Students can Download 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper March 2018, Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper March 2018
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a word or a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
Who was the chairman of the Boundary Commission?
Sir Cyril Radcliffe was the Chairman of Boundary Commission.
Who is called as the man with iron will?
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is called as the man with iron will.
National Democratic Alliance.
How many members are there in the Election Commission of India?
Three members are there in the Election Commission of India.
When was the National Human Rights Commission established?
The National Human Rights Commission was established in 1994.
What is social discrimination?
Deprival of equal opportunities to the backward class is called social discrimination.
Write the meaning of coalition government.
Formation of government by various political parties with different ideologies is called coalition government.
On which day “Voters Day” is celebrated?
Voters Day is celebrated on 5th January of every year.
Name the dictator of Libya.
Muammar Quddafi is a dictator of Libya.
Who have signed ‘Tashkent’-Agreement?
Lai Bahadur Shastri and Ayub Khan signed Tashkent Agreement.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
How many states was Bombay divided into? Which are they?
Bombay was divided into two states. They are Maharashtra and Gujarath.
What is All India Services? Give an example.
A group of persons who are recruited by the Central Government and working both to Central and State governments is called All India Services.
Name any two leaders of Karnataka Raitha Sangha?’
Prof. M.D.Nanjunda Swamyand Puttannaiah are the two leaders of Karnataka Raita Sangha.
What is caste based inequality?
Discrimination on the basis of caste is called caste based inequality.
Write the meaning of identity politics.
A pattern of belongingness, a search for comfort, an approach to community is called identity politics.
Mention any two coalition partners of UPA.
Congress and DMK are the two coalition partners of UPA.
What is brain drain?
An educated and skilled person who goes for more salary and higher position to abroad is called brain drain.
Mention two objectives of the U.N.O.
- To save the future generation from the destruction of war.
- To uphold the human rights all over the world.
Name any two member countries of BRICS.
India and Russia are the member countries of BRICS.
When and where the 1st NAM summit was held?
The 1st NAM Summit was held in 1961 at Belgrade of Yugoslavia.
Name any two military alliances.
NATO and Warsaw are the two military alliances.
Name any two militant groups of Sri Lanka.
- Tamil United Liberation Front.
- Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam.
III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)
Explain briefly the Government of India Act 1935.
The reforms of 1919, failed to fulfill the aspirations of the people of India. The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi started agitation for ‘Swaraj’ to be attained through ‘Non-co-operation’.
As per the Government of India Act 1919, a statutory commission was to be appointed at the expiration of ten years after the passing of the Act for the purpose of inquiring into the working of the system and the development of representative institutions in India.
The British Government appointed a Statutory Commission (Simon Commission) in 1927, to enquire into the report of 1919 Act. This was done as a concession to the Indian demand for an early revision of the Act. The commission headed by Sir John Simon consisted of 7 members from the British Parliament. It did not have a single Indian as a member.
It was taken as an insult to the self-respect of India and hence was boycotted. Amidst protests of, “Simon, go back”, the commission visited India. It announced in 1929, that ‘Dominion status’ was the goal of Indian developments.
Gandhi lead the 1st Round Table Conference held in 1930. Dr. Ambedkar lead the 2nd in 1931 and again the 3rd Round table Conference in 1932. The outcome of these conferences was announced in the form of ‘white paper’. It provided for:
- Educational facilities and reservation in politics for depressed classes.
- Universal Adult Franchise.
- Prohibition of social boycott.
- Communal representation.
- Separate electorate for the untouchables.
Simon commission brought the report of the resolutions of the conferences, but Gandhi opposed the separate electorate for untouchables and decided to fast unto death. Congress leaders met Gandhi in his regard, and he was convinced. The resolution was modified by providing reservations for depressed classes instead of separate electorate for the untouchables. This was popularly known as ‘Poona pact’ signed by Gandhi and Ambedkar.
A White paper was prepared on the results of these conferences. It was examined by the Joint select committee of the British Parliament and in accordance with its recommendations, the Government of India Act 1935 was passed. The act contained 321 Articles and 13 schedules. The important provisions of the Act are:
The Act provided for the establishment of ‘Federation of India’. It consisted of provinces of British India and the Princely states as units. For the first time, an attempt was made to establish a Federal Government.
2. Distribution of power:
It divided legislative powers between the Central and Provincial legislatures. There was a threefold division.
a. Federal list:
It consisted of 59 subjects like external affairs, currency, defense, etc., over which the federal legislature had legislative power.
b. Provincial list:
It consisted of 54 subjects like police, education, etc., over which provincial legislatures had jurisdiction.
c. Concurrent list:
This consisted of 36 subjects like criminal law, civil procedures, marriage, and divorce, etc., over which both the federal and provincial legislatures had competence.
d. The Residuary powers were vested with the Governor General.
3. Diarchy at the centre:
The Diarchy which was established in the provinces by the Act of 1919 was now adopted at the centre. The executive authority vested with the Governor General included the following:
a. The administration of reserved subjects like defence, external affairs, etc. was done by Governor General with the help of ‘Councilors’, who were appointed by him and not responsible to the legislature.
b. In the matters of transferred subjects, Governor General acted, on the advice of ‘Council of Ministers’, who were responsible to the legislature.
4. The Federal Legislatures:
The central legislature was bi-cameral consisting of Federal Assembly and the Council of States.
a. The Council of States consisted of 260 members, of which 156 (60%) were elected from British India and 104 (40%) were nominated by the Princely States.
b. Federal Assembly consisted of 375 members, of which 250 (67%) were elected by the legislative Assemblies and 125 (33%) nominated by the Rulers of the Princely States.
The Council was to be a permanent body. 1/3rd of its members were to retire after 3 years. The term of House of Assembly was 5 years. Indirect method of election was prevalent for the House of Assembly. There were Bi-cameral legislatures in Bengal, Bombay, Bihar and Madras and rest of the provinces had Unicameral legislatures.
5. Federal Court:It provided for the first time, the establishment of Federal Court of India in Delhi. It was established in 1937 and consisted of a Chief Justice and 6 additional Judges appointed by his Majesty’s Government on the basis of high legal qualifications.
- It had original jurisdiction to decide disputes between the Centre and the Provinces.
- Appellate Jurisdiction over decisions of the High courts.
- Advisory Jurisdiction to advice the Governor General on any point of Law.
It was the highest court in India. The Federal court functioned in India for about 12 years, till its transformation into Supreme Court of India in 1950, under the present constitution. The credit for its excellent works goes to Sir Maurice Gwyer, who guided the court in its formative years as its first Chief Justice.
6. Provincial Autonomy:
By this act, the provinces no longer remained as delegates of Central Government but became autonomous units of administration. The act introduced Provincial Autonomy. It was introduced in 11 provinces viz, Madras, Bombay, Bengal, the United Provinces, Punjab, Bihar, Central Provinces, Assam, the North Western Frontier Province, Orissa, and Sind.
The provinces were administered by the ministers. The differences between the reserved and transferred subjects were dropped. All subjects were placed under the charge of ministers who were made responsible and removable by the Legislative Assembly. Thus, the executive was responsible to legislature. The legislative relations between the Central Government and the Provinces were regulated according to three lists of subjects provided under this Act.
a. However, ‘Dominion status’ which was promised by the Simon Commission in 1929 was not conferred by this Act.
b. The intention to establish Federation of India did not materalize because opposition for the merger from the rulers of Princely states.
c. The degree of provincial autonomy introduced at the provincial level was limited as Central Government retained important powers and control. The Governor was given pivotal position, with discretionary powers on important matters. He was not bound by the advice of ministers. Thus, the claim of conferring provincial autonomy was very limited.
Give reasons for language as a basis for state re-organization.
Language as a basis for re-organisation is important because of the following reasons.
- Language is closely related to culture and customs of people.
- Spread of education and literacy can occur only through medium of mother tongue.
- To a common man, democracy can be real only when politics and administration are conducted, in his language.
- Linguistic states can provide education, administration and judicial activity in their mother tongue. Therefore, it was assumed that free India would base its boundaries on linguistic principle.
Write about the “Anti Defection Law’’.
Defection is change of loyalty to another party, without resigning from his elected post for benefits. Defector gets elected on one party’s ticket and tries to enjoy power in another party.
The word defection also called as ‘Floor Crossing in UK and ‘Carpet Crossing’ in Nigeria. The term ‘Defection’ is used in India. Defection is commonly known as ‘House funding’. Defectors are called as ‘Fence sitters’ or Turn Coats.
SriRajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India decided to remove the evils of defection. Hence, Anti defection Act came into force on 1st April through the 52nd Constitution Amendment.
The main intention of the law was to combat “the evils of political defections”. The provisions are:
1. A member of Parliament or state legislature belonging to any political party shall be disqualified if he voluntarily quits his party.
2. He will be disqualified from his membership if he votes against his party whip in the session.
3. A member of Parliament or state Legislature belonging to any political party shall be disqualified from his membership, if he votes in the session without prior permission of his party.
4. A nominated member shall be disqualified from his membership in the upper house, if he joins any political party after six months from the date on which he assumes his position.
5. If 1/3rd strength of any political party merges with another political party, it shall be considered as defection.
6. A person disqualified under this Act shall not be provided any office of profit.
7. The Anti-defection law determines the size of the council of Ministers. The size of the council of Ministers of Union shall exceed 15% of the total members of the Lok Sabha and similar to that of state legislative Assembly.
8. Speaker can initiate action against the members under Anti-defection law.
9. The Chairpersons of Legislative are permitted to frame the rules to implement this law.
Write the functions of Chief Secretary.
Chief Secretary is the head of the Secretariat in every state. He is in charge of the administrative set-up. His authority includes all departments of the Secretariat. By reason of his experience and standing, he is able to ease out difficulties and frictions to give general guidance to other officers.
Thus he gives leadership to the administrative setup of the state. He maintains rapport between the State government and the Union government and other State governments.
The Chief Secretary performs the following functions:
- He is the Principal Adviser to the Chief Minister.
- He acts as the Cabinet Secretary and attends cabinet meetings.
- He exercises general supervision and control over the entire Secretariat.
- He looks after all matters beyond the purview of other secretaries.
- As chief of all the secretaries, he presides over a large number of committees and is a member of many others.
- He is the secretary by rotation, of the zonal council of which the state is a member.
- He has control over the staff attached to the ministers.
- He is the bridge between that State and Central or other state Governments.
- He receives confidential communication from the Government of India and conveys them to the Chief Minister.
As the head of the administrative Machineiy, Chief of the Civil Services, Mentor and conscience keeper of Civil services, he plays a significant role in the state administration.
What are the causes for Feminist Movement?
The causes few Feminist Movement are as follows.
It is evident that Indian society is male dominated and preference is given to the male members. Though men and women are born equally and Consitution also uphold the equality between the two, women are deprived of education, employment, decision making, and property rights. This has led to agitation.
2. The evils of dowry:
Hie evils of dowry have forced parents to become debtors, the girls to brothels and uneven sex ratio through female foeticide and infanticide. As a result of this uneven ratio of men and women in society, rape and other heinous crimes are on-die rise.
3. Denial of human rights:
The atrocities on women have denied them human rights and other rights like right to life, liberty, freedom of expression and others. Their existence and survival depends upon the mercy of the male members. Decision making is the birth right of men in matters of education, marriage, property rights and family issues.
4. Social strata based on gender:
Men have not spared any of the fields including cultural, social, religious, political and exercise their monopoly and continue their attrocities on women. Women are treated as slaves and bonded labourers. This has made the women to organize themselves and start an agitation.
5. Sexual abuse and molestation:
Irrespective of the age, time and place, the above heinous crimes are taking place. To regain the right to decide about children or to get aborted without the interference of husband or politicians through governmental policies, women are uniting together and fighting for justice.
6. Domestic violence:
Women shoulder the entire household responsibilites like raring and caring of, children, domestic work and the related tasks. The cohabitants of the family become the victims of domestic violence because of irresponsible, illiterate and drunkard husbands who lack discretion. This may take the form of physical, mental, sexual harassment and finally it may take women’s life as a toll. To avoid such violence, women organisations are established.
Discuss the political implication of backward class movement.
The causes mentioned above paved the way for Backward Classes Movement in India. Sayyaji Rao Gaikwad of Gwalior was the first one to introduce reservation to backward classes. Nalwadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar, the Maharaja of Mysore formed a Commission headed by Leslie Miller in 1918 to go into the details of backward classes and find solutions.
In addition to it, his majesty appointed Sri Kantharaje Urs who belonged to the backward class as the Diwan of Mysore Samsthan who implemented the recommendations of the Commission and provided 50% reservation to those classes. Sri Venkata Krishnaiah popularly known as Thataiah of Mysore and Sri Kongadiyappa of Doddaballapur started Educational Institutions for the sake of backward community.
a. The Constitution of India provides reservation in public employment in favour of any backward classes under Art. 16(4).
b. According to Art. 340, the President of India is authorized to appoint National Backward Classes Commission.
c. To provide loan and financial assistance to the people of other castes who are below poverty line, National Backward Classes Finance and Development Corporation is formed.
d. All the States of the Indian Union can form State Backward Classes Commissions and Development Corporations. In Karnataka, Devraj Urs Development Corporation is functioning.
e. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) receives complaints aganist the violation of rights and discrimination aganist women, scheduled caste, scheduled tribe, and other backward classes.
What are the causes of illiteracy?
Illiteracy means inability of a person to read and write in any language. Amartya Sen described illiteracy as one of unfreedoms.
1. Population explosion:
India is the second most populous country in the world. It consists of 17.5% of World’s total population. The population of Karnataka has increased to 6.11 crores. Hence, it has become a challenging task for the Government to provide literacy.
Due to poverty, majority of the children suffer form malnutrition and anaemia. Parents from poor and low income families, find it difficult to send their children to schools.
3. Social backwardness:
Hierarchical caste system, inferiority complex among people, ignorance about importance of education, taboos have prevented large number of people from getting literate. Further, a large percentage of girls, particularly in rural areas have been denied access to primary education due to customs, traditions and the practice of gender inequality.
4. Child labour:
Prevalence of child labour due to poor socioeconomic conditions is seen all over India. According to National Crime Record Bureau Report, there were 2 crores child labourers, across the country in 2011. They are working in hotels, small scale industries, carpet weaving, fire works, etc. All these hinder them from getting primary education.
5. Poor infrastructure:
Most of the schools across the country have no proper buildings, required number of qualified teachers and study materials. The school environment is also not conducive for learning and teaching. There is lack of adequate transport facilities for school children, particularly in the rural areas.
Explain briefly the five components of nation building.
The process of Nation-building started with the attainment of independence. The leaders of modern India initiated the process in the right direction as they worked out the details in an orderly and systematic way. However, during implementation, they had to face numerous problems associated with national reconstruction resulting in a slow process.
The process of nation-building is an offshoot of the concept of nation-states. The idea of nation-states emerged after the signing of the treaty of West Phalia (1648) by Western Countries. The people of the common religious and traditional backgrounds living in a definite territory with like-mindedness and ‘we’ feeling form the nation. Common language, culture, and history aspirations help the common people to form nationality.
1. Components to community support:
To realise the process of nation-building, collective support and endeavour of the people are essential. The quality of the people reflects the quality of a nation. Disciplined work culture and patriotic feeling also contribute for nation-building. In a democracy, people are the kingmakers.
Hence, they are expected to elect competent and honest representatives. They formulate a sound public opinion on important national issues. As J.S. Mill said ‘Eternal vigilance is the price of democracy’.
2. Good Governance:
Good governance ensures accountability, transparency, efficiency, responsibility, and responsiveness. In addition, the use of technology has given rise to e-Governance. India is one of the leading countries in the world in the adoption of the system-of e-governance.
3. Committed Leadership:
History depicts many examples of committed leadership. Eg. the US President F. D. Roosevelt solved the crisis of Economic depression by adopting the New Deal Policy and US became a superpower at global level after the II World War.
In India Nehru’s leadership largely contributed to the process of nation-building. He formulated goals for nation-building and introduced planning system, adopted industrialization policy and socialistic pattern of society. He had vision and farsightedness for the transformation of India. Hence Nehru is called the Architect of Modern India.
4. Political Culture:
Political Culture constitutes a set of values, attitudes, and behaviour towards a political system. It requires an ideal political behaviour to national reconstruction. Leaders have to embody the principles of national interest, public service, probity, and statesmanship.
5. Power Sharing:
To realize the goal, political power needs to be shared among all sections of society. The concentration of political power in the hands of a few people and some families leads to the emergence of authoritarianism and dictatorship.
As H.J. Laski rightly puts it “A decision which affects all must be decided by all” To attain this reservation is provided to the SCs and STs and women at different levels of Government. It ensures social justice which is the foundation of socio-economic democracy.
6. Universal Education:
For the development of a nation universal education is of paramount importance. It enables the person to understand his potentiality and strengthens dignity. As Gandhi said, “Education is the light of life”. It encourages people to develop the spirit of enquiry the ability to analyze the national problems and to work for national progress. Education also equips the people to shun fanaticism, parochialism, communalism, casteism and religious fundamentalism. The Right To Education Act 2009 implemented in 2010 is a step in this direction.
7. National Character:
Nationalism and patriotism are the foundations to build a national character. Each country has its distinct national character which denotes one’s nativity-as the conservatism of UK, ‘Land of Liberty’ of US, Ethnicity of Africa, Aboriginal of Australia, cultural diversity of India. Love and respect for one’s country and national symbols such as national flag, national anthem, and national monuments are the prerequisites.
One has to a acquire knowledge about the history of his motherland and its contributions to human civilizations. Realizing the significance of national character, the makers of the Indian constitution have asserted the supremacy of popular sovereignty in the preamble reading with the expression.” We the people of India”.
8. Mass Media:
Mass Media is regarded as the Fourth Estate in democracy as it plays a vital role in nation-building. It highlights the omissions and commissions of the government and acts as a bridge between the government and the public. It . is an effective instrument of political socialization, modernization, and development. In India, the ‘Freedom of Expression’ is a fundamental right under Art. 19 of the Constitution.
9. Responsible Intelligentsia:
The contribution of intellectuals is recognized all over the world. Research and innovations in important areas of human life have contributed to the national development. In India the development in the field of social sciences, M.N. Srinivas, Amartya Sen, S. Shettar, Gail Omvedt, Kancha, Ilaya, Vandana. Shiva, S.N. Balagangadhara, AshishNandy, Rajiv Malhotra and others.
In Science and Technology Sir M. Vishveshwaraiah, Sir C.V. Raman, Dr. Raja Ramanna, Dr. M.G.K. Menon, Dr. CNR Rao. Dr. U.R. Rao, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, and others have greatly contributed for India’s present position at global level.
10. National Integration:
It is the process of uniting the people emotionally, psychologically and politically, Sardar Vallabha Bai Patel, Vinoba Bhave, Lai Bahadhur Shastri, J.B. Kriplani, Acharya Narendra Dev played a key role in the national integration. November 19th is being observed as National integration day, the birthday of Smt. Indira Gandhi.
How youths can control corruption?
Youth against corruption: As it is documented in Atharva veda, “The wealth earned through pious means flourisher, those who earn through dishonest means are destroyed. There is also a mention in Kautilya’s Arthashastra about corruption is wide spread all over the world.
India is not an exception, bribery, extortion, fraud, embezzlement, nepotism, cronyism influence peddling, speed money are some of the terms used on par with corruption.
Corruption is derived from the Latin verb ‘rumpere’ meaning to break it means corruption is where the law is clearly broken.
As Ram Ahuja opined, the use of public power for Private in the way that constitutes a breach of law or a deviation from the norms of society.
Avasthi and Maheshwari viewed corruption as “The deliberate and international exploitation of one’s position, status or resources directly or indirectly for personal aggrandizement’.
The needs of the hour is to come out of this bane and to have good governance, it requires the following base.
Formal and informal education has to encompass not only curricula but also values of life. Schools, colleges and universities while framing curriculum, should focus to motivate both the faculty and pupil to awaken against corruption at different levels. As Kothari Commission rightly observed ‘the destiny of a nation is shaped in the-class room’.
Gandhi in the wake of removal of corruption said ‘On this earth there is enough for everyone’s needs not for greeds. The youth should be able to differentiate need and greed more than 1/2 of the total population in India come in between the age group of 18 to 35. This asset is to be utilized to the core to build a strong India against corruption, which is a white collar criminality. They have to follow the policy of ‘live and let live’.
3. Means and ends:
By adopting democratic values, maintaining transparency following peaceful ways and tolerance respecting elders, youth have to fight against corruption.
4. Role models:
As Swami Vivekananda gave a clarion call to the youth, “Awake arise and stop not till the goal is reached”. Dr. A.P. J. Abdul Kalam has reached lakhs of students and youth. He called them to get good education, being better human beings and through eradicating corruption attain the best governance.
5. Youth movement:
Lokanayak Jayaprakash Narayan the pioneer of the total revolution, inspired youth during 1970’s to revolt against the corrupt administration who travelled all over India to fight against this evil. During 1980’s All Assam Student’s Union (AASU) fought against the corrupt administration which threatened North Eastern States.
Explain the political implications of globalization.
Globalisation is the process of intergrating the economy of the country with world economy. It is a movement towards greater interaction. Integration and interdependence among people and organisation across borders. The strongest manifestion of Globalisation has been the increasing economics intergration among the countries in trade and investment.
An important attribute of globalization is the increasing degree of openness, which has three dimensions, ie. international trade, international investment, and international finance. It involves creation of networks and activities transcending economic, social and geographical boundaries. The Economy of India had undergone significat policy shifts in the beginning of the 1990’s. This new model of economic reforms is commonly known as the liberalization, privatizaton and globalisation(LPG) model.
The chain of reforms that took place with regard to business, manufacturing and financial industries targeted at strengthening the economy of the country to a more proficient level. These economic reforms had influenced the overall economic growth of the country in a significant manner.
In brief, the salient points of Globalisation are:
- Transfer of technology.
- Concept of a global village.
- Mobility of labour force.
- Global competion resulting in better performance.
- Outsourcing and
- Optimum utilization of human resources.
The political implications of globalisation are as follows:
1. Power subjugation:
The effects of globalisation has brought a lot of changes in the world economy. For small countries, it is inevitable to accept the economic decisions of big countries, which leads to power subjugation.
2. Affects the sovereignty:
As a result of globalisation in the fields of economy, trade, transportation, etc., the sovereign countries are bound by the decisions of stronger countries. Hence it affects the sovereignty of a country in totality.
3. Cultural invasion:
Culture is a complex, wholesome and exclusive to each country. The influence of globalisation in the name of cultural exchange not only invades but also degenerates the youth who are the architects of the future.
4. Enslavement of lifestyle:
Globalisation has largely affected the younger generation. Food habits, general behaviour, mutual relationship, respect to elders, human values and ultimately the whole generation has become slave in the clutches of globalisation.
5. Elimination of subsidies:
The major impact of globalisation is the curtailment of subsidies to all sectors including agriculture, in a phased manner. The worst hit are the peasants who are the backbone of the country.
6. Political Instability:
The impact of globalisation mainly is economic depression, boom or even recession which directly affects the political stability of a country. Hence development comes to a stand still. Thus globalisation as a process of integrating the economy of the country with world economy has gone a long way.
Bring out the importance of the international relations.
The core concepts of International Relations pertaining to politics are as follows:
a. State Sovereignty:
Jean Bodin has described the concept of Sovereignty in his work “De Republica”. He emphasizes on the state Sovereignty within their territorial jurisdiction. No State can dictate others and all States are equal in matters of status, dignity and honour. For instance, India under the British imperialism lost its sovereignty and gained its state hood only in 1947. Iraq during the Gulf war in 1990, is an example for aggression on the Sovereignty.
b. National Interests:
It is the action of the State in relation to other States. As Frankel opined, it refers to the aspiration of the state. The determinants of national interest are qualities of personalities and ideals of the decision makers.
c. Power Blocs:
With the beginning of the cold war, two power blocs emerged, i.e., USA and USSR. President of U S. Harry S. Truman believed in the spread of democracy whereas the Warsaw Pact under Soviet policy sought the spread of Communism. Capitalistic ideology spread in UK, France, Germany, and Communist ideology spread in Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungery.
Polarities in international relations refer to the arrangement of power within the international system. The concept arose from bi-polarity during the cold war between the two super powers. The disintegration of the USSR has led to uni-polarity with the United States as the superpower.
With rapid economic growth in 2010, China became the world’s second largest economy. Combined with the respectable international position, China has emerged as a major power in the multi-polar world.
e. Balance of Power:
The concept of Balance of Power refers to relative power position of States as actors in international relations, with its emphasis on the cultivation of power and the utilization of power for resolving the problems. Morgenthau used the term ‘Balance of Power’ as an approximately equal distribution of power. It is an inseparable part of the power politics.
Write about Panchsheel principles.
Panchasheel continues to be another fundamental principle of Indian foreign policy. An agreement signed between Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese Prime Minister Zhow-en-Lai on April, 29th 1954, sought to govern the relationship between India and China on the basis of five principles.
- Mutual respect for each others territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Mutual non-aggression.
- Mutual non-interference in each others internal affairs.
- Equality and mutual benefits.
- Peaceful coexistence.
It is a principle of peaceful co-existence with other countries, it guided the basis of relationship between 1954-57 marked by numerous visits and exchanges. This period is described as Sino-Indian honeymoon.
IV. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 × 10 = 20)
Explain the functions of Election Commission of India.
Democratic system in India provides for impartial, free and fair elections. The framers of Indian constitution clearly made provisions for an statutory body called Election Commission to conduct elections in India. Article 324 to 329 in part XV deals with the composition, powers, and functions of the Election Commission.
The Election Commission conducts elections to the office of the President, Vice President Union Parliament, Legislature of State, Union territories and Local bodies.
1. Composition of Election commission:
Article 324 provides for the office of the Election Commission of India. It consists of the Chief Election Commissioner and the other Election Commissioners. Till 1993, it was a single-member body but later on, it became a three-member body during the Prime Ministership of Sri P.V. Narasimha Rao.
2. Appointment and Removal:
According to Art 342 (2), Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners are appointed by the President of India on the advice of Union Cabinet. The term of office is 6 years or till they reach the age of 65 years.
Article 324 (6) makes provisions for the salaries, allowances and other privileges to the Chief Election Commissioners, Election Commissioners, and the Personnel. The Parliament determines their salaries from time to time.
According to Article 324(5), the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners can be removed from their office in the same manner as the Judges of Supreme Court, on the grounds of misbehavior and incapacity to discharge their constitutional obligations.
4. Power and functions:
According to Article 324 (1), the Election Commission does the following.
- Prepares electoral roll and its periodical revision.
- Holds elections to Parliament, State Legislatures and offices of President and Vice President.
- After the announcement of elections, it decides the time table.
- It conducts by-elections to vacant seats.
- It grants recognition to political parties as National and State parties.
According to Election Emblem Act 2000.
5. For National party:
1. 6% of valid votes in 4 or more States in LokSabha or Vidhana Sabha election and 4 LokSabha seats in any State or States or
2. Minimum 2% of Lok Sabha seats in 3 States.
6. For State party:
1. 6% of valid votes in Lok Sabha or Vidhana Sabha elections from the State and two Vidhana Sabha seats, or
2. 3% seats of total Vidhana Sabha seats in the States or success at least in three constituencies.
- It scrutinizes the nomination papers.
- It allots symbols to political parties and independent candidates.
- It appoints officers and other staff members to conduct election and make necessary arrangements.
- It can order for re-poll in any constituency or any polling booth.
- It can withhold the election results on valid grounds.
- The President or the Governor acts on the advice of the Election Commission at the time of disqualification of members of the house.
It enforces the code of conduct for the candidates and political parties i.e. the election expenses and submission of accounts after election, environmental protection against noise pollution, etc., during elections. As per the Representation of People’s Act (RPA) of 1950 and 1951, Election Commission of India conducts the process of election.
Explain the causes and remedial measures to eradicate communalism.
Communalism is an ideology of the followers of one particular religion is witnessed as a homogenous and distinct group, disrespecting other religions.
1. Policy of the British India:
discriminatory policies of the East India Company regarding divide and rule, destroyed the unity between Hindus and Muslims. It was manifested in the Sepoy Mutiny (1857). During the period of Viceroy Lord Curzon, Bengal was divided (1905) on the basis of religion. Communal electorate for Muslims was .introduced during the period of Lord Minto. All these intensified the cause of communalism.
2. Hind-Muslim Nationalism:
Communal organizations were formed by separatists. In 1906, Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha came into existence. Mohammad Ali Jinnah who was called as ‘Muslim Gokhale’ of India was brain washed by the Britishers. He became the champion of two nation theory based on religion. Extremists of the Indian National Congress began to assert their demands. These developments created suspicion and distrust between Hindus and Muslims before Independence.
3. Communal Riots:
Large scale communal riots took place in India after Independence. Religious minorities both in India and Pakistan became victims during this situation, and were attacked and tortured. Later communal riots occurred in Bhagalpur, Meerut, Kanpur, Lucknow, Ayodhya, Ahmedabad, Mumbai and in many other places.
The demolition of Babri Majid at Ayodhya by a mob on 6th December 1992, largely contributed for the animosity between Hindus and Muslims, and the successive events intensified the mistrust between these communities.
4. Politically manipulated:
In India many issues are politically manipulated by leaders for their selfish gain. This leads to hatred among the communities.
5. Communality in organization:
Different communities in India established their own organizations based on communality, to support particular political parties in their interest.
Promotion of secularism and National integration as remedy:
The constitution makers adopted secularism in order to create sense of security and equality among different religious groups. The state also follows a policy of neutrality in religious matters. Article 26 provides every religious denomination or any section has the right to establish religious institutions and manage their affairs.
In December 2013, the Central Cabinet approved the “Prevention of Communal Violence (Access to justice and Reparations) Bill” to punish the offenders who instigate and indulge in communal riots. It is yet to be passed by parliament.
2. National integration:
It is the process of uniting the people emotionally and politically. India is a land of diversity. It is in a limited sense to call this a single nation because it has various religion, languages, castes, cultures, etc. So for the success of Indian democracy, promotion of national integration is necessary.
To preserve and sustain National integration many provisions have been adopted in the Constitution, like National integration Council, Zonal Councils, National security Council and armed forces play a greater role in the protection of National integration.
3. Neighbourhood Peace Committees:
The aftermath of Babri Masjid demolition and subsequent communal riots and social tensions in different places and ineffective Governmental measures has made it vital to establish Neighbourhood Peace Committees with eminent or prominent people as its members. These members must be nominated from each community in riot prone or communally sensitive areas.
The main objectives are arresting and containing social tensions which may flare up communal riots in the neighbourhood areas taking precautionary measures to prevent the eruption of communal clashes.
In the aftermath of conflict restoring normalcy and pacifying affected people. Establishing harmonious relationship between the communities and extending all possible help to affected people.
Discuss the importance and political implications of liberalisation.
Liberalization is the “willingness to respect or accept behaviour or opinion different from one’s own; open to new ideas”. Liberalization is the process of liberating the economy from various regulatory mechanism and eleimination of customs and tariffs. Economic liberalization is the policy of relaxation over economic and trade policies.
A. Importance of Liberalization are as follows:
This leads to lower costs and prices for consumers to get the gods and services according to his wishes. There are many number of companies which bring lot of quantity products for consumer’s interests and demands. In liberalised economy, consumer gets more benefits.
2. Free from Government regulations:
Government provides free movement of trade and commerce where any private company can easily carry on their business activities without any restrictions. The companies need not undergo procedural delay by government.
3. Promotes competitions:
Liberalisations extends competition within different company’s trade firms. Basically they keep the standards and cheaper prices for consumers. Competition promoters efficiency and avoids wastage of resources.
4. Promotes world business class:
Liberalization makes new changes is an advance technology and logistics for better services. That can be useful to save time, energy and money. It promotes the high quantity of products and supplies the same in time.
B. Political implications of liberalization are as follows:
1. Risk of brain drain:
In the name of liberalised policy citizens knock at the door of international opportunities, with their knowledge and skill. The developing nations face lots of problem from such brain drain.
2. Reduces dependency on labour:
As the process itself is capital intensive, it reduces dependency on labour and cuts opportunities for jobs.
3. Risk of environmental degradation:
The incessant industrial activity at the global level generates lot of wastage leading to environmental degradation.
4. Regulates the price of certain commodities:
The price of certain commodities like-life saving drugs, fertilizers, etc., are automatically controlled by the world trade forums and associations.
5. Affects common man:
It affects the common man in his day-to-day life as he finds it’s difficult to earn his livelihood.
6. Risk of financial instability:
Flexibility (laxity) of monetary and fiscal policies of the Government may lead to financial crisis like recession and depression.
Explain the establishment and areas of co-operation of SAARC.
In the rapidly changing global environment, regional integration in south Asia has assumed a new strategic significance. As a largest economy of the South Asian Region. It is imperative and right time for India to inculcate an environment of trust among SAARC partners. India stands to gain substantially from greater economic integration in the region.
a. Summit level co-operation:
India has participated in all the summit level meetings. During the 16th SAARC Summit held in New Delhi on 3rd and 4th April 2007, the leaders recognized collectivelly in fulfilling this in a better way with the rest of the world.
The Prime Minister of India Mr. Rajiv Gandhi attended the first SAARC Summit held in Bangladesh in 1985. He emphasized the core issue of economic development in the South Asian region with joint efforts. India is committed to fostering the sense of a South Asian mutual confidence in multiple areas in trying to leverage India’s rapid economic growth into win-win arrangements with her neighbours.
b. SAARC Regional Centres:
India is having two regional centres:
- SAARC Documentation Centre (SDC) in New Delhi.
- SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC) in New Delhi.
c. SAARC Development Fund (SDF):
India has been one of major contributors to the SAARC development Fund. The Fund has three areas of action on social, economic and infrastructure. India has offered US$100 million for the SAARC Countries.
d. Economics Co-operation: The Agreement on SAARC preferential Trading Arrangement trade negotiations have been concluded. India being an important member of the group intiated a step to ensure that the nations go beyond the rhetoric and make the Summit 5 meaningful.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write a note on ‘Independence day’ celebration in your college.
Independence day, a memorable occasion for the nation was celebrated in our college this year also. Under the guidance of the teachers, students had decorated the college grounds one day before and erected a podium, as well as a stage for the cultural. programmes.
Sri Seetharamaiah, the octogenerian freedom fighter was invited to be our chief guest and he was there right on time at 8.00 A.M. Our Principal and senior staff members welcomed the Chief Guest and other dignitaries with garlands and bouquets. After the invocation and the prayer, the function took off on a smooth note.
After the hoisting of the Tricolour National flag by the Chief Guest, the President of the College Student Union read out the welcome speech. Our Principal presided over the function. Sri Seetharamaiah in his speech, highlighted the great ideals and values and sacrifices of our freedom fighters.
There was a march-past by the NCC cadets, followed by the school band. There were some cultural programmes like singing, mime act, monoacting and a skit about the Jalianwalabagh massacre. The programmes were much appreciated. The function came to an end with the vote of thanks and sweet distribution. We all dispersed.
What are the powers and functions of the UPSC?
Article 315 provides for the establishment of the Union Public Service Commission. UPSC is an independent constitutional body entrusted with the work of recruitment on the basis of merit.
At present, the UPSC is composed of a Chairman and 10 members. Members are appointed by the President. It provides for half of the members of the Commission to be administrators with a minimum of the 10 years experience in government service. Nothing is mentioned regarding the qualifications of the remaining members.
A member of the Union Public Service Commission holds office for a period of 6 years or till he attains the age of 65 years, whichever comes earlier. Chairman or members of the commission, are not eligible for re-appointment after retirement. The Chairman of the UPSC is also not eligible for further employment under central or state governments, however, a member of the UPSC may be appointed as a Chairman of the UPSC or the state Public Service Commission.
A Chairman and members of the UPSC, can be removed from the office only by an order of the President, on the ground of misbehaviour proved by the Supreme Court. All these provisions have been made to make the Commission an independent and impartial body.
Article 320 of the Indian Constitution enumerate the functions of the UPSC:
- To conduct examinations for appointment to the services of the Union and All India Service.
- To assist two or more states, on request for joint recruitment for any services.
- To advise the government on matters relating to the methods of recruitment, promotions, transfers, disciplinary actions and inter service matters.
- To present annual report regarding its working to the President.
- To exercise such additional functions as provided by an act of Parliament.
- To serve all or any needs of the state government on request by the Governor and with the approval of the President.
Write a note on any one Indian political leader.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is acknowledged as the leader of the untouchables and underprivileged in the Indian social strata. For his work in piloting the Constitution of Independent India through the Constituent Assembly, he is also hailed as the Modem Manu.
Dr. Ambedkar was the 14th child of Ramji Sakpal and Bhimabai of the Mahar community in Maharashtra. He was born on 14th April 1891. He lost his mother when he was only six and was brought up by his aunt. He had his school education in Satara.
He completed his graduation in Bombay with the support of the Maharaja of Baroda. He did his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the Colombia University in 1915 and 1916 respectively. Later he got his Law and D.Sc degrees also.
In 1924, he started an asspciation for the welfare of the depressed classes. He also started the newspapers ‘Bahiskrit Bharat’ in Hindi and ‘Mooka Nayaka‘ in Marathi. These were to motivate the people to fight for independence and also to champion the cause of the depressed classes for social reforms. His important works were ‘Administration and Finance of the East India Company’, ‘Buddha and Karl Marx’ and ‘Caste in India’ among others.
He was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee for framing our Constitution. In the Interim government, he was the Law Minister in Nehru’s cabinet. He renounced active politics and embraced Buddhism. He spent the rest of his life propagating the message of Buddhism. He passed away on 6th December 1956. Dr. Ambedkar’s memory will remain long in our hearts.
Write about Kashmir issue in India- Pakistan relations.
Pakistan occupies the North-Western corner of the Indian subcontinent. To the West is Iran, to the North-west Afghanistan, to the Northeast, China and to East India.
India and Pakistan were part of British India before Independence. It was partitioned due to ‘divide and rule policy’ of British. Pakistan has close ethnic, cultural and historical links with India. Common blood flows across the land. The trauma, agony and fratricidal conflicts of partition of 1947 still haunt the relationship between the two countries. The mutual distrust and animosity affect Indo-Pak relations.
1. Causes for Dispute:
India and Pakistan represent not only different state systems but also different approaches towards society and polity. The undivided India was a nation many diversities and composite nationalism. During the struggle for liberation from British colonialism, Religious Communalism was promoted which spoiled the composite nationalism. After the achievement of independence with partition of the country.
India opted for Socio-cultural pluralism recognizing multi-religious, multi-lingual and multi-regional and multicultural diversities, while Pakistan opted for a Islamic Democratic style by emphasizing religion as the major and operative principle of its nation-building. As a result, in India, the composite nationalism emerged with its secular overtones in Pakistan triumphant religious communalism with Islamic orientation emerged.
2. Kashmir Issue:
In India’s Perspective Kashmir is an integral part of the Republic of India and to Pakistan, it is a disputed territory. The argument of Pakistan on Kashhmir is that, since the partition of the country was done on religious basis and majority of populations are Muslims, Kashmir should be part of Pakistan.
This argument failed to recognize the following facts:-
1. Partition was done of the British Indian provinces and not of the Indian princely states.
2. National Conference was the only major political party in Kashmir, which was affiliated to Congress, it was opposed to Pakistan and had faith in secular politics.
3. The Indian princely states had the freedom to join either India or Pakistan.
4. India is a secular state consisted of multi-religious population. So, the Kashmiris formally decided to join India after the invasion of its territory by Pakistani tribals supported by the members of Pakistan Army.
3. Major Pacts:
After wars between India and Pakistan in 1966 and 1971, both the countries affirmed the need for negotiated peaceful settlement of disputes in the Tashkent Declaration of 1966 between Lai Bahadur Sastri and Ayub Khan. In 1988 both the countries signed the agreement not to attack nuclear installation and facilities of each other, but in May 1999, Pakistan conducted the nuclear test at the Chagai Hills Region.
Though this has been reiterated by successive governments in Indio and Pakistan, the infiltration by well-armed Pakistani troops across the line of control (LoC) continued.
After the meeting in Lahore between the Indian Prime Minister, A.B. Vajpayee and Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in February 1999 with his historical bus journey to Pakistan the infiltration in the Kargil sector took place which cretated a war-like situation in Kashmir in June and July 1999.
There are indications that India and Pakistan are trying to overcome the past and build a future of mutual trust and understanding as independent countries with frequent visits of leaders of both countries, to discuss several bilateral issues. As a members of SAARC both countries are trying for solutions to their problems mutually and to establish peace in the South Asian region.