Students can Download 2nd PUC Political Science Model Question Paper 2 with Answers, Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Model Question Paper 2 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a sentence each. (10 × 1=10)
What is Operation Polo?
Indian army entering Hyderabad to stop the oppressive rule of the Nizam is called Operation Polo.
When was the States Reorganization Commission formed?
States Reorganization Commission was formed in 1953.
What is a Regional party?
Regional party is a party that fights for Regional language, religion, water and border disputes, regionalism and other burning problems, e.g. Akali Dal, DMK, Shiv Sena, MES, Raita Sangha etc. These parties fight safeguard the interest of the local people.
lector’s Photo Identity Card.
When was Miller Committee formed?
Which day is celebrated as ‘World Environment Day’?
Mention the root word of coalition.
It is derived from the Latin word ‘Coalition’ ‘Co’ means ‘together’ and ‘Alescere’ means to ‘grows up’.
Can the states levy taxes on import and export?
Where do Cronies accumalate the wealth?
In Private corporate sectors.
When did India conduct its first Nuclear test?
II. Answer any ten of the following in 2 to 3 sentences: (10 × 2 = 20)
When was Federal court established and where?
In 1937 in Delhi.
Write any two functions of UPSC.
To assist two or more states, on request for joint recruitment for any services. To conduct examinations for appointment to the services of the union and All India Services.
What is ‘Maryada Hate’?
Due to modernisation youth are heading towards inter-caste and inter-religion marriages. Elders of tradition bound families to maintain family honour and values, go even to the extent of killing the parties involved and their supporters. This honour killing is called Maryada Hatye’.
What do you mean by corruption?
According to David. H. Bayley “It is the misuse of authority for the consideration of personal gains.”
In which areas can Central government advice the states during normal times?
- Union government legislates on any matter while executing internal Treaties.
- It can direct the states on any matter.
- Executive powers of the State should not infringe upon the Union jurisdiction.
What is Common Minimum Programme?
The partners of any Alliance when they come together to form the Government set aside their ideological differences and agree upon some basic common points. This is called Common Minimum Programme.
Name any two Global Banks.
- World Bank,
- IMF & BklCS Bank
Name any two SAARC Summits which were held in India.
2nd SAARC summit was held at Bangalore during Nov 1986. 8th SAARC meet was held at Delhi during May 1995.
When and where was the BRICS countries first summit meeting held?
The first summit was held in St. Peters burg on July 17 2006.
Name any two founders of NAM?
Josef Broz Tito President of Yugoslavia, Jawaharlal Nehru PM of India and Gen.Sukamo President of Indonesia.
Who signed the Panchasheel Agreement?
Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese PM Zhou- en-Lai signed Panchasheel on 29th April 1954.
Name any two countries of Nuclear suppliers Group.
III. Answer any 8 of the following in 15 to 20 sentences: (8 × 5 = 40)
Explain ‘Provincial autonomy’ conferred by the act of 1935.
The Act introduced provincial Autonomy. It was introduced in 11 provinces viz. Madras, Bombay, Bengal, the United Provinces, Punjab, Bihar, Central Provinces, Assam, The North Western Frontier province, Orissa and Sind.
The provinces were administered by the ministers. The difference between the reserved and transferred subjects was dropped. All subjects were placed under the charge of Ministers who were made responsible to and removable by the legislative Assembly.
Thus the executive was responsible to legislature. The Legislature relations between the Central government and the Provinces were regulated according to three lists of subjects provided under the Act.
1. However, Dominion status which was promised by the Simon Commission in 1929, was not conferred by this Act.
2. The intention to establish “Federation of India” did not materialize because of the opposition for merger from the rulers of the Princely States.
3. The degree of Provincial Autonomy introduced at the provisional level was limited as Central government retained important powers and control. The Governor was given pivotal position, with discretionary powers on important matters. He was not bound by the advice of ministers. Thus the claim of conferring provincial autonomy was very, limited.
Write the importance of elections.
- Election is the foundation for a democratic government.
- It is the key component to provide justice and freedom to all without any discrimination.
- It is designed to create a popular government.
- It gives a citizen an opportunity to have one’s voice heard and a choice by which one should be governed. This enhances the self respect and dignity of citizens to realize their importance in forming the government.
- It is the Barometer of democracy and serves as forum for the discussion of public issues and facilitates the expression of public opinion.
- It imparts political education and training to voters to actively participate in the activities of the nation.
- It protects the interests of the minorities by providing representation in the legislature.
- Election reinforces the stability and legitimacy of the political community by bringing together citizens of the nation and helps to facilitate socio-political integration.
- It makes the representatives be accountable for their performance in office and conduct.
- It contributes to the continuation of democratic government and enables the peaceful transfer of power.
Write about Anti defection law.
Defection is change of loyalty to another party, without resigning from his elected post for benefits. Defector gets elected on one party’s ticket and tries to enjoy power in another party.
The word defection is also called as ‘Floor Crossing in UK and ‘Carpet Crossing’ in Nigeria. The term ‘Defection’ is used in India. Defection is commonly known as ‘House funding’. Defectors are called as ‘Fence-sitters’ or Turn Coats.
Sri Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India decided to remove the evils of defection. Hence, Anti defection Act came into force on 1st April through the 52nd Constitution Amendment. The main intention of the law was to combat “The evils of political defections”. The provisions are:
- A member of Parliament or state legislature belonging to any political party shall be disqualified if he voluntarily quits his party.
- He will be disqualified from his membership if he votes against his party whip in the session.
- A member of Parliament or state Legislature belonging to any political party shall be disqualified from his membership, if he votes in the session without prior permission of his party.
- A nominated member shall be disqualified from his membership in the upper house, if he joins any political party after six months from the date on which he assumes his position.
- If l/3rd strength of any political party merges with another political party, it shall be considered as defection.
- A person disqualified under this Act shall not be provided any office of profit.
- The Anti-defection law determines the size of the council of Ministers. The size of the council of Ministers of Union shall exceed 15% of the total members of the Lok Sabha and similar to that of state legislative Assembly.
- Speaker can initiate action against the members under Anti-defection law.
- The Chairpersons of Legislative are permitted to frame the rules to implement this law.
Discuss the features of Civil Service.
The term civil service refers to the permanent executive which means Head of State and cabinet and includes large number of administrative officials. Features of civil service is as follows:
Features of Civil Services:
1. Professional body:
As Herman Finer puts it, Civil service is a professional body of officials who are, permanent, paid and skilled. It is a whole time job and career service.
As per the staler system, each civil servant has to obey his immediate superior, where higher ranking administrative officers with discretionary powers supervise their subordinates. The authority runs from above, and helps to makeadminis tration stable.
3. Political Neutrality:
Civil Servants always refrain from political activities. They perform their duties without being aligned to any one political regime.
Civil servants work behind the screen and remain anonymous even though they work for the Government. Recognition for good work or censure for any omission goes only to the concerned minister and not to the civil servants.
The Civil Servants have to apply the laws of the state while performing the duties without showing any favour, bias or preference to any groups or sections of the society.
6. Service motto:
They have to work for the welfare of society. They must be humble and service-minded towards the public and not authoritative.
Civil Servants are called permanent executives. They discharge duties until they attain the age of superannuation. Both at the central and in Karnataka State Services, the age of retirement is sixty years. Even though disciplinary action is taken as per rules, there is security of service.
8. Jurisdiction of Law:
Every Civil Servant has to function within the prescribed jurisdiction of law. If he crosses the limit, he is met with disciplinary action.
9. Special Training:
Once the candidates are selected for top civil services, they are deputed to in-service training to acquire special skills in administration, like the Lai Bahadur Shastry Academy of Administration located in Missouri for the training of the newly appointed IAS officers. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Academy located in Hyderabad trains the newly appointed IPS officers.
Write a note on Domestic violence.
Women shoulder the entire household responsibilities like rearing and caring of children, domestic work and the related tasks. They become the victims of domestic violence because of irresponsible, illiterate and drunkard husbands who lack discretion. This may take the form of physical, mental, sexual harassment and finally, it may take the women’s life as toll.
What are the causes for Human Rights Movement?
Human Rights are those rights which are inherent to human beings and entitled to enjoy without distinction of race colour, religion, language, gender, birthplace, social, economic, political and another status.
The main causes for Human Rights Movements are:
1. To protect civil liberty:
All men are born equal and they have the liberty to shape their lives. Constitution of India guaranteed these rights in the part in, to all citizens. But in actual practice, Dalits, women and children are being suppressed and exploited. To avoid such atrocities, human rights activists are struggling hard to create awareness.
2. To remove slavery:
Slavery is constitutionally banned but is active in many parts of the country. Instance like child labour, bonded labour etc., are seen frequently. Hence agitations become inevitable.
3. To protect family life:
Every citizen has the right to family life. Due to modernisation youth are heading towards intercaste and inter honour religious marriages. Elders of families to maintain family and values go even to the extent of Maiyada hatye. Dowry harassment many times ends up in either suicide or murder.
4. To protect the rights of Dalits:
Dalits are subject to injustice, atrocities, social ostracism, made-snana etc., Dalits are forced to carry night soil, by upper castes. This is a clear violation of, human rights.
5. Refusal to file cases:
Though the aggrieved dalits approach the authorities to file the cases against upper caste people, it does not get filed due to the interference of some politically dominant castes. Even when physically abused, medical aid and police protection are denied.
Describe the causes for gender-based inequality.
Discriminations made on the basis of gender, denying equal opportunities to the fairer sex are called gender based inequalities. It is the result of gender bias favouring male throughout the ages. The prevalence of gender based inequality in family, economic, cultural, educational and political fields are seen.
1. Manu Smriti:
Earlier the Hindu society followed ‘Manu Smriti’ which asserted that women should always be under the guardianship of men at different stages of her life. He wanted her to be within the four walls, restricting her from the happenings of the society.
2. Male domination:
The society is based on physical strength of man where he dominates the female. He does not want that female should take over his responsibility and authority at home as well as in society.
3. Denial of education:
Male domination is reflected in the field of education too. Denying education for girls for many centuries has made them incapable in many fields. Men occupied major jobs and secured well and dominating positions in the entire society.
4. Dowry system:
The practice of dowry system contributes for inequality of gender. Boys are treated as assets and girls as burden. The attitude also intensifies the discrimination between men and women.
5. Inadequate representation:
Women constitute 50% of the total population. They ate inadequately represented in the field of politics and economics. Even though women are as capable as men, they are not allowed in these fields. Women have little or no opportunities in participating in public life.
Explain five remedies of communalism.
Promotion of secularism and National Integration as remedies for communalism are a must.
The constitution makers adopted secularism in order to create sense of security and equality among different religious groups. The state also follows a policy of neutrality in religious matters. Article 26 provides that every religious denomination or any section has the right to establish religious institutions and manage their affairs.
In December 2013 the Central Cabinet approved prevention of Communal Violence (Access to Justice and Reparations) Bill to punish U the offenders who instigate and indulge in communal riots. It is yet to be passed by Parliament.
2. National Integration:
It is the process of uniting the people emotionally and politically. India is a land of diversity. It makes only a limited sense to call it a nation because it has various religions, languages, caste and culture etc. So for the success of Indian democracy, promotion of national integration is necessary.
To preserve and sustain national integration, many provisions have been adopted in the constitution. Like National integration Council, Zonal Councils, National Security Council and Armed forces play a great role in the protection of National integration.
3. Neighbourhood Peace Committees:
The aftermath of Babri Masjid demolition and subsequent communal riots and social tensions in different places and ineffective Governmental measures has made it vital to establish Neighbourhood Peace Committees with eminent or prominent people as its members. These members must be nominated from each community in riot prone or communally sensitive areas.
The main objectives are arresting and containing social tensions which may flare up communal riots in the neighbourhood areas taking precautionary measures to prevent the eruption of communal clashes. In the aftermath of conflict, restoring normalcy and pacifying affected people. Establishing harmonious relationship between the communities and extending all possible help to affected people.
Explain the Democratic Movement in Nepal.
21st century is known as the era of democratic movements. These movements in Afro-Asian nations started to overthrow despotic, autocratic and other authoritarian governments. Nepal is a small landlocked kingdom in Southern Asia, lying between India to the south and Tibet to the North. Monarchy was prevalent in Nepal since the 18th century.
During the rule of Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, democratic Maoist movements started mainly because of the influence of India and China. Nepal’s democratic experiment suffered a serious setback in December 1960, when the first elected government led by National Congress leader Koirala was dissolved and the whole party activities were banned in Nepal in later parts of the decade which continued till 1979.
In 1980, limited democracy resulted in the creation of a multiparty parliamentary monarchy. The political war was launched by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) in 1996, with the overthrow of the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a people’s Republic. Maoist insurgency began in 1996 and ended with the Communist victory in 2001. The comprehensive Peace Accord was signed on 21st November 2006.
The crown prince killed king Birendra and the royal family members, bringing the unpopular Gyanendra to the throne. Nepal witnessed a popular movement in 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy. At the same time, the king reinstated the old Nepal house of Representatives, with an assurance of permanent peace and the multiparty democracy.
The king called upon the seven party alliance (SPA) to bear the responsibility of taking the nation on the path of national unity and prosperity. The popular Government assumed office on 18<sup>th</sup> May 2006, and withdrew all the privileges given to the king unanimously.
The bill included the following:
- Imposing tax on the royal family and its assets.
- Ending the Raj Parishad, a Royal Advisory Council.
- Eliminating Royal references from army and Government titles.
- Declaring Nepal a secular country and not a Hindu kingdom.
- Scrapping the national anthem until a new one is composed.
- Eliminating the king’s position as the supreme commander of the army.
This is popularly known as the “Nepalese Magna Carta”.
Explain India’s contribution on UNPKF.
India is committed to assist the UN by providing military troops for the maintenances of interna¬tional peace and security to the UNPKF. India has deputed more than one lakh troops to participate in plenty of Peacekeeping Missions since 1950. eg. Korea (1950-54), Middle East (1956-67), Congo (1960-64).
Somalia (1993-94), Afghanistan (1993), Haiti (1993), Angola (1989-1999), Ethiopia-Eritrea (2006-08), Lebanon (1998), Ivory Coast (UNOCI) (2004), Liberia (2007), South Sudan (2013-14). The high standards of performance maintained consistantly by the Indian troops and policeman deployed on UN Missions under challenging circumstances have won them high regard worldwide.
What are the causes of dispute between India and Srilanka?
From the mid-1950s to early 1980s, there was hardly any dispute between the two countries on the matters of security and sovereignty. There had been negotiated settlement of bilateral issues eg. the question of jurisdiction over Kachathivu Island in the middle of the Palk Straits. One of the main disputes between India and SriLanka has ‘ been regarding the political status of Tamil people of Indian origin taken to SriLanka by the British as plantation labourers. There are four groups of Sri Lankan Tamil population,
- ancient Tamils in the Jaffna peninsula,
- professional elite Tamil in urban areas
- non-Hindu Tamils and
- Tamil immigrant labour.
The long standing problem of accepting the Tamil speaking population of Sri Lanka as its citizens and giving them regional autonomy could not be solved. The majority of Sinhalese demanded Tamils should y’ return to India, they deny the citizenship to Tamils by enacting the Ceylon Citizenship Act of 1948. This was disentailed them franchise and other rights.
In 1956, Indian Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri and Sri Lankan Prime Minister Mrs Sirimao Bandara Naike signed an agreement about to Tamil population citizenship, but in vain. In 1981 agreement between Indira Gandhi and Sirimao Bandara Naike was not implemented due to Tamil’s refusal to return to India.
34. Explain the importance of India’s Foreign Policy.
The foreign policy of a nation represents its external sovereignty and freedom. India adopted its own foreign policy after the emancipation from British colonialism and emerged as a sovereignty nation in the world. India’s foreign policy is born of a country’s principles, interests and objectives.
It is the result of interplay of complex forces like History, Geography, Domestic environment, Ideology and ‘ the influence of National Leaders. It emphasizes the glory of Indian freedom struggle, importance of India’s geographical location for its economic development and patriotism. An important fact of India’s foreign policy is the concern for Gandhian ideas of peace and non violence.
India achieved its independence by using it these weapons and succeeded in inspiring the world. India’s foreign policy comprises of economic developments and political stability to ensure the unity and integrity of the country. National security was conceived to present aggression or threat of aggression to protect the independence, territorial integrity, self reliance and promote economic independence.
India believed in fostering friendly relations with her neighbours. She promotes goodwill, friendship and co-operation in the South Asian region for mutual benefit. India opposes big power intervention or interference in the internal affairs of South Asian region. India calls for making Indian ocean a peaceful zone to avoid big power naval confrontation. India supports liberation on movements, democratic struggles for national independence and right of self-determination.
She is opposed to imperialism, colonialism, racism, authoritarianism and militarism in the world. India supports the Human Rights as a basic condition for democratic world and for an egalitarian world. India believes in promotion of the ‘ principle of Panchasheel and strengthening of Non Align Movement (NAM) and UN for easing global tension. This is to build a world free from fear, hate, scarcity and inequality.
IV. Answer any 2 of the following in 30 to 40 sentences: 2×10 = 20
Explain the nature of party system in India.
The nature of Indian party system can. be traced back to the Indian National Movement. Indian National Congress (INC) was founded by A.O. Hume in 1885. It was a forum to unite the people of India to fight against the British Imperialism. Due to ideological differences, Muslim League was founded in 1906.
Other parties like Hindu Maha Sabha, Communist Party of India, Forward Block and Praja Socialist Party etc., emerged in the successive years. Later, in the post independence period, Jan Sangh, Janatha Party, Bharatiya Janatha Party, Janata Dal, Nationalist Congress Party, according to the needs of the time and they started to work to get power etc were floated.
1. Extra Constitutional growth :
There is no reference in the Constitution of India about M how many political parties are to exist in the country. According to Article 19 of the Constitution, all citizens can have the freedom to form associations or unions. Political parties are established on the basis of this liberty. Hence, political parties have no constitutional base.
2. Prevalence of Multi party system :
India is a divergent country with many religions, tribes, languages, culture and traditions. This heterogeneity leads to the emergence of many political parties to protect their interests in the mainstream of the country.
3. Spilt and merger :
It is a common phenomenon in the Indian party system. Various reasons contributed for this split like ideological differences, egoism, power hunger, etc.
4. End of single-party era:
India was under Congress rule till 1977. The happenings between 1975-1977, forced small parties to unite and fight against Congress and capture power and put an end to the single party era.
5. Dissident activities:
Meanness of leaders like personal attitudes, favouritism, nepotism lead to dissident activities. Repetition of such happenings instigates leaders to go against the ideology of the party and paves way to political instability.
Elected members of the Legislature change their parties often for personal benefits or differences of opinion and other reasons. It ruins the values of democracy and destabilizes the government.
7. Leader worship:
Most of the political parties in India emphasize the leaders rather than the ideologies of the parties. The leader decides the destiny of the political party e.g. Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi of Congress, A.B. Vajpayee of BJR Leaders with charisma dominate the whole party.
8. Alliances without principles:
Political parties are formed with principles of democracy and secularism but they ignore them for want of power and make unholy alliances.
9. Dominance of Regional parties:
The presence of regional parties during the first general elections did not influence the voters and they were rejected. During 1980s, they emerged very strong and dominated the
political scenario, e.g. DMK, ALADMK, Telugu Desam, Shiv Sena, National Conference, AGP, JD(S), RJD, SJP, BJD and other parties playing a significant role during the formation of Governments.
10. Religious, Lingual and Regionalism:
The basis of political parties in India is religion, language, regionalism and the like. e.g. Muslim league, Akalidal, Shiv Sena, DMK, AIADMK, Maharashtra Ekikaran Samiti (MES) Telangana Rashtriya Samiti (TRS) and others. In spite of the rules of the Election Commission, such political parties exist.
11. Leftist and Rightist Parties: Party system in India consists of Leftist and Rightist ideologies, e.g. CPI, CPI (M), Forward Block, RPI and Socialist parties who have belief in revolutionary ideology and drastic changes in the system form the left front. Parties like Congress, BJP, SP, NCP, BSP, RJD, JD (U), JD (S) and others who believe in moderate changes in the system form the right front.
12. The era of coalition:
When no single political party secures absolute majority like minded political parties come together and join as a single largest group to form a coalition Government. The era of coalition started during 1977 when Janata Party came to power headed by Sri Morarjee Desai as Prime Minister at the centre along with other parties. This was followed by National Front, United Front, NDA, UPA etc.
Terrorism is posing a threat to democracy Substantiate.
Terrorism is an act of vengeance, which is intended to create fear among the people, is perpetrated for an ideological goal and deliberately targeted by disregarding the safety of non combatants. It is an evil ideology which is the embodiment of brutalism and in humanism. The word “terrorism” can be traced in the Latin word “Terrere”.
Terrorism as a threat to Democracy:-
1. Disruption of Governance:
Terrorist organizations are disrupting democratic governance in the nation. They are indulging in violent and insurgent activities which target the government, top political leaders and officers and thereby erode the legitimacy of the elected Government.
2. Disrespect of Constitution:
Though the Constitution is the fundamental law of the nation, the terrorist groups and organizations are violating its purview by engaging in violent activities. Sometimes, the Constitutional Government succumbs to the threats and pressures of terrorists where the Government compromises with their demands. It is dangerous to the integrity and sovereignty of the nation.
3. Violation of Human Rights:
Terrorists have no respect for the rule of law and democratic order. They kill and injure innocent people by violating human rights. They attack the leaders and their families, target the public places like Railway stations, Airports, Hotels, Bus station and kill innocent people to attract the attention of the world towards their unlawful demands.
4. Anti-democratic activities:
Terrorists are always bent upon destabilizing the democratic process, threatening and kidnapping polling officials, voters and candidates, booth capturing and rigging the electoral process. Due to terrorist attacks, several times periodical elections could not be conducted. The anti-democratic activities create fear psychosis and insecurity in the minds of the public.
5. Obstacle to Economic Growth:
The Governments are compelled to spend huge amount of money for the modernization and up-gradation of military and police forces to curb terrorism. It also destroys the economic development of the nation by diverting the fund meant for social welfare. Threat of terrorism affects tourism. Foreigners and native people feel insecure. Thus, terrorism is an obstacle to economic growth.
Give an assessment of democratic movements in Afghanistan.
Afghanistan is a landlocked country in the mountains of South Central Asia, sharing borders with Pakistan to the South East and Iran to the West. The Government of Mohamed Daoud was overthrown and he was assassinated by a group of Nur Mohamed Taraki, Babrak Karmol and Amin Taha in a miliary coup in April 1978.
Mohamed Taraki became the President, Prime Minister and General Secreatry of People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) in 1978 and the country was renamed as Democratic Republic of Afghanisthan(DRA). As per Peshawar Accord, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA) became Islamic State of Afghanistan (ISA) and an Interim government was set up for the purpose of transition.
In the meanwhile Taliban the Islamic fundamentalist group bombed Kabul in 1995. The UN interactions with the Afghan delegation lead to Bonn Agreement of 2001. It was intended for a broad based, gender sensitive, multi-ethnic and fully representative government. The 11th September 2001, attack on World Trade Organisation (WTO) by Taliban led by A1 -Qaeda leader Osama Bin laden attracted the attention of the whole world.
As a result, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) alliances rushed towards Afghanisthan to hunt for Talibanis with the support of the US Government. The democratic process began with the adoption of new constitution in 2004 and later Presidential elections were held. In 2005 election was held to Paliament and provinces. The New National assembly was inaugurated in December 2005.
The NATO allies were able to prevent the Al- Qaeda and Talibanis to come to power and strengthened democracy within the framework of Islamic Republic. As a result of these developments, in 2009 elections, Dr Hamid Karzai became the President. Afghanistan is continuing ‘ the democratic process.
Discuss the developments of International Political Systems.
International relations are the study of all forms of interactions that exist between members of separate entities or nations within the international system. The history of international political system is traced back to the Peace of West Phalia (1648) and the treaty of Utrecht (1713). In 19th century, the European Countries set the platform to understand the need for international political system.
It gradually spread to other parts of the world. This development led to the establishment of International Organisations. In the meanwhile, the ‘ outbreak of first world war intensified the need for international political system. As a result, the League of Nations was conceived and it came 5 into existence in 1920.
League of Nations:
To protect the world from self destruction of war and restoration of peace, the League of Nations came into existence. It was founded on the heritage of ideas and experience. of world leaders. The League was a real organisation with a legal entity, organs and agencies of its own. President Woodrow Wilson was the architect of this organisation. The league had three organs:
- International Secretariat.
It was an organised Association of States for the purpose of international co-operation, settlement of disputes and prevention of future wars. Its covenant provided a number of agencies for the promotion of health, education and economic development as means to cement international cooperation and goodwill and thereby preventing wars.
But the League failed in its mission and closed in 1924.
V. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences: (2 × 5 = 10)
Explain the structure of State Administration.
The State Administration consists of the Governor, the Chief Minister, the Council of Ministers and Secretaries to these offices.
For the sake of administrative convenience, the structure of the government of the state is divided into many departments, A ministry may consist of two or more Departments and a Minister is in charge of all of them. The Minister is the political head of the Department whose administrative head is the Principal Secretary, a career civil servant.
The Secretariat is located in the state capitals and consists of offices of Ministers, Secretaries, Departments and Sections. The Secretariat is the Highest office of the government. It is the Principle Executive instrument as well. The Secretariat ensures ‘Objectivity, continuity and constituency’ in the administration. If is the main authority to frame rules and principles of procedure for the functioning of the government.
The primary responsibility of the Secretariat is to assist the ministers in the following matters.
- Formulating and modifying legislation from time to time.
- Planning and budget formulation.
- Co-ordinating with the centre and other states.
- Promoting organizational competency.
- Answering questions in the Assembly.
The Secretariat is divided into a number of administrative departments. It consists of Principal Secretary, Secretary, Joint Secretary, Deputy Secretary and Under Secretary. The number of Secretariat departments differ from state to state. Departments common to most of the states, the following are :
- Departments of Personnel and Administrative Reforms (DPAR)
- Home and Transport.
- Finance and Planning.
- Revenue and Excise.
- Public Works Department (PWD)
- Labour and Employment.
- Food and Civil Supplies.
- Rural Development and Panchayat Raj (RDPR)
- Law and Parliamentary affairs.
- Social Welfare etc,
(b) List out the States and Union territories in India.
At present there are 29 States and 7 Union territories in India.
|10.||Jammu & Kashmir|
|Sr. No.||Union Territories|
|1.||Andaman and Nicobar Islands|
|3.||Dadra and Nagar Haveli|
|4.||Daman and Diu|
What are the hurdles for the youth to take leadership in Indian politics?
There are politicians who do not allow the youth to enter politics. The entry of the youth to politics is curbed by systematic suppression. They do not exercise their franchise because of Political apathy. Many of them do not perceive politics in a right perspective. They are not ready to participate in mudslinging acts during the elections. Women who constitute almost half the population do not adequately participate either in national or state politics because of male domination and influence,
Describe the similarities in India – USSR relations.
Russia is the world’s largest country extending halfway round the globe. To the west, it borders Finland, Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Belarus. The much longer southern frontier extends into central Asia. India’s relation with the former USSR has been a part of history, but it developed rapidly after the visits of Khrushchev and Bulganin to India and Nehru’s visit to Soviet Union.
Since 1955, India- Soviet relations have reached a new scale and dimension and regarded as a good example of bilateral and inter-state relations. The Soviet openly declared that Indo-Soviet friendship had become a part of their ‘tradition’, ‘people to people relationship’, ‘a comer stone’ of their foreign.
policy Soviet Union contributed immensely for the development of industries and technology in India. The defence ties between the two countries helped India in building a credible defence structure. Its steadfast diplomatic support in the UN, on the Kashmir and Goa issues, is commendable.
The use of Veto Power in the Security Council to support India in 1971 war with Pakistan was crucial. Soviet Russia adopted Communist ideology and India accepted Democratic Socialism. Despite the ideological differences, the two countries forged a long time treaty of friendship for 20 years.
Factors for Indo-USSR close ties:
1. Both India and USSR consider the peaceful settlement of disputes between states as most crucial for the future of the human race.
2. Both believe in national freedom and social equality as pre-requisite of just world order.
3. Support to liberation movements across the world is recognized by both countries.
4. Both Countries oppose all forms of colonialism, imperialism and racial, discrimination.
Thus India and USSR realized geopolitical significance and the need to strengthen bilateral ties. This is to ensure the settlement of regional problems and establishment of global peace and prosperity.