You can Download Chapter 3 Indus Civilization Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC History Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 2nd PUC History Question Bank Chapter 3 Indus Civilization
2nd PUC History Indus Civilization One Mark Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following Questions in one word or a sentence each.
In which year was the Archaeological Department of India established?
Lord Curzon established, the Archaeological Department of India in 1904.
What does the word ‘Mohenjodaro’ mean?
In Sindhi language, Mohenjodaro means ‘mound of the dead’.
Where was the Great Bath of Indus valley civilization located?
The Great Bath of Indus valley civilization was located at Mohenjodaro.
Where was the dockyard of Indus valley civilization discovered?
Dr. S.R. Rao discovered the dockyard of Indus valley civilization at Lothal (Cambay) in Gujarat.
Mention the important deity of the Indus people.
Mother Goddess was their chief deity. Shiva was worshipped in the form of Pashupati (Mahayogi) and Linga form.
2nd PUC History Indus Civilization Two marks Questions and Answers
II. Answer the following Questions in two words or two sentences each.
Who discovered Harappa and Mohenjodaro sites?
In 1921, Dr. R.B. Dayaram Sahani discovered the Harappan site in the Montgomery district of West Punjab, presently in Pakistan. In 1922, Dr. R.D. Baneijee discovered Mohenjodaro . on the banks of river Sindh in the Larkhan district of Sindh province (Pakistan).
Mention a few sites discovered, with respect to the Indus civilization.
Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro and Kotdiji in Pakistan. Dholvira, Rangpur, Surkotadn and Lothal in Gujarat, Kalibangan in Rajasthan, Banawali in Haryana and Rupar in Punjab.
Mention the methods of disposal of the dead by Indus people.
Indus people disposed of the bodies of their dead by cremation or burial. Many urns containing human bones and ashes have been found. It appears, that some household vessels and personal articles were also kept along with the dead bodies, for the onward journey after death.
Mention any two imports of the Indus people.
Indus people imported precious stones, copper and tin.
Mention any two exports of the Indus people.
Indus people exported ivory, gold, beads, timber and other goods.
Mention any two causes which brought an end to the Indus civilization.
Major causes for the decline of the Indus civilization are,
- The conquest and destruction of their important cities by the powerful set of invaders (probably Aryans) declined the civilization.
- Natural calamities such as wildfires, floods or severe earthquakes might have resulted in the damage of the cities and ruined them. For example, Mohenjodaro was rebuilt more than 7 times.
- Shifting of the monsoons and soil erosion made the people to desert the places. For want of fertile land, the people might have abandoned these places.
- Spread of epidemics must have wiped out the population.
- The rivers might have changed their course and ruined the cities. The drifting away of the rivers from the cities might have rendered the place unfertile.
Why did the Indus valley civilization is called as the Ilarappan civilization?
The first excavations were made at Harappa and as the Ilarappan features predominate at the sites of Indus, the Indus valley civilization is called as Harappan civilization.
2nd PUC History Indus Civilization Five marks Questions and Answers
III. Answer the following Questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.
Explain the town planning of the Indus civilization (or)
Enumerate briefly the salient features of the Indus civilization.
(1) Town planning: Town planning was a unique feature of Indus civilization. Their town planning proves that they lived a highly civilized, urban and developed life. The cities were excellently planned and efficiently constructed. Indus cities were built according to a standard and uniform plan with well laid streets, construction of houses, drainage systems, Great Bath, granary and other features which is quite amazing in nature.
(2) Streets: The streets were broad, running from east to west and north to south. The roads crossed each other at right angles. The main streets were 13 to 34.feet wide. The streets and roads divided the city into rectangular blocks. Street lights and dustbins were also provided on the streets. An elaborate drainage system was maintained.
(3) Buildings: People of Indus, built houses and other buildings by the side of roads. They built terraced houses and used burnt bricks made of mud and mortar as building materials. In each house, there were the open courtyard, rooms around it, a kitchen and a bathroom. Every house had two or more storeys. The entrances to the houses were usually in side alleys, and most of the houses had a well. The bathroom was constructed nearest to the street, so that the waste water drain was directly connected to the main drainage through clay pipes. Water supply was excellent. They also built a dockyard at Lothal.
(4) Drainage system: One of the most remarkable features of this civilization was an excellent closed drainage system. Each house had its own soak pit, which was connected to the public drainage. The drainage channels were 9 inches wide to 12 inches deep, The drains were laid well below the street level. The drains were all covered with slabs and had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning and clearing purposes. Thus, Indus, people had perfected the underground drainage system.
(5) The Great Bath (Public bath): The public bath is the most remarkable well to be found at Mohanjodharo. It consists of a large quadrangle. The actual bathing pool measured 39 x 33 feet with a depth of 8 ft. It was surrounded by verandahs with rooms and galleries behind them. On all sides of the pool there were steps. Provisions were made to drain off the dirty water from the pool regularly and fresh water was brought in. It speaks volumes about the technical skill, perfection, sense of sanitation and hygiene possessed by the Indus people.
(6) The Granary (Warehouse): The most remarkable and the largest building at I Iarappa is the great granary. It measures 169 x 135 ft. The one in Mohanjodharo is 150 x 75 feet. Revenue was probably collected in kind and the granary was used to store the grains collected.
(7) Dockyard: Dr. S.R Rao discovered the Lothal dockyard at Cambay in Gujarat. It is a noteworthy structure, which could accommodate several ships at a time. It shows that Indus people earned on external trade through ships. It gives us a good idea of the engineering skill of them.
Conclusion: The whole city was well maintained by the municipal authorities by supplying water, constructing public wells, providing street lights, dustbins and maintaining an excellent drainage system. But there is no information regarding the political organization or nature of Government.
State the social and economic conditions of the Indus people.
(i) Race: Experts are of the opinion, that the Indus people belonged to a mixed (admixtured) race of Proto-austroloids, Alpines, Mediterraneans and Mongoloids. Some other scholars believed, that Dravidians founded the Indus culture.
(ii) Social divisions (classes): There was no caste system then. With the help of the excavations, historians have come to the conclusion that there was a fourfold division of the society based on occupations. They were probably, as follows. The first class was made up of priests, physician^, astrologers eta, the second that of warriors, the third class consisted of traders and various artisans and the fourth one comprising of manual labourers and agriculturists who were the majority.
(iii) Dresses and ornaments: Both men and women used cotton and woollen threads as fabrics. Men wore an upper garment like shawl or cloak and their lower garment was dhoti. Women used skirts and a garment to cover their upper body and a kind of fan shaped head¬dress. They were conscious about their physical appearance. Women used cosmetics like face powder. lipsticks, eye ointment and accessories like mirrors, combs and hairpins. Ornaments: Ornaments were worn by men and women, like necklaces, anklets, girdles, armlets and finger rings. Women alone used girdles, nose studs, earstuds, anklets etc. Rich amongst them used gold, silver, ivory and semi precious stone ornaments and the poor used shell, bone and copper ornaments.
(iv) Household articles: Highly sophisticated household articles were found at the Indus sites. They had used mud to make domestic vessels of different shapes and sizes, stands and storage jars. Vessels of copper, bronze, silver and porcelain were also used and they knew how to make them. Toilet jars made of ivory, metal, pottery and stones have been discovered at Harappa.
(v) Food articles : Indus people consumed wheat, barley, rice, other grains, vegetables, fruits and milk. Animal produce like beef* mutton, pork, fresh and dried fish etc., were also consumed.
(vi) Amusements: The people had great love for indoor and outdoor games. Dice, balls, hunting, animal and bird fight were their entertainment games. Toys were made of terracotta consisting of rattles, whistles, carts, birds and figures of men and women. Chanhudaro was a centre for toy products.
(vii) Weapons: Excavations have brought to light, weapons such as slings, maces, daggers, spears, bows and arrows. No piece of iron has been discovered there and only weapons of defence have been found. Therefore, scholars hold the view, that Indus people were peace loving people. ’
(i) Agriculture: Agriculture was the main occupation followed by cattle rearing and dairy farming. In those days, the Indus basin must have been much more fertile and received more rain. They produced wheat, barley, peas, sesame, mustard, rice, fruits and vegetables.
(ii) Domestication of animals: The Indus people had domesticated a number of animals. They were cow, oxen, sheep, goat, dog, pig, cat, elephant, camel, buffaloe, humped bull etc. They reared a fine breed of cattle, both for milk and meat purposes.
(iii) Industries: At both Mohenjodaro and Harappa, several industries including homespun cloth were developed. There were professionals like potters, carpenters, jewellers, ivory workers, goldsmiths, weavers, blacksmiths and dyers. Chanhudaro became a great centre for pottery and terracotta toys. They produced artistically made stone beads.
(iv) Trade and commerce: Indus people had developed internal and external trade. External trade was with many countries of Western Asia, Egypt, Persia, Sumeria. Baluchistan etc., They used bullock carts as a means of transport to carry goods. Harappa, Lothal, Rupar, Kalibangari, Surkotada and Chanhudaro were the main centers of trade. They carried on their trading activities through a barter system. They also had knowledge of the decimal system. The dockyard at Lothal-(Gurajat) shows, that they carried on external trade through ships. They exported ivory, gold, beads, timber etc, and imported precious stones, copper and tin. The uniform seals and a regular system of weights and measures have helped commercial transactions. Weight ratios were 1,2,4,8,16,32,64,160,200,320 and 640. Measurement of the linear scale used was 13.2 inches.
Enumerate briefly the salient features of Indus Civilization
Describe the religious beliefs, seals and scripts of the Indus people.
Religion: Seals, terracotta figurines and statues narrate the religious life of the Indus people. They primarily worshipped nature in its various forms: Mother Goddess (Sakti), Pashupathi and Shiva were their main Gods and Goddesses. They worshipped sacred trees like Pipal, Neem and Acacia. The worship of Linga was associated with Shiva was very common. Worship of nature, animals, trees and spirits also existed. The Indus people worshipped animals like the humped bull, elephant, crocodile, unicorn, tiger, naga, etc. Probably the different birds and animals were accepted as vehicles of the various Gods and Goddesses.
Art and crafts: Art specimens of the Indus people are found in their pottery, carpentry, ivory carvings, stone-cuttings, seals and other objects. Statues were made in stone, clay, copper and bronze. The most remarkable contribution of the Indus people to the ancient craftsmanship was in the form of toys. The bronze idol of a dancing girl is a noteworthy object. It indicates their artistic skill.
Seals and Scripts: More than 3000 seals made of terracotta and ivory and stone have been found. Most of them are square or rectangular in shape and small (1/2 to 3cm) in size. These give us a lot of information about their script, religious beliefs, commercial contacts etc., The seals contain figures of animals, human beings and pictographic writings. The direction of the writings was from right to left and pictographic in nature. Many of the symbols used during that age, were similar to the ancient Egyptian script. Due to lack of sufficient written proof, it has been very difficult to study them in depth.