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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 4 with Answers
Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
Which is the famous work of Pliny?
‘Natural Historia’ was the famous work of Pliny.
Which was the first metal used by the man in South India?
Iron was the first metal used by humans in South India.
What was considered as wealth by the Aryans?
Cattle (cow) was considered as wealth by the Aryans.
Who was the greatest king of Kushanas?
Kanishka was the greatest king of Kushanas.
Who was the founder of Slave dynasty?
Qutub-Uddin-Aibak was the founder of the Slave dynasty.
Name the religion propagated by Akbar.
Din-e-Ilahi was the new religion propagated by Akbar.
Which is the Holy book of Sikhism?
Gurugrant Sahib or Adigrantha is the holy book of Sikhism.
Which was the capital of the French in India?
Pondicherry was the capital of the French in India.
In which year did the first war of Indian Independence occur?
In 1857 C.E., the first war of Indian Independence took place.
Which was the famous work of Alur Venkata Rao?
Karnataka da Gatavaibhava was the work of Alur Venkata Rao.
PART – B
II. Answer any TEN of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
Name any two Physical features of India.
- The Himalayan Mountains
- Northern Plain
- The Deccan Plateau
- The Coastal regions
- The Thar desert are the physical features of India.
What is the meaning of the word ‘Neolithic’?
The word Neolithic is derived from the Greek word ‘neo’ means which New’, and ‘Lithic’ which means ‘stone” meaning ‘New Stone’ age.
Name any two Vedas.
The four Vedas are,
- Rig Veda
- Yajur Veda
- Sama Veda
- Atharvana Veda.
Name any two places where Ashokan inscriptions have been found in Karnataka.
Ashokan inscriptions have been found at Maski, Gavimatha, Palkigonda, Brahmagiri, Siddapura, Jatingarameshwara, Nittur, Udayagollam and Sannathi in Karnataka.
Name any two famous works of the Sangam age.
The famous works of the Sangam age are Tirukkural, Silappadigaram, and Manimekhalai.
Name any two famous Historians of Akbar’s period.
Abul Fazal and Badauni were the famous historians of Akbar’s period.
Which were the two important taxes collected by Shivaji.
Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were the two taxes collected by Shivaji.
Name any two Mathas established by Madhwacharya.
Madhwacharya established 8 mathas in Udupi. They are
- Sodey matha
- Sirur matha
- Kaniyur matha
- Pejawar matha
- Palimaru matha
- Adamaru matha
- Krishnapura matha
- Puttige matha.
Between whom was the Battle of Plassey fought?
The battle of Plassey was fought between Siraj ud aulah the Nawab of Bengal and Robert Clive (British) in 1757.
Write any two causes for the failure of the First War of Indian Independence.
Causes for the failure of the first war of Indian independence were the following.
1. There was no common aim among the rebels, Lack of unity, Lack of Leadership, Lack of arms, lack of proper organization, etc.
2. The British fully utilisyed the scientific developments like modern weapons, telegraphs, railways, postal, etc., to collect information quicker than the Indian soldiers and were ready and prepared to take proper action.
Name any two land Revenue systems introduced by the British in India.
Permanent land revenue settlement (Zamindari), Ryotwari and Mahalwar systems were the land revenue systems introduced by the British in India.
Name any two members of the J.V.P. Committee.
Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallababhai Patel, and Pattabhi Sitharamaiah were the members of the J.V.P Committee.
PART – C
III. Answer any Six of the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each: (6 × 5 = 30)
‘Unity in Diversity is the unique feature of Indian History’. Explain.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sq.km) with different cLimatic conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country. India is a land where we sec unity in diversity. Diversities :
1. Geographical diversity:
India possesses diverse geographical features. The Himalayan region has a cold climate, the Indo-Gangetic plain has a temperate climate and the Deccan plateau has a tropical climate. The hot desert of Rajasthan, coastlines, evergreen forests, heavy (Assam) and low (Rajastan) rainfall areas, etc., have added to the variety of our flora and fauna.
2. Racial and linguistic diversities:
People belonging to different races and ethnic groups like Dravidian, Negroids, Alpines, Mongoloids, etc., inhabited this country. No wonder, India has been described as ‘an ethnological museum’. Linguistic diversity is also another unique feature of India. There are more than 1600 minor dialects and 15 major languages in India.
3. Social and religious diversity :
India is a land of different religions, castes, cults, faiths, customs, racial types, languages, variety of food habits and costumes. It has both patriarchal and matriarchal family systems. Monogamy, polygamy, and polyandry are also practiced. Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism have originated in this land. People belonging to Christianity, Islam, Jewism, Zoroastrianism (Parsees) and the innumerable sub-sects of all these religions, co-exist here with great harmony.
4. Economic and Political diversities :
The political history of India shows a lack of political unity. The whole of India never came under a single administration. Indian resources are also unevenly distributed. On one hand, we find some regions highly prosperous and well developed and on the other hand, certain areas very poor and underdeveloped. The urban parts of India are highly developed and modem compared to the rural sectors.
In spite of all these diversities, there are many unifying factors that have kept India united. Important among them are the following ones:
1. Geographical unity :
India has well-defined boundaries which provide a permanent shape with the Himalayas to the north and oceans below surrounding the southern parts. This has isolated India from the rest of the world and formed a separate geographical unit.
2. Administrative unity:
The administrative system of ancient India was mostly identical and uniform, and followed the set of rules laid down by Chanakya in his ‘ Arthashastra’. The King who brought different parts of the country under his sovereignty came to be called as Chakravarthi. Mouryas, Guptas, Vardhanas, Chalukyas, Moghuls, etc., have all tried unsuccessfully to bring political unity in the country, by expanding their territories and bringing larger areas under a single ruler.
3. Uniformity of education and literature:
Sanskrit, the divine language, Vedic literature including Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Bhagavadgeetha have instilled the feelings of oneness and also added to the unity of India. Knowledge of Sanskrit had enabled persons to move freely across India and exchange their views with people from other parts of the country.
Languages like Pali, Prakriti, Persian, and English also played an important role. A composite culture evolved during Muslim and British rules. Hence, Indians have developed the spirit of tolerance and co-existence.
4. Religious and social ceremonies:
India is a land of various religions, castes, creeds, and sects. People here lead a life of harmony. They participate in the religious and social ceremonies of each other. This has inculcated a feeling of oneness.
5. Recent changes:
Indian constitution and the Government, the present economic and social conditions, the effects of globalization, etc., have reduced the differences further. Global unity transcends the innumerable diversities of race, skin colour, language, dress, customs, and traditions. This again has ushered in unity among the people.
Enumerate briefly the salient features of Indus civilization.
1. Town planning:
Town planning was a unique feature of Indus civilization. Their town planning proves that they lived a highly civilized, urban and developed life. The cities were excellently planned and efficiently constructed. Indus cities were built according to a standard and uniform plan with well-laid streets, construction of houses, drainage systems, Great Bath, granary and other features which is quite amazing in nature.
The streets were broad, running from east to west and north to south. The roads crossed each other at right angles. The main streets were 13 to 34 feet wide. The streets and roads divided the city into rectangular blocks. Street lights and dustbins were also provided on the streets. An elaborate drainage system was maintained.
People of Indus, built houses and other buildings by the side of roads. They built terraced houses and used burnt bricks made of mud and mortar as building materials. In each house, there were the open courtyard, rooms around it, a kitchen and a bathroom.
Every house had two or more storeys. The entrances to the houses were usually inside alleys, and most of the houses had a well. The bathroom was constructed nearest to the street so that the wastewater drain was directly connected to the main drainage through clay pipes. Water supply was excellent. They also built a dockyard at Lothal.
4. Drainage system:
One of the most remarkable features of this civilization was an excellent closed drainage system. Each house had its own soak pit, which was connected to the public drainage. The drainage channels were 9 inches wide to 12 inches deep, The drains were laid well below the street level. The drains were all covered with slabs and had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning and clearing purposes. Thus, Indus, people had perfected the underground drainage system.
5. The Great Bath (Public bath):
The public bath is the most remarkable well to be found at Mohanjodharo. It consists of a large quadrangle. The actual bathing pool measured 39 × 33 feet with a depth of 8 ft. It was surrounded by verandahs with rooms and galleries behind them. On all sides of the pool, there were steps.
Provisions were made to drain off the dirty water from the pool regularly and freshwater was brought in. It speaks volumes about the technical skill, perfection, sense of sanitation and hygiene possessed by the Indus people.
6. The Granary (Warehouse):
The most remarkable and the largest building at Harappa is the great granary. It measures 169 × 135 ft. The one in Mohanjodharo is 150 × 75 feet. Revenue was probably collected in kind and the granary was used to store the grains collected.
7. Dockyard :
Dr. S.R Rao discovered the Lothal dockyard at Cambay in Gujarat. It is a noteworthy structure, which could accommodate several ships at a time. It shows that Indus people earned on external trade through ships. It gives us a good idea of the engineering skill of them.
The whole city was well maintained by the municipal authorities by supplying water, constructing public wells, providing street lights, dustbins and maintaining an excellent drainage system. But there is no information regarding the political organization or nature of Government.
Explain the main features of Hoysala Architecture.
1. Hoysala art and architecture:
Hoysalas occupy a unique place in the Indian architectural history. Hoysalas adapted the Vesara and Dravidian styles and developed a new style of architecture. So, it is nothing but the culmination of the Chalukyan architecture and is called ‘The Hoysala style’ of architecture. The great sculptors who built most of the Hoysala temples were Dasoja, Chavana, Kedaraja, Nagoja, Jakkanna, Mallitamma, Byroja and others.
The main characteristics (Salient features) of the Hoysala temples :
1. Hoysala temples are star-shaped. The temples have a tower (sikhara) above the sanctum (Garbhagriha). This tower is in the form of a pyramid.
2. Hoysala temples are constructed on a, raised platform (jagati) of 4 to 5 feet. The walls of the basement are covered with stone carvings.
3. Just above the platform, space is left all around the temple, to do pradakshana of the temple, which is called Pradhakshinapatha.
4. The temples have carved stone windows with apertures and the walls are covered with ornamental sculptures.
5. The outer walls of the temples have stone carvings, The bottom portion consists of a row of elephants, horses, flower designs, swans, stories from the epics and puranas.
6. The doorways of the temples have beautiful carvings in stone and a pair of dwarapalakas stand on either side.
7. The centre of the ceiling of the hall has intricate carvings of Bhuvaneshwari. Above the pillars, on the brackets stand the statues of dancing girls in different poses.
8. Hoysala temples have been classified as per the number of cells (kutas) e.g., One cell (ekakuta) temples to five cells (panchakuta) temples. The sanctums (Garbhagriha) are small and simple square chambers.
2. Hoysala temple constructions:
Hoysalas built more than 100 temples between the 11th and 13th centuries. Vishnuvardhana period was the ‘Golden age’ of temple building in the Hoysala Kingdom. Vishnuvardhana built, Kirthinarayana temple at Talakadu, Cheluvanarayana temple at Melkote, Channakeshava temple and Kappechenniga temples at Belur, Mallikarjuna and Rangantha temples at Huliyur, Veeranarayana temples at Gadag and Bankapura.
Channakeshava temple (Ekakuta) at Belur is the epitome of the Hoysala style. Ballala-Ill (1173-1220 CE) built AmrutheshWara and Ballaleshwara temples at Arasikere and Kedareshwara temple at Halebeedu. Narasimha-I and his deputy Ketamalla built the Hoysaleshwara (Dwikuta) temple (1121 CE) at Halebeedu.
Narasimha II built the Harihareshwar temple at Harihara, Lakshminarasimha temple at Bhadravati, and Someshwara and Keshava temples at Haradanahalli. Narasimha-III built Keshava temple (Thrikuta) at Somanathapura in 1268 CE., Lakshmi temple (chathuskuta) at Doddagaddavalli and Panchalingeshwara temple (Panchakuta) at Govindanahalli.
The Channkeshava temple (1117CE) built by Vishnuvardhana at Belur, The Hoysaleshwar temple (1121 CE) built by Ketamalla at Halebeedu and the Keshava temple (1268 CE) built by Narasimha – III at Somanathapura are the best examples of the best variety. According to Fergusson the famous historian, Hoysaleshwara temple can be termed as the ‘Jewel of Indian Architecture’.
Why is Mohammad-bin-Jughalak called a ‘Mixture of opposites’?
a. Administrative reforms (experiements) of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak:
In 1325 CE Prince Jaunakhan, son of Ghiyasuddin (founder) ascended the throne- with the title Mohammed-bin-Tughalak. He was an outstanding ruler of the Tughalak dynasty. He is known for his military, economic and administrative experiments.
1. Register of the land revenue:
Main objective of this experiment was to introduce the universal land taxation throughout the Empire. He created an agricultural department to regularise the land revenue registers.
2. Tax increase in Doab area:
The area between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna (doab) was the most fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to increase the taxes for that area only. But, he enforced the new tax at the time of a famine.
People were hard hit by the burden of taxation. Revenue collection was also very strict. When the farmers were, unique to pay, this measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.
3. Transfer of the capital in 1327 CE:
Mahammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objectives were:
a. (Devagiri) occupied a central location in India and it was nearly equidistant (700 miles) from Delhi, Gujarath, Telangana and other places of his Empire.
b. He wanted to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. He beautified Devagiri and made arrangements to provide all basic amenities, but he blundered while implementing his ideas. He transported the whole population of Delhi to his new capital. Ibn Batuta says that even a blind man and a cripple who were unwilling to move, were dragged to the new capital.
Reasons for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad. The tiresome journey passing through dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by decoits, hunger, mental agony, etc resulted in death and sufferings of many.
The Sultan finally realising the folly of this plan, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire episode made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool – Daulatabad was a ‘Monument of misdirected energy’. This scheme failed on account of the Sultan’s faulty method of implementing it.
4. Token currency circulation in 1329 CE:
Mohammed-bin-Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief given to farmers due to the Doab famine, transfer exercise of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver, etc., caused much loss to the treasury.
Hence, to increase the amount of currency, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass tanka whose value was equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as the monopoly of the. Government. Thornes described him as ‘The Prince of Moneyers’ and a currency expert.
The currency experiment was a miserable failure and the causes for its failure were:
1. People could not grasp its real significance
2. Sultan did not take the precautionary measure of minting of coins to be the monopoly of the state. Almost every household turned into a mint and he failed to take precaution against the glut of counterfeit coins.
3. Foreign merchants refused to accept the copper coins, because gold coins were used as a standard unit of exchange.
4. People paid their taxes in their own copper coins and hoarded gold and silver and as a result, treasury was filled with counterfeit coins.
Due to the above causes, trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his folly and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 CE. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. People exchanged their copper coins with gold and silver coins and the treasury became completely depleted.
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. He lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice without any forethought about the consequences.
According to scholars, he was ‘a mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari prasad remarks that ‘Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictions’. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well-meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.
Explain the achievements of Mahmud Gawan.
1. Mahmud Gawan 1463 – 1481 B.C. :
He was the Prime minister of Mohammad Shah-III. He was a fascinating personality. He was born in Persia in 1411 C.E. He was well educated and came to India with the intention of carrying on trade. He visited the court of Alauddin Ahmad Shah – II. The Sultan offered Gawan an administrative post.
Gawan entered into Sultan’s service and by his sincerity and honesty, rose to the position of the Prime minister (Wazir) in 1463 C.E. He carried on the administration of the state and saved it from all dangers.
2. Achievements :
As Prime minister (Wazir), he undertook many conquests and implemented reforms in the Kingdom.
1. Mahmud Gawan first paid attention for the establishment of unity and integrity of the Kingdom.
2. Mohammad Khilji of Malwa tried to enter the Deccan Region. Gawan expelled the Sultan of Malwa beyond Bidar, made a treaty with the Sultan and established political stability.
3. Gawan conquered Rajamahendri and Kondaveedu. In the west, he extended the territory to the coast, by annexing Konkan. Gajapathi Kapilendra of Orissa invaded the Kingdom. Gawan successfully repelled his attack.
4. He subdued many chieftains in the western coastal belt and conquered Hubli, Belagavi (Belgaum) and Goa regions from the Vijayanagara Empire.
5. The number of provinces was increased from 4 to 8 for the convenience of administration. They were called ‘Tarafs’. The Jahagir system was abolished. The administration was highly centralised.
6. Gawan classified all the land of the Kingdom on the basis of fertility and irrigation facility. Land was surveyed and the revenue was fixed. The collection of revenue was only in cash.
7. Gawan established a Madarasa, a Coliege for higher education, at Bidar in 1472 C.E. He built a library and collected over 3000 manuscripts from all over the world. He was a scholar. He wrote books on religion, mathematics, literature, and medicine. His important works were Manazir – ul- Insha and Riyaz – ul – Insha.
Gawan’s progress was not tolerated by the native muslim leaders. They made false allegations against him. He was beheaded in 1481 C-E. After his death, the Bahamani Kingdom started declining.
Discuss the Socio-Religious reforms of Basaveshwara.
Socio-religious reforms of Basaveshwara:
Basaveshwara was a revolutionary reformer. He wanted to build a classless and casteless society. The first step to him was integration of the people on equal status, regardless of caste. He advocated equality of all human beings. He strongly opposed – blind beliefs, superstitions, image worship, ritualism, pilgrimage and taking holy baths in the river. He tried to wipe out the evil practice of untouchability and encouraged intercaste marriages.
He made it clear that caste system does not have the base of Dharmashastra. He encouraged interdining and gave lingadeeksha to the untouchable Nagadeva and accepted his hospitality. Encouragingg inter caste marriage, he performed the marriage of Brahmin Madhuvaiah’s daughter with Harijan Haralaiah’s son.
Orthodox people were disturbed by these revolutionary acts of Basaveshwara and gave a complaint to King Bijjala that he was spending the money from the treasury to benefit his followers and that he was spoiling Hinduism. Bijjala gave death sentence to Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah.
When the news of the death of Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah spread, Basaveshwara was upset and gave up his post as minister and went to Kudalasangama. This led to a revolt by his followers and in this revolt Bijjala was murdered.
Disapproving animal sacrifice, Basaveshwara said “Kindness is the source of religion” (Dayave dharmada moolavaiah). He gave the concept of ‘work is worship’. This was the main message of Basaveshwara to mankind. He. tried to propagate purity, morality and humanistic approach through his vachanas.
He rejected the idea of building temples. He questioned the need and purpose to build temples when our own body is a temple, where God resides. He felt that his body was the temple, his legs were its pillars and his head was its golden tower.
Write about the subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse.
a. Subsidiary Alliance :
The Indian rulers who had entered into this military alliance with the British had to keep a British army in their state and bear the expenses of the maintenance of that army. It was introduced by Lord Wellesley in 1798. Expansion of the British Empire in India was its main aim.
Conditions of the subsidiary Alliance :
1. The Indian state which joins it, must surrender its external relations to the care of the Company. They should not wage wars and their dealings should be conducted only with their the prior permission of the Company.
2. If any ruler was unable to pay the expenses, he had to cede a part of his Kingdom. The protection of that state was the responsibility of the Company.
3. A British Resident should be kept in the court of the King. The Company was not to interfere in the internal affairs of that state.
4. The Company should protect the Indian state against their enemies and no other European could be appointed in their administration without the permission of the Company.
Advantages to the Company :
1. The subsidiary Alliance disarmed the Indian states. They came under the mercy of the British. The grave consequences of the war were much reduced.
2. Indian states practically lost their independence and became financially weak.
3. The Kings neglected the welfare of their people. So Kings also lost their credibility. The Kings were protected by the Company.
4. The Company was able to check the influence of the French over the Indian states. The Company gradually. brought the whole country under its control.
The Nizam of Hyderabad was the first to sign the Alliance. Later the rulers of Mysore, Oudh, Travancore, Baroda, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bharatpur, Nagpur, and Gwalior also signed the Alliance.
b. The Doctrine of Lapse :
According to this policy, when the Ruler of the protected state died without a natural heir, then that state would pass on to the British Empire, which was called the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’, (or) According to this policy, if a King died without a son or daughter, his estate lapsed. It should be noted that the King had no right to adopt a son under any circumstances.
The Doctrine of lapse was introduced by Lord Dalhousie. His aim was the expansion of the British Empire in India. By following this policy, the British annexed Sitara, Jaipur, Sambhalpur, Udaipur, Jhansi, Nagapur, Bhagatpur. Coorg, etc.
The doctrine of lapse was unjustified both on legal and ethical grounds, Whether right or wrong, two-third of the Indian territories came under the British rule by 1856. These factors contributed to the outburst of. the Indian anger in 1857 in the form of First war of the Indian Independence.
Discuss the role of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in the Socio-religious movement.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the great socio-religious reformer of modern India. He is called the “Father and prophet of Indian Renaissance”. He had a deep knowledge of Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, and sufism. He was very much influenced by the English language and western thoughts.
His primary aim was to reform the society and religion. He had to face the challenges of orthodox, Hindus and fanatic Christian missionaries.
1. Religious reforms :
Raja Ram Mohan Roy wanted to bring about reforms in Hindustan by getting rid of idol-worship, sacrifices, and caste rigidity. On 20th August 1828, he founded the Brahmo Samaj at Calcutta. The main purpose of the Brahmo Samaj was to establish a casteless society based on common worship.
Brahmo Samaj taught that ‘God is one, every religion possesses truth, idol worship arid ritualism are meaningless and social evils have no connection with religion”. The followers of all religions were invited to come and worship in the same temple in a spirit of brotherhood.
2. Social reforms:
He carried on a long struggle against the social evils like the practice of Sati, child marriages, polygamy, untouchability, and purdah system. Widows used to burn themselves up in the funeral pyres of their husbands and Raja Ram Mohan Roy organised agitations against this inhuman custom of Sati.
It was due to his persuasion that Lord William Bentinck abolished Sati in 1829 and declared it a legal offence. He worked for the improvement of the status of women and for their education. He encouraged intercaste marriages and remarriage of widows.
PART – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated: (5 + 5 = 10)
a. Mark any five of the following historical places on the outline map of India provided to you and add an explonatory note on each marked place in two sentences:
1. Taxila (Takshashila):
It was the capital of the Gandhara Province now in Pakistan. Takshashila University was an important educational centre in ancient India. Kautilya(Chanukya) was a teacher in this University.
It is the capital of West Bengal, situated on the banks of river Hoogli. Calcutta was the first Capital of the British, in India. Swami Vivekanada established the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur near Calcutta.
Dandi is a coastal town in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi launched his famous Dandi March in 1930. Gandhi and his followers collected seawater and made salt and deliberately violated the salt law.
It is in Maharastra. Alla-ud-din-Khilji led many expeditions on Devagiri. Mohammad-Bin-Tughalak shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri for a short while. Devagiri was renamed as Daulatabad.
5. Kanchi (Kanchipuram):
It is near Chennai in TamilNadu. It was the capital of the Pallavas. The city is famous for Shaiva and Vaishanava temples. The famous Kamakshi temple is located here.
The early name of Badami was Vatapi and it was the capital of the Chalukyas. It is famous for rock-cut cave temples. It is in Bagalkote district of Karnataka.
It is located on the banks of river Cauvery and is in the Mandya district. It was the capital of the early Wodeyars of Mysore, Hyder Ali and Tippu sultan. The town contains many historical monuments like the Fort, Daria Daulat place, Lalbag, Tombs of Hyder and Tjppu, Ranganatha Temple, etc.
8. Bijapura (Vijapura) :
It was the capital of Adil Shahis. Monuments like Golgumbaz, Ibrahim Rauza, Asar Mahal, Barakaman, etc are found here.
For visually Challenged Students only
Answer the following question in 30 to 40 sentences: (1 × 10 = 10)
b. Explain the Pulakeshi-II
a. Pulikeshi – II (609-642 C.E.):
He was the most outstanding personality among the Chalukyas of Badami. He was a benevolent monarch and people enjoyed plenty and prosperity under him. Pulikeshi – II was the son of Keertivarma -1. He was still a boy when Keertivarma died. Hence, Mangalesha (Brother of Keertivarma) took over the charge of administration.
Mangalesha planned to pass on the throne to his son instead of Pulikeshi – II, the rightful heir. This led to a civil war between the two. Finally, Mangalesha was defeated and he died in the battle. Pulikeshi came to the throne in 609 C.E. Hieun Tsang’s Si-Yu-Ki, Bana’s – Harshacharite, Aihole inscription, etc, give information about Pulikeshi – II.
This civil war was an unfortunate incident but became inevitable for Pulikeshi, and the throne inherited by him was not a bed of roses. This indicates that the civil war had caused a confused situation in the Kingdom. Many chiefs wanted to take advantage of the situation and become independent. Hence they rebelled against Pulikeshi – II.
b. Conquests of Pulikeshi – II:
1. Attack on the Rashtrakuta chiefs:
The Rashtrakutas were following a policy of aggression and expansion during the time of Pulikeshi. The Rashtrakuta chiefs Appayika and Govinda rebelled against Badami rule. Pulikeshi crushed them in a battle on the banks of river Bhima. Appayika. ran away from the battle field, while Govinda surrendered to Pulikeshi.
2. Subjugation of the Kadambas, Mauryas, Alupasand Gangas:
After strengthening his power and resources, Pulikeshi – II adopted a policy of conquest. He took an expedition against the Rulers of places surrounding Badami. He subjugated the Kadambas of Banavasi, Mauryas of Konkan, Alupas of south Canara and Gangas of Talakadu.
3. Attack on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras:
Pulikeshi – II set his eyes towards the North – west, on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras. As a result, these Rulers were also defeated and he extended his territories up to Malwa. He appointed his brother, Jayasiniha as the Governor of Gujarath.
4. War with Harshavardhana:
The most significant and memorable of his military career was his victory over Harshavardhana of Kanauj. A powerful Kingdom had been established by Harsha who had conquered most of north India, and was making an attempt to extend his reign in the south also. Pulikeshi took an expedition towards north, and Harsha came into conflict with Pulikeshi – II.
But Pulikeshi who had camped on the banks of the river Narmada, did not allow Harsha to cross the river. Harshavardhana was defeated by Pulikeshi in the battle of Narmada in 634 C.E. Narmada became the common frontier of the two Kingdoms. After the battle, Pulikeshi assumed the title of ‘Parameshwara and Dakshinapathesh wara. Hieun Tsang’s record and the Aihole inscriptions give testimony to this victory of Pulikeshi – II.
5. Expedition towards East:
After the Northern campaign, Pulikeshi turned his eyes towards east and conquered Kosala and Kalinga regions and the important fort of Pistapura (Godavari). He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Governor of these provinces. Kubja Vishnuvardhana became the founder of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty.
6. Expedition in South:
The Pallava ruler Mahendravarma -1 had become powerful in the south. Pulikeshi invaded the Pallava Kingdom and defeated Mahendravarma – I in the battle of Pallalur. Then he annexed other Pallava territories also and seized Kanchi in 632 C.E.
After these successful military campaigns, Pulikeshi returned to his capital and reigned in peace for quite some time. His name and fame began to spread far and wide. He performed the ‘Ashwamedha Sacrifice’ to commemorate his victory and assumed titles like ‘Sathyashraya, Vikrama, Parameshwara, Dakshinapatheshwara, Pruthvi Vallabha, Maharajadhiraja, etc.,
7. Extent of his Kingdom:
The Kingdom of Pulikeshi – II extended from the Kosala and Kalinga (Bay of Bengal) in the east, to Konkana in the west, the river Narmada in the north and up to river Cauveri in the south.
Due to the campaigns of Pulikeshi, his name and fame began to spread far and wide. He maintained cultural and commercial contacts with Persia and exchanged Ambassadors with the Persian Emperor Khusru – II (Ajantha cave paintings depict this scene). The Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited the court of Pulikeshi – II in 641 C.E.
He has given us a factual and reliable description about the King and his Empire. In his last days, Pulikeshi – II had to face the attack of the mighty Pallava forces under Narasimha- varman -1. Pulikeshi was defeated in the battle, and Narasimhavarman seized the Chalukyan capital in 642 C.E. In memory of this victory, Narasimhavarman assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’.
Sir. M. Vishweshwaraiah is called the ‘Maker of Modern Mysore’. Explain.
Sri M. Vishweshwaraiah was the most outstanding Dewan of Mysore. He entered the services of Mysore as Chief Engineer. He was a great Engineer, a capable administrator, eminent economist a liberal-minded statesman and patriot. He is rightly called as “The Architect of Modem Mysore”.
2. Early life and career of M.V. :
Sir M.V. was born on 15th September 1861 at Muddenahalli (Chikkaballapur District). His parents were Srinivass Shastri and Venkatalaxmamma who were orthodox Hindus. After completing his primary education at Chikkaballapura, he went to Bangalore for further studies.
He obtained his B. A. degree from Central College, Bangalore in 1881. He did his B.E. degree (Pune) from Madras University in 1884. He served in the Bombay Government from 1884 to 1909. He was appointed as the Chief Engineer of Mysore State in 1909. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – IV appointed him as the Dewan of Mysore in 1912. The main objective of Sir M.V. was the eradication of poverty and to put India in line with the developed nations.
3. Administrative reforms:
Sir M.V. was a liberal statesman and believed in democracy. He took steps to strengthen the local self-governing bodies. The number of the members of the legislative council was increased from 18 to 24 and given the power to discuss the budget of the state. Sri M.V. passed the local self-governing bodies Act.
This act made provisions for the majority of the members of the district and taluk boards being elected. Village reform committees were established for the progress of villages. The development of Malnad region was given priority and a plan was drawn up.
4. Industrial Development:
‘Industrialize or Perish’ was the slogan of Sir M.V. His aim was to make Mysore an industrially advanced state in India. He started several industries in the state. The important industries are Sandal oil factory at Mysore, Soap factory, Central Industrial work shop and Metal factory at Bangalore, Silk research center at Channapattana.
Small scale and Cottage industries also developed. Cottage industries such as weaving, pottery, oil processing, mat making, wood works, leather goods, etc., flourished. The Mysore Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established in 1913 at Bangalore. The Mysore Bank was founded in 1913 at Bangalore for the promotion of Industries and Commerce.
5. Educational reforms:
Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourge education among the economically and socially backward classes.
Female and technical education were also encouraged. The major Educational Institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore. His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore Univesity in 1916 at Mysore and the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and Literature.
6. Irrigational scheme:
He understood the needs of the farmers. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for better utilisation of the available water. K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at (1911 to 1931) Kannambadi and as a result, 150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya and Malavalli areas came under cultivation.
He offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty. Canals, tanks, and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage systems were introduced.
7. Railway reforms :
Sir M.V. introduced the ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore – Arasikere and Bowringpete – Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Birur-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Marata Company were brought under the State control.
8. Relief works:
During Sir. M. Vishwesh waraiah’s Dewanship the first world war (1914-18) broke out. This led to severe shortage of foodstuff. He took up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices.
Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable service to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, tire British Government honoured him with Knighthood in 1915. In 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to get this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.
PART – E
V. Answer any TWO of the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences each : (2 × 10 = 20)
Sketch the life and teachings of Buddha.
1. Life of Gauthama Buddha:
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. He was the son of a Shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mayadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his stepmother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha.
He was brought up in great luxury and married Yashodhara at the age of 16. A son was born to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa, he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights. Seeing an old man, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage), resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world.
He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes. This event is known as “The Great Renunciation”. To find a solution to the problems of old age, sickness, and death, he left his home, went out to Uravela forest near Gaya and spent six years wandering in that pursuit. During that period he self-inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclusion that hunger and starvation was not the way to find the truth.
Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya. He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Having received the light, Gauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realised the truth.
2. Gautama as a preacher:
After attaining Knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. In the Deer Park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted five disciples into Buddhism. This is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharma).
Dharma chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, travelling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara(U.P.)at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as “The light of Asia”. His birthday (full moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poornima”.
3. Teachings of Buddha:
Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas, superiority of Brahmins, meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste system. He laid down the Principles of’ equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the Creator of the Universe or God.
Buddha taught his preachings through conversation, lectures, and parables. His method of teaching was unique. He preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces desire, desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses, to be born again and again in order to satisfy the desires. Thus, he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped if the person realises that worldly things are not permanent.
Buddha laid down the analysis of life with four different priniciples. His favourite sutra was ‘Four Noble Truths or Atyasatyas’, which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery ) which could be removed only by the removal of all desires.
His four noble truths are:
- Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow)
- Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow) ,
- To destroy misery, desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow)
- Desire can be overcome by following the ‘Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’.
When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace arid enjoy eternal bliss. Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self-control and salvation. The eightfold path or the middle path consists of
- Right faith
- Right thought
- Right speech
- Right conduct
- Right effort
- Right meditation
- Right livelihood and
- Right mindfulness.
Ibis path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out completely self-indulgence and self-mortification. Buddhist teachings constitute the three pitakas. Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as – not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non-violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tell lies, not to accept or keep money, not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieving their sacred goals.
Nirvana is the final result of the end of all desires. Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. He opposed caste system and advocated equality. He gave importance to non-violence. He did not refer to God. Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha are the three gems of Buddhism.
Why is Gupta age called ‘The Golden Age’ in Indian History?
Gupta period was a unique phase in the Indian history, due to the all-round development during this age. It has been described as the ‘Golden age and Ahe “Classical period of Indian history”. Dr. R.N. Saletore has compared it with the ages of Augustus Caesar of Rome and Queen Elizabeth of England.
Dr. L.D. Barnet compared it with the age of Pericles of Greece. The achievements in the fields of religion, education, literature, art, architecture, science and technology were extraordinary.
Revival of Hinduism (Hindu renaissance) was one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. Guptas followed Vedic religion, but they were tolerant towards the other religions. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. Pashupata sect of Shaivism became very popular.
Worship of the Saptamatrikas became widespread. The Shiva temple at Deogadh, the temple of Bhumara and the Mahakal temple of Ujjain were built in the Gupta age. The Gupta Rulers performed Vedic rites and sacrifices. Samudragupta and Chandragupta- II, were worshippers of Vishnu.
They assumed the titles ‘Parama Bhagavatha’ (Devotee of Vishnu). Image worship, rites, and ceremonies became very common. The Vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vajapeya, and Rajasuya yagas-were performed with all splendour. Buddhism also enjoyed great popularity during the Gupta age The Buddhist caves at Ajantha, Ellora, Kanheri and Karle belong to the Gupta period.
Some of the Gupta rulers followed Buddhism and extended patronage to it. In fact, Buddha was adopted into Hinduism and he was regarded as one of the Avataras of Vishnu.
Education flourished well under the Guptas. The rulers themselves were great scholars. They paid special attention to education. Taxi la, Nalanda, Ajantha and Saranatha were well-known Universities of the Gupta era. Pataliputra and Vallabhi were great educational centres. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature, Philosophy, Arithmetic, Astrology, and Science.
The Gupta age is called ‘the Golden age of Sanskrit literature’. Samudragupta has been described as a King among poets in the Allahabad inscription. He got a title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta-II (Vikramaditya-II) patronized the ‘Nine gems’ (navaratnas) of Sanskrit scholars in his court.
Among them, Kalidasa was the most outstanding literary figure of that age. He wrote a number of excellent works like Malavikagnimithra, Vikramorvashiya, Shakunthala, Raghuvamsa, Kumara sambhava, Meghaduta, Rithusamhara, etc., Kalidasa emerges as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare”.
5. Other important writers and their works:
Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika, Bharavi – Kiratarjuneya, Dandhi – Kavyadhara, Vishnusimha – Panchatantra, Amarasimha- Amarakosa, Vishakadatta – Mudrarakshasa, Bhavabuthi-Uttararam achari the, Charaka- Charakasamhithe, Shanku – Shilpashastra, Kshapanaka – Jyothishashastra, Vethalabhatta-Manth rashasthra, and others.
The literary standard of this period was high and Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature.
6. Development of science:
The Gupta age made a tremendous progress in the field of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, Medicine, and Metallurgy. Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of this period. He wrote two great works- Aryabhatia and Surya siddhantha. He gave very valuable contributions to Indian science.
Brahmagupta was the great astronomer and mathematician, who wrote the book ‘Brahmaputra siddhantha. He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was the astronomer, who wrote Brihatsamhithe. Vridha Vagbhata (physician) wrote Ashtanga Sangraha. Dhanvantari (physician) wrote Ayurveda Nighantu.
He was regarded as the father of Indian medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha were the physicians who wrote Samhithes. The Meharauli iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example of the metallurgical skill of that period. It is still free from rust, even though it has been exposed to the elements like wind, rain, sun, etc., all these hundreds of years.
7. Art and Architecture:
The basic structural features of the Indian temple architecture were developed during the Gupta period. The Gupta art is famous for its simple expression and spiritual purpose. The art of the Guptas was purely Indian in nature. Naturalism, beauty, spiritualism, and realism were the main features of their art. Mathura, Benaras, Pataliputra, Udayagiri, Devgarh, etc were the centres of their artistic activities.
The Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples. The temples have pyramidal roofs and the walls are decorated with scenes from Hindu mythologies. The Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (MP), has a tower of about 40 feet. It’s doorway is excellently carved and decorated.
Many images of Shiva such as the Ekamukhi and Chaturmukhi Shivalings were also carved during this period. The Ardhanarishwara i.e., oneness of Shiva and Shakti is also a remarkable piece of work. Some temples were flat-roofed and square in shape with a shallow porch in front. For example, the Shiva temple at Bhuniara, the Vishnu temple at Tigawa, the Buddhist Shrine at Sanchi, etc., follow this design.
In the field of painting, the artists of the Gupta age excelled in bringing out the emotions in a realistic manner. Many jataka stories have been illustrated. The scene of “Mother and child before Buddha” in the Ajantha cave no. 16, the great Bodhisatva in cave no. 1 and the paintings on the ceilings of cave no. 2 are remarkable. Thus, it has been known as the ‘Cradle of Asian art’.
Describe the cultural contributions of Vijayanagar Empire.
Vijayanagara Rulers provided internal peace to the Empire and protection from external threats. They introduced a strong central Government along with decentralization of power.
1. Central Administration:
Monarchy was the existing system. The King was the supreme authority of the state. He enjoyed enormous powers but he always worked for the welfare of the people. The King was the highest court of appeal. Law was based on customs and traditions punishments were very severe like death sentences, trampling to death, etc.,
Kingship was hereditary. The King was assited by a ‘Council of Ministers’ headed by the Prime Minister called ‘Maha Pradhani’. The council of ministers played an important role in the administration. They supervised over many departments and advised the King in taking proper decisions.
Important officers were Upa Pradhani (Deputy P.M), Danda Nayaka, Mahasaman tadipati (Minister of Feudatories), Raya Bhandari (Treasurer), Sabhanaiyaka (Leader of the council), Mahasand ivigrahi (Foreign Affairs). Yuvaraja was associated with the administration.
2. Provincial Administration:
There were two types of provinces in the Vijayanagara Empire. They were :
a. Provinces which were under the direct rule by the King’s representatives.
b. The provincial rule by the feudatories (Nayakas), which was called the Nayankara system. The Nayankara system gave more autonomy to the feudatories.’ The King had the power to transfer or remove the provincial officers. Nayakas were to pay annual tributes to the King and had to maintain military troops for wars. These Nayakas maintained Military and Civil representatives in the court of the King. Rajya was further divided into Vishaya and Nadu.
3. Village administration:
The village was the last unit of the administration. Village had its own assemblies (Gramapanchyat). The social, administrative and judicial matters in the village were taken care of by the local assemblies. The head of the village administration was ‘Gouda’. Collection of revenue was his main duty and accounts were looked after by the Karanika. Talawara discharged the duties of a policeman.
4. Revenue System:
Land Revenue was the main source of income for the state. It was nearly 1/6 of the gross produce. Property tax, commercial tax, tax on industries, war booty, judicial fines, and taxs of all professions including prostitution, customs and toll were the other sources of income. Taxes were collected either in cash or in kind.
5. Military Administration:
Vijayanagara Empire had a strong military to safeguard the vast area from its enemies. The army administration was looked after by the ‘Dandanayaka’. The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, elephants, and artillery. Forts played an important role in the defensive warfare.
b. Social conditions :
1. Caste System:
The Vijayanagara society was divided into four castes namely Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras. Brahmans had a high position in the society’. Blacksmiths, goldsmiths, weavers, farmers, and traders played very important role in the social activities. Social harmony existed in the Empire.
2. Position of Woman:
Women enjoyed a respectable position in the society. They participated in activities like dancing and singing. Few women received education, but they were confined to household work. Social evils like dowry, sati, devadasi, prostitution, child marriage, and polygamy existed in that society.
3. Social Harmony:
Musi is settled in the Empire and they were given security by the Kings. Mosques were built for prayers and Quran was placed in a respectable place. The members of the Royal family worshipped Hindu, Buddha, and Jain deities and followed the common tenets of these religions. Hence it is clear that social harmony prevailed in the Vijayanagara Empire. Dasara, Holi, and Deepavali were the national festivals. People observed these festivals with great pomp and splendour.
c. Economic Condition:
Agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Land revenue was fixed on the basis of the quality of soil. Land was divided into wet, dry and horticultural land. Rice, wheat, cotton, pulses, spices, are canuts, ginger, fruits, turmeric, etc., were the main products of agriculture.
They gave much attention for irrigation. Large number of wells, tanks, lakes, canals, and dams were constructed. A huge tank was constructed by Krishnadevaraya near Nagalapura. A Dam and a Raya canal were also built by him at Korrangal.
3. Trade and commerce:
Internal and external trade flourished under the Vijayanagara Rulers. Vijrakurur mines in Andhra Pradesh supplied the most valuable diamounds. Main exports of the time were cloth, rice, suger, spices, iron, etc., The important imports were elephants, horses, pearls, coral, mercury, silks, etc., Udayagiri, Tanjore, Madurai, Calicut, Mangalore, Barakur and Bhatkal were the main centers of trade.
There were about two hundred ports in the eastern and western coasts. The standard currency was the gold (Varaha) pon. Visa, Kasu and Pagods were the other coins.
Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged and ensured religious tolerance among the Hindus, Jains, and Muslims. The Sangama Rulers encouraged Shaivism and the later Rulers gave importance to Vaishnavism. Devaraya – II built a Jain basadi in the Empire during his reign. Shravanabelgola inscription of Bukka – I refers to the peace treaty between the Srivaishnavas and Jains.
The Vachana Movement was popular during this time. The Varkari Movement of Lord Vittala of Pandrapura and the Dasakuta tradition were encouraged. Hampi, Sringeri, Shravanabelagola, Shrishaila, Srikalahashti, Ahobilam, Madurai, Srirangam were the important religious centres. Temples and Mathas were the notable religious institutions. The temples were places of worship and Mathas stood for the spread of religious principles. They encouraged Education and Culture.
e. Education and Literature:
Mathas, Agraharas, and Temples played an important role in imparting education. ‘Dhulakshara’ was a system of education, which is referred to in ‘Mohanatarangini’ of Kanakadasa. It was a system of learning to write on sand. Primary education was called ‘Balabodha’. Hampi, Kodimatha, Sringeri, Yediyur, Kunigal, etc., were notable centers of education of that time.
The Vijayaria’gara Rulers encouraged Sanskrit, Kannada and Telugu literature. Harihara, Bukkaraya, Devaraya – II and Krishnadevaraya extended liberal patronage to scholars and poets. Some important literary works of the period are :
g. Sanskrit Works:
Vidyaranya was a prolific writer in Sanskrit, he wrote more than 60 works. Madhava – Sayana wrote Parasara Madhaviya, Gangadevi, Queen of Veerakampan wrote Maduravijayam (Veerakamparaya Charitam), Tirumalamba wrote Varadambikaprinayam. Guru Vidyaranya wrote Raja Kalanirnaya. Krishanadevaraya wrote Madalasacharite, Rasamanjari, Jambavati Kalyanam, Usha Parinayam, etc.,
h. Kannada Works:
Tontada Siddaling- eshwara wrote Vachanas, Kumaravyasa – Karnataka Kathamanjari (Gadugina Bharata), Nanjunda Kavi – Kumara Ramanakathe, Siddalinga Yathi wrote Shunyasampadane, Ratnakarvarni – Bharatesha Vaibhava, Bhimakavi – Basavapurana, Chamarasa – Prabhulingaleele. Kanakadasa – Mohana Tarangini, Nala Charita, Haribhakti Sara, etc., Purandaradasa – Keertans, Virupakshapandita – Channabasapurana Narahari – Torave Ramayana, Nijaguna Shivayogi – Viveka Chintamani.
i. Telugu :
Krishnadevaraya was a great scholar in Telugu. He wrote Amukta Malyada in Telugu. He patronized eight great Telugu poets in his court who were called ‘Ashtadiggajas’. Allasani Peddanna revered as the father of Telugu was conferred with the title of ‘Andhrakavi Pitamaha’.
Srinatha wrote Kashikhanda Nachaha, Somanatha wrote Harivamsha, Allasani Peddanna wrote Manucharitamu, Vemana wrote poems. Krishnadevaraya is often described as. ‘Andhra Bhoja’.
Trace the Indian National Movement from 1885 to 1920.
1. Role of the Indian National Congress:
The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 gave a clear warning to the British with regard to the rising national feeling among Indians. There was a need for a common national organisation, which included all classes of people. A. O. Hume (Allan Octavian Hume.) inspired the national leaders to establish the Indian National Union in 1884, subsequently the Indian National Congress.
The first Indian National Congress session was held at Bombay on 27th December 1885, presided over by Womesh Chandra Banerjee 72 delegates from different parts of India attended it and four of them were from Karnataka.
Aims and objectives of the Congress :
1. Promotion of friendly relations among the nationalists and other political workers from different parts of the country.
2. Development and consolidation of the feeling of national unity, irrespective of caste, religion, province, etc.,
3. Presenting the popular demands of the people before the British Government.
4. Organisation of public opinion in the country.
5. To politically educate the Indian masses and demand to include more Indians in the councils and civil services.
In the beginning, the British Government was friendly towards the Congress. But as its strength and popularity increased, Congress was in favour of a responsible Government in India and began to demand the same. This irritated the British Government and it began to adopt a policy of favouring anti-Congress elements. Freedom movement in India can be divided into three stages, namely:-
- The first phase – The period of the Moderates -1885-1905.
- The second phase – The period of the Extremists in 1905-1920.
- The third phase – The Gandhian period or Era – 1920-1947.
1. The first phase – The period of the Moderates in 1885-1905 :
a. The early Congress (1885-1905):
Leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji (The grand old man of India), Pheroz Shah Mehta, Surendranath Banerjee, G. K. Gokhale, Badruddin Tyabji, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Anandacharlu, and others were the moderates. Policy of the Moderates: The Moderates were cordial towards the British, and they had strong faith in the British sense of justice and fair play. They felt that India will get modernised and uplifted by the benevolent and liberal rule of the British.
Moderates followed the principles of Prayers, Petitions, and Protests to pressurize the British Government. They organized public meetings, submitted memorandums to the Government to redress the grievances of the people; If the Government was stubborn to their demands, they used to protest against it.
Dadabhai Naoroji established the East India Association in 1866. This Association took up the Indian issues at London and attempted to influence the British public and British legislators to enact policies and laws favoring Indians.
The British were hostile towards the Congress since its establishment and they developed a stem attitude towards the moderates. Their policy was nicknamed as ‘Political Mendicancy’ (begging for political concessions) by the Extremists. They called the Congress as a ‘Factory of sedition’ and leaders as ‘Seditious Brahmins’ and ‘Disloyal Babus’.
Moderates were true patriots and they brought political maturity to the Indians. They exposed the exploitative character of the colonial rule and policies of the British. They were able to underline that the duty of the Government was to consider the interests of the Indians.
The notable results of their demands was the Indian Councils Act of 1892. The Moderates played a very important role in the freedom movement in India. They sowed the seeds of liberalism and nationalist ideas in the minds of Indians.
2. Second Phase – The period of the Extremists – 1905-1920:
The Indian National Movement entered a new phase after 1905. The Extremists were radical and militant in their approach in contrast to the Moderates. They believed that reforms could not be secured by mere talk, and only by action. They blamed the British rule for all the prevailing problems and were called Extremists or Radical Nationalists.
Extremists convinced the public that Self – Government was essential for the sake of the economic, political and cultural progress of the country. Extremists had grown in self – confidence. The leaders of the extremists were Bal GangadharTilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Roy.
Important events during the Extremist’s Period :
1. Partition of Bengal in 1905:
In 1905, Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal into two parts as East Bengal and West Bengal. He justified the partition on administrative convenience, as Bengal was too big a province to be administrated by a single provincial Government. The real intention of the order was to curb the growing national feeling in Bengal. The people staunchly opposed this and indulged in the anti-partition movement, boycott of foreign goods and usage of only swadeshi goods.
2. The Surat Split-1907:
The Extremists and the Moderates differed over issues like election of the President, setting goals and passing resolutions of the Congress. Finally, both the groups agreed to Dadabhai Naoroji for Presidentship of the Congress in 1906. But the Extremists were successful in making Dadabhai Naoroji to declare ‘Swaraj (Self Government) as the goal of the Congress.
The differences once again emerged at the Surat session in 1907. The Moderates wanted Rashbihari Ghosh and the Extremists wanted Lala Lajpat Rai to be the President. Both the groups refused to compromise resulting in the split in the Indian National Congress.
This is commonly known as the ‘Surat Split’. The British undertook many repressive measures and also introduced many Acts to suppress the Extremists. Both groups reunited in the Lucknow Congress session.
3. Revolutionary Nationalism (Terrorism):
The repressive measures of the British encouraged revolutionary terrorism. The revolutionaries were radical nationalists who did not believe in passive resistance. They were ready for any violent activity in order to drive away the British from India.
They organised secret societies like Abhinav Bharat and Anusilan Samiti to achieve their goal. The revolutionaries were able to create a commotion but most of them were either imprisoned, exiled, killed or hanged.
4. Muslim League in 1906:
The All India Muslim League was founded by Nawab Aga Khan, Nawab Mohsim ul Mulk and others in 1906. The British tried to check the National movement by following a policy of divide and rule. The League followed a path contrary to that of Congress.
They supported the partition of Bengal and also demanded a separate electorate for the Muslims. The Punjab Hindu Sabha was founded in 1909. The Hindu Maha Sabha like the All India Muslim League was also against the Indian National Congress.
5. Morley – Minto Reforms 1909:
This act increased the number of elected members to the Central and Provincial Councils and also introduced separate electorates to the Muslims. The number of seats so reserved was in an higher ratio for the Muslim population when compared to die Hindu population. Only Muslims were to vote to the reserved Muslim seats.
6. Home Rule League 1916:
The Home Rule Movement was started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mrs. Ann ie Besant in 1916. The objective of the movement was to attain Self-Government within the British Empire by all constitutional means. The movement soon spread throughout India and became popular. Tilak gave the popular slogan “Swaraj (Home rule) is my birthright and I shall have it”.
Mr. Edwin Montague made a declaration on 20th August 1917. By this announcement, it was promised to give responsible Government to Indians, by degrees.
7. Montague – Chelmsford Reforms 1919:
(Government of India Act of 1919) This Act introduced Bi-Cameral legislatures (Diarchy). The Central Assembly (Lower house) consisted of 144 members, 104 elected and 40 nominated members. The Council of States (Upper House) was to have 34 elected and 26 nominated members.
8. Rowlatt act of 1919 and Jalian Walabagh Tragedy:The British Government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919. This Act empowered the Government to arrest and detain suspected persons without warrant and imprison them without any trial. Indians protested against the Rowlatt Act. A huge meeting was held at Jalian.
Walabagh on 13th April 1919. About 10,000 unarmed people had gathered there. General Dyer with his troops surrounded the meeting place and opened fire on the innocent people and around 1000 persons were killed and many more were injured.
PART – F
VI. Match the following : (5 × 1 = 5)
- KaliBangan – Ashtadiggajas
- Uttarameruru inscription – English Education System
- Allasani Peddanna – AdvaithaPhilosophy
- Shankaracharya – Indus Valley Civilization
- Macaulay – Chola’s Village Administration
- KaliBangan – Indus Valley Civilization
- Uttarameruru inscription – Chola’s Village Administration
- Allasani Peddanna – Ashtadiggajas
- Shankaracharya – Advaitha Philosophy
- Macaulay – English Education System
Arrange the following in chronological order : (5 × 1 = 5)
a. Establishment of AryaSamaja.
b. II Battle of Panipat.
c. IV Anglo-Mysore war.
d. Rule of Amoghavarsha.
e. III Buddhist Council.
1. (e) III Buddhist Council (250 BCE)
2. (d) Rule of Amoghavarsha (814 – 880 C.E)
3. (b) II Battle of Panipat (1556 C.E.)
4. (c) V Anglo-Mysore war (1788 – 1799 C.E.)
5. (a) Establishment of Arya Samaja (1875 C.E.)