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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019
Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
Name the work that mentions the extent of ancient Karnataka.
Which was the first metal used by man in South India?
Iron was the first metal used by humans in South India.
What was the original name of Buddha?
Siddhartha was the original name of Buddha.
Who was the founder of the Kadamba dynasty?
Mayuravarma was the founder of the Kadamba dynasty.
Who were the first among the Muslims to invade India?
Arabs were the first among the Muslims to invade India. Mohammad – bin – Quasim, the Governor of Basra invaded India in 712 C.E.
In which year did the coronation ceremony of Shivaji take place?
In 1674 raigadh.
Name the lady who defended the Chitradurga fort.
Obavva defended the fort of Chitradurga.
Mention the philosophy of Ramanujacharya.
Sri Vaishnava or Vishistadvaitha Philosophy was expounded by Ramanujacharya.
Name the treaty which ended the first Anglo – Mysore War.
Treaty of Madras in 1769 C.E.
Who was the first Kannadiga who secured Bharata Ratna award?
Sir. M. Vishweshwaraiah, in 1955.
PART – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
Name any two universities of ancient India.
The Nalanda and Takshashila were two Universities of ancient India.
What is the meaning of the word ‘Neolithic’?
The word Neolithic is derived from the Greek words Neo meaning new and Lithic meaning stone to refer to the New Stone Age.
Name any two women Scholars of Vedic period.
Gargi, Maitreyi Shashwati, Lopamudra, Apala are some of the famous learned women of the vedic period.
Why was the fourth Buddhist council held? When?
- 1st Buddhist council was held circa 487 BCE at Rajagriha.
- 2nd Buddhist council was held circa 387 BCE at Vaishali.
- 3rd Buddhist council was held circa 251 BCE in Pataliputra.
- 4th Buddhist council was held circa 100 CE in Kashmir.
Name any two titles of Pulikeshi-II.
Pulikeshi – II assumed the title ‘Parameshwara’ after the battle of river Narmada. Other titles were “Sri Prithvivallabha, Dakshinapatheshwara, Satyashraya, Kanchigonda, Paramabhaghavata” etc.
Who built the Kailasanatha temple? Where was it built?
Rashrakuta King Krishna-I built it at Ellora.
Between whom was the second battle of Panipat fought?
The second battle of Panipat fought between Akbar and Hemu (Chief Minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal) in 1556 C.E. at Panipat.
Mention the capitals of the Bahamani dynasty.
Gulbarga and Bidar were the capitals of the Bahamani dynasty.
Who were the parents of Shankaracharya?
Shivaguru and Aryamba were the parents of Shankaracharya.
Name any news papers published by Swami Vivekananda.
Prabuddha Bharata (English) and Udbodhana (Bengali).
Name two important Commissioners of Mysore.
Mark Cubbon and L.B. Bowring were two important Commissioners of Mysuru.
Mention any two committees formed for reorganization of States.
Dhar committee (1948), J.V.R committee (1949) and Fazl Ali committee (1953).
PART – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (6 × 5 = 30)
‘Unity in Diversity is the unique feature of Indian history. Explain.
India is the 7th largest country in area and the second-most populous country in the world. The special features of Indian history are :
1. Continuity of civilization and culture:
India has one of the earliest histories in the world. The physical features of our country, full of variety, richness and contrasts tend to divide India into different local zones. However, it . has 4000 years of continuous history and continuity of civilization and culture, like China.
2. Evolution in phases :
Its has developed in various stages with necessary improvements. We find a connecting link of events from the Indus to the Vedic period, Vedic to Islamic and Christian influences.
3. Foreign invasions:
The natural barriers on the frontiers of India provided security from foreign invasions. However, foreigners like Greeks, Persians, Huns, Shakas, Arabs, Turks, Kushans, Afghans, and others entered India from the Khyber and Bolan passes.
All these invaders contributed to the Indian culture. The historical monuments and other structures like Forts built by these invaders are attracting tourists even today. South India had immunity from such invasions and developed a distinct culture of its own.
4. Religious tolerance (Dominant and tolerant . Hindu faith):
India is home for Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, Sikhs, Muslims, Parsis, Christians and several tribal faiths and practices. Indians believe in the concept of ‘Vasudhaivaka kutumbakam’ and ‘Sarve janaha sukhino bhavantu which means that the whole world is one family and let all the people be happy.
5. Indian contributions to the world:
India has contributed immensely in the fields of literature, philosophy, science, art, culture, architecture, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, etc., UNO has recognized more than 30 Indian historical sites as centers of world heritage, such as the Hill forts of Rajasthan, Khujaraho, Konark, Tajmahal, Bodh Gaya, Sanchi, Ajanta, Ellora, Hampi, Aihole, Pattadakallu, Madurai, Kanchi, Churches of Goa, etc.,
Yoga, Ayurveda, and other artistic specimens are the special contributions of Indians to the world. The great contributions of Indian mathematicians haye enriched the world with the concept of zero and the decimal system.
The ancient universites of Nalanda, Takshashila, Ujjain, Prayag, Vikramshila, Kashi and Kanchi attracted students from different countries of the world. India was at the height of its intellectual and spiritual glory.
6. Unity in diversity :
India possesses diverse physical and geographical features and also shows diversity racially, linguistically, socially, economically, religiously and almost in every sphere of human activities. In spite of all these diversities, there are many unifying forces that have kept India united.
Discuss about the life and teachings of Mahaveera.
1. Vardhaman Mahaveer: (599-527 B.C.E.) Life of Mahaveera:
He was the 24th Thirthankara and the real founder of Jainism. He was born in Kundagramanear Vaishali in 599 BCE in a kshatriya family. His parents were Siddhartha and Trishala. Siddhartha was the head of a kshatriya clan called Janatrika. Vardhaman had a very comfortable early life.
At the age of 18, he married Yashoda and subsequently a daughter was born. Her name was Anojja or Priyadarshini. Mahaveera was inclined towards spiritual life and renounced worldly life. He left home and wandered naked in search of the truth and the real meaning of life. He lived the life of self-mortification (renunciation) and deep meditation.
Finally one day in Vaishaka, he attained Supreme Knowledge (Enlightenment) of Kaivalya (Jnana) and became Kevalin (omniscient) at Jrimbhikagrama in Bihar. Later he became also known as Jina, which means conqueror of all likings and dislikings. His followers came to be known as Jains. Vardhaman was hailed as Mahaveer or the Great Conqueror.
2. Propagation of the Religion:
Mahaveera spent the rest of his life in preaching his doctrines to the people of Magadha, Anga, Mithila, Kosala and other parts of India. His religion attracted a large number of followers and also Kings like Bindusara and Ajatashatru. He accepted the teachings of Parshwanatha as the basis of Jainism. He lived till the age of 72 years and passed away at Pavapuri near Patna, in 527 BCE.
3. Teachings of Mahaveera:
The main basis of Jainism is the belief in soul and karma. The main objective of Jainism is the attainment of salvation by freeing the soul from the earthly pleasures. Mahaveera preached five vows and three jewels for the attainment of salvation.
Three jewels or thiratnas:
- Right, Knowledge is understanding the doctrines of Jainism.
- Right Faith is the firm belief in the omniscience of Mahaveera.
- Right action or conduct is the fulfilment of the five great vows.
The main teaching of Mahaveera was “Ahimsa Paramodharma”. He paid great importance to non-violence and rejected the authority of the vedas and the supremacy of the brahmins. He believed in establishing an order which would lead the people to the path of truth and salvation. To liberate the soul from the bondage of karma, it is necessary to destroy the latter. This can be achieved by an individual by practising the five vows or principles.
4. Five vows (principles) or avoidance of the five evil karmas :
Mahaveera preached the ethical code and insisted that the following five should be practiced. They are:
a. Non-violence (Ahimsa):
Jainism believed in an extreme form of non-violence. Ahimsa means that violence should not be caused by words, thoughts, and actions. There should be no harm or ill-treatment to any living being.
b. Truth (Satya):
One should not speak untruth, and should also avoid speaking a bitter truth.
c. Non-stealing (Asteya):
One should never steal or pick up things that do not belong to them either directly or indirectly.
d. Non-possession (Aparigraha):
Aparigraha means one is to avoid the longing for worldly things, possession of wealth and property.
e. Chastity (Brahmacharya):
Chastity means control of passions, emotions, and desires. Purity of thought, words and deed are to be cultivated.
All these five principles will lead to the path of salvation. Mahaveera did not believe that the universe was created by God nor did he make any reference to Him. He preached that change was a natural phenomenon. Birth and death were natural and applicable to men and matter. He condemned the caste system and the sacrificial rituals. Nirvana should be the ultimate aim of a soul.
Describe the village administration of the cholas.
1. Village (local self) Administration:
An important feature of the Chola administration was the village autonomy. People of a village looked after administration through their own elected bodies. The Chola inscriptions mention the existence of two types of villages Ur and Brahmadeya Villages. Ur had its own local assembly, consisting of all the male members of the village excluding untouchables.
It looked after all aspects of the village administration. The Brahmadeya villages (Agraharas) were granted by the King to learned brahmins. They had their own assemblies called Mahasabhas, which had complete freedom in governance.
Uttarameruru inscription of Paratanka -I, gives us a detailed information about the village administration. (Uttarameruru is in the Chengulpet district of Tamilnadu). The villages enjoyed complete independence in the management of local affairs. Two kinds of assemblies existed which were
- Ur or Urar (kuri) and
- The Mahasabha.
According to the Uttarameruru inscription, Uttarameruru village was divided into 30 parts (Kudumbu). One member from each unit was elected .for a period of one year. The representatives of the people were elected through a lucky draw (Kuduvalai) system. Villagers assembled in the temple and conducted an election through a lucky draw.
The names of the candidates were. written on palm leaves and put in a pot. Then a small boy was asked to pick out the leaves one after the other in the presence of the people and thus the representatives were elected.
Elected representatives had to work in the Annual, Garden (Tottavariyam) and Tank Bund (Erivariyam) committees called ‘Variyams’. The representatives were called ‘Variya PerumakkaE. The village assemblies were autonomous and democratic institutions.
2. Duties of the committees :
The village committees performed duties like the protection of the village properties, collection of taxes and the protection of temples, lakes, groves, and forests, etc. The resolutions of the committees were written down. The central administration did not interfere in the village administration.
3. Minimum qualifications of members:
The Uttarameruru inscription deals with rules and regulations regarding the election, the qualifications and disqualifications of members. These committees worked for 360 days when fresh elections were held.
Qualifications needed for a member to be elected:
- The candidate should possess a minimum of 1/2 acre of taxable land.
- He should reside in his own house built on his own site.
- Candidate should be more than 35 years o Id and less than 70 years of age.
- Candidate should have knowledge of Vedas, Brahmanakas, and Commerce.
- Candidate should possess a good character.
Disqualifications of members:
- A member was disqualified for re-election if he had been a member of any committee continuously for the previous 3 years.
- Those who were in the committee and who had not submitted accounts and their close relatives.
- Persons who were wicked, cheats, alcoholics, thieves, accused of murdering brahmins and committing adultery.
This way, certain minimum qualifications, and disqualifications were enforced in the village administration. Scholars have termed the Chola village administration as “Small Democratic States”.
Explain the main features of Hoysala Architecture.
1. Hoysaia art and architecture:
Hoysalas occupy a unique place in the Indian architectural history. Hoysalas adapted the Vesara and Dravidian styles and developed a new style of architecture. So, it is nothing but the culmination of the Chalukyan architecture and is called ‘The Hoysaia style’ of architecture. The great sculptors who built most of the Hoysaia temples were Dasoja, Chavana, Kedaraja, Nagoja, Jakkanna, Mallitamma, Byroja and others.
The main characteristics (Salient features) of the Hoysala temples :
1. Hoysala temples are star-shaped. The temples have a tower (sikhara) above the sanctum (Garbhagriha). This tower is in the form of a pyramid.
2. Hoysala temples are constructed on a, raised platform (jagati) of 4 to 5 feet. The walls of the basement are covered with stone carvings.
3. Just above the platform, space is left all around the temple, to do pradakshana of the temple, which is called Pradhakshinapatha.
4. The temples have carved stone windows with apertures and the walls are covered with ornamental sculptures.
5. The outer walls of the temples have stone carvings, The bottom portion consists of a row of elephants, horses, flower designs, swans, stories from the epics and puranas.
6. The doorways of the temples have beautiful carvings in stone and a pair of dwarapalakas stand on either side.
7. The centre of the ceiling of the hall has intricate carvings of Bhuvaneshwari. Above the pillars, on the brackets stand the statues of dancing girls in different poses.
8. Hoysala temples have been classified as per the number of cells (kutas) e.g., One cell (ekakuta) temples to five cells (panchakuta) temples. The sanctums (Garbhagriha) are small and simple square chambers.
2. Hoysala temple constructions:
Hoysalas built more than 100 temples between the 11th and 13th centuries. Vishnuvardhana period was the ‘Golden age’ of temple building in the Hoysala Kingdom. Vishnuvardhana built, Kirthinarayana temple at Talakadu, Cheluvanarayana temple at Melkote, Channakeshava temple and Kappechenniga temples at Belur, Mallikarjuna and Rangantha temples at Huliyur, Veeranarayana temples at’ Gadag and Bankapura.
Channakeshava temple (Ekakuta) at Belur is the epitome of the Hoysala style. Ballala-Ill (1173-1220 CE) built AmrutheshWara and Ballaleshwara temples at Arasikere and Kedareshwara temple at Halebeedu. Narasimha-I and his deputy Ketamalla built the Hoysaleshwara (Dwikuta) temple (1121 CE) at Halebeedu.
Narasimha II built the Harihareshwar temple at Harihara, Lakshminarasimha temple at Bhadravati, and Someshwara and Keshava temples at Haradanahalli. Narasimha-III built Keshava temple (Thrikuta) at Somanathapura in 1268 CE., Lakshmi temple (chathuskuta) at Doddagaddavalli and Panchalingeshwara temple (Panchakuta) at Govindanahalli.
The Channkeshava temple (1117CE) built by Vishnuvardhana at Belur, The Hoysaleshwar temple (1121 CE) built by Ketamalla at Halebeedu and the Keshava temple (1268 CE) built by Narasimha – III at Somanathapura are the best examples of the best variety. According to Fergusson the famous historian, Hoysaleshwara temple can be termed as the ‘Jewel of Indian Architecture’.
Write a explanatory note on the South Indian expedition of Alla-ud-din Khilji.
South Indian expedition of Allauddin :
Allauddin Khilji was the first muslim ruler to attempt to the conquest of south India. He deputed his able general Malik Kafur to conquer south India. His ambition was to conquer the enormous wealth of south India and that was the reason for his southern campaign.
1. Expedition to Devagiri (1306-1307 C.E.):
Ramachandradeva was the King of Devagiri, who had given shelter to King Kamadeva – II of Gujarat and his daughter Devaladevi. He had also not paid the annual tribute to the Sultan for three years. For these reasons, Malik Kafur raided Devagiri, defeated Ramachandradeva, captured Devaladevi and collected immense booty in 1307 C.E. Devaladevi was married to Khizer Khan, son of Allauddin.
2. Conquest of Warangal (1309 C.E):
In 1309 C.E., Malik Kafur marched through (via) Devagiri, secured the help of Ramachandra-deva and attacked Warangal. Pratapa Rudradeva, the ruler of Warangal put up a stiff resistance. However, he was defeated and had to surrender a lot of wealth which was carried away to Delhi by Malik Kafur. The Ruler of Warangal had to accept Delhi Sultan’s sovereignty.
3. Expedition to Hovsalas in 1310 C.E:
Malik Kafur attacked Dwarasamudra (Halebeedu) when Veera Ballala – III was away from the capital and was busy interfering in the Chola politics. Malik Kafur occupied Dwarasamudra and plundered the rich temples in the surrounding areas and looted gold, silver, pearls, diamonds, and jewels. Ballala – III was forced to plead for peace and he also accepted the sovereignty of Allauddin Khilji.
4. Conquest of Madhurai (1311 C.E.):
The forces of Delhi under Malik Kafur attacked the capital of the Pandya Kings (Madhurai) and plundered the city. Civil war arose between Sundarapandya and Veerapandya, Malik Kafur razed down the famous temple at Rameshwara. All the wealth looted in south India was transported to Delhi on a large herd of elephants.
Discuss the Socio-religious reforms of Basaveshwara.
1. Socio-religious reforms of Basavesh wara :
Basaveshwara was a revolutionary reformer. He wanted to build a classless and casteless society. The first step to him was integration of the people on equal status, regardless of caste. He advocated equality of all human beings. He strongly opposed blind beliefs, superstitions, image worship, ritualism, pilgrimage and taking holy baths in the river.
He tried to wipe out the evil practice of untouchability and encouraged intercaste marriages. He made it clear that caste system does not have the base of Dharmashastra. He encouraged interdining and gave lingadeeksha to the untouchable Nagadeva and accepted his hospitality. Encouraging inter-caste marriage, he performed the marriage of Brahmin Madhuvaiah’s daughter with Harijan Haralaiah’s son.
Orthodox people were disturbed by these revolutionary acts of Basaveshwara and gave a complaint to King Bijjala that he was spending the money from the treasury to benefit his followers and that he was spoiling Hinduism. Bijjala gave death sentence to Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah.
When the news of the death of Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah spread, Basaveshwara was upset and gave up his post as minister and went to Kudalasangama. This led to a revolt by his followers and in this revolt Bijjala was murdered.
Disapproving animal sacrifice, Basavesh wara said “Kindness is the source of religion” (Dayave dharmada moolavaiah). He gave the concept of ‘work is worship’. This was the main message of Basaveshwara to mankind. He tried to propagate purity, morality and humanistic approach through his vachanas.
He rejected the idea of building temples. He questioned the need and purpose to build temples when our own body is a temple, where God resides. He felt that his body was the temple, his legs were its pillars and his head was its golden tower.
Write about the Subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse.
a. Subsidiary Alliance :
The Indian rulers who had entered into this military alliance with the British had to keep a British army in their state and bear the expenses of the maintenance of that army. It was introduced by Lord Wellesley in 1798. Expansion of the British Empire in India was its main aim.
Conditions of the subsidiary Alliance :
1. The Indian state which joins it, must surrender its external relations to the care of the Company. They should not wage wars and their dealings should be conducted only with their the prior permission of the Company.
2. If any ruler was unable to pay the expenses, he had to cede a part of his Kingdom. The protection of that state was the responsibility of the Company.
3. A British Resident should be kept in the court of the King. The Company was not to interfere in the internal affairs of that state.
4. The Company should protect the Indian state against their enemies and no other European could be appointed in their administration without the permission of the Company.
Advantages to the Company :
1. The subsidiary Alliance disarmed the Indian states. They came under the mercy of the British. The grave consequences of the war were much reduced.
2. Indian states practically lost their independence and became financially weak.
3. The Kings neglected the welfare of their people. So Kings also lost their credibility. The Kings were protected by the Company.
4. The Company was able to check the influence of the French over the Indian states. The Company gradually. brought the whole country under its control.
The Nizam of Hyderabad was the first to sign the Alliance. Later the rulers of Mysore, Oudh, Travancore, Baroda, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bharatpur, Nagpur, and Gwalior also signed the Alliance.
b. The Doctrine of Lapse :
According to this policy, when the Ruler of the protected state died without a natural heir, then that state would pass on to the British Empire, which was called the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’, (or) According to this policy, if a King died without a son or daughter, his estate lapsed. It should be noted that the King had no right to adopt a son under any circumstances.
The Doctrine of lapse was introduced by Lord Dalhousie. His aim was the expansion of the British Empire in India. By following this policy, the British annexed Sitara, Jaipur, Sambhalpur, Udaipur, Jhansi, Nagapur, Bhagatpur. Coorg, etc.
The doctrine of lapse was unjustified both on legal and ethical grounds, Whether right or wrong, two-third of the Indian territories came under the British rule by 1856. These factors contributed to the outburst of. the Indian anger in 1857 in the form of First war of the Indian Independence.
Write about the impact of the British rule on Indian Education.
a. Thomas Macaulay’s Minutes in 1835:
The Governor-General, Lord William Bentittck appointed Macaulay to settle the dispute between Orientalists and Anglicists. He wrote a report on the ‘Indian system of Education’. Macaulay favoured the views of Anglicists. He recommended in 1835, that the accumulated amount (23 lakh) must be exclusively used for the study of western system of education in India through English as the medium of education.
He had great contempt for Indian customs and literature. He said that a single shelf of a good European Library was worth the whole native Literature of India and Arabia.
Macaulay aimed to create a class of persons, who should be ‘Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions and intellect’. This report was also aimed at converting people to Christianity, preparing Indians to work for the company and also the spread of English education. English education infused into them the spirit of nationalism.
b. Charles Wood’s Despatch (Report) in 1854:
Sir Charles Wood prepared and submitted a report to the Government in 1854. It touched upon all aspects of the Indian education (Scheme of future education of India). The implementation of the report led to tremendous changes in primary and secondary education in India. It is considered as ‘The Magna Carta’ of the English education in India. The report made the following important recommendations.
1. Emphasis on western Education:
The main object of the education was the teaching of western Education. The dissemination of western thoughts, literature, science, and art should be the ultimate aim of education.
2. Company should start Primary schools in villages, High-schools in towns and Colleges at district level.
3. Vernacular Education:
Primary education should be in the vernacular languages and English medium for higher education. Opportunities should be given for the study of Indian languages.
To provide Grant-in- Aid to private Educational institutions.
5. Department of Public Instruction:
Company should set up a Department of Public Instruction to supervise the education in all the Provinces.
6. Technical Education:
Institutions must be started to offer specialized training in the technical fields. Training of teachers must also be carried out through separate schools meant for the purpose.
7. Establishment of Universities:
Universities at Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras on the model of London University must be opened.
8. Encouragement of women’s education:
Women must be encouraged to attend schools. The report gave support to women’s education. Lord Dalhousie accepted these recommendations and brought in noteworthy changes in Indian Education.
PART – D
IV, Answer the following questions as indicated (5 + 5=10)
A. Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of India provided to you and add on explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
It is the capital of Bihar State, now called as Patna, which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empite, the Mauryas and the Guptas rule.
The early name of Badami was Vatapi and it was the capital of the Chalukyas. It is famous for rock-cut cave temples. It is in Bagalkote district of Karnataka.
It’s early name was Dhwarasamudra and it was the capital of the Hoysalas. The Hoysaleshwara and Shantaleshwara temples are found here. It is in Hassan district of Karnataka.
It is in Maharastra. Alla-ud-din- Khilji led many expeditions on Devagiri. Mohammad-Bin-Tughalak shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri for a short while. Devagiri was renamed as Daulatsbad.
It is situated on the banks of river Jamuna in U.P. It was founded by Sikandar Lodhi. It became the capital of Akbar. Taj Mahal is the most famous monument of Agra.
It is the capital of West Bengal, situated on the banks of river Hoogli. Calcutta was the first Capital of the British in India. Swami Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur near Calcutta.
It is a Union territory located on the east coast of India (Coramandal Coast). It was the capital of the French in India. It played an important role during the Carnatic wars.
It is in Uttar Pradesh. The first war of Indian Independence started at Meerut. The sepoys broke out into open revolt against the British on 10th May 1857.
(For Visually Challenged Students only)
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (1 × 10 = 10)
i. Why is Gupta age called “The Golden age’ in Indian history?
Gupta period was a unique phase in the Indian history, due to the all round development during this age. It has been described as the ‘Golden age’ and the “Classical period of Indian history”. Dr. R.N. Saletore has compared it with the ages of Augustus Caesar of Rome and Queen Elizabeth of England. Dr. L.D. Barnet compared it with the age of Pericles of Greece. The achievements in the fields of religion, education, literature, art, architecture, science and technology were extraordinary.
Revival of Hinduism (Hindu renaissance) was one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. Guptas followed vedic religion, but they were tolerant towards the other religions. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. Pashupata sect of Shaivism became very popular. Worship of the Saptamatrikas became widespread.
The Shiva temple at Deogadh, the temple of Bhumara and the Mahakal temple of Ujjain were built in the Gupta age. The Gupta Rulers performed vedic rites and sacrifices. Samudragupta and Chandragupta- II, were worshippers of Vishnu. They assumed the titles ‘Parama Bhagavatha’ (Devotee of Vishnu). Image worship, rites, and ceremonies became very common. The vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vajapeya and Rajasuya yagas were performed with all splendour.
Buddhism also enjoyed great popularity during the Gupta age The Buddh ist caves at Ajantha. Ellora, Kanheri, and Karle belong to the Gupta period. Some of the Gupta rulers followed Buddhism and extended patronage to it. In fact, Buddha was adopted into Hinduism and he was regarded as one of the Avataras of Vishnu.
Education flourished well under the Guptas. The rulers themselves were great scholors. They paid special attention to education. Taxila, Nalanda, Ajantha, and Saranatha were well-known Universities of the Gupta era. Pataliputra and Vallabhi were great educational centres. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature. Philosophy.
The Gupta age is called ‘the Golden age of Sanskrit literature’. Samudragupta has been described ds a King among poets in the Allahabad inscription. He got a title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta-II (Vikramadhitya-II) partronized the ‘Nine gems’ (navaratnas) of Sanskrit scholors in his court.
Among them, Kalidasa was the most outstanding literary figure of that age. He wrote a number of excellent works like Malavikagnimithra, Vikramorvashjya, Shakunthala, Raghuvamsa, Kumara sambhava, Meghaduta, Rithusamhara, etc., Kalidasa emerges as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare”.
5. Other important writers and their works:
Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika, Bharavi – Kiratarjuneya, Dandhi – Kavyadhara, Vishnusimha – Panchatantra, Amarasimha- Amarakosa, Vishakadatta – Mudrarakshasa, Bhavabuthi-Uttararam acharithe, Charaka- Charakasamhithe, Shanku – Shilpashastra, Kshapanaka- Jyothishashastra, Vethalabhatta- Manth rashasthra and others.
The literary standard of this period was high and Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature.
6. Development of science:
The Gupta age made a tremendous progress in the field of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, Medicine, and Metallurgy.
Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of this period. He wrote two great works- Aryabhatia and Surya siddhantha. He gave very valuable contributions to Indian science.
Brahmagupta was the great astronomer and mathematician, who wrote the book ‘Brahmaputra siddhantha. He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was the astronomer, who wrote Brihatsamhithe. Vridha Vagbhata(physician) wrote Ashtanga Sangraha. Dhanvantari, (physician) wrote Ayurveda Nighantu.
He was regarded as the father of Indian medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha were the physicians who wrote Samhithes. The Meharauli iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example of the metallurgical skill of that period. It is still free from rust, even though it has been exposed to the elements like wind, rain, sun, etc., all these hundreds of years.
7. Art and Architecture:
The basic structural features of the Indian temple architecture were developed during the Gupta period. The Gupta art is famous for its simple expression and spiritual purpose. The art of the Guptas was purely Indian in nature. Naturalism, beauty, spiritualism, and realism were the main features of their art. Mathura, Benaras, Pataliputra, Udayagiri, Devgarh, etc were the centres of their artistic activities.
The Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples. The temples have pyramidal roofs and the walls are decorated with scenes from Hindu mythologies. The Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (MP), has a tower of about 40 feet. It’s doorway is excellently carved and decorated.
Many images of Shiva such as the Ekamukhi and Chaturmukhi Shivalings were also carved during this period. The Ardhanarishvvara i.e., oneness of Shiva and Shakti is also a remarkable piece of work. Some temples were flat-roofed and square in shape with a shallow porch in front. For example, the Shiva temple at Bhumara, the Vishnu temple at Tigawa, the Buddhist Shrine at Sanchi, etc., follow this design.
In the field of painting, the artists of the Gupta age excelled in bringing out the emotions in a realistic manner. Many jataka stories have been illustrated. The scene of “Mother and child before Buddha” in the Ajantha cave no. 16, the great Bodhisatva in cave no. 1 and the paintings on the ceilings of cave no. 2 are remarkable. Thus, it has been known as the ‘Cradle of Asian art’.
ii. Explain the causes and results of the first war of Indian Independence.
The revolt of 1857 set the tone for India’s Independence struggles. The period between 1757-1857 was marked by the plunder of Indian wealth, by East India Company. Political, social and cultural changes led to the rebellion against the British rule. This was the first united revolt and it was the outburst of accumulated discontent of Indians against the policies of East India company.
The spark of patriotism was kindled in a millitary unit at Meerut which soon burst into a terrific flame and spread to other parts of the country and shook the British rule. British called this as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’, but the nationalists called it as the first war of Indian Independence.
Causes for the revolt :
1. Political causes :
The conquests and annexations of the British not only affected the ruling class, but also gave a rude shock to the sentiments of the people. The British interfered in the internal affairs of the Indian states and followed the policy of divide and rule.
Implementation of the subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse, using the pretext of misrule to annex the Kingdoms and Princely states were the reasons for the Indian Kings, Princes, Soldiers, Zamindars to be disappointed with the actions of the British East India Company.
2. Administrative causes :
The British introduced a new system of administration which replaced the traditional system. The introduction of‘Rule of Law’ and ‘Equality before law’ developed suspicion in the minds of the orthodox (traditional) Hindus and Muslims.
Indians were not given higher posts in the administration and were paid much less than the British officers with no promotions. This was contrary to the British policy of equality before law.
3. Economic causes :
Economic exploitation was an important cause for the revolt. The huge drain of wealth made India ecomonically poor. The British trade policy had established a monopoly on trade. They converted India into a supplier of raw materials and a market for their finished goods. Indian native handicrafts suffered a lot.
Indian goods could not be sold in England due to heavy taxes imposed on their export. The Land tax was also raised, due to which many of them were compelled to mortage their lands to moneylenders and consequently found themselves in deep debts. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks “India became a milk cow for England, while her own children died of starvation”.
4. Social causes :
Many social and religious reforms caused (Social Reforms Act) serious discontent among Hindu and Muslim orthodox sections. The British thought that they belonged to a superior race and humiliated,Indians. The abolition of Sati, permission for widow remarriages, curb on child marriages, purdah, animal sacrifices etc., caused a- lot of unrest among the orthodox people.
The introduction of telegraph and railways were seen as efforts to chain the country British treated Indians as unworthy of trust, incapable of honesty and fit to be employed only where they could not do without them. They were rude and arrogant towards Indians and were very racial in their nature and spirit.
5. Religious causes :
The British activities affected the sentiments of Hindus and Muslims. The Chritian missionaries were seen everywhere in the schools, hospitals, prisons and at the market places. They tried to convert Indians to Christianity by various devious methods. The spread of English education and culture through missionaries and convents created suspicion among Indians about their religions.
Hindu soldiers were forced to cross the sea against their belief. Forced inter marriages became a means to convert the natives to Christianity. Cartridges greased with Cows / Pigs fat affected the religious sentiments of Hindus and Muslims alike. The Europeans treated Indians as untouchables.
6. Military causes:
Indian solidiers were paid very low salaries compared to the British soldiers of the same grade, and were not promoted to any rank higher than that of a subedar. According to the Enlistment Act of 1856 of Lord Canning, it required the sepoys to serve overseas also. Hindus believed that crossing the sea was a sin (Kalapani).
The soldiers were often treated with contempt by their British officers. There were rumours among the sepoys that the British were trying to break their caste and convert them to Christianity. There were more than 75000 soldiers in the British army from Oudh. When Oudh was annexed by the British Empire citing maladministration, these soldiers were angry.
7. Immediate causes:
The British introduced new Enfield rifles. The top of the cartridges had to be removed by biting it off. A rumour spread that the cartridges were smeared with the fat of cows and pigs. The Indian sepoys p felt that the British were trying to spoil their and were clear signs of westernization. The religion. They refused to use these rifles and the British forced and threatened the soldiers to use them. This was the spark, which later spread all over the country.
Results of the revolt :
The first war of Indian Independence marks a very important turning point in the history of India and its far reaching results. They are :
1. End of the Company rule :
The East India Company rule was abolished and the British Crown took over the administration of India. Viceroy was the representative of the Crown in India and Lord Canning was the first Viceroy.
2. The Queen’s proclamation (or) Magna carta of India in 1858 :
Queen Victoria issued her famous proclamation known as the Magna carta of the Indian people (Lord . Canning announced it on 1st November 1858). Indians were promised that their rights, self-respect, honour and religious traditions would be safeguarded and Government jobs would be offered to all without any favouritism. The British Government will not annex any more Indian states.
3. Reorganization of the Army :
The Indian Army was reorganized. Number of the British soldiers in the army was increased, growth of sentiment of national unity among the sepoys was checked, but communal loyalties were encouraged.
4. Unity among Indians :
The revolt brought unity among Hindus and Muslims, as they came together to fight the British.
5. Source of Inspiration :
The revolt gave British a taste of Indian patriotism. It served as a source of inspiration in India’s struggle for freedom. The heroes of the revolt soon became household names in the country. The Mughal rule also came to an end.
PART – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Enumerate briefly the salient features of Indus Civilization.
Seals, terracotta figurines and statues narrate the religious life of the Indus people. They primarily worshipped nature in its various forms. Mother Goddess (Sakti). Pashupathi and Shiva were their main Gods and Goddesses. They worshipped sacred trees like Pipai, Neem, and Acacia. The worship of Linga was associated with Shiva was very common.
Worship of nature, animals, trees, and spirits also existed. The Indus people worshipped animals like the humped bull, elephant, crocodile, unicorn, tiger, naga, etc. Probably the different birds and animals were accepted as vehicles of the various Gods and Goddesses.
2. Art and crafts:
Art specimens of the Indus people are found in their pottery, carpentry, ivory carvings, stone-cuttings, seals and other objects. Statues were made in stone, clay, copper, and bronze. The most remarkable contribution of the Indus people to the ancient craftsmanship was in the form of toys. The bronze idol of a dancing girl is a noteworthy object. It indicates their artistic skill.
3. Seals and Scripts :
More than 3000 seals made of terracotta and ivory and stone have been found. Most of them are square or rectangular in shape and small (1 /2 to 3cm) in size. These give us a lot of information about their script, religious beliefs, commercial contacts, etc., The seals contain figures of animals, human beings and pictographic writings.
The direction of the writings was from right to left and pictographic in nature. Many of the symbols used during that age, were similar to the ancient Egyptian script. Due to lack of sufficient written proof, it has been very difficult to study them in-depth.
Explain the life and achievements of Ashoka.
1. Ashoka the Great:
Ashoka was the greatest ruler of the Mauryas and one of the renowned Rulers of the world. He is mentioned in his edicts as ‘Devanampriya’ and “Priyadarshi’. He considered his subjects as his own children and considered that the Primary duty of the King was to promote the welfare of the people. He came to power in 273 BCE, but his coronation was celebrated only in 269 BCE.
2. Kalinga War (261 BCE):
Ashoka waged a war against the Kalinga Kingdom as he considered war and annexation as the rightful duty of a King. It was this imperialistic consideration that prompted Ashoka to conquer Kalinga. Rock Edict XIII of Ashoka tells us that the war ended with bloodshed and misery.
One lakh people died, 1.5 lakh were taken as prisoners of war. This event had a deep impact on his mind. Kalinga war was the turning point in the life of Ashoka becuase a After the war he embraced Buddhism by the influence of Upagupta and followed the principles of non-violence.
Ashoka was filled with sorrow at the sight of all that bloodshed, that this became his last war as he decided not to wage wars in future. He changed his foreign policy from ‘Digvijaya or Bherighosha’ (Beating of war drums) to ‘Dharmaghosha or Vijaya (winning the hearts of the people).
He declared that “The real conquest was the conquest by right path and love and not by might and sin”. Ashoka did not wage any war further and dedicated his whole life for the propagation of Dharma and Peace.
Ashokan Empire extended from Kashmir and Afghanistan in the North to Karnataka in the South, from Bengal in the East to Sindu and Baluchisthan in the West.
3. Edicts of Asjioka:
Ashoka issued a number of Inscriptions which throw light on the religion, society, and administration of the Mauryans. Ashokan inscriptions are found throughout the extent of his Empire. The languages of these edicts were Pali and Prakriti and the script used was Brahmi and Kharoshti. Brahmi script, which was a riddle for a longtime was deciphered by James Princep in 1831. Ashokan inscriptions are found in places like Pataliputra, Rampurava, Rummindei, Sravasti, Bodhgaya, Bhabru, Barabara, Sanchi, Kausambi, Maski, Taxila, etc., The edicts are classified into
- Major rock edicts,
- Minor rock edicts,
- Pillar inscriptions and
- Cave inscriptions.
4. Edicts in Karnataka:
A number of Ashokan edicts have been discovered in Karnataka. They have been found at Maski (Raichur dist). Gavimatha and Palkigonda (Koppal Dist), Siddapur, Brahmagiri and Jatingarameshwar (Chitradurga dist) Nittur and Udayagollam (Bellary Dist) and Sannathi (Yadagiri).
Most of the edicts of Ashoka, preach moral values to the people and about the teachings of Buddha, the Maski and Calcutta edicts refer to King Ashoka as ‘Devanampriya Asokasa’. Thus these edicts helped in identifying the other edicts of Ashoka. He wanted to inculcate the virtues of practical morality, compassion to animals, reverence and obedience to teachers, elders and parents, truthfulness, etc.
Ashoka made a great contribution to religion. He believed that a moral life was a pre-requisite of happy life. He propogated the ideas of developing virtues like truthfulness, purity of thought, kindness, honesty, gratitude, self-restraint, and compassion. He laid emphasis on simple living, high thinking and leadinga good moral life. The Bhabru edict clearly indicates Ashoka’s faith in Buddha, Sangha, and Dharma.
Ashoka took many measures for the spread of Buddhism. He visited the holy places from the life of Buddha. He constructed monasteries and gave liberal grants to them. He followed the policy of religious tolerance. He assumed the title ‘Devanniapriya’ (beloved of the Gods). He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rock edicts throughout the Empire, lie appointed officers called Dharmama hamathras, Yukthas, Rajjukas, and Sthree Adhyaksha Mahamatras to spread Dharma among the people.
Ashoka organised the 3rd Buddhist council at Pataliputra in 250 BCE, to settle the internal differences among the Buddhists. He took much interest and adopted special measures to propagate Buddhism. He sent Buddhist missionaries to far off lands to preach the Gospel of Buddha. He deputed his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism.
It was on account of his extensive propagation that Buddhism became a religion of the masses in India and also spread to Nepal, Tibet, China, Japan, Burma, and many South-East Asian Countries. He took many welfare activities and made arrangements to feed the poor and physically disabled people.
He was concerned with the moral and spiritual welfare of his people. H.G. Wells remarks that “Amidst the tens of thousands of Majesties and Royal Highnesses and the like, the name of Ashoka shines and shines along like a Star”.
Describe the Religion, Literature and Art and Architecture of the Vijayanagara period.
1. Art and Architecture:
The Vijayanagara Rulers were great patrons of Art and Architecuture. They used the Dravidian style of Architecture and later added some unique features to it and it came to be called Vijayanagara Style’ of architecture. Hampi was a great centre of Art and Architecture. Percy brown remarks that “Vijayanagara Art as the supremely passionate flowering of the Dravidian Art”.
The main features of Vijayanagara Art and Architecture:
a. The Vijayanagara Rulers built high (Huge) towers called ‘Raya Gopuras’ above the gateways of the temples.
b. The Kalyana Mantapa at the temple stands on a rectangular platform of 5 ft height. The roof of the mantapa is supported by stone pillars and it has no walls around it.
c. The temples consist of Garbhagriha, Sukhanasi, Mahamantapa, and Ardhamantapa. An additional Garbhagriha (Sanctum) for the
d. The remarkable feature of the Vijayanagara temples is the intricate carving on the pillers. A number of pillers were carved each in a unique style.
e. The walls of the temples contain sculptures of Folklore, Gods, Goddesses, Elephants, Horses, etc.,
The earliest creation of the Vijayanagara Empire is the most beautiful. Vidyashankara temple at Sringeri which clearly marks the transition from Hoysala to Vijayanagara Style. Temples of this period are found chiefly in Tirupathi, Kanchi, Srirangam, Hampi, Lepakshi, Sringeri, Srisailam, Nandi, Madurai, Chidambaram. Tadapatri etc., The monuments of Vijayanagara are scattered throughout South India.
2. Important temples in Hampi:
The best specimens of the Vijayanagara Architecture are found in the city of Hampi. The temples ofVirupaksha, Hajara Ramaswamy, Vijaya Vittalaswamy, Krishnaswamy, Achyutaraya, Mahanavami Dibba and the stone Chariot are noteworthy. The walls and pillers of the Ramaswamy temple are decorated with the scenes from Ramayarta.
The Lotus (Kamala) Mahal is an excellent example of Islamic style of Architecture. The Ganesha and Narasimha images, the elephant stables, the Queen’s Bath, the Watch tower, The Royal Mint, and the market place are also in Hampi.
Religion was the main theme for the sculptures of Vijayanagara. Kadalekalu, Sasivekalu Ganesha and Laxmi Narasimha statues at Hampi are notable. Irugappa Dandanayaka at Tiruparuttikunram was the earliest example of this period. The copper Images of Krishnadevaraya and his two Queens, Tirumaladevi and Chinnadevi at Tirumala are in a devotional mode. A stone statue of Krishnadevaraya is found at Chidambaram.
Hampi, Anegondi and Lepakshi were centres of Vijayanagara paintings. Virupaksha temple at Hampi has beautiful paintings depicting Girija Kalyana, Madana Vijaya, and Tripura Samhara. The Veerabhadra temple at Lepakshi has on its ceilings paintings representing stories from Shivapurana and is called the ‘Ajantha of the Saivas’.
5. Fine Art:
Dancing and Music were encouraged during Vijayanagara period. Vadiraja, Vyasathirtha, Purandaradasa, and Kanakadasa belonged to this tradition. They composed devotional songs called ‘Keerthans’. Purandaradasa is called the ‘Father of Karnatic Music’. There were a good number of dancing halls at Vijayanagara. Bandham Laxminarayana was a dance master in the court of Krishnadevaraya.
Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged and ensured religious tolerance among the Hindus, Jains, and Muslims. The Sangama Rulers encouraged Shaivism and the later Rulers gave importance to Vaishnavism. Devaraya – II built a Jain basadi in the Empire during his reign. Shravanabelgola inscription of Bukka -1 refers to the peace treaty between the Srivaishnavas and Jains.
The Vachana Movement was popular during this time. The Varkari Movement of Lord Vittala of Pandrapura and the Dasakuta tradition were encouraged. Hampi, Sringeri, Shravanabelagola, Shrishaila, Srikalahashti, Ahobilam, Madurai, Srirangam were the important religious centres.
Temples and Mathas were the notable religious institutions. The temples were places of worship and Mathas stood for the spread of religious principles. They encouraged Education and Culture.
7. Education and Literature:
Mathas, Agraharas, and Temples played an important role in imparting education. ‘Dhulakshara’ was a system of education, which is referred to in ‘Mohanatarangini’ of Kanakadasa. It was a system of learning to write on sand. Primaiy education was called ‘Balabodha’. Hampi, Kodimatha, Sringeri, Yediyur, Kunigal, etc., were notable centers of education of that time.
8. Literature :
The Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged Sanskrit, Kannada and Telugu literature. Harihara. Bukkaraya, Devaraya – II and Krishnadevaraya extended liberal patronage to scholars and poets. Some important literary works of the period are :
9. Sanskrit Works :
Vidyaranya was a prolific writer in Sanskrit, he wrote more than 60 works. Madhava – Savana wrote Parasara Madhaviya, Gangadevi, Queen of Veerakampan wrote Maduravijayam (Veerakamparaya Charitam), Tirumalamba wrote Varadambikaprinayam. Guru Vidyaranya wrote Raja Kalanirnaya. Krishanadevaraya wrote Madalasacharite, Rasamanjari, Jambavati Kalyanam, Usha Parinayam, etc.,
10. Kannada Works :
Tontada Siddalingeshwara wrote Vachanas, Kumaravyasa – Karnataka Kathamanjafi (Gadugina Bharata), Nanjunda Kavi – Kutnara Ramanakathe, Siddalinga Yathi wrote Shunyasampadane, Ratnakarvarni – Bharatesha Vaibhava, Bhimakavi – Basavapurana, Chamarasa
– Prabhulingaleele, Kanakadasa – Mohana Tarangini, Nala Charita, Haribhakti Sara, etc., Purandaradasa – Keertans, Virupakshapandita – Channabasapurana Narahari – Torave Ramayana, Nijaguna Shivayogi – Viveka Chintamani.
11. Telugu :
Krishnadevaraya was a great scholar in Telugu. He wrote Amukta Malyada in Telugu. He patronized eight great Telugu poets in his court who were called ‘Ashtadiggajas’. Allasani Peddanna revered as the father of Telugu was conferred with the title of ‘Andhrakavi Pitamaha’. Srinatha wrote Kashikhanda Nachaha, Somanatha wrote Harivamsha, Allasani Peddanna wrote Manucharitamu, Vemana wrote poems. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.
Discuss the role of Gandhiji in Indian National Movements.
Gandhiji an Era-1920 to 1947:
The Montague – Chelmsford reforms (1919) and subsequent events like the Rowlatt Act, the Jalian Walabagh tragedy made Gandhiji to plunge into the National movement. He advocated the policy of Satyagraha which was Non-violent and Non-Cooperation to the British Government.
1. Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22) :
A special session of the Congress was held at Calcutta in September 1920. Gandhiji proposed the Non-Cooperation Movement. His plan of launching a nationwide Non-Cooperation Movement was accepted by the session. The response of the people to the cal I was unprecedented. Students and teachers came out of Schools and Colleges and national Institutions like Kashi Vidyapeetlia, Jamiya Miliya Islamiya, etc., also joined the movement.
Members of the council tendered their resignations. Congress took some constructive measures and Hindu – Muslim unity was stressed. Foreign goods were boycotted and were collected and burnt at public places. This created nationalistic awareness among people, who began, to use ‘Swadeshi’ and wearing khadi became a symbol of national pride.
2. The Chowri – Chowra incident:
5th February 1922: Non-Cooperation Movement shook the foundation of the British Empire in India. Gandhiji toured the whole country to motivate people. The Viceroy, Lord Curzon took steps to curb the movement. NonCooperation participants along with Gandhiji were sent to prison.
A violent mob at Ghowri Chowra (U.P.) set fire to the police station on 5th Feb 1922. In this incident, 22 policemen were killed. Immediately Gandhiji called off the movement.
3. The Swaraj Party – 1923:
Congress leaders like C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru were dissatisfied about the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement and they wanted to end the boycott to the legislature and wanted to contest elections. But Congress rejected the proposal to contest elections So, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the ‘Swaraj Party’. Their aim was to achieve Independence by radical but constitutional methods.
4. Simon Commission in 1927:
The British Government appointed the Simon Commission to placate the agitating Indians and make recommendations for further reforms. As the Commission did not have any Indian representative in it, it was boycotted by the Congress. The Congress organised a black flag demonstration with the slogan ‘Simon go back’.
5. Nehru Report and Poorna Swaraj (1929):
The British challenged the Indians to provide an alternative proposal acceptable to all the & political parties. The All Parties Conference took up the challenge and appointed a committee under Motilal Nehru. The Committee submitted its report in 1928.
Differences arose with regard to the communal representation between parties like the Muslim League, the Hindu Maha Sabha, and the Sikhs. Communalists also were unhappy with the Nehru report, and the British ignored the same.
At the Indian National Congress session held at Lahore in December 1929 presided by Jawaharlal Nehru, a resolution of complete Independence of India as its goal (Poorna Swaraj) was adopted. It announced the celebration of 26th January 1930 as the Independence day and authorised Gandhiji to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement
6. Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930:
In the 1929 Lahore Congress session, it was – decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. In order to overthrow the British, many methods were adopted. Gandhiji placed 11 demands before the British and set 31st January 1930 as the deadline to accept or reject the demands. Without any postivie response, the British nationalised the production of Salt.
Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement through the ‘Salt March or Dandi March’ on 12th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and reached Dandi on 5th April 1930. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji and his followers made salt from the sea water, violating the salt laws.
The salt satyagraha was carried out throughout India. The Government took repressive measures. Gandhiji and many other leaders were put behind bars. Salt became a symbol of our National Pride.
7. The first Round Table Conference 1930-31:
Muslim League, Hindu Maha Sabha, Liberals and the Princes of various States attended it. The conference could not achieve much without the participation of the Indian National Congress which had boycotted it. The British unconditionally released Gandhiji and the other members of the Congress working committee (CEC) from prison.
A pact was made between Gandhiji and Viceroy Lord Irwin. Irwin agreed to withdraw all repressive measures relating to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji demanded the formation of a responsible Government. The signing of the Gandhi – Irwin Pact also known as the ‘Delhi Pact’ was done on 14th February 1931. Gandhiji on behalf of the Congress withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement.
8. Second Round Table Conference 1931:
Gandhiji attended the second Round Table Conference at London as the sole representative of the Congress. The session soon got deadlocked on the question of the minorities. Separate electorates were being demanded by the Muslims and the oppressed classes. Gandhiji claimed the untouchables to be Hindus and not to be treated an minorities and no special electorates to be provided to them or to the Muslims.
The British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald announced separate electorates to the Muslims and the untouchables, which was called as the ‘Communal Award’. This resulted in serious differences between Gandhiji and Ambedkar This issue was finally settled amicably with the ‘Poona Pact’ signed between the two stalwarts in 1932.
9. 3rd Round Table Conference 1932:
This conference was held at London in 1932. Congress refused to participate in it and the conference failed. The only important result of the discussions of the Conference was the passing of the Government of India Act 1935. This Act provided for All India Federation and Provincial Govemements. Gandhiji launched a movement with Ambedkar to eradicate untouchability from India.
10. Second World War and National Movement in 1939:
The second world war broke out in 1939. India was dragged into the war without any consultation. The Congress refused any kind of cooperation. All the Congress Ministries resigned in 1939. Gandhiji launced individual Satyagraha against the British. The British tried to enlist the Indian support by creating differences between the Muslim League and the Congress.
Muslim League adopted the Pakistan resolution in 1940. Viceroy Linlithgow announced that India would get Dominion status and establishment of constitiuent Assembly after the war and requested the Indian public to support the British in the war.
11. Cripps Mission 1942:
The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to negotiate with the Indian leaders. He proposed that Dominion status and an Interim Government of Indians to administer on all matters except defence, to be granted to India after the war. Gandhiji described Cripps’ offer as “a post-dated cheque of a drowning Bank”.
12. Quit India Movement in 1942:
The All India Congress Committee met in Bombay and passed the Quit India resolution on 8th August 1942. It was declared that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity. Gandhiji gave the call of ‘Do or Die’ to Indians. The British Government arrested the Congress leaders including Gandhiji and people were stunned.
They did not know what to do next. As a result people took to violence. They attacked Police stations, Post offices, Railway stations, etc., They cut off telegraph and telephone wires and railway lines. They burnt Government buildings and Railway carriages were put on fire. The Government adopted strong measures of repression and more than 60,000 people were arrested. More than 1000 people died in the police and military firing.
13. The Cabinet Mission 1946:
During his Prime Ministership, Clement Atlee deputed a Commission to India in 1946. (Cripps, Lawrence and A.V. Alexander were its members) Its objective was to concede independence to India and transfer powers. The Cabinet Mission held discussions and rejected the creation of Pakistan.
The Muslim League rejected it and Jinnali called for ‘Direct Action Day and insisted upon having Pakistan (Lekar rahenge Pakistan). This resulted in communal violences at many places, bloodshed, and killings. Aconstituent Assembly was constituted under the Chairmanship of Babu Rajendra Prasad on 9th December 1946. The Congress under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru formed an interim Government.
14. Independence and Partition: (June 1947)
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee entrusted to Lord Mountbatten (Viceroy) the job of transferring power. He tried to resolve the deadlock which existed between the Congress and the Muslim League. When he realised that it was impossible to patch up the differences, he made an announcement on 3rd June 1947 regarding the partition of the country.
On the basis of Mountbatten’s declaration, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on 18th July 1947. This Act came into effect on 15th August 1947. This act divided the country into India and Pakistan. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of Independent India and Lord Mountbatten who was the last Viceroy became Independent India’s first Governor-General.
Sardar Vailababhai Patel was instrumental in reorganizing and merging the Princely Indian States into the Indian Federation. The constitution was brought into effect on 26th January 1950 and India became a Republic.
PART – F
VI. Match the following : (5 × 1 = 5)
1. Hala – Navakoti Narayana
2. Harshavardhana – Arab traveller
3. Sulaiman – Established Arya Samaja
4. Chikkadevaraja – Gathasapthasati wodeyar
5. Swami Dayananda – Uttara Patheshwara Saraswati
1 – Gathasapthasati
2 – Uttara Patheshwara
3 – Arab traveller
4 – Navakoti Narayana
5 – Established Arya Samaja
Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. (5 × 1 = 5)
1. Battle of Plassey
2. Commencement of Vikrama Era
3. Founded the Adil Shahi’s of Bijapura dynasty
4. Arrival of Aryans to India
5. Birth of Madhwacharya.
1. Arrival of Aryans to India
2. Commencement of Vikrama Era
3. Birth of Madhwacharya.
4. Founded the Adil Shahi’s of Bijapura dynasty
5. Battle of Plassey.