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Karnataka 1st PUC History Model Question Paper 2 with Answers
Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100
Part – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each: (10 x 1 = 10)
What was the immediate cause for the First World War?
The murder of the Crown Prince of Austria, Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife in the Bosnian capital Sarajevo, was the immediate cause for the First World War.
Which ship was sunk by a German submarine during the First World War?
The British ship S.S. Lusitania.
Which treaty ended the First World War?
Treaty of Versailles.
When did the Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople?
Who was the King ruling over Russia on the eve of Russian Revolution?
Tsar Nicholas II.
Which was the last Battle of Napoleon Bonaparte?
The battle of Waterloo.
When did the Second World War begin?
1st September 1939 A.D.
Name the Allied nations in the Second World War.
UK, France, USA, Russia and others.
What is Fascism?
Fascism was founded by Benito Mussolini in post war Italy. Its ideologies were patriotism, anti-communism and nationalism.
What was papyrus used for?
Papyrus was used for writing, by the ancient Egyptians.
Part – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 x 2 = 20)
Which were the two groups that participated in the Second World War?
Axis Powers and Allied Powers.
Name the cities of Japan where Atom Bombs were dropped during World War II.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Name any two City States of the ancient Greeks.
Athens, Sparta, Corinth and Thebes.
Write any two festivals of the Christians.
Christmas, Good Friday, Easter Sunday.
Mention any two important inventions that helped the growth of civilization.
- Invention of the moving wheel by humans brought major changes in the professions of potters, carpenters etc., and revolutionized transportation.
- Inventions such as use of fire, new weapons, tools, utensils, etc., made life safer from the predators and easier to get food and cook it.
Name any two ancient Civilizations.
Egyptian Civilization and Mesopotamian Civilization are two ancient civilizations.
Name the British Colonics in America.
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Mary Land, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Delaware, Pennsylvania and Georgia.
Which are the two important books of Karl Marx?
‘Communist Manifesto’ and ‘Das Capital’.
Who was the Architect of the Unification of Germany? What was his policy?
Bismarck-Blood and Iron Policy.
What was Truman? What was the Provision of Truman Doctrine?
Harrys Truman was the president of USA at the time of the end of second world war. By this, he provided Greece and Turkey Economic and Military aids to the tune of 400 million dollars.
Why is Mesopotamia called as ‘Both the Cradle and Grave of Civilizations’?
The two rivers Euphrates and Tigris formed the fertile plains. Early tillers settled in villages. With the growth of population, these villages developed into towns and later into cities. These plains were the cradles of many civilizations which developed and later vanished during 3500 to 500 B.C.E. Hence, Mesopotamia is called as ‘Both the Cradle and Graveyard of Civilizations’.
Write any two causes responsible for the decline of Mesopotamian civilization.
- Internal quarrels among the Rulers led to disunity and disorder.
- The Rulers failed to bring a perfect and workable political system.
Part – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (6 x 5 = 30)
Discuss the factors that helped the growth of Civilizations.
The factors that helped the growth of civilizations are as follows:
1. Deposition of fertile alluvial soil caused by the river floods.
2. Continuous and un – interrupted supply of water for irrigation and domestic purposes.
3. Favourable climate generally found on the river valleys.
4. Plenty of food, fruits and vegetables for the humans and fodder for their animals.
5. River valleys helped fishing.
6. They helped the growth of trade and communication by providing means of transport.
Above factors reduced the burden of man in wandering for food and risk of life. There is a strong argument that “Men become more civilized if they have leisure to do creative work”. It is certain that river valleys provided them food in plenty and sufficient leisure to develop civilizations. Humans invented metals, made tools, were able to cultivate the land, built buildings in wood and stone, prepared vessels, boats, weapons, furniture, clothing, jewellery and many other things.
Explain any two factors of Human Evolution.
1. Climate change: The charging cycles of climate and weather have greatly affected the human evolution to a very large extent. The last,6 to 8 million years has generally seen cooling trends marked by recurring ice ages. The onset of ice age around 2.5 million years ago covered most parts of earth with snow and there were major changes in climate and vegetation. The cooling and drying conditions led to the contraction of forests which expanded the plains or grasslands and deserts.
This increased the competition among plants and animals for food. The species which could better adapt to the climate change and procure food survived and the others became extinct.
2. Growth in Brain Size: The human species evolved larger and complex brains due to the environmental challenges they faced. They had to survive against physically powerful animals. The size of the brain in the Homo habilis was 600 cubic centimetres. The Homo erectus species had a brain size of 800-1100 cc, the Neanderthal man 1200-1900 cc and the Homo sapiens of today has the brain of about 1400 cc.
It is more than twice the size of the brains of Chimpanzees or Gorillas. The growth in the brain size induced many activities like improved vision, upright posture, bipedal ism, tool making, use of fire, language etc.,
Give reasons for the decline of Egyptian Civilization.
Every human activity and accomplishment, with whatever high degree of perfection it might achieve, ends up in decay and disintegration as was the case with the Egyptian Civilization also. Many reasons are attributed to it. In brief, some of them are as given below.
- The Rulers failed to bring a perfect and workable political system.
- The weak Rulers were unable to maintain their authority and the feudal Lords gained control resulting in decay and disorder.
- The ruthless exploitation of lower class and religious intolerance resulted in disharmony and disunity in the society.
- Internal quarrels among the Rulers led to disunity and disorder.
- Invasions by uncivilized invaders from Africa and Assyria resulted in the demolition of . their temples and halt in the advancement. The invaders were more efficient in the art of warfare.
- The material welfare and contented life discouraged independent thinking, resulting in decline.
Mention the causes for growth of feudalism,
Several factors led to the growth of feudalism. They differed from region to region and period to period. They are summarized as under.
1. During the rule of weak Kings the Provincial Officers obtained independent authority. The political rule became more decentralized to suit feudal rule.
2. To protect themselves from the ‘Barbarian – invaders’ of Germanic tribes, the smaller land holders gave up their claims over their lands and surrendered them to the local Lords. This gave a sense of security of life and property and helped in the development of feudalism.
3. The weakening of Kings’ control over the Vassals also lessened their control over the people. People were more loyally bound to the Lords, which strengthened feudalism.
4. The Kings were very much dependent on the Vassals to defend their Kingdom, whereas the vassals required the King’s legal sanction over their land. This mutual dependence strengthened feudalism.
5. It was impossible for Kings to control vast lands, as there were no adequate roads and means of transport. Moreover the financial burden of ruling over a vast Empire made it impossible fora united rule.
6. The absence of a strong political system, insecurity of life and property made the presence of feudal Lords inevitable. These feudal lords took the responsibility of protecting the property of the people from thieves, bandits, invaders etc,.
7. It was an agrarian society based on land. The King was the absolute land owner and he could only give lands as grants or ‘fiefs’ to the Lords in exchange of their services. The same system was followed down the line. Feudalism was also inevitable due to the absence of industries and the serfs were bound to the land.
Enumerate the results of World War I.
The results of the First World War are as follows:
1. The horrors and miseries in the aftermath of the war were’plenty. The lasting result of the war was the loss of millions of fittest meivand permanent disabling of many more. It has been estimated that about 60 million soldiers took part in the war. Out of them, about 10 million were killed and about 20 million were wounded. Most of them were men below the age of 40. Besides, millions of civilians died of starvation, diseases and mindless violence.
As a result, women were forced to work in the factories, shops, hospitals, offices, schools, etc. they worked in place of men and thus ended the traditional barrier between men and women.
2. As a result of the war, four old Empires were overthrown. They were the Hapsburg of Austria, Hohenzollerns of Germany, Romanovs of Russia and the Turkish Sultanate. Many new States were setup on the ruins of the old Empires like Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.
3. The Treaty of Versailles was an important outcome of the war. By this Treaty, Germany had to give up large number of its territories and colonies. It was imposed a huge war indemnity and its military strength was reduced.
4. It became common after the war to look to the Government for guidance to solve economic, social and other problems of the people. Government control over many aspects of life increased. Acute shortage of goods led to inflation. Each warring nation imposed heavy taxes to meet the war expenses. World’s production decreased and the cost of living shot up everywhere. The largest creditor-nations of Europe became debtor-nations.
5. The most important constructive result of the First World War as the establishment of an international organization called the League of Nations to preserve the World peace by avoiding future wars. The Paris Peace Conference accepted the proposal of Woodrow Wilson. The League of Nations came into existence in 1920 with its headquarters at Geneva in Switzerland.
6. Countries like Poland, Belgium and Czechoslovakia became independent after the war.
7. The Paris Peace Conference, in 1919 officially ended the First World War.
Enumerate the contributions of the Greeks to Science.
Greek Philosophers furnished the impetus for the beginning of the study Of science. Aristotle laid the foundation for the study of natural science. Theophrastus, a pupil of Aristotle established Botany as a recognized science. The Periclean age produced great men. Hippocrates laid the foundations for modern Medicine. He taught that diseases have a natural origin and are not caused by evil spirits, as many believed in those days. He is known as the ‘Father of Medicine’. Herophilus is called as the ‘Father of Anatomy’.
Ptolemy believed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe. But Aristarchus propounded the theory that Earth and other Planets, revolved around the Sun. Eratosthenes calculated the approximate circumference of Earth within a small degree of error of 320 Kilometres. He also prepared a fairly accurate map of the world and he was the first to suggest that one could reach India from Europe by sailing west. Pythagoras and Euclid made many contributions to mathematics, especially to Geometry. Archimedes was also a famous scientist of ancient Greece.
Explain the role of India in the Non-Aligned Movement.
India has played an important role in the formation of Non-Aligned Movement. Jawaharlal , Nehru, the Prime Minister of India is called the Architect of Non-Aligned Movement. His ‘Panchasheela’ formed the important principles of Non-Aligned Movement. India has not only coined the word‘Non-Aligned’, but has inspired others about it.
The following facts show the relationship between India and NAM.
1. India has good relations with the other Non-Aligned countries. Nehru’s principles got world recognition in the Bandung conference, which officially declared the Non-Aligned policy.
2. The 7th summit of Non-Aligned countries was held at Delhi and India’s Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi presided.over the conference. She said we should become a united voice in the international organizations. Disarmament, Economic development, technical help were some of the issues that were discussed in this summit. India insisted Israel to withdraw her troops from Palestine.
3. At the 8th summit of Non-Aligned countries in Harare, the then Indian Prime Minister Rajeev Gandhi demanded the release of Nelson Mandela of South Africa. He also established the ‘African Fund’ to support the blacks who were fighting for their Rights and Freedom.
4. The 9th summit of Non-Aligned countries was held at Belgrade the capital of Yugoslavia. In this summit, Rajeev Gandhi gave a call for establishing ‘Global Protection Fund’ for the protection of the Environment.
5. At the 12th and 13th summits of Non-Aligned countries, Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee gave a call to take a firm decision to combat international Terrorism. India also supported nuclear disarmament.
6. At the 14th summit, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh spoke about international terrorism and nuclear disarmament. At the 15th summit he brought to the notice of Non- Aligned countries, the Mumbai attacks and terrorism.
At the 16th summit held in Iran, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh advocated the need for international action against the spread of nuclear armaments and terrorism. He also gave a call to find a solution to the Syrian problem acceptable to all.
Describe the results of the Geographical explorations.
The geographical discoveries had a great impact on the political, economic, social, religious f and cultural history of the world. The circumnavigation of the earth by Magellan proved that, the earth is round.
Venice, Genoa, Florence, etc were important trading centres of Europe. But now, they lost their importance because of the emergence of new cities like London, Lisbon, Amsterdam etc., This was mainly due to the discovery of new trade routes.
The Kings sent missionaries into the explored territories to spread Christianity. Hence newly Christianity entered into Asia, Africa and America and became a world religion. The Geographical discoveries gave a large scope for the spread of Christian religion by converting the natives.
The explorations brought the support of the rich merchants and the middle classes to monarchy. This support enabled stable monarchies at England, Spain, France etc.
The Geographical discoveries ensured competition among the European nations. The competition was mainly to have trade contacts with the newly discovered lands and subsequently have trade Monopoly. They became aggressive and ruthless to realize these goals. Commercial revolution took place by promoting trade and industry. Commerce underwent a remarkable change as regards to quality, quantity and kind of goods carried, routes, newer markets and methods. Joint Stock Companies and Banks were established and insurance of ships and goods was introduced, to safeguard against losses.
Discovery of new lands encouraged Slave trading, Ship building, Banking and Commerce. It also helped Renaissance and Reformation. The discoveries increased men’s knowledge about the world and this in turn led to the expansion of their mind. Exposure to the new worlds, interaction with new people and new modes of life, dispelled the funny and blind notions of medieval ignorance. This gave a tremendous impact to the intellectual revolution introduced by Renaissance.
As a result of these discoveries, Europe came in touch with the rest of the world and European culture spread to those lands. This contact helped them to enrich their knowledge. The discovery of new worlds offered good opportunity for the freedom loving people of different countries to migrate and improve their social, economic and political status. It encouraged scientific exploration and research and overall the living standards of people rose.
One of the ugliest effects of geographical discoveries was the birth of imperialism by the European powers. Europeans reached the coasts of the countries of Asia, Africa, America and Australia for establishing trade links. Eventually, they stayed there as masters and these countries were turned into colonies.
Part – D
IV. Answer the following questions: (5 + 5 = 10)
(A) Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of the World provided to you and add an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences. Babylonia, Athens. Alexandria, Venice, Constantinople, Lisbon, Versailles, Geneva.
1. Babylonia: It is in present Iraq. It was the capital of Mesopotamian Civilization. The famous law-giver Hammurabi ruled from here. Nebuchadnezzar built the ‘ Hanging Gardens’. which was one of the Wonders of the Ancient World.
2. Athens: It is the present capital city of Greece. It was one of the City-States of Ancient Greek Civilization. The city was named after the Goddess Athena. The famous Parthenon Temple is located here.
After Greeks, Athens was ruled by the Romans. In 15th century C.E. it was captured by the Ottoman Turks. After the Greek war of Independence in the 19th century, Athens was chosen as the capital of the newly independent Greek state in 1834.
3. Alexandria: It is in northern Egypt. It was founded by Alexander the Great. It was intended to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile Valley. An Egyptian City, Rhakotis already existed on the shores and was later given the name Alexandria. In Egyptian, it means “That which is built up”. In the ancient times it had a Light house which was one of the Wonders of the World.
4. Venice: It is in Italy. It was one of the centres of Trade and Commerce during Medieval Period. Famous travellers Marco Polo and Nicolo Polo belonged to this city. It is called as ‘The City of Canals’, as this beautiful city is basically a group of a lot of islands connected by bridges.
5. Constantinople: Presently called as Istanbul is in Turkey. Its original name was Byzantium, which was founded in 7th Century B.C.E. by a Greek King Byzas. Constantine the Great, made it the new capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in 4th century C.E. Then it came to be known as Constantinople which means ‘The City of Constantine’. Ottoman Turks captured it in 1453, which led to the need to discover new sea routes to India.
6. Lisbon: It is the capital of Portugal. Most of the Portuguese navigators, including Vasco-da- , Gama of the Age of discovery started their voyages from this city.
7. Versailles: It is in France. In 1624 The French Ruler Louis XIII, constructed a hunting lodge at the village of Versailles. His successor Louis XIV expanded it to be the largest Palace and from 1682 established his court here. After World War I, in 1919 the Treaty of Versailles was signed here between Germany and the Allied powers.
8. Geneva: It is in Switzerland. It was one of the centres of Protestant movement. International organizations like ILO, WHO, WTO and GATT are located here.
Part – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: (2 x 10 = 20)
Discuss about the entire movements that took place during the Medieval Age.
Introduction: Medieval European history is marked from the fall of Western Roman Empire in 476 CE to the fall of Eastern Roman Empire and Constantinople in 1453 CE. This period has a span of 1000 years.
The middle age is divided into 3 phases, which are as follows:
Early Middle Age: It beg,an around 500 CE and ended around 1050 CE. It is called the ‘Dark age’ because of the confused and chaotic state of affairs that existed in Europe then.
High Middle Age: The period from 1050 CE to 1300 CE. This period witnessed advancement in terms of agriculture, improvement in the standard of living and Education along with political stability. Towns and Universities emerged. The authority of the Pope increased.
Later Middle Age: The period from 1300 to 1453 CE. This period witnessed further development of towns and cities and decline in the power of feudalism and Church. A new entrepreneurial and intellectual class emerged. They challenged the State and the Church.
Due to the fall of Roman Empire, there was political and social instability in Europe. The Church filled the gap and emerged as a powerful authority. It brought the required stability and order. It patronized many scholars and boosted missionary activities.
Manorial system was an important institution of the high middle ages. Under this system, the serfs worked in agricultural estates cantered around a ‘Manor’ owned by a Lord. The serfs were not slaves. They too owned a piece of land. But they were under the control and jurisdiction of a Lord. They worked in the Lord’s fields as well as their own and paid taxes to the Lord. The serfs commonly undertook activities like grazing, collection of fire Wood, fishing and cultivation together. It was like a closed community living. During the later high middle ages, the condition of the serfs improved. They paid rent instead of giving duties or services to the Lord.
A class of nobility emerged during this period. They involved themselves in cultural and political activities. The Church controlled the local skirmishes and battles. So the Nobles became free to develop the ideals of Knighthood. This led to the development of etiquette. The attitude towards women also changed.
In the Manorial system, the serfs started to pay the rents. So the coins or currency replaced barter trade. Currency helped the revival of trade and commerce. It led to the advancement of networks of roads and river transport system. City-states like Pisa, Venice and Genoa became flourishing trade centres. Cities like Paris, London and Cologne doubled their population. There was increase in the demand for country side goods, which strengthened the economic life of the people. Sophisticated urban life was an important characteristic of this period. There developed a business class.
This class established trade guilds to protect its own interests and made many rules for business transactions. There were two classes among the clergy the higher class and lower class. The higher clergy led a luxurious life, while the lower clergy lived with limited requirements and humility. So there developed great disregard for the higher clergy.
Describe the role of Martin Luther in the Reformation Movement.
Reformation began in Germany and its leader Martin Luther was born at Eiselben in 1483 A.D in a poor German peasant family. Luther studied theology, law and humanism at the University of Erfurt in 1508 A.D. He was always haunted with the question, “how to please God?” He seriously studied the Bible and the works of St. Paul and St. Augustine. He became a Professor of Theology in the University of Wittenberg.
Luther strongly believed that man could get salvation only through God’s mercy but the Church preached that it possessed the means of salvation. He rejected the doctrine of good work.
He visited Rome in 1511 A.D and was shocked at the worldliness of the Pope and the corrupt and immoral life led by the clergy. He did not to tolerate the corrupt practices of the Church. In 1517, Pope Leo-X sent out several agents to dispense indulgences in order to collect funds to complete St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. They spread the belief that indulgences were passports to heaven. One of these agents, John Tetzel was selling indulgences as passports to Heaven.
Luther’s opposition: Luther wrote his objection against the Church practices and Pope’s authority in Latin. He prepared his objections in the form of ‘95 Theses’ and posted them on the door of the Church in Wittenberg. Thereupon Luther started a rebellious Movement against the abuses of the Church. This popular revolt came to be known as Protestant Movement.
Luther questioned the authority of Pope and challenged the concept of infallibility. As a result of these activities, the Pope ordered Emperor Charles-V to take action against Luther. In 1521 Charles-V summoned the Diet of Worms and ordered Luther to appear before the Diet to justify the charges made against the Pope. In the Diet of Worms, Luther was excommunicated by’the Pope. He was expelled from the Church and was branded a heretic.
Martin Luther established the ‘Lutheran National Church’ which rejected indulgences and worship of Saints. Bible was regarded as the sole source of religion. The struggle between Catholics and Protestants ended with the ‘Peace of Augsburg’ treaty in 1555. Lutheranism spread to many countries of Europe and Calvinism and Anglicanism also rose against Roman catholic Church.
Spread of Protestant (Lutheranism) faith.
1. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531): He was an eminent Protestant Reformer and leader of the movement in Switzerland. He was called as the Swiss Luther. He also denied Papal authority and insisted that the Bible was the only guide to faith and morals, he popularized Protestantism in Switzerland.
2. John Calvin (1509-1564) and Calvinism: John Calvin was a French reformer. His teachings are to be found in his book ‘Institutes of the Christian Religion’. He popularized the ideas of Luther. In Geneva, he set up the Calvinist Church and insisted on the strict enforcement of moral discipline. He advocated that the Church and the State must be separated. His followers in France came to be called Huguenots.
3. King Henry-Vin (1509-1547) and Anglicanism: He established an independent Church in England. He became the head of both the Church and the State. He proclaimed himself as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.
Explain the life and achievements of Augustus Caiesar.
He was a great Ruler and a wise Statesman. After several years of political turmoil, Rome enjoyed more than three decades of peace. He not only built an Empire but also was a great patron of Art and Literature. His reign is called as the ‘Golden Age’ in the history of Rome.
Julius Caesar’s assassination by the Brutus led Liberators, caused great political and social turmoil in Rome. The power passed into the hands of Mark Antony, Lepidus and Octavian who formed the ‘Second Triumvirate’. The conspirators were defeated in the battle of Philippi and Brutus and Cassius were killed.
The Triumvirate divided the Empire amongst themseives- Lepidus was in charge of Africa, Antony ruled in the Eastern Province and Octavian remained in Italy and controlled Gaul (France and Belgium). However, the relationship between Octavian and Antony deteriorated. Lepidus was forced to retire (after betraying Octavian in Sicily). Antony was living in Egypt and in the battle of ‘Actium’ was defeated by Octavian.
With the conquest of Egypt, anew Era began for Romans. By 27 BCE, Octavian was the sole Roman leader. His leadership brought the Zenith to Roman civilization that lasted for two centuries. He ruled the Roman Empire for 44 years with the titles ‘Augustus’, ‘Imperator’ and ‘Princeps’. The Government established by him was known as the ‘Principate’- ‘Government by the Princeps – The first citizen.
Augustus introduced many reforms which had far reaching consequences in Rome. He gave, ‘A centre to the System, a Chief to the Civil service, a Head to the Army, a Sovereign to the Subjects, a Protector to the Provinces and Peace to the Empire’.
He recognized the Governments of the conquered territories, stopped plunder and corruption and strengthened law and order. New Courts, and Postal Services were established. Augustus continued the calendar promoted by Julius Caesar and the month ‘August’ is named after him. The Emperor kept the poor people happy by supplying food grains.
He spent money lavishly on the construction of public buildings, roads, bridges, amphitheatres and fountains. The most important Amphitheatre was the Coliseum built at Rome. This could accommodate about 50000 people. Due to the construction of well paved inter linking system of roads, Rome became the nerve centre of trade and commerce in the Mediterranean world.
He maintained diplomatic and commercial contacts with a number of countries including India and China. There were the Generals Agrippa and Maecenas, and Writers, Poets and Historians like Livy, Horace, Virgil, Ovid, Pliny and Tacitus in his time. Jesus Christ was born during his reign.
Augustan age is popularly called as ‘Golden Age’ in the history of Rome. It was known for peace and prosperity. This period is known as ‘Pax Romana’ or Roman peace. He gave the idea of the ‘World State’. His imperial system lasted for nearly 500 years and saved the great treasures of Greco-Roman civilization.
Describe the administrative reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Administrative reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte:
Napoleon centralized the entire system of local Government in France. The entire country was divided into Provinces, Arrondisments and Communes. The powers were vested in Prefects and Sub-Prefects who were responsible to only Napoleon. It assured that the decrees of the Central Government should promptly and uniformly be carried out. He developed and i empowered the office of the ‘Secretariat of the State’. His major reforms were as follows.
1. Code Napoleon: The most durable of Napoleon’s work was the introduction of the legal code which is the base for the French Law. This was known as‘Code Napoleon’ and came into effect in 1804 A.D. He appointed two committees to draft the legal codes and the committees were presided over by Napoleon. He had a good commonsense and a legislative vision. The 5 codes were
- French Civil Code
- Code of Civil Procedure
- Code of Criminal Procedure
- Penal Code
- Commercial Code
The basic demands of the Revolution like Civil equality, religious toleration, emancipation of land etc., were taken care of with these codes. He was hailed as the second Justinian.
2. Education: He introduced a national scheme of education managed by the State which was organized into four types- Elementary, Secondary, Higher and Special Schools. This was to maintain uniformity of standard in Schools and Colleges. He also established the University of France.
3. Religious reforms or the Concordat: He made a code of laws for the Clergy also and to heal up the mistrust with the Papacy, entered into a religious understanding with Pope Pius-VII in 1802 known as the Concordat. He regained the sympathy of the Catholics by improving his relations with the Pope and with this treaty, Catholicism became the State religion.
4. Public works: He built new highways connecting Paris with the other major cities and improved the means of communication. Bridges and Canals were constructed. These helped in solving the unemployment problem also to a great extent. He. encouraged trade and commerce and Paris and other cities were beautified and transformed to modern cities.
5. Economy: Bank of France was established. It supervised the entire financial setup and stimulated trade and industry. Careful collection of taxes and rigid economic measures were carried out. Revenue boards were set up. The national loan was reduced and the Stock Exchanges were regulated. He took stern-measures to root out corruption and gambling.
6. Legion of honour: To honour those who had rendered meritorious Military and Civil services to the State, Napoleon started an award called ‘Legion of Honour’. It was based on principles of equality, without distinction of class and religion.
Part – F
VI. 36. Match the following: (5 × 1 = 5)
37. Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. (5 × 1 = 5)
- Non-Aligned Movement
- Edict of Milan
- Boston Tea Party
- Discovery of India
- New Economic Policy
- Edict of Milan
- Boston Tea Party
- New Economic Policy
- Discovery of India
- Non-Aligned Movement