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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper March 2015
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a word or a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
When did India become independent?
India became Independent on August 15th 1947.
Which state was bifurcated in 2013?
Andhra Pradesh was bifurcated in 2013, as Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states.
What is Election?
Election is the process of choosing representatives to Public offices.
None Of The Above (NOTA).
Who was the first lady teacher for exploited women?
Which is the native district of Saalumarada Thimmakka?
Ramanagar district of Karnataka.
Who identified identity politics?
L, A. Kauffman identified identity politics.
What is Terrorism?
Terrorism is an act of violence, which is intended to create fear among people.
Which country introduced Privatisation for the 1st time?
U.K. introduced privatization for the first time.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in one or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
Why was ‘’Simon Commission’ appointed?
The British government appointed a statutory commission (Simon Commission) in 1927 to enquire into a report of 1919 Act. This was done as a concession to the Indian demand for an early revision of the Act. The Commission headed by Sir John Simon, consisted of seven members from the British parliament, but no Indians.
Define Civil Service.
According to E.A. Gladden “Civil Service is a regulated administrative system organized as a service of inter-related officers”.
Name the varnas that prevailed in the ancient period.
The Varnas that prevailed in the ancient period were Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras.
Mention any two causes for illiteracy.
Population, Social backwardness, and Poverty.
What is Coalition Government?
The term coalition is derived from the Latin word ‘Coalitio’, ‘Co’ means together and ‘Afesure’ means ‘to’ grow up’. It is an act of coalescing or uniting into one body or a union of parties. When different political forces join together, coalition is formed.
Write, two hurdles in creating a corruption free India.
Power politics, Demoralization of Bureaucracy, criminalization of politics, violations of social justice.
Name any two ethnic groups in Syria.
Syria has a multi-ethnic population comprising of Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, Assyrians, and Turkmens.
Name two permanent members of the Security Council.
Security council consists 15 members. Among them 5 members are permanent. They are Britain, America, China, France, and Russia.
When was SAARC established? Where is the Secretariat situated?
Even though SAARC was in process from 1983-85, it was established on 8th December 1985. Its Secretariat is at Katmandu (Nepal.)
Name any two military alliances.
Due to cold war between Russia and America some military alliances like NATO, ANZIJS, SEATO, CENTO have emerged.
Write any two causes for the liberation of Bangladesh.
The Communal clashes in Tripura and when millions of refugees fled to India causing uneasy law and order situation upsetting Indian economy and social peace.
Who were the signatories of Simla Agreement?
Simla Pact was signed in 1972 at Simla. The signatories of this pact (agreement) were Smt. Indira Gandhi – Indian Prime Minister and Pakistan Prime Minister, Z.A. Bhutto.
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)
Write a short note on first general elections.
First General Elections [1951-52]:
India became a Sovereign Democratic Republic after the constitution was adopted on 26th January 1950. General elections to the first Lok Sabha were held in India from October 1951 to February 1952, on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise. With this, India emerged as the world’s largest Democracy.
The holding of General elections was a bold implementation of that faith in man and democracy. The first general elections was the most gigantic political experiment in the history of democracy. It was world’s largest free election.
What is ‘Patel Scheme’?
Sardar Patel and V.P. Menon dealt with matters arising between Central Government and Indian states, during the process of integration. Patel handled the princes with patience, tact, sympathy and a iron hand.
The process of integration was three-fold and known as ‘Patel Scheme’:
1. Merger of small states with adjoining provinces:
About 216 states were merged with provinces adjoining them, e.g: Merger of 24 states of Orissa, 14 states of Central Province, Pudukottai with Madras, etc. These merged states were included in part B of the Constitution.
2. Grouping of small states:
Many small states grouped themselves to form a big state with the ruler of the most important becoming the Rajpramukhs e.g. Union of Saurashtra, Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), etc. These unions were called part B states.
3. Integration into Chief Commissioner’s Provinces:
About 61 states which were quite small and backward were converted into centrally administered areas as Chief Commissioner’s Provinces and were called Part-C States, e.g. Himachal Pradesh, Ajmer, Coorg, Cooch-Bihar, etc.
Explain the advantages of Electronic Voting Machine.
The Electronic Voting Machine(EVM) is one of the important innovations of modem technology. It has replaced the system of ballot box and ballot papers with the most effective Electronic Voting Machine.
EVM consists of a controlling Unit and a Balloting Unit and both are interconnected with a cable. The balloting unit is kept in the place where voters exercise votes. The controlling unit is with the polling officer. After the voter proves his identity, by pressing the blue button on the balloting unit against the candidate’s symbol he casts his vote. With the beeping sound the voting procedure gets completed.
Uses of EVM:
- EVM can be easily operated and saves time.
- It is simple to operate by the voter to cast vote.
- Quick and accurate results.
- Economic and Eco-friendly.
- Avoids invalid votes.
- Control of irregularities.
- NOTA option is provided.
Explain the role of Administration.
Administration is as old as ancient civilizations. It can be traced back to the vedic times. During monarchy, the administration was used to execute efficient and effective functioning of the government, with a view to meet the demands of the people and solve their problems.
In the history of development of Indian administration, we find two unique features with the village as a primary unit of administration and decentralization as its goal. It can therefore be seen that the present administration is based on the foundation of traditional public administration.
Mention any two functions of the Chief Secretary.
Chief Secretary is the head of the Secretariat in every state. He is in charge of the administrative set-up. His authority includes all departments of the Secretariat. By reason of his experience and standing, he is able to ease out difficulties and frictions to give general guidance to other officers.
Thus he gives leadership to the administrative setup of the state. He maintains rapport between the State government and the Union government and other State governments.
The Chief Secretary performs the following functions:
- He is the Principal Adviser to the Chief Minister.
- He acts as the Cabinet Secretary and attends cabinet meetings.
- He exercises general supervision and control over the entire Secretariat.
- He looks after all matters beyond the purview of other secretaries.
- As chief of all the secretaries, he presides over a large number of committees and is a member of many others.
- He is the secretary by rotation, of the zonal council of which the state is a member.
- He has control over the staff attached to the ministers.
- He is the bridge between that State and Central or other state Governments.
- He receives confidential communication from the Government of India and conveys them to the Chief Minister.
As the head of the administrative Machineiy, Chief of the Civil Services, Mentor and conscience keeper of Civil services, he plays a significant role in the state administration.
What are the causes for Feminist Movement?
The causes few Feminist Movement are as follows.
It is evident that Indian society is male dominated and preference is given to the male members. Though men and women are born equally and Consitution also uphold the equality between the two, women are deprived of education, employment, decision making, and property rights. This has led to agitation.
2. The evils of dowry:
Hie evils of dowry have forced parents to become debtors, the girls to brothels and uneven sex ratio through female foeticide and infanticide. As a result of this uneven ratio of men and women in society, rape and other heinous crimes are on-die rise.
3. Denial of human rights:
The atrocities on women have denied them human rights and other rights like right to life, liberty, freedom of expression and others. Their existence and survival depends upon the mercy of the male members. Decision making is the birth right of men in matters of education, marriage, property rights and family issues.
4. Social strata based on gender:
Men have not spared any of the fields including cultural, social, religious, political and exercise their monopoly and continue their attrocities on women. Women are treated as slaves and bonded labourers. This has made the women to organize themselves and start an agitation.
5. Sexual abuse and molestation:
Irrespective of the age, time and place, the above heinous crimes are taking place. To regain the right to decide about children or to get aborted without the interference of husband or politicians through governmental policies, women are uniting together and fighting for justice.
6. Domestic violence:
Women shoulder the entire household responsibilites like raring and caring of, children, domestic work and the related tasks. The cohabitants of the family become the victims of domestic violence because of irresponsible, illiterate and drunkard husbands who lack discretion. This may take the form of physical, mental, sexual harassment and finally it may take women’s life as a toll. To avoid such violence, women organisations are established.
What are the causes for Labour Movement?
1. Interest of Labourers:
Generally industrialists concentrate on their profit rather than workers and their welfare. Labourers are exploited by way of giving lesser wages, not declaring bonus, extended hours of work, denial of medical facilities, dismissal from service, etc. and to overcome such situations, the affected labourers organize and voice their grievances through agitations which lead to labour movements. During 1920, All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was organized and got legal recognition by the British Government.
2. Negligence towards employees:
The matters concerning to labourers were decided unilaterally by the Apex Body of the company. Naturally the interests of labourers were neglected. As a result, hostile relationship was the order of the day. To have a share in the decision making process of the Apex Body, to protect the interests of labourers and to enhance their status, they started uniting.
3. To get facilities:
As the labourers are engaged in monotonous physical strain, they need to have a break in between. To get proper facilities for both male and female workers as per their requirements like potable water, cafeteria, toilet facilities, rest rooms, creaches, medical facilities, etc., movements have started.
4. Welfare Programmes:
The fate of the companies depend upon the welfare and well being of the workers. To get the social security measures like-Bonus. Allowances, Loans, Insurance, Free Quarters, Transport and Educational facilities, workmen compensation, Pension, Family Pension, etc., came together to form organizations that paved way for labour movement.
5. Plight of workers of unorganized sectors:
Anganawadi workers, agricultural labourers, workers on daily wages are exploited to the core as they are still fighting for their rights. This has led to agitations and movements.
Explain the remedial measures to remove caste based inequality.
As a result of caste based inequality, the worst hit are the Schedule Castes, Schedule Tribes and the other Backward Classes. In order to bring them into the mainstream, the makers of the Indian Constitution included certain provisions in part III, IV & XVI of the Constitution. Art. 15,16,17 and 46 contain revolutionary provisions for the creation of socialistic pattern of society or altruism in society. The aim of reservation policy is the establishment of an egalitarian society.
The National Commission for SCs and STs is empowered to change their socio-economic status through different provisions. The provision is made for the identification of other Backward Classes both by the Central and State Governments. They are empowered to appoint Backward Class Commission.
Art. 15 of the Constitution provides reservation of seats to SCs, STs and Backward Classes in educational institutions. They must also reserve certain seats to the students belonging to these groups as per the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 15 percent of seats for SCs and 3% percent for STs are reserved. Right to Education has also provided reservation to these communities.
Art. 16 of the Constitution provides equal opportunities to all in public services. Art. 335 claims reservation for SCs and STs in Public Service both in Central and State Governments. At present the reservation for jobs in Central and State Governments to SCs and STs stand at 15% and 3 % respectively.
The Mandal Commission report recommended 27% job reservation for Other Backward Classes (OBC) in 1980. It was implemented in 1990.
3. Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly:
Article 330 and 332 of the Indian Constitution provides reservation to SCs and STs both in Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assembly respectively.
4. Local bodies:
As per Art. 243 D of the Indian Constitution, seats are reserved for SCs and STs in every Panchayath in proportion to their population. Under the same Article the offices of the chairpersons in the Panchayath Raj Institutions are reserved for these groups as per the law made by State Governments. For Backward classes also, seats may be reserved by the State Government in any Panchayath or for offices of chairpersons. Art 243 T provides for reservation of seats for these groups in Urban local Governments.
5. Abolition of untouchability:
Art. 17 of the Constitution of India provided for abolition of untouchability. The SCs and STs (prevention of atrocities) Act was enacted by Parliament in 1989. It is also known as the ‘Dalit Act’. It came into force from 30th January 1990. It specifies the atrocities which are liable for severe penalties. Under section 21 of the act, the state governments are required to take effective measures for its implementation.
Describe the causes of illiteracy.
Illiteracy means the inability of a person to read and write in any language. Amartya Sen described illiteracy as one of the unfreedoms.
1. Population Explosion:
India is the second most populour Country in the world. It consists of 17.5. % of World’s total population. The population of Karnataka has increased to 6.11 crores. Hence, it has become a challenging task for the Government to provide literacy.
Due to poverty, majority of the children suffer form malnutrition and anaemia. Parents from poor and low income families, find it difficult to send their children to schools.
3. Social backwardness:
Hierarchical caste system, inferiority complex among people, ignorance about importance of education, taboos, etc. have prevented large number of people form becoming literate. Further, a large percentage of girls, particularly in rural areas have been denied access to primary education due to customs, traditions and the practice of gender inequality.
4. Child labour:
Prevalence of child labour due to poor socioeconomic conditions is seen all over India. According to National Crime Record Bureau Report, there were 2 crores child labourers, across the country’ in 2011. They are working in hotels, small scale industries, carpet weaving, fire works etc., All these hinder them from getting primary education.
5. Poor Infrastructure:
Most of the schools across the country have no proper buildings, required number of qualified teachers and study materials. The school environment is also not conducive for learning, and teaching. There is lack of adequate transport facilities for school children, particularly in the rural areas.
Explain the role of youth against terrorism.
1. Youth against Terrorism:
Terrorism is used in various forms like international terrorism, domestic terrorism, economic terrorism, cultural terrorism, cyber terrorism, etc., Terrorism means deliberately and violently targetting civilians by inflicting physical or mental agony, wound or death that creates fear psychosis, for political gains.
2. Role of youth against terrorism:
The concept of minority, leads to fear of attack and results in religious fundamentalism. Hence, both the youth and the society have to pressurise the Government concerned, to create awareness and educate those who are indulging in anti-national and inhuman terrorist activities. Particularly for the youth priority should be given to peace and security of the inhabitants of the country.
Youth have to develop patriotism that is national feeling and involve themselves in constructive activities like nation building by helping the Government against terrorist and militant activities taking place in their neighbourhood which is their prime duty.
Youth have to take the initiative within the Jurisdiction of law, to fight against terrorism as it happened in Naxalite prone states like Bihar, Jharkhand, and Chattisgarh, where Salwajudum (village army) fought against the Naxalites.
Youth must understand the complicated and multi faceted terrorism rationally. The have to isolate the terrorism and inoculate their potential recruits. A successful counter terrorism action requires a combination of coercive and conciliatory policies. It is the responsibility of the youth to spread the importance of education that saves the younger generation from the clutches of terrorism and communal ism as it happened in the case of Ms. Malala Yusufa Zai of Pakistan, who survived the terrorist attack.
Enumerate the political implications of Globalisation.
The political implications of globalisation are as follows
1. Power subjugation:
The effects of globalisation has brought a lot of changes in the world economy. For small countries, it is inevitable to accept the economic decisions of big countries, which leads to power subjugation.
2. Affects the sovereignty:
As a result of globalisation in the fields of economy, trade, transportation, etc., the sovereign countries are bound by the decisions of stronger countries. Hence it affects the sovereignty of a country in totality.
3. Cultural invasion:
Culture is a complex, wholesome and exclusive to each country. The influence of globalisation in the name of cultural exchange not only invades but also degenerates the youth who are the architects of the future.
4. Enslavement of lifestyle:
Globalisation has largely affected the younger generation. Food habits, general behaviour, mutual relationship, respect to elders, human values and ultimately the whole generation has become slave in the clutches of globalisation.
5. Elimination of subsidies:
The major impact of globalisation is the curtailment of subsidies to all sectors including agriculture, in a phased manner. The worst hit are the peasants who are the backbone of the country.
Explain the importance of Indian Foreign Policy.
The foreign policy of a nation represents its external sovereignty and freedom. India adopted its own foreign policy after the emancipation from British colonialism and emerged as a sovereign nation in the world.
India’s foreign policy is born out of the country ’s principles, interests, and objectives. It is the result of interplay of complex forces like History, Geography, Domestic Environment, Ideology’ and the influence of National Leaders. It emphasizes the glory of Indian freedom struggle, importance of India’s geographical location for its economic development and patriotism.
An important fact of India’s foreign policy is the concern for Gandhian ideas of peace and non violence. India achieved its independence by using these weapons and succeeded in inspiring the world.
India’s foreign policy comprises of economic developments and political stability to ensure the unity and integrity of the country. National security was conceived to prevent aggression or threat of aggression to protect the independence, territorial integrity, self reliance and promote economic independence.
India believes in fostering friendly relations with her neighbours. She promotes good will friendship and co-operation in the South Asian region for mutual benefit. India opposes big power intervention or interference in the internal affairs of South Asian region. India calls for making Indian ocean a peaceful zone to avoid big power naval confrontation.
India supports liberation on movements, democratic struggles for national independence and right of self determination. She is opposed to imperialism, colonialism, racism, authoritarianism, and militarism in the world.
India supports the Human Rights as a basic condition for democratic world and for egalitarian world. India believes in promotion of the principle of Panchasheela and strengthening of Non Aligned Movement (NAM) and UN for easing global tension. This is to build a world free from fear, hate, scarcity, and inequality.
IV. Answer any 2 of the following in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 ×10 = 20)
Explain the nature of party system in India.
The nature of Indian party system can be traced back to the Indian National Movement. Indian National Congress (INC) was founded by A.O. Hume in 1885. It was a forum to unite the people of India to fight against the British Imperialism. Due to ideological differences.
Muslim League was founded in 1906. Other parties like Hindu Maha Sabha, Communist Party of India. Forward Block and Praja Socialist Party etc., emerged in the successive years. Later, in post independence period, Jan Sangh, Janatha Party, Bharatiya Janatha Party, Janata Dal, Nationalist Congress Party, have grown according to the needs of the time and they started to work to get power.
1. Extra Constitutional growth :
There is no reference in the Constitution of India about how many political parties are to exist in the country. According to Article 19 of the Constitution, all citizens can have the freedom to form associations or unions. Political parties are established on the basis of this liberty. Hence, political parties have no constitutional base.
2. Prevalence of Multi party system:
India is a divergent country with many religions, tribes, languages, culture, and traditions. This heterogeneity leads to the emergence of many political parties to protect their interests in the main stream of the country.
3. Spilt and merger:
It is a common phenomenon in the Indian party system. Various reasons contribute for this split like ideological differences, egoism, power hunger, etc.
4. End of single party era:
India was under Congress rule till 1977. The happenings between 1975-1977, forced small parties to unite and fight against Congress and capture power and put an end to the single party era.
5. Dissident activities:
Meanness of leaders like personal attitudes, favouritism, nepotism lead to dissident activities. Repetition of such happenings instigates leaders to go against the ideology of the party and paves way to political instability.
Elected members of the Legislature change their parties often for personal benefits or differences of opinion and other reasons. It ruins the values of democracy and destabilizes the government.
7. Leader worship:
Most of the political parties in India emphasize on the leaders rather than the ideologies of the parties. The leader decides the destiny of the political party e.g. Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi of Congress, A.B. Vajpayee of BJR Leaders with charisma dominate the whole party.
8. Alliances without principles:
Political parties are formed with principles of democracy and secularism but they ignore them for want of power and make unholy alliances.
9. Dominance of Regional parties:
The presence of regional parties during the first general elections did not influence the voters and they were rejected. During 1980s, they emerged very strong and dominated the political scenario, e.g. DMK, AIADMK, Telugu Desam, Shiv Sena, National
Conference, AGP, JD(S), RJD, SJP, BJD and other parties playing a significant role during the formation of Governments.
10. Religious, Lingual and Regionalism:
The basis of political parties in India is religion, language, regionalism and the like. , e.g. Muslim league, Akalidal, Shiv Sena, DMK, AIADMK, Maharashtra Ekikaran Samiti (MES) Telangana Rastriya Samiti (TRS) and others. In spite of the rules of the
Election Commission, such political parties exist.
11. Leftist and Rightist Parties:
Party system in India consists of Leftist and Rightist ideologies, e.g. CPI, CPI (M), Forward Block, RPI and Socialist parties who have belief in revolutionary ideology and drastic changes in the system form the left front. Parties like Congress, BJP, SP, NCP, BSP, RJD, JD (U), JD (S) and others who believe in moderate changes in the system for the right front.
12. The era of coalition:
When no single political party secures absolute majority, like-minded political parties come together and join as a single largest group to form a coalition Government. The era of coalition started during 1977, when Janata Party came to power headed by Sri Morarjee Desai as Prime Minister at the centre along with other parties. This was followed by National Front,. United Front, NDA, UPA, etc.
Explain the causes and remedial measures to eradicate communalism.
Communalism is an ideology of the followers of one particular religion, witnessed as a homogenous and distinct group, disrespecting other religions.
1. Policy of the British India:
The discriminatory policies of the East India Company regarding divide and rule, destroyed the unity between Hindus and Muslims. It manifested in the Sepoy Mutiny (1857). During the period of Viceroy Lord Curzon, Bengal was divided (1905) on the basis of religion. Communal electorate for Muslims was introduced during the period of Lord Minto. All these intensified the cause of communalism.
2. Hind-Muslim Nationalism:
Communal organizations were formed by separatists. In 1906, Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha came into existence. Mohammad Ali Jinnah who was called as ‘Muslim Gokhale’ of India was brainwashed by the Britishers. He became the champion of the two nation theory based on religion. Extremists of the Indian National Congress began to assert their demands. These developments created suspicion and distrust between Hindus and Muslims before Independence.
3. Communal Riots:
Large scale communal riots took place in India after Independence. Religious minorities both in India and Pakistan became victims during this situation and were attacked and tortured. Later communal riots occurred in Bhagalpur, Meerut, Kanpur,. Lucknow, Ayodhya, Ahmadabad, Mumbai and in many other places. The demolition of Babri Masjid at Ayodhya by a mob on 6th December 1992, largely contributed for the animosity between Hindus and Muslims and the successive events intensified the mistrust between these communities.
4. Politically manipulated:
In India many issues are politically manipulated by leaders for their selfish gain. This leads to hatred among the communities.
5. Communality in organization:
Different communities in India have established their own organizations based on communality, to support particular political parties in their own interest.
Promotion of secularism and National integration as remedy:
The constitution makers adopted secularism in order to create sense of security and equality among different religious groups. The state also follows a policy of neutrality in religious matters. Article 26 provides that every religious denomination or any section has the right to establish religious institutions and manage their affairs. In December 2013, the Central Cabinet approved the “Prevention of Communal violence (Access to justice and Reparations) Bill” to punish the offenders who instigate and indulge in communal riots. It is yet to be passed by parliament.
2. National Integration:
It is the process of uniting the people emotionally and politically. India is a land of diversity. It is in a limited sense to call this a single nation because it has various religions, languages, castes cultures etc., So for the success of Indian democracy, promotion of national integration is necessary. To preserve and sustain National integration many provisions have been adopted in the Constitution, like National integration Council, Zonal Councils, National security Council and armed forces play a greater role in the protection of National integration.
Neighbourhood Peace Committees:
The aftermath of Babri Masjid demolition and subsequent communal riots and social tensions in different places and ineffective Governmental measures has made it vital to establish Neighbourhood Peace Committees with eminent or.prominent people as its members. These members must be nominated from each community in riot prone or communally sensitive areas.
The main objectives are arresting and containing social tensions which may flare up communal riots in the neighbourhood areas, taking precautionary measures to prevent the eruption of communal clashes, in the aftermath of conflict restoring normalcy and pacifying affected people, establishing harmonious relationship between the communities and extending all possible help to affected people.
Describe the importance of privatisation, meaning and its political implications.
Privatization is the process of transferring ownership of a business enterprises, agency, public service or public properly’ from the public sector to the private sector.
Political implications of liberalization are as follows:
1. Concentration of wealth:
Privatization encourages concetration of wealth in the hands of big business group. It results in great disparities of income and wealth. It goes against the principle of egalitarian society.
2. More profits:
Corporate sectors generate more profits. But they share a meagre percentage with the share holders. They enjoy the lion’s share out of share holder’s investment. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor is widened.
3. Bane to local industries:
Local people borrow money from indigenous banks and also get loans from government concerns with subsidized rates of interest to start an industry. Multi-national Companies with good financial backup, survive even in case of loss.
4. Threat to National interest:
Key areas like national defence, space, science, and technology are to be retained with the Government. Assigning these areas to private sector harms national interests.
5. Lack of service motto:
The private firms are concerned more about their profit rather than providing good service conditions and extending welfare programmes to their employees and even to the society.
6. No job security:
Private companies extract work from employees till they are fit. The Companies ruthlessly sack them when they suffer from ill health or fitness problems. In the long run, they become a burden on the government. The employees of private sectors suffer from the insecurity of jobs and this results in psychological disorders.
Explain the structure of the United Nations and its functions.
The UN came into existence at San Francisco on 24th October 1945 after the failure of the League of Nations. The UN has been entrusted with heavy responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. The UN Charter which was signed by 51 countries including India, consists of 19 chapters, 111 Articles, and its headquarters is situated in New York. There are 6 official languages (Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish, and Arabic) recognized by U.N.
The purpose of UN is in article 1 of the charter.
- To maintain international peace and security.
- To develop friendly relations among the nations.
- To seek cooperation in solving international economic, social-cultural and humanitarian problems.
- To get cooperation in promoting respect for human rights.
- To maintain freedom for all without discrimination on the basis of race, sex, language or religion.
Basic principles mentioned in Article 2 of the charter are:
- The UN is based on the sovereign equality of all its members.
- All members shall fulfill in good faith the UN charter obligations.
- They shall settle international disputes by peaceful means.
- They have to extend all help to the action taken by the UN.
- The Organisation shall not intervene in matters essentially within the domestic jurisdication of any state.
The present membership of United Nations is 193. There are two kinds of members in the U.N. Membership of the UN is open to all peace loving countries which accept the principles of the UN charter of principles and obligations.
1. The General Assembly:
It is the legislative body of U.N.O. ft consists of representatives of all the member nations of the organisation. Each member state can send five representatives but has only one vote. It meets once in a year. Every time it elects the President and Vice-President of the organ. It receives reports from every organ. It elects the members of the other councils.
2. The Security Council:
It is the executive body of the U.N.O. Hence it occupies an important position in the UNO. It consists of 15 members out of which 5 are permanent members. They are U.K., U.S.A, France. USSR and China. The remaining 10 are temporary members who are elected by the General Assembly for two years. Only permanent members enjoy veto power (rejecting power).
3. The Economic and Social Council:
At present it consists of 54 members elected by the General Assembly for a period of 3 years. In order to carry out its varied functions it has about 27 specialised organisations or agencies like:- FAO, UNESCO, WHO, ILO, IMF, IAO, UNICEF, IAEA, IDA, W.B, etc.,
4. The Trusteeship Council:
It consists of five permanent members of the Security Council and members from trust territories. Its main function is to look after the trust territories, under the authority of the General Assembly.
5. The International Court of Justice located at The Hague:
It acts as an international Judiciary. Its headquarters is at The Hague. But the court may sit wherever it deems fit and desires. There are judges elected by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. Their term of office is nine years and are eligible for re-election. Its main function is to arbiter such disputes that are submitted to it in accordance with international law. Any nation can seek its advice.
6. The Secretariat:
The Secretariat was established to carry on the administrative functions of the UN. It consists of international staff headed by the ‘Secretary General’. He is the Chief Administrative Officer of the UN. He is appointed for a period of five years by the General Assembly on the recommendations of Security Council. This term can be extended by another five years. The present Secretary General is Ban- ki-Moon.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
List out the States and Union territories in India.
At present there are 29 States and 7 Union territories in India.
|Jammu & Kashmir
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli
|Daman and Diu
Write briefly about the role of India in the establishment of the SAARC.
During 1960’s and 70s the tendency towards regional arrangements became much more prominent despite many hurdles. The emergence of Bangladesh and the Simla Agreement of 1972, became the turning points towards regional cooperation. President Zia-ur-Rahaman discussed the issue of regional co-operation with the new Indian Prime Minister, Moraji Desai. He had also informally discussed the idea of regional co-operation with the leaders of South Asian countries during the regional and international meetings.
Several factors seem to have influenced President Zia-Ur-Rahaman regarding the establishment of a regional organisation in South Asia during 1975-1979. For Zia-Ur-Rahaman’s successful contribution in the process of Regional Organisations in South Asia, he is called as the founding father of SAARC.
Between 1980 and 1983, four meetings at the Foreign Secretary level took place to establish the principles of organisation and identify areas for co-operation. Several Foreign Ministers level meetings were held between 1983 and 1985. The first meeting of Foreign Ministers in New Delhi was held on 1st and 2nd of August 1983. In her inaugural address, the then Prime Minister of India Mrs.
Indira Gandhi, described South Asia as a troubled region and said “I am glad we are making a beginning, we have our political differences, but economic co-operation will give a strong impetus to closer friendship and greater stability in South Asia. With unity we can hope to move ahead for future freedom, peace, and prosperity.” She also warned that we should be ever vigilant against the attempts of external powers influencing our functioning.
SAARC marks the establishment of an Association to promote and develop co-operation. Finally, the first Summit meeting of the Heads of States or Governments of South Asian countries was held at Dhaka on 7th and 8th of December 1985. Its members are 8 countries of South Asia, namely Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. In 2010, Afghanistan became the 8th member of SAARC. Six observers of SAARC are China, Japan, European Union, Republic of Korea, United States and Iran.
Explain the Kashmir issue in India-Pakistan relations.
In India’s perspective Kashmir is an integral part of the republic of India and to Pakistan, it is a disputed territory. The argument of Pakistan on Kashmir is that, since the partition of the country was done on religious basis and majority of, population are Muslims, Kashmir should be part of Pakistan. This argument failed to recognize the following facts:
- Parition was done of the British Indian Provinces & and not of the Indian princely states.
- National conference was the only major political party in Kashmir, which was affiliated to Congress. It was opposed to Pakistan and had faith in secular politics.
- The Indian princely states had the freedom to join either India or Pakistan.
- India was a secular state consisting of multireligious population.
So, Kashmir formally decided to join India after the invasion of its territory by Pakistani tribals supported by the Pakistan Army.
In October 1947, Kashmir was invaded by tribal infiltrators of Pakistan. This forced the Maharaja to seek Indian military help. India reacted positively after ‘Instrument of Accession’ was signed on 26th October 1947. To resolve the crisis, the Constituent Assembly of India made a special provision through Art. 370, to provide a separate constitution to the state along with other provisions.
In 1951, the Constituent Assembly met in the state to frame a Constitution. In February 1954, the accession of the state to India was ratified by the constitution, legalising it. In November 1956. it adopted a constitution legalising the status of J &
K as a unit of the Indian Union.
Explain the organization and functions of Lokpal.
The Movement ‘India against corruption’ was led by Anna Hazare in 2011. Demands from various Civil Society Organizations for an Indian Ombudsman compelled the Union Government to introduce the bill again in 2012. Finally, the bill became an Act on 1st January 2014.
The Institution of Lokpal consists of 9 members including the Chairman. Retired Chief Justice of India or sitting Supreme Court judge is eligible to head the Institution. Of the 8 members, 4 should be judges of either Supreme Court or High Courts. The remaining must possess minimum 25 years of experience in vigilance Commission. They must be apolitical. Adequate representation must be given to SCs, STs, BCs, Minorities, and Women.
The panel consists of Prime Minister, Speakers and leader of opposition in Lok Sabha, Chief Justice of India and an eminent jurist. Their tenure is 5 years. They can be removed by the President after an enquiry conducted by the Supreme Court for any misconduct or allegations.
The jurisdiction of Lokpal covers office holders of Union Government including the Prime Minister, Ministers, MPs, and State Legislators.
Powers and Functions:
- Lokpal has the power to sanction prosecution against public servants and to register cases against corrupt officials. Permission of Government or departmental heads is not necessary.
- All organizations receiving donations from foreign sources come under the jurisdiction of Lokpal.
- Lokpal has the power of superintendence over any probe agency for cases referred by it.
- Provision is included for confiscation and attachment of property acquired by corrupt means.
- If the corruption charges are proved, the concerned officials have to undergo 2 years jail term.
- The State Governments have to appoint Lokayukta within one year from commencement of the Lokpal act. They are free to make some changes.