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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2018
Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
From which language is the word ‘India’ derived?
The word ‘India’ is derived from the Persian word ‘Indos’ which stands for Sindhu, the important river of the subcontinent.
Name the first veda.
There are four vedas and Rig veda was the first to be composed.
Who is called Adikavi of kannada?
Pampa is called Adikavi.
Who was called ‘The parrot of India’?
Amir Khusrau, a great poet and singer was called as the “parrot of India”.
What was the title of Shivaji?
Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaja.
Which was the birth place of Shankaracharya?
Shankaracharya was bom at Kaladi in Kerala.
Who was called ‘The Tiger of Mysore’?
Tippu Sultan assumed the title ‘The tiger of Mysore’.
In which year did the first war of Indian Independence occur?
The first war of Indian Independence occurred in 1857 C.E.
Who was popular as Netaji?
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.
Which was the famous work of Alur Venkata Rao?
Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava.
PART – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
What is the meaning of the term paleolithic?
The word paleolithic is derived from the Greek words ‘Paleo’ (old) and lithic (stone), which means old stone age (40,000 to 10,000 BCE).
Mention any two among the – ‘Trirathnas’ of Vardhamana?
- Right knowledge
- Right faith
- Right conduct are the trirathnas of Mahaveera.
Who was Kautilya? Which is his famous work?
Kautilya was a statesman, scholar, and teacher of Chandragupta Maurya. He is famous for his work Arthashastra which explains the art of governance of a country.
Who erected the Gommateshwara statue and where?
Chavundaraya erected the Gommateshwara statue at Shravanabelagola in 983 C.E.
Name any two capitals of Hoysalas?
Dwarasamudra (Halebeedu), Belur, Bankapura, Hakkundi, and Kannanur were the .capitals of the Hoysalas during different periods under different rulers.
Between whom was the second battle of Panipat fought?
The second battle of Panipat fought between Akbar and Hemu (Chief Minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal) in 1556 C.E. at Panipat.
Mention any two monuments of Adil shahi’s of Bijapura.
Jami Masjid, Gol Gumbaz, Ibrahim Roza, Muhatas Mahal, Ganga Mahal, Sangeet Mahal, Anand Mahal, Mehtar Mahal, Bara Kaman, etc. are the important monuments of the Adil Shahi.
Who were the parents of Madhwacharya?
Madhyageha Narayana Bhatta and Vedavathi were the parents of Madhwacharya.
Between whom was the battle of Plassy fought?
Siraj-ud – Daulah, Nawab of Bengal and Robert Clive in 1757 C.E.
What is Ryotwari system?
In Bombay and Madras presidencies, the ryot or cultivator was recognized as the owner of the land on the condition that he paid the land revenue regularly to the government at 50% of the total income. This was known as Ryotwari system.
When and where was Arya Samaj established?
Arya Samaj was founded at Bombay in 1875.
Who signed the Poona pact?
It was signed between Gandhiji and Dr. B. R. Ambedkarin 1932.
PART – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (6 × 5 = 30)
Explain briefly the impact of geography on Indian history.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sq.km) with different climatic conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country. India is a land, where we see unity in diversity. “India” is the epitome of the world. On the basis of its physical features, India can be broadly divided into 5 geographical divisions. They are,
- The Himalayan regions,
- The plains of Hindustan or the Northern plains,
- The Deccan plateau or plains,
- The coastal region or coastline and
- The Thar desert.
1. The Himalayan region:
The Himalayas separate India from the rest of Asia. These are the highest mountain ranges in the world. The Himalayas have played a very important role in the Indian history. They prevent the cold winds and invaders from the north. The snow-capped mountain ranges have given birth to the north Indian rivers (Sindhu, Ganga, Yamuna, and Brahmaputra). They are rich in minerals and natural wealth.
2. The Northern Plains:
It is located between the Himalayas in the north and the Vindhya mountains to the south. From Assam in the east to Punjab in the west, it runs over 2400 kms. This region is watered by the great rivers like the Sindhu and her tributaries in the west, Ganga and Yamuna in the center and Brahmaputra valley in the east.
These rivers have made the plains rich and fertile, and they were the cradles of civilizations and Empires. The great Indus valley civilization and Vedic culture developed in this region. The Aryan culture was brought up in the Indo-Gangetic plain. The northern passes such as Khybar, Bolan, etc., have helped Indians to have commercial and cultural relations with the outside world.
3. The western desert and the dense forests of the Deccan plateau:
This region includes the Kathiawar (Gujarat) and Rann of Kutch (Rajastan). It stretches almost up to and beyond the Aravalli range, which is now almost dry in the hot weather. So, this region has turned the inhabitants into hard-working and warlike.
4. Deccan Plateau:
It is a tringular peninsula or ‘V’ shaped land. It is surrounded by the Vindhyas in the north and by sea on the other three sides (Bay of Bengal in the east, Arabian sea in the west and the Indian ocean in the south). They have helped develop the commercial and cultural relations with the west.
The geographical diversity and existence of various races like Dravidian, Alpine, Mongolian and different tribes have led to the development of different languages and cultures. The river valleys in the north and south have made the country. agrarian. They have also influenced the rise and fall of many dynasties and growth of many religious, cultural, educational and commercial centres.
Eastern (Coromandel coast) and western (Malabar) coastal plains are traversed by many big rivers like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Cauvery. Abundance of rain and favourable climate has resulted in the growth of rich flora (plants of a particular region) and fauna (Animals of a region). Excluding the Himalayas, hills and the desert area, the whole country falls in the tropical climate zone. The atmosphere is conducive for the all-round growth of mankind.
Describe chief characteristics of the Gandhara School of Art.
1. Gandhara art:
The Kushana period was famous for the growth of Gandhara art. The important centres of this art were Jalalabad, Hadda and Baniyan in Afghanistan. Peshawar became the meeting ground of the eastern and western cultures. Greek and roman sculptors and artists were brought to construct buildings, viharas, and chaityas.
This art was a combination of the Indian and Greek (Greco- Buddhist) styles. This new school of art called the Gandhar school of art originated in the Gandhara region, now in Afghanistan. Main characteristics of the Gandhara art:
a. In this school of art, the life size statues of Buddha were carved. Until then, the Buddhist existence was shown only in the form of symbols like lotus, umbrella, etc.
b. While carving the statues, utmost care was given to the symmetry of the body including the muscles and moustaches which were shown in a natural setting.
c. In the specimens of the craftsmanship of this art, the folds and turns of the clothes were exhibited with minute care and skill.
d. In this art, the ornaments that were carved on the statues received much attention which added to the physical beauty of the statues.
e. Polishing the statues was an important feature of this art.
f. The specimens were mostly prepared in stone, terracotta, and clay.
g. The technique used in making the statues was greek but the idea, inspiration, and personality were all Indian. According to Dr. R.C. Mazumdar “The Gandhara artist had the hand of a Greek but the heart of an Indian.
It is for this reason, that in the statues and images made under this art, an attempt was made to carve Lord Buddha like the Greek God Appolo. The Gandhara style spread to south east Asian countries as the parent of the Buddhist art.”
Describe the village administration of the Cholas.
1. Village (local self) Administration :
An important feature of the Chola administration was the village autonomy. People of a village looked after administration through their own elected bodies. The Chola inscriptions mention the existence of two types of villages Ur and Brahmadeya Villages. Ur had its own local assembly, consisting of all the male members of the village excluding untouchables.
It looked after all aspects of the village administration. The Brahmadeya villages (Agraharas) were granted by the King to learned brahmins. They had their own assemblies called Mahasabhas, which had complete freedom in governance.
Uttarameruru inscription of Paratanka – I, gives us detailed information about the village administration. (Uttarameruru is in the Chengulpet district of Tamilnadu). The villages enjoyed complete independence in the management of local affairs. Two kinds of assemblies existed which were.
- Ur or Urar (kuri) and
- The Mahasabha.
According to the Uttarameruru inscription, Uttarameruru village was divided into 30 parts (Kudumbu). One member from each unit was elected for a period of one year. The representatives of the people were elected through a lucky draw (Kuduvalai) system.
Villagers assembled in the temple and conducted an election through a lucky draw. The names of the candidates were written on palm leaves and put in a pot. Then a small boy was asked to pick out the leaves one after the other in the presence of the people and thus the representatives were elected.
Elected representatives had to work in the Annual, Garden (Tottavariyam) and Tank Bund (Erivariyam) committees called ‘VariyamsU The representatives were called ‘Variya PerumakkaP. The village assemblies were autonomous and democratic institutions.
2. Duties of the committees :
The village committees performed duties like the protection of the village properties, collection of taxes and the protection of temples, lakes, groves, and forests, etc. The resolutions of the committees were written down. The central administration did not interfere in the village administration.
3. Minimum qualifications of members :
The Uttarameruru inscription deals with rules and regulations regarding the election, the qualifications and disqualifications of members. These committees worked for 360 days when fresh elections were held.
Qualifications needed for a member to be elected:
- The candidate should possess a minimum of 1/2 acre of taxable land.
- He should reside in his own house built on his own site.
- Candidate should be more than 35 years old and less than 70 years of age.
- Candidate should have knowledge of Vedas, Brahmanakas, and Commerce.
- Candidate should possess a good character.
Disqualifications of members :
- A member was disqualified for reelection, if he had been a member of any committee continuously for the previous 3 years.
- Those who were in the committee and who had not submitted accounts and their close relatives.
- Persons who were wicked, cheats, alcoholics, thieves, accused of murdering brahmins and committing adultery.
This way, certain minimum qualifications, and disqualifications were enforced in the village administration. Scholars have termed the Chola village administration as “Small Democratic States”.
Explain the achievements of Mahmud Gawan.
1. Mahmud Gawan 1463 – 1481 B.C. :
He was the Prime minister of Mohammad Shah-III. He was a fascinating personality. He was born in Persia in 1411 C.E. He was well educated and came to India with the intention of carrying on trade. He visited the court of Alauddin Ahmad Shah – II. The Sultan offered Gawan an administrative post.
Gawan entered into Sultan’s service and by his sincerity and honesty, rose to the position of the Prime minister (Wazir) in 1463 C.E. He carried on the administration of the state and saved it from all dangers.
2. Achievements :
As Prime minister (Wazir), he undertook many conquests and implemented reforms in the Kingdom.
1. Mahmud Gawan first paid attention for the establishment of unity and integrity of the Kingdom.
2. Mohammad Khilji of Malwa tried to enter the Deccan Region. Gawan expelled the Sultan of Malwa beyond Bidar, made a treaty with the Sultan and established political stability.
3. Gawan conquered Rajamahendri and Kondaveedu. In the west, he extended the territory to the coast, by annexing Konkan. Gajapathi Kapilendra of Orissa invaded the Kingdom. Gawan successfully repelled his attack.
4. He subdued many chieftains in the western coastal belt and conquered Hubli, Belagavi (Belgaum) and Goa regions from the Vijayanagara Empire.
5. The number of provinces was increased from 4 to 8 for the convenience of administration. They were called ‘Tarafs’. The Jahagir system was abolished. The administration was highly centralised.
6. Gawan classified all the land of the Kingdom on the basis of fertility and irrigation facility. Land was surveyed and the revenue was fixed. The collection of revenue was only in cash.
7. Gawan established a Madarasa, a Coliege for higher education, at Bidar in 1472 C.E. He built a library and collected over 3000 manuscripts from all over the world. He was a scholar. He wrote books on religion, mathematics, literature, and medicine. His important works were Manazir – ul- Insha and Riyaz – ul – Insha.
Gawan’s progress was not tolerated by the native muslim leaders. They made false allegations against him. He was beheaded in 1481 C-E. After his death, the Bahamani Kingdom started declining.
Describe the life and teachings of Ramanujacharya.
1. Early life of Ramanujacharya (1017-1137 C.E.) :
Ramanuja was the great exponent of Vishishtadvaita or qualified monoism. He was born in 1017 C.E. at Sri Perambadur near Chennai (T.N.). His parents were Keshva Soinayaji and Kantimati. It is believed that Ramanuja was the incarnation of Adisesha. He studied in Ranchi under Yadhavaprakasha.
As per the wishes of his mother, he married Tangamma at the age of 16. His married life was very unhappy. As his wife did not co-operate with him in his spiritual exercises, he left his family and became a sanyasi. He went to Srirangam. Later Ramanuja became the head of Srirangam mutt and popularized Vaishnavism. This was not liked by Kulottunga-Chola, and Ramanuja left Srirangam and came to Karnataka.
2. Works of Ramanuja:
Vedantha Saara, Vedantha Sangraha, Vedantha Sutra, Geetha Bhashya, Sree Bhashya, Sri Rangagadhya, Sharanagati Gadhya, Vykunta Gadhya, Nitya Gadhya, etc., were the important works of Ramanujacharya.
3. Srivaishnava or Vishishtadvaita (qualified monoism) Philosophy:
This was propounded by Ramanuja. He differed from Shankaracharya’s views in many points. According to Ramanuja, the entire universe is divided into three parts. They are God (Brahma), individual Soul (Chit) and the world (Achit) The universe was controlled by God.
1. Vishnu is the supreme God, Sri Lakshmi is the mediator between God and humans. (Universal Soul) Vishnu may be called Brahma.
2. God is omniscient, permanent and possesses all the great qualities (God is Suguna) like mercy, beauty, justice, etc.
3. God is the creator of all things in the world. The individual Soul and the world are controlled by God.
4. According to Ramanuja, the Soul does not have independent existence. The individual Soul has limited power and it can never become identical with God All Souls are the creations of God. In a state of salvation, the individual Soul becomes free from birth and rebirth and enjoys eternal bliss in the presence of God.
5. Ramanuja condemned the illusion (Maya vada) of Shankaracharya For Ramanuja, the world is not an illusion but is real.
6. Ramanuja advocated Bhakti Marga as the only path for the attainment of Salvation. Through Bhakti, the individual Soul gets redemption and attains salvation.
7. Ramanuja advocated the worship of Vishnu accompanied by Lakshmi. His Philosophy is known as Srivaishnava or qualified monoism. There are two elements in Ramanuja’s Bhaktimarga.
a. Prapatthi – absolute surrender to God.
b. Acharyabhimana- Subjugation to guru. Ramanuja preached that irrespective of one’s caste, the sure way to salvation was through Bhakti. He was an enlightened saint who tried to wipe out the evils of the caste system. He was able to equate all human beings at par, by breaking down the artificial barriers of the caste system.
Explain drain theory.
1. The Drain of Wealth :
The British were not interested in the development of Indian agriculture. They were interested only in safeguarding their commercial interests. They forced Indian farmers to produce commercial crops like cotton, tea, Indigo, etc., which were in great demand in the European markets. They converted India into a source for raw materials and a market for their finished goods.
Indian handicrafts could not compete with the machine made products and the British had not started any industres in India. The impact of the Drain was that employment within the country was scarce and artisans and craftsmen turned into labourers. Hence the stability and development of Indian villages also suffered.
The British exported India’s enormous wealth to England through various means and that India did not get any economic and material benefit in return is known as drain of wealth. Dadabai Naoroji explained the drain theory in his book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’ (1876 C.E.). He declared that drain was the basic cause of India’s poverty and fundamental evil of the British rule in India.
2. Source of the Drain :
India’s enormous wealth flowed into England in the form of salaries and pensions of civil, military and railway officers, interest on loans, profits by British capitalists and expenditure on administration. Excess taxes were imposed on Indian export goods and less taxes were levied on British imports.
Results of the Drain :
- The most important results of the drain was that India became poor.
- The impact of the drain on income and employment within the country was harmful.
- The drain produced shortage of capital in the country. This hindered Indian industrial development.
- Since the drain was mainly paid out of land revenue, it hit the peasantry the most and made them poor.
- Nearly 12% of interest (6,30,000 pounds) was being paid out of Indian resources, for the loans raised by the English to construct Railways and seaports. Loans on unproductive items were also included.
Describe the role of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in Socio-religious movement.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the great socio-religious reformer of modern India. He is called the “Father and prophet of Indian Renaissance”. He had a deep knowledge of Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and sufism. He was very much influenced by the English language and western thoughts. His primary aim was to reform the society and religion. He had to face the challenges of orthodox Hindus and fanatic Christian missionaries.
1. Religious reforms:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy wanted to bring about reforms in Hindustan by getting rid of idol-worship, sacrifices, and caste rigidity. On 20th August 1828, he founded the Brahmo Samaj at Calcutta. The main purpose of the Brahmo Samaj was to establish a casteless society based on common worship.
Brahmo Samaj taught that ‘God is one, every religion possesses truth, idol worship and ritualism are meaningless and social evils have no connection with religion”. The followers of all religions were invited to come and worship in the same temple in a spirit of brotherhood.
2. Social reforms:
He carried on a long struggle against the social evils like the practice of Sati, child marriages, polygamy, untouchability, and purdah system. Widows used to burn themselves up in the funeral pyres of their husbands and Raja Ram Mohan Roy organised agitations against this inhuman custom of Sati.
It was due to his persuasion that Lord William Bentinck abolished Sati in 1829 and declared it a legal offence. He worked for the improvement of the status of women and for their education. He encouraged intercaste marriages and remarriage of widows.
Discuss briefly the causes for the rise of Extremism.
1. The period of the extremists 1905-1920:
The Indian National Movement entered a new phase after 1905. The period between 1905 and 1920 is known as the period of the extremists. Extremists believed that reforms could not be secured by mere talk, only by action and they blamed the British rule in India for all the problems and economic backwardness.
They were also called radical nationalists. The prominent leaders of the extremists were Laia Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The trio were popularly known as Lal-Bal-Pal. Extremists convinced the public that self- government was essential for the sake of the economic, political and cultural progress of the country, and they grew in self-confidence.
2. Causes for the rise of extremism:
a. The moderates failed to achieve any noteworthy results through their constitutional methods of prayers, petitions, and protests. This angered the extremists and the moderates themselves were disillusioned by the British attitude. The approach of the moderates towards the foreign invaders was termed by the extremists as ‘political mendicancy’.
b. The lethargy of the British Government in handling the terrible famine and plague attacks of 1896-1901 resulted in thousands of people becoming victims of starvation, disease, and death. The government took some measures to check the disease, but they were inadequate.
The British were interested only in the economic exploitation of India and not in the welfare of the people. The Plague Commissioner Mr. Rand was murdered and Bal Gangadhar Tilak was arrested for the same. This further increased the radical nationalism.
c. The Indian Council Act of 1892 did not satisfy the Congress, which expected more power. It was just an eye-wash. The act gave some additional powers to the elected representatives, but Viceroy was the final authority.
d. Viceroy Lord Curzon followed an anti-Indian racial policy and introduced many reactionary measures 1 like Calcutta Corporation Act (1899), Official Secrets Act (1904), Indian University Act (1904), Partition of Bengal (1905), etc. His actions curbed Indians and increased the dominance of the British.
He held that only Englishmen were fit to rule India. The intention of the British was to create a Hindu – Muslim divide under the pretext of making the partition for better administration. The angry reactions of the Indian population gave scope to extremist sentiments.
e. The efforts of leaders like Swami Vivekananda, Dayananda Saraswati, Aurobindo Ghosh, Tilak, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, and others, instilled confidence and self-respect among the Indians.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak initiated the public celebration of Ganesha festival and Shivaji jayanthi, which encouraged the nationalist sentiments.
f. International events like the nationalist movements in Egypt, Turkey, Persia, unification of Italy, Germany and China influenced the Indian thought process. Nationalists began to think that Indians too can unite and drive away the British.
PART – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated (5 + 5 = 10)
A. Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of ancient India provided to you and write an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
It is one Of the important sites of Indus Civilization. It is located on the banks of the river Ravi, now in Montgomery district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dayaram Sahani excavated this site in 1921. The great granary is an important building found here.
2. Taxila (Takshashila):
It was the capital of the Gandhara Province now in Pakistan. Takshashila University was an important educational centre in ancient India. Kautilya (Chanukya) was a teacher in this University.
It is the capital of Bihar state, now called as Patna, which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empite, the Mauiyas and the Guptas rule.
It is presently the capital of India, located on the banks of river Jamuna. It was the capital of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals. Many monuments like Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Jami Masjid, etc. are located here.
It is a Union territory located on the east coast of India (Coramanda Coast). It was the capital of the French in India. It played an important role during the Carnatic wars.
It is in Uttar Pradesh. The first war of Indian Independence started at Meerut. The sepoys broke out into open revolt against the British on 10th May 1857.
It is situated on the banks of river Tungabhadra (Bellary). It was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. Virupaksha temple, Vijaya Vittalaswamy temple, stone chariot, etc., are the noteworthy monuments here.
Dandi is a coastal town in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi launched his famous Dandi March in 1930. Gandhi and his followers collected seawater and made salt and deliberately violated the salt law.
(For Visually Challenged Students only)
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (1 × 10 = 10)
i. Critically examine the Administrative experiments of Mohammad bin-Tughalak.
I. Administrative reforms (experiments) of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak:
In 1325 CE Prince Jaunakhan, son of Ghiyasuddin (founder) ascended the throne with the title Mohammed-bin-Tughalak. He was an outstanding ruler of the Tughalak dynasty. He is known for his military, economic and administrative experiments.
1. Register of the land revenue :
Main objective of this experiment was to introduce the universal land taxation throughout the Empire. He created an agricultural department to regularise the land revenue registers.
2. Tax increase in Doab area :
The area between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna (doab) was the most fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to increase the taxes for that area only. But, he enforced the new tax at the time of a famine.
People were hard hit by the burden of taxation. Revenue collection was also very strict. When the farmers were unable to pay, this measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.
3. Transfer of the capital in 1327 CE :
Mahammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objectives were :
a. (Devagiri) occupied a central location in India and it was nearly equidistant (700 miles) from Delhi, Gujarath, Telangana and other places of his Empire.
b. He wanted to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. He beautified Devagiri and made arrangements to provide all basic amenities, but he blundered while implementing his ideas. He transported the whole population of Delhi to his new capital. Ibn Batuta says that even a blind man and a cripple who were unwilling to move, were dragged to the new capital.
Reasons for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad. The tiresome journey passing through dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by decoits, hunger, mental agony, etc resulted in death and sufferings of many.
The Sultan finally realising the folly of this plan, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire episode made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool – Daulatabad was a ‘Monument of misdirected energy’. This scheme failed on account of the Sultan’s faulty method of implementing it.
4. Token currency circulation in 1329 CE :
Mohammed-bin-Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief given to farmers due to the Doab famine, transfer exercise of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver, etc., caused much loss to the treasury.
Hence, to increase the amount of currency, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass tanka whose value was equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as the monopoly of the Government. Thornes described him as ‘The Prince of Moneyers’ and a currency expert.
The currency experiment was a miserable failure and the causes for its failure were:
1. People could not grasp its real significance.
2. Sultan did not take the precautionary measure of minting of coins to be the monopoly of the state. Almost every household turned into a mint and he failed to take precaution against the glut of counterfeit coins.
3. Foreign merchants refused to accept the copper coins, because gold coins were used as a standard unit of exchange.
4. People paid their taxes in their own copper coins and hoarded gold and silver and as a result, treasury was filled with counterfeit coins.
Due to the above causes, trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his folly and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 CE. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. People exchanged their copper coins with gold and silver coins and the treasury became completely depleted.
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. He lacked practical judgement and Common sense.
He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice without any forethought about the consequences. According to scholars, he was ‘a mixture of opposites’.
Dr. Eshwari prasad remarks that ‘Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictons’. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well-meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.
ii. Briefly explain the Carnatic wars.
1. Introduction :
British and French were rivals in India, because the objective of the British which was to establish complete monopoly over trade and commerce in India brought them into conflict with the French. They fought for seventeen years (1746-1763) to establish their supremacy in the Deccan. This rivalry with the French led to the Carnatic wars.
2. First Carnatic war (1746-1748) :
The first Carnatic war took place between the British and the French during 1746-1748 in the Carnatic area. This war was a part of the European war, between the two countries over the Austrian succession issue (1740-1748) in Europe.
3. Course of the war:
British commander Burnett captured some French ships. At this juncture Dupleix appealed to Anwaruddin, the Nawab of Arcot to prevail upon the British to desist from hostile action. British did not take any action. In 1746, Dupleix (French Governor) besieged and captured Madras.
British sought the help of Anwaruddin who ordered the French to free Madras. Dupleix refused to free it. So, Anwaruddin sent an army against the French. A battle was fought at St. Thome (battle of Adyar), in which the French were defeated. The Austrian succession war came to an end in Europe by the treaty of Aix-la-Chaipel in 1748. Thus, the first Carnatic war also came to an end.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapel in 1748.
- The British and the French agreed to stop their hostilities in India forthwith.
- The French agreed to return Madras to the British and prisoners of war were released from both the sides.
4. Second Carnatic war (1748-1754) :
The second Carnatic war broke out due to two succession disputes – one at Hyderabad and the other at Arcot, for which the British and the French took sides. There were civil wars of succession between Anwaruddin and Chandasaheb at Arcot and Nasir Jung and Muzaffar Jung at Hyderabad.
Dupleix and the French supported Chandasaheb (Arcot) and Muzaffar Jung (Hyderabad) whereas the British supported Anwaruddin (Arcot) and Nasir Jung (Hyderabad) This struggle led to the second Carnatic war (1748-1754).
5. Course of the war :
The French troup defeated and killed Anwaruddin in the battle of Amber. His son Mohammad Ali fled to Trichinapalli. Dupleix proclaimed Chandasaheb as the Nawab of Arcot. Dupleix was equally successful in Hyderabad. Nasir Jung was killed and Muzaffar Jung was made the Nizam of Hyderabad.
Dupleix and Chandasaheb besieged Trichinapalli to kill Mohammad Ali, The British were aware that Chandasaheb was an ally of the French and his succession to throne would adversely affect the British trade. Robert Clive (British) laid siege to Arcot. Chandasaheb rushed to protect his capital.
He was defeated and killed in the battle of Arcot in 1752. As a result, British crowned Mohammad Ali as the Nawab of Arcot. Dupleix was defeated in the war and was recalled by the French Government. The war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry in 1754. Both the parties agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Indian states. They also agreed to return the territories conquerred from each other.
4. Third Carnatic war (1758-1763) :
The seven years war (1756-1763) was fought between the French and the British in Europe. The tension between the two in India also increased and ultimately took the shape of the third Carnatic war.
6. Course of the war :
Robert Clive (British) captured Chandranagore, a French settlement. The French were determined to end the British settlements in India and sent Count-de-Lally as Governor to India. He launched an attack on Madras and recalled Bussey from Hyderabad to help him.
The British attacked Hyderabad and captured it. Count-de-Lally was defeated by the British (Sir Eyrecoote) in the battle of Wandiwash in 1760. In 1761, the British captured Pondicheny and other French settlements in India. The seven years war came to an end by the treaty of Paris in 1763. The war in India also ended.
7. Treaty of Paris in 1763 :
- The trading centres of the French were returned with restrictions, that they would not fortify them.
- The Anglo-French rivalry in India ended with the success of the British and failure of the French.
PART – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Sketch the life and teachings of Buddha.
1. Life of Gauthama Buddha:
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. He was the son of a Shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mayadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his stepmother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha.
He was brought up in great luxury and married Yashodhara at the age of 16. A son was born to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa, he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights. Seeing an old man, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage), resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world.
He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes. This event is known as “The Great Renunciation”. To find a solution to the problems of old age, sickness, and death, he left his home, went out to Uravela forest near Gaya and spent six years wandering in that pursuit. During that period he self-inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclusion that hunger and starvation was not the way to find the truth.
Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya. He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Having received the light, Gauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realised the truth.
2. Gautama as a preacher:
After attaining Knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. In the Deer Park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted five disciples into Buddhism. This is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharma).
Dharma chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, travelling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara(U.P.)at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as “The light of Asia”. His birthday (full moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poornima”.
3. Teachings of Buddha:
Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas, superiority of Brahmins, meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste system. He laid down the Principles of equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the Creator of the Universe or God.
Buddha taught his preachings through conversation, lectures, and parables. His method of teaching was unique. He preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces desire, desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses, to be born again and again in order to satisfy the desires. Thus, he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped if the person realises that worldly things are not permanent.
Buddha laid down the analysis of life with four different priniciples. His favourite sutra was ‘Four Noble Truths or Atyasatyas’, which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery ) which could be removed only by the removal of all desires.
His four noble truths are:
- Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow)
- Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow) ,
- To destroy misery, desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow)
- Desire can be overcome by following the ‘Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’.
When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace arid enjoy eternal bliss. Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self-control and salvation. The eightfold path or the middle path consists of
- Right faith
- Right thought
- Right speech
- Right conduct
- Right effort
- Right meditation
- Right livelihood and
- Right mindfulness.
Ibis path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out completely self-indulgence and self-mortification. Buddhist teachings constitute the three pitakas. Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as – not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non-violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tell lies, not to accept or keep money, not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieving their sacred goals.
Nirvana is the final result of the end of all desires. Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. He opposed caste system and advocated equality. He gave importance to non-violence. He did not refer to God. Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha are the three gems of Buddhism.
Describe the achievements of Pulikeshi II.
a. Pulikeshi – II (609-642 C.E.):
He was the most outstanding personality among the Chalukyas of Badami. He was a benevolent monarch and people enjoyed plenty and prosperity under him. Pulikeshi – II was the son of Keertivarma -1. He was still a boy when Keertivarma died. Hence, Mangalesha (Brother of Keertivarma) took over the charge of administration.
Mangalesha planned to pass on the throne to his son instead of Pulikeshi – II, the rightful heir. This led to a civil war between the two. Finally, Mangalesha was defeated and he died in the battle. Pulikeshi came to the throne in 609 C.E. Hieun Tsang’s Si-Yu-Ki, Bana’s – Harshacharite, Aihole inscription, etc, give information about Pulikeshi – II.
This civil war was an unfortunate incident but became inevitable for Pulikeshi, and the throne inherited by him was not a bed of roses. This indicates that the civil war had caused a confused situation in the Kingdom. Many chiefs wanted to take advantage of the situation and become independent. Hence they rebelled against Pulikeshi – II.
b. Conquests of Pulikeshi – II:
1. Attack on the Rashtrakuta chiefs:
The Rashtrakutas were following a policy of aggression and expansion during the time of Pulikeshi. The Rashtrakuta chiefs Appayika and Govinda rebelled against Badami rule. Pulikeshi crushed them in a battle on the banks of river Bhima. Appayika. ran away from the battle field, while Govinda surrendered to Pulikeshi.
2. Subjugation of the Kadambas, Mauryas, Alupasand Gangas:
After strengthening his power and resources, Pulikeshi – II adopted a policy of conquest. He took an expedition against the Rulers of places surrounding Badami. He subjugated the Kadambas of Banavasi, Mauryas of Konkan, Alupas of south Canara and Gangas of Talakadu.
3. Attack on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras:
Pulikeshi – II set his eyes towards the North – west, on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras. As a result, these Rulers were also defeated and he extended his territories up to Malwa. He appointed his brother, Jayasiniha as the Governor of Gujarath.
4. War with Harshavardhana:
The most significant and memorable of his military career was his victory over Harshavardhana of Kanauj. A powerful Kingdom had been established by Harsha who had conquered most of north India, and was making an attempt to extend his reign in the south also. Pulikeshi took an expedition towards north, and Harsha came into conflict with Pulikeshi – II.
But Pulikeshi who had camped on the banks of the river Narmada, did not allow Harsha to cross the river. Harshavardhana was defeated by Pulikeshi in the battle of Narmada in 634 C.E. Narmada became the common frontier of the two Kingdoms. After the battle, Pulikeshi assumed the title of ‘Parameshwara and Dakshinapathesh wara. Hieun Tsang’s record and the Aihole inscriptions give testimony to this victory of Pulikeshi – II.
5. Expedition towards East:
After the Northern campaign, Pulikeshi turned his eyes towards east and conquered Kosala and Kalinga regions and the important fort of Pistapura (Godavari). He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Governor of these provinces. Kubja Vishnuvardhana became the founder of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty.
6. Expedition in South:
The Pallava ruler Mahendravarma -1 had become powerful in the south. Pulikeshi invaded the Pallava Kingdom and defeated Mahendravarma – I in the battle of Pallalur. Then he annexed other Pallava territories also and seized Kanchi in 632 C.E.
After these successful military campaigns, Pulikeshi returned to his capital and reigned in peace for quite some time. His name and fame began to spread far and wide. He performed the ‘Ashwamedha Sacrifice’ to commemorate his victory and assumed titles like ‘Sathyashraya, Vikrama, Parameshwara, Dakshinapatheshwara, Pruthvi Vallabha, Maharajadhiraja, etc.,
7. Extent of his Kingdom:
The Kingdom of Pulikeshi – II extended from the Kosala and Kalinga (Bay of Bengal) in the east, to Konkana in the west, the river Narmada in the north and up to river Cauveri in the south.
Due to the campaigns of Pulikeshi, his name and fame began to spread far and wide. He maintained cultural and commercial contacts with Persia and exchanged Ambassadors with the Persian Emperor Khusru – II (Ajantha cave paintings depict this scene). The Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited the court of Pulikeshi – II in 641 C.E.
He has given us a factual and reliable description about the King and his Empire. In his last days, Pulikeshi – II had to face the attack of the mighty Pallava forces under Narasimha- varman -1. Pulikeshi was defeated in the battle, and Narasimhavarman seized the Chalukyan capital in 642 C.E. In memory of this victory, Narasimhavarman assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’.
Describe the cultural contributions of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Vijayanagara Rulers provided internal peace to the Empire and protection from external threats. They introduced a strong central Government along with decentralization of power.
1. Central Administration:
Monarchy was the existing system. The King was the supreme authority of the state. He enjoyed enormous powers but he always worked for the welfare of the people. The King was the highest court of appeal. Law was based on customs and traditions punishments were very severe like death sentences, trampling to death, etc.,
Kingship was hereditary. The King was assited by a ‘Council of Ministers’ headed by the Prime Minister called ‘Maha Pradhani’. The council of ministers played an important role in the administration. They supervised over many departments and advised the King in taking proper decisions.
Important officers were Upa Pradhani (Deputy P.M), Danda Nayaka, Mahasaman tadipati (Minister of Feudatories), Raya Bhandari (Treasurer), Sabhanaiyaka (Leader of the council), Mahasand ivigrahi (Foreign Affairs). Yuvaraja was associated with the administration.
2. Provincial Administration:
There were two types of provinces in the Vijayanagara Empire. They were :
a. Provinces which were under the direct rule by the King’s representatives.
b. The provincial rule by the feudatories (Nayakas), which was called the Nayankara system. The Nayankara system gave more autonomy to the feudatories.’ The King had the power to transfer or remove the provincial officers. Nayakas were to pay annual tributes to the King and had to maintain military troops for wars. These Nayakas maintained Military and Civil representatives in the court of the King. Rajya was further divided into Vishaya and Nadu.
3. Village administration:
The village was the last unit of the administration. Village had its own assemblies (Gramapanchyat). The social, administrative and judicial matters in the village were taken care of by the local assemblies. The head of the village administration was ‘Gouda’. Collection of revenue was his main duty and accounts were looked after by the Karanika. Talawara discharged the duties of a policeman.
4. Revenue System:
Land Revenue was the main source of income for the state. It was nearly 1/6 of the gross produce. Property tax, commercial tax, tax on industries, war booty, judicial fines, and taxs of all professions including prostitution, customs and toll were the other sources of income. Taxes were collected either in cash or in kind.
5. Military Administration:
Vijayanagara Empire had a strong military to safeguard the vast area from its enemies. The army administration was looked after by the ‘Dandanayaka’. The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, elephants, and artillery. Forts played an important role in the defensive warfare.
b. Social conditions :
1. Caste System:
The Vijayanagara society was divided into four castes namely Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras. Brahmans had a high position in the society. Blacksmiths, goldsmiths, weavers, farmers, and traders played very important role in the social activities. Social harmony existed in the Empire.
2. Position of Woman:
Women enjoyed a respectable position in the society. They participated in activities like dancing and singing. Few women received education, but they were confined to household work. Social evils like dowry, sati, devadasi, prostitution, child marriage, and polygamy existed in that society.
3. Social Harmony:
Musi is settled in the Empire and they were given security by the Kings. Mosques were built for prayers and Quran was placed in a respectable place. The members of the Royal family worshipped Hindu, Buddha, and Jain deities and followed the common tenets of these religions. Hence it is clear that social harmony prevailed in the Vijayanagara Empire. Dasara, Holi, and Deepavali were the national festivals. People observed these festivals with great pomp and splendour.
c. Economic Condition:
Agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Land revenue was fixed on the basis of the quality of soil. Land was divided into wet, dry and horticultural land. Rice, wheat, cotton, pulses, spices, are canuts, ginger, fruits, turmeric, etc., were the main products of agriculture.
They gave much attention for irrigation. Large number of wells, tanks, lakes, canals, and dams were constructed. A huge tank was constructed by Krishnadevaraya near Nagalapura. A Dam and a Raya canal were also built by him at Korrangal.
3. Trade and commerce:
Internal and external trade flourished under the Vijayanagara Rulers. Vijrakurur mines in Andhra Pradesh supplied the most valuable diamounds. Main exports of the time were cloth, rice, suger, spices, iron, etc., The important imports were elephants, horses, pearls, coral, mercury, silks, etc., Udayagiri, Tanjore, Madurai, Calicut, Mangalore, Barakur and Bhatkal were the main centers of trade.
There were about two hundred ports in the eastern and western coasts. The standard currency was the gold (Varaha) pon. Visa, Kasu and Pagods were the other coins.
Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged and ensured religious tolerance among the Hindus, Jains, and Muslims. The Sangama Rulers encouraged Shaivism and the later Rulers gave importance to Vaishnavism. Devaraya – II built a Jain basadi in the Empire during his reign. Shravanabelgola inscription of Bukka – I refers to the peace treaty between the Srivaishnavas and Jains.
The Vachana Movement was popular during this time. The Varkari Movement of Lord Vittala of Pandrapura and the Dasakuta tradition were encouraged. Hampi, Sringeri, Shravanabelagola, Shrishaila, Srikalahashti, Ahobilam, Madurai, Srirangam were the important religious centres. Temples and Mathas were the notable religious institutions. The temples were places of worship and Mathas stood for the spread of religious principles. They encouraged Education and Culture.
e. Education and Literature:
Mathas, Agraharas, and Temples played an important role in imparting education. ‘Dhulakshara’ was a system of education, which is referred to in ‘Mohanatarangini’ of Kanakadasa. It was a system of learning to write on sand. Primary education was called ‘Balabodha’. Hampi, Kodimatha, Sringeri, Yediyur, Kunigal, etc., were notable centers of education of that time.
The Vijayariagara Rulers encouraged Sanskrit, Kannada and Telugu literature. Harihara, Bukkaraya, Devaraya – II and Krishnadevaraya extended liberal patronage to scholars and poets. Some important literary works of the period are :
g. Sanskrit Works:
Vidyaranya was a prolific writer in Sanskrit, he wrote more than 60 works. Madhava – Sayana wrote Parasara Madhaviya, Gangadevi, Queen of Veerakampan wrote Maduravijayam (Veerakamparaya Charitam), Tirumalamba wrote Varadambikaprinayam. Guru Vidyaranya wrote Raja Kalanirnaya. Krishanadevaraya wrote Madalasacharite, Rasamanjari, Jambavati Kalyanam, Usha Parinayam, etc.,
h. Kannada Works:
Tontada Siddaling- eshwara wrote Vachanas, Kumaravyasa – Karnataka Kathamanjari (Gadugina Bharata), Nanjunda Kavi – Kumara Ramanakathe, Siddalinga Yathi wrote Shunyasampadane, Ratnakarvarni – Bharatesha Vaibhava, Bhimakavi – Basavapurana, Chamarasa – Prabhulingaleele. Kanakadasa – Mohana Tarangini, Nala Charita, Haribhakti Sara, etc., Purandaradasa – Keertans, Virupakshapandita – Channabasapurana Narahari – Torave Ramayana, Nijaguna Shivayogi – Viveka Chintamani.
i. Telugu :
Krishnadevaraya was a great scholar in Telugu. He wrote Amukta Malyada in Telugu. He patronized eight great Telugu poets in his court who were called ‘Ashtadiggajas’. Allasani Peddanna revered as the father of Telugu was conferred with the title of ‘Andhrakavi Pitamaha’. Srinatha wrote Kashikhanda Nachaha, Somanatha wrote Harivamsha, Allasani Peddanna wrote Manucharitamu, Vemana wrote poems. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.
Sir.M. Vishweshwaraiah is called the ‘Maker of Modren Mysore’ Explain.
Sri M. Vishweshwaraiah was the most outstanding Dewan of Mysore. He entered the services of Mysore as Chief Engineer. He was a great Engineer, a capable administrator, eminent economist a liberal-minded statesmen and patriot. He is rightly called as “The Architect of Modem Mysore”.
2. Early life and career of M.V. :
Sir M.V. was born on 15th September 1861 at Muddenahalli (Chikkaballapur District). His parents were Srinivass Shastri and Venkatalaxmamma who were orthodox Hindus. After completing his primary education at Chikkaballapura, he went to Bangalore for further studies.
He obtained his B. A. degree from Central College, Bangalore in 1881. He did his B.E. degree (Pune) from Madras University in 1884. He served in the Bombay Government from 1884 to 1909. He was appointed as the Chief Engineer of Mysore State in 1909. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – IV appointed him as the Dewan of Mysore in 1912. The main objective of Sir M.V. was the eradication of poverty and to put India in line with the developed nations.
3. Administrative reforms:
Sir M.V. was a liberal statesman and believed in democracy. He took steps to strengthen the local self-governing bodies. The number of the members of the legislative council was increased from 18 to 24 and given the power to discuss the budget of the state. Sri M.V. passed the local self-governing bodies Act.
This act made provisions for the majority of the members of the district and taluk boards being elected. Village reform committees were established for the progress of villages. The development of Malnad region was given priority and a plan was drawn up.
4. Industrial Development:
‘Industrialize or Perish’ was the slogan of Sir M.V. His aim was to make Mysore an industrially advanced state in India. He started several industries in the state. The important industries are Sandal oil factory at Mysore, Soap factory, Central Industrial work shop and Metal factory at Bangalore, Silk research center at Channapattana.
Small scale and Cottage industries also developed. Cottage industries such as weaving, pottery, oil processing, mat making, wood works, leather goods, etc., flourished. The Mysore Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established in 1913 at Bangalore. The Mysore Bank was founded in 1913 at Bangalore for the promotion of Industries and Commerce.
5. Educational reforms:
Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourge education among the economically and socially backward classes.
Female and technical education were also encouraged. The major Educational Institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore. His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore Univesity in 1916 at Mysore and the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and Literature.
6. Irrigational scheme:
He understood the needs of the farmers. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for better utilisation of the available water. K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at (1911 to 1931) Kannambadi and as a result, 150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya and Malavalli areas came under cultivation.
He offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty. Canals, tanks, and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage systems were introduced.
7. Railway reforms:
Sir M.V. introduced the ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore – Arasikere and Bowringpete – Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Birur-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Marata Company were brought under the State control.
8. Relief works:
During Sir. M. Vishwesh waraiah’s Dewanship the first world war (1914-18) broke out. This led to severe shortage of foodstuff. He took up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices.
Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable service to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, tire British Government honoured him with Knighthood in 1915. In 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to get this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.
PART – F
VI. Match the following: (5 × 1 = 5)
- – (c) Women scholar
- – (a) Iron man of India
- – (b) Famous Musician
- – (e) Ubhaya Kavi Chakravarti
- – (d) First Chief Minister of the Mysore state
Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. (5 × 1 = 5)
a. Quit India Movement
b. The Conference of World Religions held at Chicago
c. Coming of Aryans to India
d. Battle of Narmada
e. Unification of Karnataka.
d. Battle of Narmada
c. Coming of Aryans to India
b. The Conference of World Religions held at Chicago
a. Quit India Movement
e. Unification of Karnataka.