sex ratio (per 1000 Male)
Blind students only
Answer any two of the following questions: (2 × 10 = 20)
(a) Explain the sources of Data.
(b) Explain the functions of G1S.
(c) Explain the functions of GPS.
(a) Meaning – The data which are collected for the first time by a researcher or groups of researchers, institution or organizations are called Primary sources of data.
Types of Primary data collection:-
1. Through Personal interview: Personal interviews are the most commonly used method of collecting data, because the interviewer has the opportunity of explaing the study and answering any question, here the researcher gets direct information from the respondents.
2. By Personal observations: It refers to the collection of data or information by individual or group of individuals, through direct observations in the field.
3. By Questionnaire : The most common method used in surverys is the Questionnaire. In this method, simple questions and their possible answers are written on a plain paper, and the respondents have to tick mark the possible answers from given choices.
4. Others methods :
- Telephone interview : In this method, the researcher/interviewer can collect the information over the telephone.
- Measuring properties : In this method, the data about properties of soil, and water collected directly from the field by measuring their characteristics using soil and water quality kit.
Meaning – The data those have been collected and analyzed already by some departments, organizations, NGO’s etc… are called Secondary data.
Types of Secondary sources of data
1. Published sources – There are 5 types
- International publications: In this publications-year books, monographs and reports are published by different agencies of the united nations.
- Government publication: These publications comprise the census of India published by office of the register general of India.
- Smi Government publication : In this category the publications and reports of corporations, boards, urban development authorities etc …
- Private publication : The research reports, surveys, year-books and monographs are published.
- Newspapers and Periodicals : The daily news papers and periodicals or magazines are easily accessible.
2. Unpublished sources – There are 3 types.
- Government Documents : The reports, papers, findings, monographs and documents are prepared a$d maintained as unpublished records at different levels of Government.
- Government Records : The corporations, boards, district councils and civil departments prepare and maintain the periodical reports and the development plAnswer:
- Private Documents : The companies, trade unions, different political and non-political organizations and resident welfare associations are having unpublished reports and records.
(b) 1. Capture data: Geographical data can be collected/captured from various sources like hard copy, map through tophosheet, digital data, through GPS, Secondary data through published tables.
2. Storing data: Geographical data once captured, it needs to transform from Analogy into digital format and to be stored in computer for further analysis.
3. Query: Once you have a functional GIS containing your geographical information, you can begin to ask a simple questions.
4. Analysis : There are 3 types
- Proximity Analysis : Proximity queries find features with in a certain distance of other features.
- Overlay Analysis : It is simplest, this could be a visual operation, but analytical operations require One or more data layers to be joined physically.
- Network Analysis : Anetwork is a set of edges and junctions that are Topologically connected to each other.
5. Display: Once analysis is done maps, diagrams, graphs and tables are to be designed and same has to be displayed over computer moniter.
6. Output: This is final, stage of GIS function where in the maps, data tables etc…. can be printed to have hard copy as output.
(c) There are three segments of GPS:-
1. The space segments: The satellites of GPS are launched and positioned at an altitude of approximately 20200 km which is almost more than three times of the earth’s radius. The space segment consists of a constellation of 24 functioning GPs satellites located in 6 orbital plane with 4 satellites in each orbital plane. The time for the satellite to complete one revolution around the earth is 11 hrs and 58 minutes.
2. The control segment: The control segment consists of facilities necessary for satellites especially healthy monitoring, telemetry, tracking command and control clock error ‘ computation .of satellites. There are 5 GPS stations spread over the earths surface they arc
- Colorado spring
- Ascension Island
- Diego Garcia
3. The user segment: It is a total user and supplier community, both civilian and military. The user segment consists of all earth – based GPS receivers. Receivers very greatly in size and complexity, through the basic design in rather simple. The space and control segments are largely transparent to the operations of navigation functions.
1. Navigation: In navigation, by using GPS can save countless hours in the field. Any feature, even if it is under water, can be located upto one hundred meters simply by scaling coordinates from a map, entering way points & going directly to site.
2. Remote sensing and GIS : GPS positioning can be intergrated into remote – sensing methods such, as Photogrammetry and aerial scanning, magnetometry, and video technology using DGPs techniques.
3. Surveying/Mapping: The high precision of GPS’ carries phase measurements, together with appropriate adjustment algorithum, provides an adequate tool for a variety of tasks for surveying and mapping.
4. Geodesey: Geodetic mapping and other control surveys can be carried out effectively using high grade GPs equipment.
5. Military: The GPs was Primarily developed for real time military positioning. Military applications include airbone, marine and land navigation.