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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Model Question Paper 4 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in one word – or a sentence each. (10 x 1 = 10)
Who is called as the ‘Iron Man of India’?
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is called as the ‘Iron Man of India’.
Which Political party secured majority in the First General Election?
Indian National Congress (INC) secured majority in the First General Election.
Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner of India?
The President of India, on the advice of Union cabinet, appoints the Chief Election Commissioner of India.
Elector’s Photo Identity Card.
Give an example of Central Services.
Indian Foreign Services.
Who is the head of District Administration?
The Deputy Commissioner (DC) is the head of the District Administration.
What is Economic exploitation?
Economic exploitation refers to the economic inequality between the Backward Classes and other forward classes.
Which day is celebrated as The Labours Day?
1st of May is celebrated as The Labours Day.
What is a democratic movement?
Afro-Asian nations started to overthrow despotic, autocratic other authoritarian governments and demanded democratic rights through movements. This is called democratic movement and 21st century is known as the era of democratic movements.
Who was the architect of India’s foreign policy?
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was the architect of India’s foreign policy.
II. Answer any 10 of the following questions in 2-3 sentences: (10 × 2 = 20)
What is Paramountcy?
Paramountcy of Suzerainty refers to the Princely states accepting British supremacy but enjoyed little freedom in internal affairs.
When and where did the Backward Classes Movement start in Kama- taka?
During 1920, an agitation was started by Backward classes in the Mysore Province to get political participation to Non-Brahmins and was led by Sri Kantaraje Urs.
What is the ‘Child Labour System’?
Children working below the age group of 14 years in industries, mines, etc. are deprived from getting basic education.
State any two features of Coalition government.
- Coalition is the product of multiparty system.
- It is a democratic arrangement.
- It challenges single party dominance and in which smaller parties come together to defeat bigger ones in elections and snatch power.
- Coalition may be a pre-poll arrange mentor a post-poll arrangement.
On what matters the central government can advise the states during normal times?
On issues like the Railways, proper means of communication and transports, ensuring the welfare of SCs and STs, the central government advises the states.
State any two obstacles in removing corruption in India.
Bribery, fraud, nepotism, and cronyism are the hurdles in creating a corruption-free India.
Name any two racial groups of Syria.
Syria has a multi-ethnic population comprising of Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, Assyrians, and Turkmens.
What is national power?.
It is the sum total of the strength and capabilities of the State harnessed and applied, to the attainment of its national objectives.
State any two objectives of the U.N.
- To maintain international peace and security.
- To develop friendly relations among nations.
When was the first NAM summit held and where?
The first summit of NAM was held at Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1961.’
Name the two power blocks.
With the beginning of cold war, two power blocs have emerged, i.e., USA for spreading Democracy and the Soviet Union for spreading Communism.
Write any two reasons for the liberation of Bangladesh.
The communal clashes in Tripura. Millions of refugees fled to India which caused uneasy law and order situation upsetting Indian economy and social peace.
III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)
State the main provisions of the Indian Independance Act of 1947.
1. The Act Provided that on 15th August 1947, the appointed date, two independent dominions, India and Pakistan, would be set up and the Act provided for complete transfer of power.
2. The dominion of India got the territories of Bombay, Madras, UP, Central Provinces, Bihar, Assam, Delhi, Ajmer, Coorg, etc., and the rest of India except Sindh, Baluchistan, West Punjab, East Bengal, North West Frontier Province and Sylhet in Assam, which became the territories of Pakistan. For demarcating the boundaries, a Boundary Commission was formed with Sir Cyril Radcliffe as the Chairman.
3. The Crown was no longer the source of authority.
4. The Governor General and provisional Governors were to act as constitutional heads. They lost extra-ordinary powers to legislate.
5. The office of the Secretary of State was abolished.
6. From 15th August 1947, the British Crown lost all rights of Paramountcy over India and the Indian states were free to join either Indian Union or Pakistan.
7. The power in each dominion was transferred to the Constituent Assembly which became fully sovereign from 15th August 1947 and was absolutely free to frame the constitution. The Constituent Assemblies had a dual role i.e. Constituent and Legislative. They functioned as Central Legislature, till the new Legislatures were formed.
8. Until the new Constitution was framed, the Act of 1935 would govern the Centre and the Provinces with necessary modifications.
Explain the “Patel Scheme”.
Sardar Patel and V.P. Menon dealt with matters arising between Central Government and Indian states, during the process of integration. Patel handled the princes with patience, tact, sympathy and an iron hand. The process of integration was three-fold and known as the ‘Patel Scheme’.
1. Merger of small states with adjoining provinces:
About 216 states were merged with provinces adjoining them, e.g: Merger of 24 states of Orissa, 14 states of Central Province, Pudukottai with Madras, etc. These merged states were included in part B of the Constitution.
2. Grouping of small states:
Many small states grouped themselves to form a big state with the ruler of the most important becoming the Rajpramukhs e.g.: Union of Saurashtra, Patiala, and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), etc. These unions were called part B states.
3. Integration into Chief Commiss- oner’s Provinces:
About 61 states which were quite small and backward were converted into centrally administered areas as Chief Commissioner’s Provinces and were called Part-C States, e.g.: Himachal Pradesh, Ajmer, Coorg, Cooch-Bihar, etc.
What are the advantages of EVM?
The Electronic Voting Machine(EVM) is one of the important innovations of modem technology. It has replaced the system of ballot box and ballot papers with the most effective Electronic Voting Machine. EVM consists of a controlling Unit and a Balloting Unit and both are interconnected with a cable.
The balloting unit is kept in the place where voters exercise votes. The controlling unit is with the polling officer. After the voter proves his identity, by pressing the blue button on the balloting unit against the candidate’s symbol he casts his vote. With the beeping sound, the voting procedure gets completed.
Uses of EVM:
- EVM can be easily operated and saves time.
- It is simple to operate by the voter to cast vote.
- Quick and accurate results.
- Economic and Eco If friendly.
- Avoids invalid votes.
- Control of irregularities.
- NOTA option is provided.
Explain the role of Deputy Commissioner in District Administration.
The Deputy Commissioner. (DC) is the head of U the District. He also acts as the District Magistrate Superintendent of police (SP), District Treasury Officer. Deputy Director of Pre University Education, Social Welfare Officer, Deputy Director of Public Instruction District Medical Officer, Deputy Registrar and other functions under the jurisdiction of the Deputy Commissioner. The Deputy Commissioner performs the following functions.
1. Law and order and Magisterial powers:
Deputy Commissioner enjoys magisterial powers. Being the District Magistrate, he maintains law and order and performs other judicial functions in the district.
2. Revenue functions:
It includes maintenance of Land Records and its assessment, collection of Land Revenue and other public dues and settlement of land disputes. Assistant Commissioners and Tahsildars work under the overall supervision and control of the Deputy Commiss- ioner.
3. Development Functions:
It includes Public Health, Educational Rural Development, Social Welfare (Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe) and Welfare of Backward Classes and Minorities and Protection of Weaker sections of the Society.
4. Regulatory Functions:
It includes control, regulation, and distribution of Food and Civil Supplies and essential commodities. He also controls the matters relating to excise, stamps, and registration.
5. Electoral Functions:
Deputy Commissioner is the District Election Officer and he is in charge of elections to Parliament, State Legislature and Local bodies.
Explain the political implications of Peasants Movement.
The successive Governments have taken measures to reduce the problems of peasants by the following methods.
1. Agricultural Loans:
- National Crop Insurance Programme (NCIP).
- National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS).
- Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme. (WBCS)
- Primary Land Development Bank (PLD).
2. National Agriculture Scheme:
For agricultural improvements, National Development Council (NDC) has made enormus arrangements in 2007 and National Agriculture scheme was implemented with a view to enhance 4% in agricultural production. The main objective of this plan is to determine agricultural policy of all the states and provide essential facilities.
3. Waiving of debts:
When farmers are not able to get the yield to their expectations they cannot clear the debts. To uplift the farmers from debts the Governement have taken necessary measures to waive the debts of farmers. This has reduced the suicide and death rate of farmers.
4. Establishment of Peasant Liason centres:
To protect farmers from low quality seeds, fertilizers and protect crops from diseases, Peasant Liason centres are opened to provide necessary implements and information related, at Hobli level.
5. Veterinary services:
Government is proving veterinary services to the livestock which also supports agriculture. Though encouraging dairying and saavayava Krishi (Organic agriculture) which are allied sectors.
6. Land Reforms Act:
National Land Reforms Act was implemented in Karnataka in 1974 when Sri Devaraj Urs was the Chief Minister of Karnataka. Land reforms Act of 2013 provides more compensation to Landowners, rehabilitation and settlement facilities, retaining the ownership of land with farmers, no forceful acquisition of agricultural land till the final settlement facilities, retaining the ownership of land with farmers, no forceful acquisition of agricultural lands till the final settlement. Providing the same quantum of land elsewhere in the case of SCs and STs.
Elucidate the role of Saalumarada Thimmakka in Environmental protec- tion.
Achievement of Saalu Marada Thimmakka:
Thimmakka and Bikkalu Chikkaiah, a childless couple of Hulikal village of Magadi Taluk, Ramanagara District, started planting Banyan saplings by the roadside between Kudur and Hulikal. They reared, cared and guarded them with their meagre earning with sheer love and affection.
The Government of Karnataka has taken the responsibility of these 248 trees. This great achievement of Saalu Marada Thimmakka is recognised and honoured by awarding Rajyothsava and National Awards. A seminar paper was presented in the UN on her contribution to environment. To create awamess among people, ‘World Environment Day’ is celebrated on 5th June every year.
How the gender based inequality is a slur to Democracy?
Discriminations made on the basis of men and women, denying equal opportunities to the fairer sex are called gender based inequalities. It is the result of gender bias favoring male throughout the ages. The prevalence of gender based inequality in family, economic, cultural, educational and political fields are seen.
1. Manu Smriti:
Earlier the Hindu society followed ‘Manu Smriti’ which asserted that women should always be under the guardianship of men at different stages of her life. He wanted her to be within the four walls, restricting her from the happenings of the society.
2. Male domination:
The society is based on physical strength of man where he dominates the female. He does not want that female should take over his responsibility and authority at home as well as in society.
3. Denial of education:
Male domination is reflected in the field of education too. Denying education for girls for many centuries has made them incapable in many fields. Men occupied major jobs and secured well and dominating positions in the entire society.
4. Dowry system:
The practice of dowry system contributes for inequality of gender. Boys are treated as assets and girls as burden. The attitude also intensifies the discrimination between men and women.
5. Inadequate representation:
Women constitute 50% of the total population. They are inadequately represented in the field of politics and economics. Even though women are as capable as men, they are not allowed in these fields. Women have little or no opportunities in participating in public life.
What are the constitutional measures taken to eradicate illiteracy as per the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act.
Article 45 envisages states to provide free and compulsory education. It has not been implemented properly. Hence, through the 86th Constitutional Amendment, it is made compulsory. The Parliament of India passed the 86th constitutional amendment act in 2002. Accordingly, 21A is inserted in the constitution which aimed at making right to education a fundamental right for children between 6 to 14 years of age.
Its main provisions are:
1. Compulsory education means obligation of the government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission and attendance and completion of education to every child in the age group of 6 to 14.
2. It is a compulsory duty of parents and guardians to send the children to schools.
3. The schools must have minimum facilities such as adequate pupil I-teacher ration, trained teachers, infrastructure and playgrounds.
4. The Central Government and State Government bear the expenditure on the basis of agreed formula (in 2013 it was in the ratio of 65:35)
5. The school management committee or the local authority should identify the dropouts or out of school children and admit them in classes appropriate to their age. Before admission, they have to be given special training.
As per section 12, (1) C of the RTE Act, private aided and non-minority unaided schools must reserve 25 percent of seats for children belonging to Backward Classes and disadvantaged groups in neighborhood areas (7.5% for ST category and 16% for other Backward Groups.)
“The youth of India can change the Indian Political System”. Discuss.
India is a vast country with 1.2 billion population. Being the seventh-largest country geographically, it can just be described as a mini continent. Universal Adult Franchise is provided for both men and women belonging to all castes, colors, regions, languages, religions, etc., In spite of presence of several hurdles like poverty, illiteracy, inequality, communalism, and terrorism.
India has crossed several other hurdles and milestones and proved to be a vibrant democracy. Registration of new voters is a continuous process. As franchise brings a voice to voters in democracy due care must be taken to the enrolment of women and youth. As per 61st Amendment to the constitution, the voting age reduced to 18 years from 21 during 1986 when Sri Rajiv Gandhi was the Prime Minister.
With the reduction in voting age the size of the electorate increased heavily providing an opportunity to the younger generation to participate in choosing their representatives. The country that respects its youth can bring new thinking in all walks of life including politics. Youth have the energy to liberate and purify the political arena of the country as they normally do not accept traditional caste barriers.
Usually, leaders of older generations do not prefer youth in politics as they are revolutionary and reject the traditional mindset. “ Youth have the courage and the capacity to understand burning issues like boundary, language, river, water, ethnic disputes.
Increase in number of youth in politics enhances the credibility of democracy. The honest involvement of youth in politics being away from violence is the need of the hour to strengthen the system. Recent development shows a large number of youth participating and winning both Loka Sabha and Assembly elections.
Explain any five areas of co-operation between India and SAARC.
In the rapidly changing global environment, regional integration in South Asia has assumed a new strategic significance. As a largest economy of the South Asian region, it is imperative and right time for India to inculcate an environment of trust among SAARC partners. India stands to gain substantially from greater economic integration in the region.
1. Summit level cooperation:
India has participated in all the summit level meetings. During the 16th SAARC summit held in New Delhi on 3rd and 4th April 2007, the leaders recognized collectively in fulfilling this in a better way with the rest of the world. The Prime Minister of India Mr. Rajiv Gandhi attended the first SAARC summit held in Bangladesh in 1985. He emphasized the core issue of economic development in the South Asian region with joint efforts.
India is committed to fastening the sense of a South Asian Identity through the SAARC process, enhancing mutual confidence in multiple areas in trying to leverage India’s rapid economic growth into win-win arrangements with her neighbors.
The change perhaps started in about 2002 in India, has gained momentum since India acquired the Chairmanship of SAARC in April 2007. Among several factors that are perhaps responsible for this positive movement, the more important one is the acceleration in economic growth in all major regional economics especially India.
2. SAARC regional Centres:
India is having two regional centers:-
- SAARC Documentation center (SDC) in New Delhi.
- SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC) in New Delhi.
3. SAARC Development Fund (SDF):
India has been 6ne of major contribution to the SAARC Development Fund. The Fund has the areas of action social, economic and infrastructure. India has offered US $100 million for the SAARC fund to be utilized for projects in other SAARC countries.
4. Economic co-operation:
The Agreement on SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA) was signed in 1993 and four rounds of trade negotiations have been concluded. The Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (S AFTA) was signed. Creation of Export Promotion Zones and Special Economic Zones in each SAARC member country as’ pointed out by industrial bodies which enhances investment and will thus encourage Intra-SAARC investments.
5. People-to-people Countries:
For strengthening cooperation in information and media related activities of the Association, the heads of National Television and Radio Organisations of member countries meet annually. The SAARC Audio-Visual exchange (SAVE) Committes disseminates information both on SAARC and its member States through regular Radio and TV programme.
6. Educational Cooperation:
India proposed to create a center of excellence in the form of a South Asian University (SAU), which can provide world class facilities and professional faculty to students and researchers drawn from each country of the region. The south Asian university is established in India.
Write a note on the principles of Panchasheel.
Panchsheel continues to be another fundamental principle of Indian foreign policy. An agreement signed between Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese Prime Minister Zhow-en-Lai on April, 29th 1954, sought to govern the relationship between India and China on the basis of five principles.
- Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Mutual non-aggression.
- Mutual noninterference in each other’s internal affairs.
- Equality and mutual benefits.
It is a principle of peaceful co-existence with other countries, it guided the basis of relationship between 1954-57 marked by numerous visits and exchanges. This period is described as Sino-Indian honeymoon.
Analyze the Kashmir issue in India and Pakistan relations.
In India’s perspective, Kashmir is an integral part of the republic of India and to Pakistan, it is a disputed territory. The argument of Pakistan on Kashmir is that, since the partition of the country was done on religious basis and majority of, population are Muslims, Kashmir should be part of Pakistan. This argument failed to recognize the following facts:
- Partition was done of the British Indian Provinces & and not of the Indian princely states.
- National Conference was the only major political party in Kashmir, which was affiliated to Congress. It was opposed to Pakistan and had faith in secular politics.
- The Indian princely states had the freedom to join either India or Pakistan.
- India was a secular state consisting of a multi-religious population.
So, Kashmir formally decided to join India after the invasion of its territory by Pakistani tribals supported by the Pakistan Army.
IV. Answer any 2 of the following in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 × 10 = 20)
Distinguish between direct and indirect elections.
In this system, all the eligible Voters of the nation directly elect their representatives through secret ballots without any intermediaries. For e.g. the Lok Sabha (House of People) and Vidhana Sabha (State Legislative Assembly) in India and the House of Commons in U.K and House of Representatives in the USA are directly elected.
Features of Direct election are:
1. More democratic:
Eligible voters have a wider choice to elect their representatives directly. This provides a direct relationship between the voter and their representatives.
Since there is a direct relationship between voters and the representatives, they are responsive to the needs and aspirations of the people.
3. Creates political awareness:
In the direct election, voters come in direct contact with their representatives. Voters are curious about them and gather information through mass media and print media about political parties, their manifesto, and personalities of the candidates. In this way, the voters get educated.
4. Selection of eligible candidates:
The voters test the capacities, capabilities of the candidates and finally elect them since there is a rapport between the two.
5. Public relationship:
In view of the forthcoming OH elections, representatives keep regular contact with their constituencies and electorate.
6. Indirect election:
It is another method of election where voters elect a group of members in the first instance to form an ‘Electoral College’ as an intermediary body to elect representatives. For e.g. the President of India and USA are elected through electoral colleges, which consists of the representatives of people. The members of Rajyasabha and members of the State Legislative Council are indirectly elected by the people.
7. Selection of best candidates:
In this method, candidates are elected by the intelligent Voters. For e.g. at the first step, people elect their representatives to the Electoral College and at the second step, they in turn judiciously elect the final representatives of legislature or Head of the nation. This method involves double election.
8. Prevents unhealthy campaign:
It avoids all sorts of evils like dirty propaganda tricks and instigation of people for petty issues to divide them. For e.g. in the election of President of India, the average voters are kept outside and only the elected members of both the Houses of the Parliament participate to elect them.
9. Peaceful voting:
In this method, there is no scope for illegal activities or fights during the election as it happens in the direct election. In the electoral. process, only a small number of enlightened voters peacefully exercise their votes judiciously. The elections are conducted according to well-defined norms and values.
10. Little scope for emotions:
Elected Representatives are not carried away by passions or sentiments nor can they be influenced like an average voter. There is no chance of misusing sensitive issues for political gains. The higher leaders are elected by people representatives and act with a sense of responsibility.
11. Suitable to developing nations:
Since majority of the voters are ignorant, not educated and intelligent hence a small group of politically educated and wise voters elect responsible and public-spirited representatives.
Describe the essentials of Nation-Building
The process of Nation-building started with the attainment of independence. The leaders of. modem India initiated the process in the right direction as they worked out the details in an orderly and systematic way. However, during implementation, they had to face numerous problems associated with national reconstruction resulting in a slow process.
The process of nation-building is an offshoot of the concept of nation-states. The idea of nation-states emerged after the signing of the treaty of West Phalia (1648) by Western Countries. The people of the common religious and traditional backgrounds living in a definite territory with like mindedness and ‘we’ feeling form the nation. Common language, culture, and history aspirations help common people to form nationality.
1. Components to community support:
To realise the process of nation building, collective support and endeavor of the people are essential. The quality of the people reflects the quality of a nation. Disciplined work culture and patriotic feelings also contribute to nation-building. In a democracy, people are the kingmakers. Hence, they are expected to elect competent and honest representatives. They formulate a sound public opinion on important national issues. As J.S. Mill said ‘Eternal vigilance is the price of democracy’.
2. Good Governance:
Good governance ensures accountability, transparency, efficiency, responsibility, and responsiveness. In addition, the use of technology has given rise to e-Governance. India is one of the leading countries in the world in the adoption of the system of e-governance.
3. Committed Leadership:
History depicts many examples of committed leadership. Eg.: US President F. D. Roosevelt solved the crisis of Economic depression by adopting the New Deal Policy and US became a superpower at global level after the II World War. In India Nehru’s leadership largely contributed to the process of nation-building. He formulated goals for nation-building and introduced the planning system, adopted industrialization policy and socialistic pattern of society. He had vision and farsightedness for the transformation of India. Hence Nehru is called the Architect of Modem India.
4. Political culture:
Political Culture constitutes a set of values, attitudes, and behavior towards a political system. It requires an ideal political behavior for national reconstruction. Leaders have to embody the principles of national interest, public service, probity, and statesmanship.
5. Power Sharing:
To realize the goal, political power needs to be shared among all sections of society. The concentration of political power in the hands of a few people and some families leads to the emergence of authoritarianism and dictatorship. As H.J. Laski rightly puts it “ A decision which affects all must be decided by all” To attain this reservation is provided to the SCs and STs and women at different levels of Government. It ensures social justice which is the foundation of socio-economic democracy.
6. Universal Education:
For the develop- ment of national universal education is of paramount importance. It enables the person to
understand his potentiality and strengthens dignity. As Gandhi said, “Education is the light of life”. It encourages people to develop the spirit of inquiry the ability to analyze the national problems and to work for national progress. Education also equips the people to shun fanaticism, parochialism, communalism, casteism and religious fundamentalism. The Right To Education Act 2009 implemented in 2010 is a step in this direction.
7. National Character:
Nationalism and patriotism are the foundations to build a national character. Each country has its distinct national character which denotes one’s nativity-as the conservatism of UK, ‘Land of Liberty’ of US, Ethnicity of Africa, Aboriginal of Australia, cultural diversity of India.
Love and respect for one’s country and national symbols such as national flag, national anthem, and national monuments are the prerequisites. One has to acquire knowledge about the history of his motherland and its contributions to human civilizations. Realizing the significance of national character, the makers of the Indian constitution have asserted the supremacy of popular sovereignty in the preamble reading with the expression.” We the people of India”.
8. Mass Media:
Mass Media is regarded as the Fourth Estate in democracy as it plays a vital role in the nation building. It highlights the omissions and commissions of the government and acts as a bridge between the government and the public. It is an effective instrument of political socialization. modernization and development. In India, the ‘Freedom of Expression’ is a fundamental right under Art. 19 of the Constitution.
9. Responsible Intelligentsia:
The contribution of intellectuals is recognized all over the world. Research and innovations in important areas of human life have contributed to national development.
In India the development in the field of social sciences, M.N. Srinivas, Amartya Sen, S.Shettar, Gail Omvedt, Kancha, Ilaya, Vandana Shiva, S.N. Balagangadhara, AshishNandy, Rajiv Malhotra and others. In Science and Technology Sir M. Vishveshwaraiah, Sir C.V. Raman, Dr. Raja Ramanna, Dr. M.G.K. Menon, Dr. CNR Rao. Dr. U.R. Rao, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, and others have greatly contributed for India’s present position at global level.
10. National Integration:
It is the process of uniting the people emotionally, psychologically and politically, Sardar Vallabha Bai Patel, Vinoba Bhave, Lai Bahadhur Shastri, J.B. Kriplani, Acharya Narendra Dev played a key role in the national integration. November 19th is being observed as National integration day, the birthday of Smt. Indira Gandhi.
Describe the democratic movements in Nepal.
21st century is known as the era of democratic movements. These movements in Afro-Asian nations started to overthrow despotic, autocratic and other authoritarian governments. Nepal was a small landlocked kingdom in Southern Asia lying between India to the south and Tibet to the north. Monarchy was prevalent in Nepal since 18th centuries. During the rule of Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, democratic Maoist movements started mainly because of the influence of India and China.
In 1980 limited democracy resulted in the creation of multi-party parliamentary monarchy. The political war was launched by the communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) in 1996, with the overthrow of the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a people’s Republic. Maoist insurgency began in 1996 ended with the Communist victory in 2001. The comprehensive Peace Accord was signed on 21 st November 2006. The Crown prince massacred king Birendra and the royal family.
Bringing the unpopular Gyanendra to the throne. Nepal witnessed a popular movement in 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy. At the same time, the king reinstated old Nepal house of Representatives, with an assurance of permanent peace and the multi-party democracy. The king called upon the Seven Party Alliance (SPA) to bear the responsibility of taking the nation on the path of national unity and prosperity.
The popular Government assumed office on 18th May 2006 and withdrawn all the privileges given to the king unanimously. The bill included-
- Imposing tax on the royal family and its assets.
- Ending the Raj Parishad, a Royal Advisory council.
- Eliminating Royal references from army and Government titles.
- Declaring Nepal a secular country, not the Hindu Kingdom.
- Scrapping the national anthem until a new one is composed.
- Eliminating the king’s position as the supreme commander of the army.
This is popularly Known as the “Nepalese Magna Carta”.
Discuss India’s role in the establishment of UN and its powers.
Independent India viewed its membership of the United Nations a guarantee for maintaining international peace and security. UN membership has also served as an opportunity for leadership, in world affairs. India stood at the forefront during the UN’s tumultuous years of struggle against colonialism, apartheid, global disarmament and creation of more equitable international economic order.
India has used platform of the General Assembly for voicing against imperialism, colonialism and apartheid in 1954, India took a leading part in securing political sanctions against the racialist regime of South Africa, in 1965 it supported the UN sponsored economic boycott of Rhodesia. It gave full support to the Angolan liberation movement and to the cause of Independence of Namibia.
India also played and active role in setting up of the united nations conference on trade and development (UNCTAD) and calling for the creation of a New International economic order (NIEO). India is a member of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), International labour organisation (ILO), World Health Organisation (WHO), Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), United Nations International Development Organisation (UNIDO), etc.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write a note on Union Secretariat.
1. The Central Secretariat:
The word secretariat means Office of the Secretaries. For the purpose of administration, the Government of India is divided into different Ministries and Departments which constitute the Central Secretariat. For efficient discharge of business allotted to a ministry, it is divided into various Departments, Wings, Divisions, Branches, and Sections.
2. Hierarchical order of Central Secretariat:
- Wing(Additional/Joint Secretary)
- Division(Deputy Secretary)
- Branch(Under Secretary)
- Section (Section Officer)
This is the primary unit of a ministry. It is pertinent to point out the difference between a ministry and a department. A single ministry may have several departments within a ministry, each is headed by the secretary. A Minister remains in power for a period of five years.
Generally, the Cabinet Secretary belongs to the permanent civil service and remains in office till he retires. It has been observed that the portfolios of ministers change frequently, particularly with every change of leadership or through occasional reshuffles in the council of ministry.
Depending upon the volume of work in a ministry, one or more wings can be set up. An Additional Secretary or Joint Secretary is in charge of the Wing. He is given independent charge, subject to the overall responsibility of the Secretary.
A Wing of the Ministry is then divided into Divisions for the sake of efficient and expeditious disposal of business allotted to the ministry. Two branches ordinarily constitute a division which is normally under the charge of a Deputy Secretary.
A Branch normally consists of two sections and is under the charge of an Under Secretary. He is also called as Branch Officer.
Headed by a Section Officer, a section consists of Assistants, Upper Division and Lower Division Clerks. The initial handling of cases, noting and drafting is carried on by these Assistants
Write a note on Anti defection law.
Defection is change of loyalty to another party, without resigning from his elected post for benefits. Defector gets elected on one party’s ticket and tries to enjoy power in another party. The word defection also called ‘Floor Crossing in UK and ‘Carpet Crossing’ in Nigeria. The term ‘Defection’ is used in India. Defection is commonly known as ‘House funding’. Defectors . are called ‘Fence-sitters’ or Turn Coats.
Sri Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India decided to remove the evils of defection. Hence, Anti defection Act came into force on 1st April through the 52nd Constitution Amendment. The main intention of the law was to combat “the evils of political defections”. The provisions are:
1. A member of Parliament or state legislature belonging to any political party shall be disqualified if he voluntarily quits his party.
2. He will be disqualified from his membership if he votes against his party whip in the session.
3. A member of Parliament or State Legislature belonging to any political party shall be disqualified from his membership if he votes in the session without prior permission of his party.
4. A nominated member shall be disqualified from his membership in the upper house, if he joins any political party after six months from the date on which he assumes his position.
5. If the 1/3rd strength of any political party merges with another political party, it shall be considered as defection.
6. A person disqualified under this Act shall not be provided any office of profit.
7. The Anti-defection law determines the size of the council of Ministers. The size of the council of Ministers of Union shall exceed 15% of the total members of the Lok Sabha and similar to that of state legislative Assembly.
8. Speakers can initiate action against the members under Anti-defection law.
9. The Chairpersons of Legislative are permitted to frame the rules to implement this law.
Discuss the nature of Crony Capitalism.
Crony capitalism is a negative term used to refer the business dealings carried out by the Government officers in a capitalist economy.
Nature of crony capitalism are as follows:-
1. Favours political authorities:
Crony capitalism is a system in which, close associates of the people in power who enact laws and execute policies, get favors that have a large economic impact.
2. Cronies are rewarded:
with the provision to charge higher prices for their output, than would prevail in a competitive market. Funds are funneled to the enterprises of cronies through government-controlled banks.
3. Protection of assets:
Crony capitalism allows Government to guarantee a subset of asset holders that their property rights are protected. As long as their assets are protected, these asset holders will continue to invest as if there were universal protection of property rights.
4. Share in the rents generated by the asset holders:
The members of the Government or members of their families, share the rents generated by the asset holders. This may take the form of jobs, co-investments or even transfers of stock. Crony capitalism goes & hand in hand with corruption.
5.The concentration of economic Power:
A few business groups are cronies, influence state policies and pool their assets in private corporate sectors. Such concentration gives birth to crony capitalism. Crony capitalism is an economic phenomenon with political consequences. In crony capitalism, the Government makes deals in closed doors, without public review and approval.
Write a note on the relationship between India and America.
India’s freedom movement had drawn much inspiration from the colonial history of US. President F.D. Roosevelt’s positive contribution to the 1942 Cripps Mission negotiation to help India proceed on the road to independence received a positive and grateful response from the Indian leaders. Pandit Nehru identified a number of positive factors that favored the growth of Indo US relations during his visits to US.
Because of this historical background and shared democratic values of both countries, they acquired a pattern of good and positive relationship. Both nations have a common faith in democratic institutions and way of life and are dedicated tot he cause of peace and freedom.
1. Economic Relations:
After Indian Independence, the US extended its economic aid under ‘Truman’s’ Four Point Program of 1950, consisting of American technical skills, knowledge and investment capital. It provided wheat loan to India to manage the famine in some parts of the country in 1951. The major aid has been in the shape of surplus commodity assistance provided under Public Law 480 (PL 480) in 1956, which was repayable in rupees.
Under the supervision of United States Agency for International Development (USAID), it gave the development loans. With these aids and support US topped the list of countries that gave economic aid to India. In recent years India decided to liberalize its economy and integrate it with the global economy.
India’s impressive economic growth rates have made the country an attractive economic partner for the US. In the past cold war era, both countries found themselves closer and committed to extending their economic co-operation in other fields. The Indian economy had close ties India’s total exports in the software sector and extended job opportunities to lakhs of Indians in its silicon valley.
2. Military Relations:
After the II World War US built many military alliances (NATO, ANZUS, SEATO, Bagdad Pact, and CENTO). As the leader of western bloc, it expects newly liberated countries which are not aligned with any of these military alliances, not to oppose US in any organization including UN.
India keeping away from the military alliances, its principled support tot he liberation movements and crusade against apartheid racism and racial discrimination were interpreted by US as unfriendly act. Obviously it led to a misunderstanding between India and US relations.
The US military support to Pakistan its military ally in 1954, created apprehensions in India regarding regional military balance and it widened the gap between India and Pakistan. When the liberation struggle was going on in Goa, the US supported Portuguese claims to keep Portugal as its ally in NATO, out victory of India was interpreted by US as ‘hypocrisy’ and ‘hallow moralist’
As its global strategy to curb the Communism, US respond positively with military assitance to India in 1962. Indo-China war. But it acted against India in Indo-Pak conflict in 1965 and Indo-Pak war on Bangladesh in 1971. The US has military bases in the Indian ocean in the Island called Diego Garcia, India opposed to these bases because these can threaten any of the states which are on the banks of the Indian Ocean.
Inspite of Indian protest, the US has not taken off the bases from the Island. By minimizing our misunderstandings and by better appreciaiton of each other, there is a need to work out a pattern of mutual benefit relationship with the US.
3. Socio-cultural Relations:
India and US have close socio-cultural relations, eg. Fort Foundation grants aid for scientific, technical, education, and cultural activities. There is co-operation in the field of cultural exchange scientific and educational interaction, a large number of people of Indian origin living in the US hold potential of a greater co-operation. Thousands of Indian scholars acquired their advanced knowledge from the educational institutions of the US.