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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper March 2017
Time: 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)
When was the Indian National Congress formed?
The Indian National Congress was formed in 1885.
Which country is considered as the world’s largest democracy?
India is considered as world’s largest democracy.
What is Election?
The process of choosing representatives to public office is called election.
Electors Photo Identity Card.
Which day is celebrated as the ‘World Environment Day’?
5th of June is celebrated as the World Environment Day.
Which is the native district of Saalumarada Thimmakka?
Ramanagara is the native district of Saalumarada Thimmakka.
Mention the root word of ‘coalition’.
The word coalition is derived from Latin world ‘coalitio’.
Who identified identity politics?
L.A. Kauffman identity politics.
What is Globalisation?
The process of integrating the economy of a country with world economy is called Globalisation.
Who was called as ‘Banga bandhu’?
Shaik Mujibur Rehman is called as ‘Banga Bandhu’.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
When was the Federal court established and where?
The Federal Court was established in New Delhi in 1937.
Name two functions of UPSC.
- To conduct examinations for appointment to the services of Union and All India Services,
- To submit the annual report to the President.
When did the ‘Hindu Widow’s Home’ established and where?
The Hindu Widow’s Home was established in Poona in 1899.
What is the meaning of nation-building?
The process of uniting of people with a sense of nationalism is called nation-building.
What do you mean by corruption?
Misuse of one’s position directly or indirectly for personal benefit in the form of money or material is called corruption.
What is coalition government?
Various political parties with different ideologies forms the government, it is called coalition government.
What is crony capitalism?
A close relationship between business class and official class in a capitalist economy is called crony capitalism.
Define International Relations.
According to Ola Joseph ‘International Relations are the study of all forms of interactions that exist between members of separate entities or nations within the International System.
Name any two members of the SAARC.
The two-member countries of the SAARC are India and Sri Lanka.
Who have signed the Tashkent Agreement?
The Tashkent Agreement was signed between Lai Bahadur Shastri of India and Ayub Khan of Pakistan.
Write any two principles of Panchasheel.
The two principles of Panchasheel are :
- Mutual non-aggression.
- Peaceful co-existence.
Name any founder nation of NAM.
The two founder nations of NAM are India and Egypt.
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)
Explain briefly the Government of India Act 1935.
The reforms of 1919, failed to fulfil the aspirations of the people of India. The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi started agitation for ‘Swaraj’ to be attained through ‘Non-co-operation’.
As per the Government of India Act 1919, a statutory commission was to be appointed at the expiration of ten years after the passing of the Act for the purpose of inquiring into the working of the system and the development of representative institutions in India.
The British Government appointed a Statutory Commission (Simon Commission) in 1927, to enquire into the report of the 1919 Act. This was done as a concession to the Indian demand for an early revision of the Act. The commission headed by Sir John Simon consisted of 7 members from the British Parliament.
It did not have a single Indian as a member. It was taken as an insult to the self-respect of India and hence was boycotted. Amidst protests of, “Simon, go back”, the commission visited India. It announced in 1929, that ‘Dominion status’ was the goal of Indian developments.
Gandhi lead the 1st Round Table Conference held in 1930. Dr. Ambedkar lead the 2nd in 1931 and again the 3rd Round table Conference in 1932. The outcome of these conferences was announced in the form of ‘white paper’. It provided for –
- Educational facilities and reservation in politics for depressed classes.
- Universal Adult Franchise.
- Prohibition of social boycott.
- Communal representation.
- Separate electorate for the untouchables. Simon commission brought the report of the resolutions of the conferences, but Gandhi opposed the separate electorate for untouchables and decided to fast unto death.
Congress leaders met Gandhi in his regard, and he was convinced. The resolution was modified by providing reservations for depressed classes instead of separate electorate for the untouchables. This was popularly known as ‘Poona pact’ signed by Gandhi and Ambedkar.
A White paper was prepared on the results of these conferences. It was examined by the Joint select committee of the British Parliament and in accordance with its recommendations, the Government of India Act 1935 was passed.
The act contained 321 Articles and 13 schedules. The important provisions of the Act are:
The Act provided for the establishment of ‘Federation of India’. It consisted of provinces of British India and the Princely states as units. For the first time, an attempt was made to establish a Federal Government.
2. Distribution of power:
It divided legislative powers between the Central and Provincial legislatures. There was a threefold division.
a. Federal list:
It consisted of 59 subjects like external affairs, currency, defense, etc., over which the federal legislature had legislative power.
b. Provincial list:
It consisted of 54 subjects like police, education, etc., over which provincial legislatures had jurisdiction.
c. Concurrent list:
This consisted of 36 subjects like criminal law, civil procedures, marriage, and divorce, etc., over which both the federal and provincial legislatures had competence.
d. The Residuary powers were vested with the Governor-General.
3. Diarchy at the centre:
The Diarchy which was established in the provinces by the Act of 1919 was now adopted at the centre. The executive authority vested with the Governor-General included the following:
a. The administration of reserved subjects like defence, external affairs, etc. was done by Governor-General with the help of ‘Councilors’, who were appointed by him and not responsible to the legislature.
b. In the matters of transferred subjects, Governor-General acted, on the advice of ‘Council of Ministers’, who were responsible to the legislature.
4. The Federal Legislatures:
The central legislature was bi-cameral consisting of Federal Assembly and the Council of States.
a. The Council of States consisted of 260 members, of which 156 (60%) were elected from British India and 104 (40%) were nominated by the Princely States.
b. Federal Assembly consisted of 375 members, of which 250 (67%) were elected by the legislative Assemblies and 125 (33%) nominated by the Rulers of the Princely States.
The Council was to be a permanent body 1/ 3rd of its members were to retire after 3 years. The term of House of Assembly was 5 years. Indirect method of election was prevalent for the House of Assembly. There were Bi-cameral legislatures in Bengal, Bombay, Bihar and Madras and rest of the provinces had Unicameral legislatures.
5. Federal Court:
It provided for the first time, the establishment of Federal Court of India in Delhi. It was established in 193 7 and consisted of a Chief Justice and 6 additional Judges appointed by his Majesty’s Government on the basis of high legal qualifications.
- It had original jurisdiction to decide disputes between the Centre and the Provinces.
- Appellate Jurisdiction over decisions of the High courts.
- Advisory Jurisdiction to advice the Governor-General on any point of Law.
It was the highest court in India. The Federal court functioned in India for about 12 years, till its transformation into Supreme Court of India in 1950, under the present constitution. The credit for its excellent works goes to Sir Maurice Gwyer, who guided the court in its formative years as its first Chief Justice.
6. Provincial Autonomy:
By this act, the provinces no longer remained as delegates of Central Government but became autonomous units of administration. The act introduced Provincial Autonomy. It was introduced in 11 provinces viz, Madras, Bombay, Bengal, the United Provinces, Punjab, Bihar, Central Provinces, Assam, the North Western Frontier Province, Orissa, and Sind.
The provinces were administered by the ministers. The differences between the reserved and 0- transferred subjects were dropped. All subjects were placed under the charge of ministers who were made responsible and removable by the Legislative Assembly. Thus, the executive was responsible to legislature.
The legislative relations between the Central Government and the Provinces were regulated according to three lists of subjects provided under this Act.
a. However, ‘Dominion status’ which was promised by the Simon Commission in 1929 was not conferred by this Act.
b. The intention to establish Federation of India did not materalize because opposition for the merger from the rulers of Princely states.
c. The degree of provincial autonomy introduced at the provincial level was limited as Central Government retained important powers and control. The Governor was given pivotal position, with discretionary powers on important matters. He was not bound by the advice of ministers. Thus, the claim of conferring provincial autonomy was very limited.
Write a short note on first general elections.
India became a Sovereign Democratic Republic after the constitution was adopted on 26th January 1950. General elections to the first Lok Sabha were held in India from October 1951 to February 1952, on the basis of. Universal Adult Franchise. With this India emerged as the world’s largest Democracy.
The holding of General elections was a bold implementation of that faith in man and democracy. The first general elections was the most gigantic political experiment in the history of democracy. It was world’s largest free elections.
Explain the advantages of Electronic Voting Machine.
The Electronic Voting Machine(EVM) is one of the important innovations of modern technology. It has replaced the system of ballot box and ballot papers with most effective Electronic Voting Machine.
EVM consists of controlling Unit and Balloting Unit and both are interconnected with a cable. The balloting unit is kept in the place where voters exercise votes. The controlling unit is with the polling officer. After the voter proves his identity, by pressing the blue button on the balloting unit against the candidate’s symbol he casts his vote. With the beeping sound, the voting procedure will be completed.
Uses of EVM:
- EVM can be easily operated and saves time.
- It is simple to operate by the voter to cast vote.
- Quick and accurate results.
- Economic and Eco-friendly.
- Avoids invalid votes.
- Control of irregularities.
- NOTA option is provided
Discuss the features of civil services.
Features of Civil Services:-
1. Professional body:
As Herman Finer puts it, Civil service is a professional body of officials who are, permanent, paid and skilled. It is a whole-time job and career service.
As per the scaler system, each civil servant has to obey his immediate superior, where higher-ranking administrative officers with discretionary powers supervises their subordinates. The authority runs from above and helps to make administration stable.
3. Political Neutrality:
Civil Servants refrain always from political activities. They perform their duties without being aligned to any one political regime.
Civil servants work behind the screen and remain anonymous even though they work for the Government. Recognition for good work or censure for any omission goes only to the concerned minister and not to the civil servants.
The Civil Servants have to apply the laws of the state while performing the duties without showing any favour, bias or preference to any groups or sections of the society.
6. Service motto:
They have to work for the welfare of the society. They must be humble and service-minded towards the public and not authoritative.
Civil Servants are called permanent executives. They discharge duties till they attain the age of superannuation. Both at the central and in Karnataka State Services, the age of retirement is sixty years. Even though disciplinary action is taken as per rules, there is security of service.
8. Jurisdiction of Law:
Every Civil Servant has fo function within the prescribed jurisdiction of law. If he crosses the limit, he is met with disciplinary action.
9. Special Training:
Once the candidates are selected for top civil services, they are deputed to in-service training to acquire special skills in administration, like the Lai Bahadur Shastry Academy of Administration located in Massourie for the training of the newly appointed IAS officers. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Academy located in Hyderabad trains the newly appointed IPS officers.
Write the functions of chief secretary.
Chief Secretary is the head of the Secretariat in every state. He is in charge of the administrative setup. His authority includes all departments of the Secretariat. By reason of his experience and standing, he is able to ease out difficulties and frictions to give general guidance to other officers.
Thus he gives leadership to the administrative setup of the state. He maintains rapport between the State government and the Union government and other State government.
The Chief Secretary performs the following functions:
- He is the Principal Adviser to the Chief Minister.
- He acts as the Cabinet Secretary and attends cabinet meetings.
- He exercises general supervision and control over the entire Secretariat.
- He looks after all matters beyond the purview of other secretaries.
- As chief of all the secretaries, he presides over a large number of committees and is a member of many others.
- He is the secretary by rotation, of the zonal council of which the state is a member.
- He has control over the staff attached to the ministers.
- He is the bridge between that State and Central or other state Governments.
- He receives confidential communication from the Government of India and conveys them to the Chief Minister.
As the head of the administrative Machinery, Chief of the Civil Services, Mentor and conscience keeper of civil services, he plays a significant role in the state administration.
What are the causes for Backward class movement?
1. Social discrimination:
These communities faced social discrimination like superior and inferior throughout the years. They were not allowed to come to the mainstream. Hence they started agitation to get the facilities and their due share in the post-independence period.
2. Economics Exploitation:
Exploitation leads to economic inequality among the backward classes. Many of these communities were Below Poverty Line (BPL) and were poverty-stricken. To get these facilities, they united together and started agitation.
3. Educational backwardness:
Upper caste monopolised the field of education and denied access to these communities. As education is fundamental for self-development these backward communities are against the upper caste and organised agitation.
4. Denial of Political representation:
A few communities dominated political field and other backward classes were totally neglected. During 1920, the agitation started in Mysore Province by Backward classes to get political participation to Non-Brahmins led by Sri Kantharaje Urs.
It is difficult to achive anything without any unity and integrity. Hence Backward classes who are more than 350 in number were unorganised and scattered. To unit them and to fight for their cause, movement was started.
Explain the political implications for Human Rights Movement.
Human Rights are those rights which are inherent to the Human beings and which they are entitled to enjoy without distinction of race, colour, religion, language, gender, birthplace, social, economic, political and other status.
The rights relating to life, liberty, equality, and dignity of the individuals guaranteed under the Constitution or embodied in the international convenants and enforceable by courts.
But violations of human rights in many of the countries have led a international orgnaisations to take measure to protect them at global level. Hence Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was accepted on 10th December 1948 by the U.N. through its resolutions. The basic purpose behind this is general interest.
The practice of Natural rights encompasses political, economic, social justices, freedom of speech, equality, respect to all, right against exploitation, right against gender-based inequality, religious faith without interference.
The violation of human rights is multifarious. They are:
1. To protect civil liberty:
All men born equally and they have the libery to shape their lives. Constitution of India guaranteed these rights in the part III to citizens. But in actual practice dalits, women and children are being supressed and exploited.
2. To remove slavery:
It is constitutionally banned. But it is active in many parts of the country. Hence agitations become inevitable.
3. To protect family:
Every citizen has the right to family life. Due to modernisation, youth are heading towards inter-caste and inter-religious marriages. Dowry harassments end up in either suicide or murder.
4. To protect the rights of dalits:
Injustice, attrocities, social ostracism, Made-snana, dalits being forced to carry night soil by upper caste people, etc are clear violations of human rights.
5. Refusal to file cases:
Though the aggrieved dalits approach the authorities to file the cases against upper caste people, it does not get filed due to the interference of some politically dominant castes. Even when physically abused, medical aid and police protection are denied.
1. National Human Rights Commission:
The Commission came into existence on 8th January 1994 consisting of a Chairman who is retired or sitting Chief Justice of India along with the members. The Commission has to prepare a list of human rights and get the approval by the government.
Whenever a violation is committed, systematic enquiries are to be conducted and transparency should be maintained with the help of judiciary. The commission has to enact new laws whenever the existing laws do not cater to the needs of the inquiry. While doing so, it has to respect the prevailing international laws, contracts, and resolutions.
2. State Human Rights Commission:
As per the Human Rights act of India, each state is authorized to establish a State Human Commission consisting of a Chairman who is retired or sitting Supreme Court judge or Chief Justice of High Court along with memebrs. As per the direction of the Act, the Commission was set up in Karnataka in 2005 in the same model to that of national level.
3. Child rights:
Violation of Human rights particularly on child rights are seen everywhere. The Deputy Commissioner is authorized to look into the details of exploitation on children. Measures are to be taken to register the complaints through child helpline in matters related to child labour, child abuse, encouraging begging and others.
4. Creating Awareness:
Speedy disposal of the grievances registered in the commission at the different levels prove that people are definitely aware of the movements and its achievements. Human Right Movements have gone a long way in providing peaceful and happy life by creating awareness and remedies for the grievances.
Explain the causes of caste-based inequality.
1. Caste Based Inequality:
Inequality means denying opportunities and privileges to some classes, making discrimination, on the basis of caste, religion, gender, birthplace, etc., Discriminating people on the grounds of caste is caste-based inequality. From the ancient period, caste-based inequality prevailed in Hindu Society.
The Hindu society was divided into four varnas and the contents of Manu Smriti were followed. In modern society, inequality is based on the available privileges for upper and lower castes, which also contributed to social inequality. Since ancient period, Varna System is prevalent.
It is based- on their professions such as Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vysyas and the Sudras. Gradually it was converted into caste-based discrimination by the law of Manu. Later on, inequality prevailed in Hindu society.
2. Social Distance:
Due to lack of mobility among different castes, the culture, traditions, folkways, mores, food habits, social intercourse and so on are not known and practiced. Hence, it is called closed society. It leads to strong caste bias among them.
3. Illiteracy and conservation:
Illiteracy and ignorance among people make them conservative, it motivates them to narrow mindedness and superstition. They believe in old customs and traditions. Such people are very orthodox in their nature. They oppose strongly to any change in society and consider their own caste as superior and others as inferior.
4. Sense of Prestige:
The strong desire of the people belonging to a particular caste t’ enhances the prestige of their own, to get benefits and privileges from the society. Other castes which are neglected and unprivileged will suffer from social status.
5. Marriage Restrictions:
In this closed society, only endogamous marriages are accepted. Elders do not honour marriages fixed outside their subsects. In such a situation, a strong caste feeling develops and leads to inequality.
How is illiteracy an impediment to democracy?
Illiteracy means the inability of a person to read and write in any language. Amartya Sen described illiteracy as one of ‘unfreedoms’. According to the census report of 2001, a person who can read and write with understanding in any language may be called a literate person and a person who can only read but cannot write is not a literate person. Illiteracy is a curse on human development.
Illiteracy is both a curse and an impediment to democracy. Illiterates are easily exploited and abused by politicians and vested interests to realize their goals. The successful working of democracy depends upon political awareness which can be acquired through education.
The % of literacy in 1951 and 2011 overall.
2011 census report recorded the literacy rate in Kerala at 94%, Karnataka at 75.36% and Bihar at 61.80%.
1. Lack of Political Awareness:
Illiteracy would contribute for political apathy. Illiterate masses due to their ignorance and indifferences do not take part in the political process. They are not able to understand the importance of vote, they do not understand the idealogies of political parties, their manifestos and the performance of ruling party, election rules, and process.
2. Low Percentage of votes:
Since the first general election the percentage of polling has not crossed 60%. This is due to illiteracy and lack of political awareness. Political legitimacy cannot be achieved to a full extend by low percentage of polling.
3. Money and Muscle Power:
The nexus between politicians and businessmen is noticeable. The politicians are tactful enough to get votes from the poor people who are illiterate through dubious means Rigging and booth capturing and threatening the voters using muscle power have led to criminalization of politics.
4. Politics of Populism:
The voters in India are attracted by politics of populism. Illiteracy and poverty force them to depend upon the facilities of the Government. They fail to understand that the populist programmes bring them into mainstream of the Society.
Indulgence in politics of populism makes the people to depend on the Government for everything without becoming creative individuals. This becomes an impediment to national development.
5. Emergence of Dictatorship:
When people are not politically conscious, show apathy to vote, an ambitious leader transforms democracy into dictatorship.
Explain the political implications of privatisation.
The political implications of privatisation are as follows:
1. Concentration of Wealth:
Privatisation encourages the concentration of wealth in the hands of big business groups. It results in great disparities of income and wealth. It goes against the principle of egalitarian society.
2. More profits:
Corporate sectors generate more profits. But they share a meagre percentage with the shareholders. They enjoy the lion’s share out of the shareholders’ investment. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor gets widened.
3. Bane to local industries:
Local people borrow money from indigenous banks and also get loans from government concerns with subsidised rates of interest to start an industry. Multi-national companies with good financial back up survive even in case of loss.
4. Threat to national interest:
Key areas of Nation like Defence, Space, Science and ‘ Technology are to be retained with the Government. Assigning these areas to private sector may harm National interests.
5. Lack of service motto:
The private firms are concerned more about their profit rather than providing good service conditions to their staff and do not bother about extending welfare programmes to their employees and even to the society.
6. No job security:
Private companies extract work from employees as long as they are fit. They ruthlessly sack them when they suffer from ill health or fitness problems. In the long run, they become a burden to the Government. The employees of private sectors suffer from job insecurity and this results in psychological disorders.
Write about the principles of UNO.
The Basic principles mentioned in Article 2 of the Character are:
- The UN is based on the Sovereign equality of all its members.
- All members shall fulfill in good faith the U.N Charter obligations.
- They shall settle international disputes. by peaceful means.
- They have to retain their international relations from the threat or use of force against other states.
- They have to extend all help to the actions being taken by the UN.
- The UN shall ensure that States who are not members, act in accordance with the principles of the UN.
- The Organisation shall not intervene in matters essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any State.
Explain briefly the basic principles of Indian Foreign Policy.
The basic principles of foreign policy are Non-Alignment. After the II World War, the world war divided into two military blocs, one led by the USA and another by USSR. Many countries blocs. But India was not aligned to any of the military blocs. India was the first country to speak of non-alignment and major contributor to the emergence of the Non-Align Movement.
Jawaharlal Nehru Prime Minister of India, Gen. Sukarno President of Indonesia, Josif Broz Tito President of Yugoslavia Kwame Nkrumah Prime Minister of Ghana and Gamal Abdel Nasser Leader of Egypt were the founders of this movement. The first summit of NAM which was held at Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1961 with 25 member countries. At present, it has 128 members. Recent NAM Summit concluded in August 2012 at Tehran Iran. Venezuela will host the next 17th NAM Summit in 2015.
2. Opposition of Imperialism and colonialism:
As a colony of the British over 200 years, India firmly stood in opposition to any form of imperialism and colonialism. India. played a major role in liberating the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa from colonial shackles.
3. Faith in the UN:
As a founding members of 6N, India has played a major role in achieving world peace. India as a major democratic country in the world is collaborating with UN agencies viz: UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDP, UNIDO. Indian foreign policy supports and reguards the UN as an agency for world peace.
It has always advocated for peaceful settlement of international disputes within the purview of the UN. India has contributed its troops to the UN peacekeeping force operations in the tense and conflicated areas and different regions, especially in diffcult missions of the world.
4. Fairness of means:
With the inspiration of Gandhian ideas, India has always emphasized fair means in resolving international disputes. India has supported peaceful and non-violent methods and opposed the war, aggression and power politics anywhere in the world. In the Asian relations conference, New Delhi on 2nd April of 1947.
Indian foreign policy expresses full faith in peaceful means for the settlement of dispues. India repudiates the use of force, it belives in peace achieved through peaceful means a good end through right and just means.
5. Anti – aparthied and racial discrimination:
India has stood by the principles of racial equality and opposes discrimination on the basis of race, regligion caste, colour and sex. India opposed and rejected the doctrine of white supremacy, it has been the most outspoken critic of racism.
Equal and honourable treatment of all in the world in India’s goal. India is always against of the policy of apart heid followed in the South Africa and it’s broke off diplomatic relations with it as a protest to social discrimination.
Panchasheel continues to be another fundamental principle of Indian foreign policy. An agreement signed between Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese Prime Minister Zhou-en-Lai on April, 29th 1954, sought to govern the relationship between India and China on the basis of five principles.
- Mutual respect for each others territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Mutual non-agression.
- Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
- Equality and mutual benefits.
- Peaceful co-existence.
It is a principle of peaceful co-existence with other nations, it guided the basis of relationship between 1954-57 marked by numerous visits and exchanges. This period is described as the Sino-Indian honeymoon.
7. Tie with the commonwealth:
Although India gets its independence from British imperalism she decided to remain within the common-wealth of Nations. The British Queen is the Head of the Commonwealth, it is made up of Britain and other countries which had once been her colonies, Traditionally India had many economic ties with the UK and other member countries of the Commonwealth Association.
In many commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (CHOGM) strident declarations were passed regarding the problem of social discrimination, apartheid, violation of human rights and other issues of democracy in the member countries and the world. The 23rd CHOGM was held in Colombo, Sri Lanka in November 2013. Next Summit will be designated at Tanzania in 2015.
Major concern of India’s foreign policy in the post-cold war period is disarmament and arms race in the world. As a leader of NAM, India established beyond doubt that arms race is at the expense of human development. Expenditure on arms and ammunitions depletes distorts economic progress, programs for removal of poverty, eradication of diseases spread of education and easy availability of basic needs.
9. Sympathy towards divided Countries:
Partition of India and Pakistan due to divide and rule policy of British in 1947, resulted in terrible communal riots, emormous sufferings of people who moved out of their homes and had to begin their life again as refugees.
Because of the bitter experience of this incident. India is sympathetic towards the bifurcation of Palestine in Arab, South and North Korea, East and West Germany (Now unified) and Vietnam.
10. Concern towards small countries:
India’s foreign policy emphasizes its conem towards small countries of the world. India supported Malasia (1948), Ghana (1957) and Bangladesh (1971) to encourage and emerge as independent nations. Most of the decolonized territories are mini and microstates, small both in area and popultion, got the membership in NAM because of India’s support.
Since its independence, India is extending economic assistence to small countries in the world and always in the forefront of reconstruction and rehabilitation of the war-torn or small nations affected by natural disasters.
11. Affinity towards Afro-Asian Countries:
Though India has the relations with all countries of the world, she has special affinity towards the countries in Asia and Africa which are very near and following the principles followed by her.
India supported at the freedom struggle of African countries e.g. Namibia became independent in March 1990, Nelson Mandela the first black leader became the President of South Africa in May 1994. In the first Afro-Asian countries summit at Bandung in 1955.
12. Against Cold War:
Cold war began with the formation of two power blocs at the end of II world war viz. US and USSR. Rivalry between them resulted in the emergence of many military alliances eg: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) ANZUS (Austrialia New Zealand United States alliance) SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organisation). Bagdad Pact, CENTO (Cen-tral Treaty Organization). As a leader of NAM, it stayed away from the two blocs.
India’s policy was neither negative nor passive, as Pandit Nehru declared to the world that NAM was notapolicy of ‘fleeing away!’ India tried to reduce the rivarly between two blocs and chose to involve other members of the non-aligned group, in this mission. With the disintegration of USSR the cold war ended.
IV. Answer any two of the following in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 × 10 = 20)
Explain the nature of party system in India.
The nature of the Indian party system can be traced back to the Indian National Movement. Indian National Congress (INC) was founded by A.O. Hume in 1885. It was a forum to unite the people of India to fight against the British Imperialism.
Due to ideological differences, Muslim League was founded in 1906. Other parties like Hindu Maha Sabha, Communist Party of India, Forward Block, and Praja Socialist Party, etc., emerged in the successive years.
Later, in the post-independence period, Jan Sangh, Janatha Party, Bharatiya Janatha Party, Janata Dal, Nationalist Congress Party, have grown according to the needs of the time and they started to work to get power.
1. Extra Constitutional growth:
There is no reference in the Constitution of India about how many political parties are to be existed in the country. According to Article 19 of the Constitution, all citizens can have the freedom to form associations or unions. Political parties are established on the basis of this liberty. Hence, political parties have no constitutional base.
2. Prevalence of Multi-party system:
India is a divergent country with many religions, tribes, languages, culture, and traditions. This heterogeneity leads to the emergence of many political parties to protect their interests in the mainstream of the country.
3. Spilt and merger:
It is a common phenomenon in the Indian party system. Various reasons contributed for this split like ideological differences, egoism, power hunger, etc.
4. End of single-party era:
India was under Congress rule till 1977. The happenings between 1975-1977, forced small parties to unite and fight against Congress and capture power and put an end to the single-party era.
5. Dissident activities:
Meanness of leaders like personal attitudes, favouritism, nepotism lead to dissident activities. Repetition of such happenings instigates leaders to go against the ideology of the party and paves was to political instability.
Elected members of the Legislature change their parties often for personal benefits or differences of opinion and other reasons. It ruins the values of democracy and destabilizes the government.
7. Leader worship:
Most of the political parties in India emphasize on the leaders rather than the ideologies of the parties. The leader decides the destiny of the political party e.g. Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi of Congress, A.B. Vajpayee of BJP. Leaders with charisma dominate the whole party.
8. Alliances without principles:
Political parties are formed with principles of democracy and secularism but they ignore them for want of power and make unholy alliances.
9. Dominance of Regional parties:
The presence of regional parties during the first general elections did not influence the voters and they were rejected. During the 1980s, they emerged very strong and dominated the political scenario, e.g. DMK, A1ADMK, Telugu Desam, Shiv Sena National, Conference, AGP, JD(S), RJD, SJP, BJD and other parties playing a significant role during the formation of Government.
10. Religious, Lingual and Regionalism:
The basis of political parties in India is religion, language, regionalism and the like. e.g. Muslim league, Akalidal, Shiv Sena, DMK, A1ADMK, Maharashtra Ekikaran Samiti (MES) Telangana Rastriya Samiti (TRS) and others. In spite of the rules of the Election Commission, such political parties exist.
11. Leftist and Rightist Parties:
Party system in India consists of Leftist and Rightist ideologies, e.g. CPI, CPI (M), Forward Block, RPI and Socialist parties who have belief in revolutionary ideology and drastic changes in the system form the left front. Parties like Congress, BJP, SP, NCP, BSP, RJD, JD (U), JD (S) and others who believe in moderate changes in the system form the right front.
12. The era of coalition:
When no single political party secures absolute majority like-minded political parties come together and join as a single largest group to form a coalition Government. The era of coalition started during 1977 when Janata Party came to power headed by Sri Morarjee Desai as Prime Minister at the centre along with other parties. This was followed by National Front, United Front, NDA, UPA, etc.
Discuss the various components of nation-building.
The process of Nation-building started with the attainment of independence. The leaders of modern India initiated the process in the right direction as they worked out the details in an orderly and systematic way. However, during implementation, they had to face numerous problems associated with national reconstruction resulting in a slow process.
The process of nation-building is an offshoot of the concept of nation-states. The idea of nation-states emerged after the signing of the treaty of West Phalia (1648) by Western Countries. The people of the common religious and traditional backgrounds living in a definite territory with like-mindedness and ‘we’ feeling form the nation. Common language, culture, and history aspirations help the common people to form nationality.
1. Components to community support:
To realise the process of nation-building, collective support and endeavour of the people are essential. The quality of the people reflects the quality of a nation. Disciplined work culture and patriotic feeling also contribute for nation-building. In a democracy, people are the kingmakers.
Hence, they are expected to elect competent and honest representatives. They formulate a sound public opinion on important national issues. As J.S. Mill said ‘Eternal vigilance is the price of democracy’.
2. Good Governance:
Good governance ensures accountability, transparency, efficiency, responsibility, and responsiveness. In addition, the use of technology has given rise to e-Governance. India is one of the leading countries in the world in the adoption of the system-of e-governance.
3. Committed Leadership:
History depicts many examples of committed leadership. Eg.: the US President F. D. Roosevelt solved the crisis of Economic depression by adopting the New Deal Policy and US became a superpower at global level after the II World War. In India Nehru’s leadership largely contributed to the process of nation-building.
He formulated goals for nation-building and introduced planning system, adopted industrialization policy and socialistic pattern of society. He had vision and farsightedness for the transformation of India. Hence Nehru is called the Architect of Modern India.
4. Political Culture:
Political Culture constitutes a set of values, attitudes, and behaviour towards a political system. It requires an ideal political behaviour to national reconstruction. Leaders have to embody the principles of national interest, public service, probity, and statesmanship.
5. Power Sharing:
To realize the goal, political power needs to be shared among all sections of society. The concentration of political power in the hands of a few people and some families leads to the emergence of authoritarianism and dictatorship.
As H.J. Laski rightly puts it “A decision which affects all must be decided by all” To attain this reservation is provided to the SCs and STs and women at different levels of Government. It ensures social justice which is the foundation of socio-economic democracy.
6. Universal Education:
For the development of a nation universal education is of paramount importance. It enables the person to understand his potentiality and strengthens dignity. As Gandhi said, “Education is the light of life”. It encourages people to develop the spirit of enquiry the ability to analyze the national problems and to work for national progress. Education also equips the people to shun fanaticism, parochialism, communalism, casteism and religious fundamentalism. The Right To Education Act 2009 implemented in 2010 is a step in this direction.
7. National Character:
Nationalism and patriotism are the foundations to build a national character. Each country has its distinct national character which denotes one’s nativity-as the conservatism of UK, ‘Land of Liberty’ of US, Ethnicity of Africa, Aboriginal of Australia, cultural diversity of India. Love and respect for one’s country and national symbols such as national flag, national anthem, and national monuments are the prerequisites.
One has to a acquire knowledge about the history of his motherland and its contributions to human civilizations. Realizing the significance of national character, the makers of the Indian constitution have asserted the supremacy of popular sovereignty in the preamble reading with the expression.” We the people of India”.
8. Mass Media:
Mass Media is regarded as the Fourth Estate in democracy as it plays a vital role in nation-building. It highlights the omissions and commissions of the government and acts as a bridge between the government and the public. It . is an effective instrument of political socialization, modernization, and development. In India, the ‘Freedom of Expression’ is a fundamental right under Art. 19 of the Constitution.
9. Responsible Intelligentsia:
The contribution of intellectuals is recognized all over the world. Research and innovations in important areas of human life have contributed to the national development. In India the development in the field of social sciences, M.N. Srinivas, Amartya Sen, S. Shettar, Gail Omvedt, Kancha, Ilaya, Vandana. Shiva, S.N. Balagangadhara, AshishNandy, Rajiv Malhotra and others.
In Science and Technology Sir M. Vishveshwaraiah, Sir C.V. Raman, Dr. Raja Ramanna, Dr. M.G.K. Menon, Dr. CNR Rao. Dr. U.R. Rao, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, and others have greatly contributed for India’s present position at global level.
10. National Integration:
It is the process of uniting the people emotionally, psychologically and politically, Sardar Vallabha Bai Patel, Vinoba Bhave, Lai Bahadhur Shastri, J.B. Kriplani, Acharya Narendra Dev played a key role in the national integration. November 19th is being observed as National integration day, the birthday of Smt. Indira Gandhi.
Describe the importance and political implications of liberalisation.
Liberalization is the “willingness to respect or accept behaviour or opinion different from one’s own; open to new ideas”. Liberalization is the process of liberating the economy from various regulatory mechanism and eleimination of customs and tariffs. Economic liberalization is the policy of relaxation over economic and trade policies.
Importance of Liberalization are as follows:
This leads to lower costs and prices for consumers to get the gods and services according to his wishes. There are many number of companies which bring lot of quantity products for consumer’s interests and demands. In liberalised economy, consumer gets more benefits.
2. Free from Government regulations:
Government provides free movement of trade and commerce where any private company can easily carry on their business activities without any restrictions. The companies need not undergo procedural delay by government.
3. Promotes competitions:
Liberalisations extends competition within different company’s trade firms. Basically they keep the standards and cheaper prices for consumers. Competition promoters efficiency and avoids wastage of resources.
4. Promotes world business class:
Liberalization makes new changes is an advance technology and logistics for better services. That can be useful to save time, energy and money. It promotes the high quantity of products and supplies the same in time.
Political implications of liberalization are as follows:
1. Risk of brain drain:
In the name of liberalised policy citizens knock at the door of international opportunities, with their knowledge and skill. The developing nations face lots of problem from such brain drain.
2. Reduces dependency on labour:
As the process itself is capital intensive, it reduces dependency on labour and cuts opportunities for jobs.
3. Risk of environmental degradation:
The incessant industrial activity at the global level generates lot of wastage leading to environmental degradation.
4. Regulates the price of certain commodities:
The price of certain commodities like-life saving drugs, fertilizers, etc., are automatically controlled by the world trade forums and associations.
5. Affects common man:
It affects the common man in his day-to-day life as he finds it’s difficult to earn his livelihood.
6. Risk of financial instability:
Flexibility (laxity) of monetary and fiscal policies of the Government may lead to financial crisis like recession and depression.
Discuss the concepts Of International Relations.
The core concepts of International relations pertaining to politics are as follows:
1. State Sovereignty:
Jean Bodin has described the concept of Sovereignty in his work “De Republica”. He emphasizes on the state Sovereignty within their territorial jurisdiction. No State can dictate others and all States are equal in matters of status, dignity, and honour. For instance, India under the British imperialism lost its sovereignty and gained its statehood only in 1947. Iraq during the Gulf war in 1990, is an example for aggression on the Sovereignty.
2. National Interests:
It is the action of the State in relation to other States. As Frankel opined, it refers to the aspiration of the state. The determinants of national interest are qualities of personalities and ideals of the decision-makers.
3. Power Blocs:
With the beginning of the cold war, two power blocs emerged, i.e., USA and USSR. President of U.S. Harry S. Truman believed in the spread of democracy whereas the Warsaw Pact under Soviet policy sought the spread of Communism. Capitalistic ideology spread in UK, France, Germany, and Communist ideology spread in Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungery.
Polarities in international relations refer to the arrangement of power within the international system. The concept arose from bi-polarity during the cold war between the two superpowers.
The disintegration of the USSR has led to uni-polarity with the United States as the superpower. With rapid economic growth in 2010, China became the world’s second-largest economy. Combined with the respectable international position, China has emerged as a major power in the multi-polar world.
5. Balance of Power:
The concept of Balance of Power refers to relative power position of States as actors in international relations, with its emphasis on the cultivation of power and the utilization of power for resolving the problems. Morgenthau used the term ‘Balance of Power’ as an approximately equal distribution of power. It is an inseparable part of the power politics.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write a note on ‘Independence Day’ celebration in your college.
Independence day, a memorable occasion for the nation was celebrated in our college this year also. Under the guidance of the teachers, students had decorated the college grounds one day before and erected a podium, as well as a stage for the cultural programmes. Sri Seetharamaiah, the octogenerian freedom fighter was invited to be our chief guest and he was there right on time at 8.00 A.M.
Our Principal and senior staff members welcomed the Chief Guest and other dignitaries with garlands and bouquets. After the invocation and the prayer, the function took off on a smooth note.
After the hoisting of the Tricolour National flag by the Chief Guest, the President of the College Student Union read out the welcome speech. Our Principal presided over the function. Sri Seetharamaiah in his speech highlighted the great ideals and values and sacrifices of our freedom fighters.
There was a march-past by the NCC cadets, followed by the school band. There were some cultural programmes like singing, mime act, mono acting and a skit about the Jalianwalabagh massacre. The programmes were much appreciated. The function came to an end with the vote of thanks and sweet distribution. We all dispersed.
Discuss the role of Youth against terrorism.
1. Youth against Terrorism:
Terrorism is used in various forms like international terrorism, domestic terrorism, economic terrorism, cultural terrorism, cyber terrorism, etc., Terrorism means deliberately and violently targetting civilians by inflicting physical or mental agony, wound or death that creates fear psychosis for political gains.
2. Role of youth against terrorism:
The concept of minority leads to fear of attack and results in religious fundamentalism. Hence, both the youth and the society have to pressurise the Government concerned, to create awareness and educate those who are indulging in anti-national and inhuman terrorist activities. Particularly for the youth priority should be given to peace and security of the inhabitants of the country.
Youth have to develop patriotism that is national feeling and involve themselves in constructive activities like nation-building by helping the Government against terrorist and militant activities taking place in their neighbourhood which is their prime duty.
Youth have to take the initiative within the Jurisdiction of law, to fight against terrorism as it happened in Naxalite prone states like Bihar, Jharkhand, and Chattisgarh, where Salwajudum (village army) fought against the Naxalites.
Youth must understand the complicated and multi-faceted terrorism rationally. The have to isolate the terrorism and inoculate their potential recruits. A successful counter-terrorism action requires a combination of coercive and conciliatory policies.
It is the responsibility of the youth to spread the importance of education that saves the younger generation from the clutches of terrorism and communalism as it happened in the case of Ms. Malala Yusufa Zai of Pakistan, who survived the terrorist attack.
Write a note on any one Indian political leader.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is acknowledged as the leader of the untouchables and underprivileged in the Indian social strata. For his work in piloting the Constitution of Independent India through the Constituent Assembly, he is also hailed as the Modem Manu.
Dr. Ambedkar was the 14th child of Ramji Sakpal and Bhimabai of the Mahar community in Maharashtra. He was born on 14th April 1891. He lost his mother when he was only six and was brought up by his aunt. He had his school education in Satara.
He completed his graduation in Bombay with the support of the Maharaja of Baroda. He did his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the Colombia University in 1915 and 1916 respectively. Later he got his Law and D.Sc degrees also.
In 1924, he started an asspciation for the welfare of the depressed classes. He also started the newspapers ‘Bahiskrit Bharat’ in Hindi and ‘Mooka Nayaka‘ in Marathi. These were to motivate the people to fight for independence and also to champion the cause of the depressed classes for social reforms. His important works were ‘Administration and Finance of the East India Company’, ‘Buddha and Karl Marx’ and ‘Caste in India’ among others.
He was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee for framing our Constitution. In the Interim government, he was the Law Minister in Nehru’s cabinet. He renounced active politics and embraced Buddhism. He spent the rest of his life propagating the message of Buddhism. He passed away on 6th December 1956. Dr. Ambedkar’s memory will remain long in our hearts.
Write about Kashmir issue in India-Pakistan relations.
Pakistan occupies the North-Western corner of the Indian subcontinent. To the West is Iran, to the North-west Afghanistan, to the Northeast, China and to East India.
India and Pakistan were part of British India before Independence. It was partitioned due to ‘divide and rule policy’ of British. Pakistan has close ethnic, cultural and historical links with India. Common blood flows across the land. The trauma, agony and fratricidal conflicts of partition of 1947 still haunt the relationship between the two countries. The mutual distrust and animosity affect Indo-Pak relations.
1. Causes for Dispute:
India and Pakistan represent not only different state systems but also different approaches towards society and polity. The undivided India was a nation many diversities and composite nationalism. During the struggle for liberation from British colonialism, Religious Communalism was promoted which spoiled the composite nationalism.
After the achievement of independence with partition of the country. India opted for Socio-cultural pluralism recognizing multi-religious, multi-lingual and multi-regional and multicultural diversities, while Pakistan opted for a Islamic Democratic style by emphasizing religion as the major and operative principle of its nation-building.
As a result, in India, the composite nationalism emerged with its secular overtones in Pakistan triumphant religious communalism with Islamic orientation emerged.
2. Kashmir Issue:
In India’s Perspective Kashmir is an integral part of the Republic of India and to Pakistan, it is a disputed territory. The argument of Pakistan on Kashhmir is that, since the partition of the country was done on religious basis and majority of populations are Muslims, Kashmir should be part of Pakistan. This argument failed to recognize the following facts:-
- Partition was done of the British Indian provinces and not of the Indian princely states.
- National Conference was the only major political party in Kashmir, which was affiliated to Congress, it was opposed to Pakistan and had faith in secular politics.
- The Indian princely states had the freedom to join either India or Pakistan.
- India is a secular state consisted of multi-religious population.
So, the Kashmiris formally decided to join India after the invasion of its territory by Pakistani tribals supported by the members of Pakistan Army.
3. Major Pacts:
After wars between India and Pakistan in 1966 and 1971, both the countries affirmed the need for negotiated peaceful settlement of disputes in the Tashkent Declaration of 1966 between Lai Bahadur Sastri and Ayub Khan. In 1988 both the countries signed the agreement not to attack nuclear installation and facilities of each other, but in May 1999, Pakistan conducted the nuclear test at the Chagai Hills Region.
Though this has been reiterated by successive governments in Indio and Pakistan, the infiltration by well-armed Pakistani troops across the line of control (LoC) continued. After the meeting in Lahore between the Indian Prime Minister, A.B. Vajpayee and Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in February 1999 with his historical bus journey to Pakistan the infiltration in the Kargil sector took place which cretated a war-like situation in Kashmir in June and July 1999.
There are indications that India and Pakistan are trying to overcome the past and build a future of mutual trust and understanding as independent countries with frequent visits of leaders of both countries, to discuss several bilateral issues. As a members of SAARC both countries are trying for solutions to their problems mutually and to establish peace in the South Asian region.