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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Model Question Paper 1 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a sentence each. (10 × 1=10)
What is Diarchy?
Diarchy is Dual government.
Which Act, attempted to establish Federation
1935 Act attempted to establish ‘Federation in India’.
Give an Example to Direct Election.
Lok Sabha, Vidhana Sabha elections.
United Progressive Alliance.
Who led the mass in the entry of Kalaram temple?
Dr B.R. Ambedkar.
What is economic exploitation?
Exploitation which leads to economic in-equality is called economic exploitation.
What is prepoll alliance?
Alliance with other like minded political parties before going to election is called prepoll alliance.
Who said, “On this earth, there is enough for everyone’s need; but not for greed”.
Mahatma Gandhi said this.
Name the present President of Syria.
What is Apartheid?
Discrimination on the basis of colour is called Apartheid.
II.Answer any ten of the following in 2 to 3 sentences: (10 × 2 = 20)
How many Articles and schedules are there in the Act of 1935?
The 1935 act contained 321 articles and 13 schedules.
Define Civil Service.
According to E.A. Gladden – “Civil Service is a regulated administrative system organised as a service of inter-related officers”.
Name any two Acts which relate to women protection.
- Abolition of Child Marriage Act 2005.
What is the meaning of Nation-building?
Nation-building is the process of uniting people with a sense of nationalism, building of nation power and national institutions, achieving socio-economic, educational and scientific developments, National reconstruction and all-round development.
What is state sponsored terrorism?
When states deliberately support terrorist groups which may lead to violation of human rights, it is called state sponsored terrorism.
Write two instances when coalitions are. formed.
- When no single party gets absolute majority.
- When political parties have made pre-poll alliances.
What is Brain drain?
When the well educated ones and bright students go abroad for higher studies and gainful employment opportunities, it is called brain drain
When was the League of Nations signed and come into effect?
The League of Nations was signed in 1919 and came into effect in 1920.
What is National Power?
The sum total of the strengths and capabilities of the state harnessed is called National Power.
What are Perestroika and Glasnost?
Perestroika means restructuring and Glasnost means openness. It was introduced by the then President of USSR Mikhail Gorbachev.
When and where was the first NAM Summit held?
The 1st NAM Summit was held at Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1961.
Name any two military alliances.
- North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
- WARSAW Pact.
III. Answer any 8 of the following in 15 to 20 sentences: (8 × 5=40)
Write a note on Interim Government.
The Interim Government of India was formed on 2nd September 1946. The constituent Assembly had 389 members. It was drawn from the newly elected Constituent Assembly of India. It had the task of assisting the transition of India and Pakistan from British rule to independence.
It remained in force until 15th August 1947, when India became independent. The Constituent Assembly became a sovereign body and performed the role of legislature for the new State. It was responsible for framing the constitution and making ordinary laws as well.
Give reasons for language as a basis for States re-organisation.
Language as a basis for re-organisation is important because of the following reasons.
- Language is closely related to culture and customs of people.
- Spread of education and literacy can occur only through medium of mother tongue.
- To a common citizen, democracy can be real only when politics and administration are conducted, in their language.
- Linguistic states can provide education, administration and judicial activity in their mother tongue. Therefore, it was assumed that free India would base its boundaries on linguistic principles.
Explain the features of indirect elections.
Features of Indirect Elections are:
Selection of best candidates:
In this method, candidates are elected by intelligent voters. At the first instance, General public elects their representatives to the electoral college and at the second instance, the elected representatives in turn judiciously elect the final representatives of legislature or head of the nation. This method involves double election. Elected representatives act wisely with political acumen.
1. Prevents unhealthy campaigning:
It avoids all sorts of evils like dirty propaganda tricks and instigation of people lover petty issues to divide. them. F or example in the election of the President of India the average voters are kept outside but only elected members of both the Houses of the Parliament participate. These intelligent and responsible members keep away from all sorts of party gimmicks.
2. Peaceful voting:
In this method, there is no scope for illegal activities or fights during the election as it happens in the direct election. In the electoral process, only small members of enlightened voters peacefully exercise their votes judiciously. The elections are conducted according to well defined norms and values.
3. Little scope for emotions:
Elected representatives are not carried away by passions or sentiments nor can be influenced like an average voter. There is no chance for misusing sensitive issues for political gains. The higher level leaders are elected by people’s representatives who act with a sense of responsibility.
4. Suitable to developing nations:
Since majority of the voters are ignorant, not educated and intelligent, only a small group of politically educated and wise voters elect responsible and public spirited representatives.
What are the five functions of a Deputy Commissioner?
The Deputy Commissioner (DC) is the head of the District. He also acts as the District Magistrate, Superintendent of Police (SP), District Treasury Officer, Deputy Director of Pre University Education, Social Welfare Officer, Deputy Director of Public Instruction, District Medical. Officer, Deputy Registrar and other functions under the jurisdiction of the Deputy Commissioner. The Deputy Commissioner performs the following functions.
1. Law and order and Magisterial powers:
Deputy Commissioner enjoys magisterial powers. Being the District Magistrate, he maintains law and order and performs other judicial functions in the district.
2. Revenue functions:
It includes maintenance of Land Records and its assessment, collection of Land Revenue and other public dues and settlement of land disputes. Assistant Commissioners and Tahsildars work under the overall supervision and control of the Deputy Commissioner.
3. Development Functions:
It includes Public f Health, Educational Rural Development, Social Welfare (Scheduled Caste and [ Scheduled Tribe) and Welfare of Backward Classes and Minorities and Protection of Weaker sections of the Society.
4. Regulatory Functions:
It includes control, regulation and distribution of Food and Civil Supplies and essential commodities. He also controls the matters relating to excise, stamps and registration.
5. Electoral Functions:
Deputy Commissioner is the District Election Officer and he is in charge of elections to Parliament, State Legislature and Local bodies.
Discuss the political implications of labour Movement.
Political Implications: To meet the demands of work and to provide welfare programmes, the Government has taken some measures. They are:
1. Constitutional measures:
Part IV of the Indian Constitution which deals with the Directive Principles of State Policy directs State Governments to adopt socialist measures like equal pay for equal work for both men and women and to provide leave facilities for pregnant women for both prenatal and postnatal care. The concurrent list empowers the Governments to legislate on workers welfare.
2. Government of India has made legislation on personal Labour Laws as follows:
The Labour Laws of 1970 have fixed the wages of workers appointed on contract basis. Workmen compensation Act of 1923, Salary Payment Act of 1936, Weekly Holiday Act of 1942, Minimum Wages Act of 1948, Employees Provident Fund Act of 1952, Bonus Act of 1965 are some of the important labour acts.
Some Prominent Labour Organisations are,
3. All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC):
With the belief in socialistic pattern of society, this started in 1920. It was working as a Labour Union and came under the grip of Communists after independence. It aims at nationalization of industries, protection of labour rights and labour welfare etc.,
4. Indian National Trade Union Congress(INTUC):
Because of ideological differences, some congressmen came out of AITUC and started INTUC in May 1947, with the support of Congress Party on non-violent philosophy.
5. Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS):
Founded by Dattopanth Thengdi for upholding the patriotic spirit among the labour population during 1955 on the birthday of Sri Bal Gangadhar Tilak. It is not affiliated to any international trade union confederation. An estimated 5860 labour unions are affiliated to BMS and it is one of the largest central Trade Unions of India according to the 2002 statistics of Ministry of labour.
6. Centre for Trade Union (CITU):
Communist leaders like S.A. Dange and EMS. Nambood- aripad took the stand to oppose the imperialistic attitude of the trade union In 1964, Marxists started CITU because of the differences between leftists and rightists in AITUC. West Bengal, Kerala and Tripura are the strong hold of Marxists.
7. Other major organizations:
Hindu Mazdoor Sabha, (HMS) Hind Mazdoor Panchayath (HMP), United Trade Union Congress (UTUC) and other organizations are also struggling hard to protect the interests of labourers. In total Labour Movements are trying to improve the welfare and standard of living of workers.
The success of these movements can be seen through Governmental Programmes. As Karl Marx said, “Unite the workers of the world, you are going to lose shackles of the slavery, but nothing else”. The celebration of May day throughout the world on 1 st of May every year proves the significance of labour force and the movement.
What are the causes for Environment Movement?
Causes for Environmental Movement are as follows.
To protect the Environmental degradation:
The Government of India has taken measures for economic development including industrial and technological development. This has led to industrialization, urbanization and their adverse effects like loss of cultivable land, and also on the fertility of the soil.
1. To protect Mo-diversity:
Deforestation for fuel and construction purposes has left the wildlife and birds to become orphan. Hence Chipco, Appico and Save Western Ghats Movements started.
2. Environment education and consciousness:
Living amidst environment, formal education in (j schools, colleges and non-governmental organizations have created awareness and consciousness among human beings. Programmes, rallies and Jathas have gone a long way in this direction.
3. To curb environment decay:
The greediness of the people to excavate and exploit resources have resulted in soil erosion, drying up of rivers and reservoirs, pollution of air, water and sound etc. To maintain equilibrium and to pressurize the people in power to take measures, these movements emerged.
Explain the causes for caste based inequality.
1. Caste based inequality:
Inequality means denying opportunities and privileges to some classes, making discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, gender, birthplace etc., Discriminating people on the grounds is prevalent in caste is caste based inequality. From the ancient period, caste based inequality in Hindu Society. Hindu society was divided into four varnas and the contents of Manu Smriti were followed.
In modern society, inequality is based on the available privileges for upper and lower castes, which also has contributed to social inequality. Varna System was based on the professions such as Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vysyas and Sudras. Gradually it got converted into caste based discrimination by the law of Manu. Later on, inequality prevailed in Hindu society.
2. Social Distance:
Due to lack of interaction individual among different castes, their cultures, traditions, folkways, mores, food habits, social intercourse and so on are not known to others and not appreciated or acknowledged. Hence, it is called a closed society. It has leads to strong caste bias amongst them.
3. Illiteracy and conservation:
Illiteracy and ignorance among people make them conservative and moulds them to narrow mindedness and superstitions. They believe in old customs and traditions. Such people are very orthodox in their nature. They oppose strongly to any change in society and consider their own caste as superior and others as inferior.
4. Sense of prestige:
The strong desire of the people belonging to a particular cast enhances the prestige of their own, to get benefits and privileges from the society. Other castes which get neglected remain unprivileged and suffer from social status inequality.
5. Marriage restrictions:
In this closed society, only endogamous marriages are accepted. Elders do not honour marriages fixed outside their subsects. In such a situation, strong caste feeling develops and leads to inequality.
Explain the various provisions of UAPA passed in 2008.
This Act was passed by the Parliament in 2008. The UAPA (Unlawful Activities Prevention Act) replaced POTA. It contains the following main provisions. Terrorist Act is defined in section 15 of the Act as “Any act which threatens the unity, integrity, sovereignty of India or with intent to strike terror in the people or any section of people in India or in any foreign country”.
1. Those persons who have the intention of aiding, abetting or committing a terrorist act shall be punishable with imprisonment for 10 years and fine.
2. Punishment for raising funds for terrorist acts is 5 years which may extend to life imprisonment and liable for fine.
3. It prescribes punishment for recruitment of persons for terrorist acts and their training. The punishment is 5 years which may extend to imprisonment for life and liable for fine.
4. Every offence punishable under this Act shall be deemed to be a cognizable offence. If the investigation cannot be completed within 90 days, the court may extend the detention period up to 180 days.
5. If there are sufficient grounds for detention of an accused person under the Act, no bail is granted. Further, no bail shall be granted to a foreigner who has entered the country illegally except in very exceptional circumstances and for reasons to be recorded in writing.
6. The Central Government has the power to freeze, seize or attach funds or other financial assets or economic resources of the terrorist groups.
How Globalisation is helpful in higher education?
Globalisation is the process of integrating the j economy of a country with world economy. The strongest manifestation of globalization has been the increasing economic integration among countries in trade and investment. An important attribute of globalisation is the increasing degree of openness, which has three
The chain of reforms that took place with regard to business, manufacturing and financial industries targeted at strengthening the economy of the country to more proficient levels. It allows people in search of jobs and education at global level. Hence mobility is made simple and easy. Several in the market companies | introduce the best quality of goods at the lowest price.
This leads to healthy competition in the economic field. It removes and restrictions. Now people can get jobs education at higher levels as per they desire. Today more companies many global institutions help them to get the concept of global village and reduce the gap among the countries. All countries come together under one roof, people can communicate with each other exchanging their culture, habits, lifestyle etc.,
Discuss the origin of the BRICS nations t regional cooperation.
It is important to note that BRICS is the acronym for an Association of five major emerging national economies like Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The group was originally known as ‘BRIC’ before the inclusion of South Africa in 2010. The BRICS members are either developing or are newly industrialized and are distinguished by their large fast growing economics and significant influence on regional and global affairs. All five are G-20 members. Presently, South Africa holds the chair of the BRICS group.
Summit level meetings:
The leaders of RIC Countries. Russian President Valdmir Putin, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Chinese President Hu-Jinatao-held the first summit in St.Petersburg on July 17, 2006, as part of the G-8 Summit conference program. Later, Brazil jointed the summit meeting.
The Foreign Ministers of the. initial four BRIC national met in New York in September 2006. They singled out agriculture the prevention of natural calamities and elimination of their aftermath and promotion of healthcare as primary areas. A fullfledged diplomatic meeting was held in Yekaterinburg.
The summit focussed on the means of improving the global economic situation and reforming financial institution. In the aftermath of the Yekaterinburg summit, the BRIC nations announced the need for a new global reserve currency, which would have to be “diversified, stable and predictable”.
Explain the Disarment policy.
Major concern of India’s foreign policy in the post cold war period is disarmament and arms race in the world. As a leader of NAM, India established beyond doubt that arms race is at the expense of human development. Expenditure on arms and ammunitions depletes and distorts economic progress, programs for removal of poverty, eradiction of diseases, spread of education and easy availability of basic needs.
India is not a signatory to the NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) CTBT(Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) and also to other nuclear or war treaties. India conducted nuclear tests at Pokran in 1974 (Smiling Buddha) and 1998 (Sakti-I and Sakti-II). Though India is one among the major nuclear powers in the world, it is only for civil use and development, not for armed or nuclear race.
The ultimate goal is comprehensive and complete disarmament of all forms of nuclear, chemical and conventional weapons. India established Indira Gandhi Prize . for Peace, Disarmament and Development, to recognize the persons, who work for the promotion of disarmament and peace in the world.
In 2013, German Chancellor Angela Merkel won this award for her commitment to universal peace and disarmament. Millions of people all over the world are aware that a nuclear war will turn our earth into a graveyard of human race and wipe out its achievements.
As a result, 2013 Noble Prize for Peace was awarded to the Organisation for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the international group in which India is one of the founder members, for its continuous efforts towards disarmament.
How the recent visits of leaders influence on the Indo-China relations?
Business leaders from China visited India and signed many Memorandum of Understandings (MOUs) with Indian Companies. As a member of BRICS, China decided to stop Staple Jammu and Kashmir residents. This gesture resumed the defence, business and trade ties between the two nations in April 2011. Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and the Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh set a goal to increase bilateral trade between the two countries.
China became India’s largest trade partner in 2012. Dr. Singh expressed his concern to strengthen the bilateral relations of both the countries with visiting Chinese Premier Li Keqiang and the President Jinping in May 2013. Dr. Singh visited China in October 2013. The historic visit of Heads of the States in the same year heralded a new era in Indo-China relations.
IV. Answer any 2 of the following in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 x 10 = 20)
Describe the electoral reforms in India.
The success of parliamentary democracy depends upon the political stability which lies in the pure and honest electoral system. Democracy is the will of the people and their opinion is sacred. Hence it is said that the “Voice of the people is voice of the God”. It ensures impartial, free and fair elections through ballot papers but not bullets. In this regard, many committees were appointed by the successive Governments. The most important among them are:
- V.K Tarkunde Committee (1974 -75)
- Dinesh Goswami Committee (1990)
- Justice V.R. Krishna Iyer Committee (1994)
- Wanchoo Committee
- Indrajit Gupta Committee (1998)
- Justice Kuldeep Singh Committee (2002)
- Law Committee Reports.
On the basis of recommendations of these committees, the respective Governments have implemented the following reforms.
1. Elector’s Photo Identity Card (EPIC):
The Elector’s Photo Identity Card was introduced by the Chief Commissioner T. N.Sheshan (1990-1996) to conduct free and fair elections to remove the evil practices like corruption and impersonation (bogus voting) etc. It was introduced in India in the year 1993. Arrangements were made to issue EPIC to U prevent impersonation of electors.
Initially, it was difficult to issue identity cards to all the voters due to some technical problems. But, during the term of M.S Gill, the possession of EPIC by the voters was made compulsory. It is an official document issued by the Election Commission to all the eligible voters. It consists of information of voter’s age, name, photo, gender, address, constituency, date of issue etc.
2. Electronic Voting Machine (EVM):
The Electronic Voting Machine is one of the important innovations of modern technology. It has replaced the system of ballot box and ballot papers with the most effective Electronic Voting Machine. The EVMs were introduced for the first time in 1998 in the Legislative Assembly Elections of some States and it was successful. Later during the 14th Lok Shaba elections, they were used all over India.
EVM consists of a Controlling Unit and a Balloting unit which are interconnected with a cable. The balloting unit is kept in the place where voters exercise votes. The Controlling Unit is with the Polling Officer. After the voters prove their identity, by pressing the blue button on the balloting unit against the candidate’s symbol, they cast their vote. With the beeping sound the voting procedure is completed.
Uses of Electronic Voting Machine
- EVM can be easily operated and saves time.
- It is simple to the voter to cast vote.
- Quick and accurate results.
- Economic and eco-friendly.
- Avoids invalid votes.
- Control of irregularities.
How illiteracy is an impediment to democracy? Explain its remedies.
Illiteracy means inability of a person to read and write in any language. Amartya Sen described illiteracy as one of ‘unfreedoms’. According to the census report of 2001, a person who can read and write with understanding in any language may be called a literate person and a person who can only read but cannot write is not a literate person.
Illiteracy is a curse on human development.
Illiteracy is both a curse and an impediment to democracy. Illiterates are easily exploited and abused by politicians and vested interests to realize their goals. The successful working of democracy depends upon political awareness which can be acquired through education their goals. The successful working of democracy depends upon political awareness which can be acquired through education.
2011 census report recorded the literacy rate in Kerala at 94%, Karnataka at 75.36% and Bihar at 61.80%.
1. Lack of Political Awareness:
Illiteracy would contribute for political apathy. Illiterate masses due to their ignorance and indifferences do not take part in the political process. They are not able to understand the importance of vote, they do not understand the ideologies of political parties, their manifestos and the performance of ruling party, election rules and process.
2. Low Percentage of votes:
Since the first general election, the percentage of polling has not crossed 60%. This is due to illiteracy and lack of political awareness. Political legitimacy cannot be achieved to a full extend by low percentage of polling. Money and Muscle Power: The nexus between politicians and businessmen is noticeable.
The politicians are tactful enough to get votes from the poor people who are illiterate through dubious means Rigging and booth capturing and threatening the voters using muscle power have led to criminalization of politics.
3. Politics of Populism:
The voters in India are attracted by politics of populism. Illiteracy and poverty force them to depend upon the facilities of the Government. They fail to understand that the populist programmes bring them into mainstream of the Society. Indulgence in politics of populism makes the people depend on the Government for everything without becoming creative individuals. This becomes an impediment to national development.
4. Emergence of Dictatorship:
When people are not politically conscious, show apathy to vote, an ambitious leader transforms democracy into dictatorship.
What is Crony capitalism? Explain the nature of crony capitalism.
Crony capitalism is a negative term used to refer to the business dealings carried out by the Government officers in a capitalist economy. As Warren Buffet opined “The crony capitalism is a term describing an economy in which success in business depends on close relationships between business people and government officials. It may be exhibited by favouritism in the distribution of legal permits, government grants special tax breaks or other forms”.
1. Favourites Political authorities:
Crony capitalism is a system in which close associates of the people in power who enact and execute policies get favours that have large economic implications.
2. Cronies get capital and reward:
Cronies are rewarded with the ability to charge higher prices for their output than would prevail in a competitive market, Punnelled to the enterprises of cronies through government controlled banks.
3. Protection of assets:
Crony capitalism allows government to guarantee a subset of asset holders that their property rights will be protected. As long as their assests are protected, these assest holders will continue to invest as if there were universal protection of property rights.
4. Share in the rents generated by the asset holders:
The members of the government or members of their families, share the rents generated by the assest holders. This may take the form of jobs, co-investments, or even transfer of stock. Crony capitalism goes hand in hand with corruption.
5. The concentration of Economics Power:
A few busines groups which are cronies, influence state policies and pool their assets in private corporate sectors. Such concentration gives birth to crony capitalism. Crony capitalism is an economic phenomenon with political consequences.
In crony capitalism, the government must be able to make deals in closed doors without public review and approval, Personal connections of particular assest holders and government actors continue so long as
that particular government is in power. When the government is replaced, those personal connections vanish.
Describe India-ASEAN areas of co-operation.
The ASEAN was established on 8th August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the founding fathers of ASEAN. Indian-ASEAN areas of co-operation are:
1. Functional Co-operation:
ASEAN-India functional co-operation is diverse and includes co-operation across a range of sectors, such as trade, science & technology, agriculture, environment, Human Resource development, space science, new and renewable energy, information and communication technology, telecommunications, transport and infrastructure, tourism, culture, health and pharmaceuticals.
2. Economic Co-operation:
The ASEAN- India FTA will see tariff liberalization of over 90 percent of products traded between the two dynamic regions including the so-called “special products” such as palm oil (crude and refined), coffee, black tea and pepper. Tariffs on over 4,000 product lines will be eliminated at the earliest by 2016.
ASEAN – India Trade in Goods Agreement was signed on 13th August 2009 at the ASEAN – India Economic Ministerial Meeting in Bangkok.
3. Peace and Security Co-operation:
ASEAN and India commemorated the 20th anniversary of dialogue level partnership and the 10th anniversary of Summit-level partnership with a Commemorative Summit in New Delhi under the theme ‘ASEAN – , India Partnership for peace and shared prosperity in December 2012.
4. Tourism Sector :
The 4th ASEAN – India Tourism Ministers Meeting was held in Vietnam in January 2013. ASEAN-India tourism website (www. Indiaasean.org) was launched. ASEAN and India are also working on enhancing private sector engagements. Details on the re-activation of the ASEAN- India business Council (AIBC), the holding of the ASEAN-India Business Fair (AIBF) are being worked out by officials.
At the third ASEAN-India Summit, the. parties concerned signed a partnership for peace, progress and shared prosperity. At the sixth Summit, India announced setting up of an India the ASEAN green fund. At seventh Summit, India annouced contribution of US $ 50 million to ASEAN-India co-operation fund.
At the 11th ASEAN – India summit, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh welcomed India’s ‘Look East’ policy and the decision to set up a separate mission for the Association of ASEAN. The past three years have witnessed remarkable progress in the implementation of the plan of Action.
V. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write a note on Chief Secretary of State.
Chief Secretary is the head of the Secretariat in every state. He is in charge of the administrative setup. His authority includes all departments of the Secretariat. By reason of his experience and standing, he is able to ease out difficulties and frictions to give general guidance to other officers. Thus he gives leadership to the administrative set up of the state. He maintains rapport between the State government and the Union government and other State governments.
The Chief Secretary performs the following functions:
- He is the Principal Adviser to the Chief Minister.
- He acts as the Cabinet Secretary and attends cabinet meetings.
- He exercises general supervision and control over the entire Secretariat.
- He looks after all matters beyond the purview of other secretaries.
- As chief of all the secretaries, he presides over a large number of committees and is a member of many others.
- He is the secretary by rotation, of the zonal council of which the state is a member.
- He has control over the staff attached to the ministers.
- He is the bridge between that State and Central or other state Governments.
- He receives confidential communication from the Government of India and conveys them to the Chief Minister.
As the heed of dying administrative Machinery, Chief of the Civil Services, Mentor and conscience keeper of Civil services, he plays a significant role in the state administration.
Write a note on the first General Elections.
First General Elections [1951-52]:
India became a Sovereign Democratic Republic after the Constitution was adopted on 26th January 1950. General elections to the first Lok Sabha were held in India from October 1951 to February 1952, on j the basis of Universal Adult Franchise. With this India emerged as the world’s largest Democracy. The holding of General elections was a bold implementation of the faith in man and democracy.
The first general elections was the most gigantic political experiment in the history of democracy. It was world’s largest free elections.
How Youth Movements have led to the creation of the institution of Lokpal?
Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan was the pioneer of the total revolution and he inspired youth during the 1970’s to revolt against the corrupt administration He travelled all over India to fight against the evil. During the 1980s, All Assam Student’s Union (AASU) fought against the corruption which threatened North Eastern States.
Today, the mood of the country especially the mood of youth is against corruption on war footing. The war against corruption is perceived as the mother of all wars. Anti corruption movement gathered moment when Anna Hazare kick started the movement and gave a call to the youth to join him in a fight against corruption under the banner of India against corruption (IAC).
The overall effect of the youth movements against corruption has resulted in the creation of the institution of Lokpal.
Explain the role of India in resolving Lankan ethnic problems.
From the mid-1950s and to early 1980s there was hardly any dispute between the two countries on the matters of security and sovereignty. There had been negotiated settlements of bilateral issues, e.g. the question of jurisdiction over Kachathivu island in the middle of the Palk Straits. One of the main disputes between India and Sri Lanka has been regarding the political status of Tamil people of Indian origin, who were taken to Sri Lanka by the British as plantation labourers. There are four groups of Sri Lankan Tamil population,
- ancient Families in the Jaffna Peninsula
- professional elite Tamils in urban areas,
- non-Hindu Tamils and
- Tamil immigrant labour.
He long-standing problem of accepting the Tamil speaking population of Sri Lanka as its citizens and giving them regional autonomy could not be solved. The majority of Sinhalese demanded Tamils should return to India, they deny citizenship to Tamils by enacting the Ceylon citizenship act of 1948.
This has disentitled Tamils franchise and other rights. In 1965, Indian Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri and SriLankan Prime Minister Mrs Sirimao BandaraNaike signed an agreement about Tamils citizenship but in vain. The 1981 agreement between Indira Gandhi and Sirimao Bandaranaike was not implemented due to Tamils refusal to proposals India.
The Government of President Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994) strived to promote better relationships between Sinhala and Tamil ethnic groups so as to find political solution to the Tamil demands. In December 1998, India and Sri Lanka signed the Free Trade Agreement. The Government of President Mahinda Rajapaksha also worked in this direction.
The bilateral trade agreements in 2000 resulted in a marked improvement in the Indo-Sri Lankan trade between 2004 and 2010. S.M. Krishna the then External Affairs Minister visited Sri Lanka in January, met the President and reviewed the comprehensive agenda of bilateral relations.
The high level delegation led by the President of Sri Lanka visited India In the same year and laid the foundation to University of Buddhist and India studies at Sanchi. Again in 2013, a bilateral meeting was held and an agreement was signed to combat Inter National Terrorism and Illicit, drugs trafficking.
The ethnic conflict which continued for over 30 years and tom the island nation, ended in May 2009. As per the 13th Amendment of the India Sri Lanka Accord of 1987 elections were held to the Northern Provincial Council in September 2013, and with this, a new facet of Democracy has begun.