2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 5 Nation Building and Challenges To Indian Democracy

Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 5 Nation Building and Challenges To Indian Democracy

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2nd PUC Political Science Nation Building and Challenges To Indian Democracy One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is ‘Nation Building’?
Answer:
A process of uniting the people with a sense of nationalism is called Nation Building.

Question 2.
Mention Gandhiji’s opinion on education.
Answer:
In the opinion of Gandhiji ‘Education is the light of life’.

Question 3.
State the distinct national character of India.
Answer:
‘Cultural Diversity’ is the distinct national character.

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Question 4.
What is the distinct character that denotes nationality of Australia?
Answer:
‘Aboriginal’ is the distinct character of Australia.

Question 5.
Which is regarded as the fourth estate in democracy?
Answer:
Mass media is regarded as the fourth estate in Democracy.

Question 6.
Which acts as the bridge between the government and the public.
Answer:
Mass media acts as the bridge between the government and the public.

Question 7.
Name one of the personalities in the field of social sciences who contributed for national development. (March 2015)
Answer:
Ashish Nandi is the great personality in the field of social sciences who contributed for National Development.

Question 8.
Name one of the personalities who played key role in the national integration.
Answer:
Acharya Narendra Dev played a key role in the National Integration.

Question 9.
What is the major occupation of Indian Farmers?
Answer:
Agriculture is the major occupation of Indian Farmers.

Question 10.
Give an example of two states with uneven distribution of population.
Answer:
Haryana and Arunachal Pradesh are the two states with uneven distribution of population.

Question 11.
Name one of the states which is communally more sensitive.
Answer:
Uttara Pradesh is communally more sensitive.

Question 12.
Mention any one of the priorities which is accorded for national development.
Answer:
Education is accorded for National Development.

Question 13.
Name one of the private enterprises that has contributed for economic development.
Answer:
Wipro has contributed for Economic Development.

Question 14.
State any one NGOs who fight against corruption.
Answer:
The NGO which fight against corruption is ’Election Watch’.

Question 15.
Name one of the biggest challenges to Indian democracy.
Answer:
Communalism is the biggest challenges to Indian Democracy.

Question 16.
What is the meaning of inequality? (July 2015)
Answer:
Denying opportunities and privileges to some classes, making discrimination on the basis of caste and gender is called inequality.

Question 17.
Name one of the provisions of the constitution that supports socialistic pattern of society.
Answer:
Article 15, 16, 17 and 46 of the constitution supports socialistic pattern of society.

Question 18.
What is the percentage of reservation for SCs in public service?
Answer:
The percentage of reservation for SCs in public service is 15%.

Question 19.
State the other name for ‘Dalith Act’.
Answer:
The SCs and STs (Prevention of atrocities) Act.

Question 20.
Mention the purpose of ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyana’.
Answer:
Universalization of elementary education is the main purpose of ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyana’.

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Question 21.
State the literacy percentage in Karnataka as per 2011 census.
Answer:
The literacy percentage in Karnataka as per 2011 census is 75.36%.

Question 22.
When was the 86th Constitutional Amendment passed?
Answer:
The 86th Constitutional Amendment was passed in 2002.

Question 23.
State the age group of children who come under ‘The Right to Education’.
Answer:
The age group of children between 6 and 14 years come under the ‘The Right to Education’.

Question 24.
Define communalism. (July 2015)
Answer:
Answer: According to Bipan Chandra “The concept of communalism is based on the belief that religious distinction is the most important and fundamental distinction and it overrides all other distinctions.”

Question 25.
State one cause for communalism
Answer:
Hindu-Muslim nationalism is one of the cause for communalism

Question 26.
What is terrorism?
Answer:
The calculated use of violence to achieve political, religious, ideological and other goals is called terrorism.

Question 27.
Name one of the terrorist organizations.
Answer:
Al-Quida.

Question 28.
Expand JKLF.
Answer:
Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front.

Question 29.
Expand MISA.
Answer:
Maintenance of Internal Security Act.

Question 30.
Expand TADA.
Answer:
Terrorist and Disruptive Activities Prevention Act.

Question 31.
Expand POTA.
Answer:
Prevention of Terrorism Act.

Question 32.
Expand UAPA.
Answer:
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act.

Question 33.
Who was called as Muslim Gokhale?
Answer:
Mohammed Ali Jinnah was called as Muslim Gokhale.

Question 34.
Define corruption.
Answer:
According to David H. Bayley “Misuse of authority for the consideration of personal gains is called corruption”.

Question 35.
Expand CVC.
Answer:
Central Vigilance Commission.

Question 36.
When was the Prevention of Corruption Act passed?
Answer:
The prevention of Corruption Act was passed in 1988.

Question 37.
Name the Anti Corruption Bureau in Sweden.
Answer:
Ombudsman is the Anti Corruption Bureau in Sweden.

Question 38.
Who appoints Lokpal?
Answer:
The President of India appoints Lokpal.

Question 39.
When did Lokpal institution come into existence?
Answer:
The Lokpal Institution came into existence on 1st January 2013.

Question 40.
What is the tenure of the office of Lokpal?
Answer:
The tenure of the office of Lokpal is 5 years.

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Question 41.
Who appoints Lokayuktha?
Answer:
The Governor appoints Lokayuktha.

Question 42.
When did the Lokayuktha institution come into force in Karnataka?
Answer:
The Lokayuktha Institution in Karnataka came into force in 1984.

Question 43.
State the tenure of the office of Lokayukta.
Answer:
The tenure of the office of Lokayuktha is 5 years.

Question 44.
Name the famous economist who said illiteracy is an unliberty.
Answer:
Amartya sen.

2nd PUC Political Science Nation Building and Challenges To Indian Democracy Two marks questions and answers

Question 1.
How do nation states emerge?
Answer:
The Nation States emerge with the attainment of independence.

Question 2.
How is nationality formed?
Answer:
Common language, culture, history and aspirations help the people to form nationality.

Question 3.
What is Nation Building aims at?
Answer:
It aims at building of National Power and National Institutions, achieving socio-economic, educational and scientific development, national reconstruction and all-round development.

Question 4.
Define nation building. (March 2017)
Answer:
According to Myron Weiner, “Nation Building is a wide ranging process to build a viable cohesive, well organised and widely acceptable society”.

Question 5.
Name any four contents of good governance.
Answer:
Good governance ensures accountability, transparency, efficiency, responsibility and responsiveness.

Question 6.
How did Nehru’s leadership contributed to the process of nation building?
Answer:
Nehru formulated goals for Nation-Building and introduced planning system, adopted industrialization policy and socialistic pattern of society. He had vision and farsightedness for the transformation of India.

Question 7.
How political culture evoked national reconstruction?
Answer:
Political culture constitutes a set of values, attitudes and behavior towards a political system. It requires an ideal political behavior to national reconstruction.

Question 8.
Which are the two foundations to build national character?
Answer:
The two foundations to build National Character are Nationalism and Patriotism.

Question 9.
State India’s distinct national character.
Answer:
India’s distinct National Character is Cultural Diversity.

Question 10.
Which day is observed as national integration day?
Answer:
November 19th of every year is observed as National Integration Day.

Question 11.
What is caste based inequality?  (March 2018)
Answer:
Discriminating the people on the grounds of caste is called caste based inequality.

Question 12.
Name two disadvantages of based society.
Answer:
Lack of mobility among different castes and caste bias are the two disadvantages of closed society.

Question 13.
How do you analyze gender based inequality? (March 2019)
Answer:
Discrimination is made on the basis of men and women, denying equal opportunities to the fairer sex. It is the result of gender bias in favour of male throughout the ages.

Question 14.
“Denial of education cause inequality in society” – substantiate.
Answer:
Male domination is reflected in the field of education too. Denying education for girl from many centuries made her incapable in many fields. Men occupied major jobs and secured well and dominating position in the entire society.

Question 15.
State the motto of ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’
Answer:
Educational empowerment of women to remove gender based inequality and universalization of elementary education is the motto of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

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Question 16.
Distinguish between literate and an illiterate person according to 2001 census.
Answer:
According to Census Report 2001, “a person who can read and write with understanding in any language may be called a literate person and a person who can only read but cannot write is an illiterate person.”

Question 17.
How many child labourers are there across the country according to the Report of National Crime Record Bureau?
Answer:
According to the Report of National Crime Record Bureau there are 2 crores child labourers across the country.

Question 18.
What is compulsory education?
Answer:
Providing free and compulsory education to every child in the age group of 6 to 14 years is called compulsory eduction.

Question 19.
Expand NEP.
Answer:
National Education Policy.

Question 20.
Mention any two policies of British India that intensified communalism.
Answer:
(a) During the period of Viceroy Lord Curzon, Bengal was divided in 1905 on the basis of religion.
(b) Communal electorate for Muslims was introduced during the period of Lord Minto through 1909 Act.

Question 21.
How communalism endangers nationalism?
Answer:
Communalism leads to various forms of religious fundamentalism and orthodoxism. Religious fundamentalism exploit their community people breeds bigotry and religious identity and thus Communalism and endangers Nationalism

Question 22.
‘United we stand, disunited we fall’-prove.
Answer:
A Nation which experiences chronic internal conflicts and socio-religious divisions may become a weak country. So all the people should unit and fight for the motherland.

Question 23.
What is national integration? (March 2016)
Answer:
A process of uniting the people emotionally, psychologically and politically is called National Integration.

Question 24.
State the role of Neighbourhood Peace Committees.
Answer:
The Neighbourhood Peace Committees contains the eminent or prominent leader of their religion. Its main objectives are to control the social tensions and to wind up communal riots. Taking precautionary’ measures to prevent the communal classes and to establish harmonious relationship between the communities.

Question 25.
What is the root word of terrorism? (July 2016)
Answer:
The word terrorism is derived from the Latin word ‘terrere’.

Question 26.
Define terrorism.
Answer:
According to Encyclopedia of Social Science – “It is a method where by an organized group or party seeks to achieve its avowed goals chiefly through the systematic use of violence.

Questionv 27.
How religious fundamentalism causes terrorism?
Answer:
The religious fundamentalist organisations belonging to Muslims, Hindus, Christians, Sikhs have been supporting and helping the terrorist activities for their long term political gains. It leads to the rise of religious militancy.

Question 28.
Why do terrorists boycott elections?
Answer:
Terrorists have no faith in democratic process and constitution. They always indulging in destabilizing and threatening the government. Hence terrorists boycott the elections.

Question 29.
Define corruption.
Answer:
According to David H. Bayley, “As misuse of authority for the consideration of personal gains”

Question 30.
Conduct rules and corrupt practices go together”. Prove this statement.
Answer:
In a land of Budha. Gandhi. Jayaprakash Narayan, it is unfortunate that most of the politicians and bureaucrats have indulged in corrupt activities. Nepotism, favouritism and cronyism are pervasive phenomena in India’s public administration. So conduct rules and corrupt practices go together.

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Question 31.
Service to the people is service to the God does not hold good in public service – analyze.
Answer:
Service to the people is service to the God has been ignored by the people in power. They work for their benefit but not for the society though service is there motto.

Question 32.
“Though the election system is flawless, the process of implementation is corrupt”. Prove this statement.
Answer:
Though the election system is flawless, the process of implementation is corrupted. Votes are being purchased and voters are driven to polling booths in order to get votes in their favour.

Question 33.
The destiny of the country is shaped in class rooms. Do you agree? If not give two reasons.
Answer:
The parents and elders at home, teachers in class rooms are not imparting moral values and education among the children. It leads to deterioration of values which finally leads to corruption.

Question 34.
Goodness politics is replaced by power politics. How?
Answer:
Eminent and statesmen were in the beginning of 1947 in Indian politics. There was a good political values in the administration. But now money power, muscle power has become dominant. Politics has become a gainful profession to make money and to get publicity. Hence Goodness politics is replaced by power politics.

Question 35.
How criminalization of politics has become a menace to Democracy?
Answer:
The prevalence of large scale criminalization of politics has increased illegal and illegitimate expenditure on elections. As this scenario is rampant it has become menace to democracy.

Question 36.
State any two forms of corruption.
Answer:
The various forms of corruption are receiving money, gifts, commissions in public office, indulging in bribe, pay off, scam, kick-backs, greasing of palms.

Question 37.
‘Administrative corruption by bureaucracy has become a threat to democracy’ How?
Answer:
Corruption takes the form of favouritism, red tapism. nepotism in the administration. It leads to the illegal interference of political operations in the government and finally resulted in destabilizing the political system. So it has become threat to democracy.

Question 38.
Name the two Investing institutions which investigates the misbehavior of civil service. (July 2017)
Answer:
(a) Central Bureau of Investigation.
(b) Central Vigilance Commission.

Question 39.
When did the movement of ‘India Against Corruption’ started and who lead this?
Answer:
The movement of ‘India against Corruption’ is started in 2011 by the social activist Anna Hazare.

Question 40.
State the Jurisdiction of Lokpal.
Answer:
The’jurisdiction of Lokpal covers employees of Union Government including the Prime Minister, Ministers, MPs and State Legislators.

Question 41.
Write the two functions of Lokpal.
Answer:
(a) Lokpal has power to sanction prosecution against public servants and to register the cases against corrupt officials.
(b) Lokpal has the power of superintendence over any probe agency for cases referred by it.

Question 42.
In which state the Lokayuktha was first established and when?
Answer:
The Lokayuktha was first established in the state of Maharashtra in 1973.

Question 43.
Name the chief minister who adopted Lokayuktha in Karnataka and in which year?
Answer:
Ramakrishna Hegde. the then Chief Minister of Karnataka adopted Lokayuktha in the year 1984.

Question 44.
Mention any two functions of Lokayukta.
Answer:
(a) The Lokayuktha receives complaints and allegation against the government officials from any persons and to undertake trial.
(b) It has extensive powers of raids, searches, seizure of documents, properties, cash, etc.

Question 45.
Name any two Acts that are introduced to control terrorism.
Answer:
(a) POTA
(b) UAPA

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2nd PUC Political Science Nation Building and Challenges To Indian Democracy Five marks questions and answers

Question 1.
Narrate the process of nation building.
Answer:
The process of Nation Building started with the attainment of independence. The leaders of modern India initiated the process in the right direction as they worked out the details in an orderly and systematic way. The process of Nation Building is an offshoot of concept of Nation States. The idea of Nation States emerged after signing the treaty of West Phalia in 1648 by Western countries. The people of the common religious and traditional background, living in a definite territory with like mindedness, we-feeling and enjoying political independence form the Nation. Common language, culture and history, aspirations help the people to form Nationality.

Nation Building is the process of uniting people with a sense of nationalism. It aims at building of national power and national institutions, achieving socio-economic, educational and scientific development, national reconstruction and all-round development.

Question 2.
Explain any five components of nation building. (March 2016,2018)
Answer:
The components of Nation Building are as follows:

(a) Community support: To realize the process of nation building, collective support and endeavor of the people are essential. The quality of the people reflects the quality of a nation. Discipline, work culture and patriotic feeling in the minds of the people also contribute for Nation Building.

(b) Good governance: Good Governance ensures accountability, transparency, efficiency, responsibility and responsiveness. In addition, the use of technology has given rise to e-Governance.

(c) Committed leadership: History depicts many examples of committed leadership. For example In India Nehru’s leadership largely contributed to the process of Nation Building. He formulated goals for Nation Building and introduce planning system, adopted industrialization policy and socialistic pattern of society. He had vision and farsightedness for the transformation of India. Hence Nehru is called the Architect of Modern India.

(d) Political culture: Political culture constitutes a set of values, attitudes and behavior towards a political system. It requires an ideal political behavior to national reconstruction. Leaders have to embody the principles of national interest, public service, probity and statesmanship.

(e) Power sharing: To realize the goal, political power needs to be shared among all sections of society. The concentration of political power in the hands of a few people and some families leads to the emergence of dictatorship. Hence sharing of power ensures social justice which is the foundation of socio-economic democracy.

Question 3.
List out the hindrances the come in the way of nation building. (July 2016,2017,2018)
Answer:
The hindrances of Nation Building are as follows:

(a) Poverty: Large sections of our society are belongs to the below poverty line. They are denying to the access of good health, sanitation facilities and basic infrastructure and unable to cope up with the national development.

(b) Population explosion: India is a second largest populous country in the world. Though human resource is essential, it is not properly utilized to strengthen the nation. Population explosion has led to unemployment, shortage of shelter, food and other basic amenities.

(c) Regional imbalance: All the states of our country are not evenly developed. The natural resources are not equally distributed. This leads to separatist tendencies that curbs national development.

(d) Social and political disturbances: In India social and political disturbances have become common in recent years causing tension. Some states are communally sensitive areas. The inter-state disputes are in the great extent at present. Hence these issues have affected nation’s march towards development.

(e) Political crisis: The coalition politics and the emergence of too many political parties, regional and sectarian feelings have created political crisis on many occasions. The vested interests have prevented the Parliament and State Legislatures to enact necessary laws for the development of Nation.

Question 4.
Explain any five remedies for nation building. (July 2017,2018)
Answer:
Remedies for the Nation Building:
(a) Political stability: The government elected by the people has to continue for the full term so as to adopt and implement the policies for development. Frequent changes in government result in slow development and political uncertainty. So in order to maintain political stability, there should be full term of government.

(b) Selection of priorities: The government has to choose the areas of priority necessary for Nation Building. These priorities are to be decided on the basis of the needs of the people. Infrastructure, education, transport, employment, agriculture, industries and health services may be accorded priorities for national development.

(c) Effective implementation of plans: Since April 2012. 12th Five year plan is under progress. To fill the gap of the previous plans, it is aimed at channelizing the sources and implementing effectively.

(d) Mixed economy: Public and private partnership not only strengthens the economy but also contributes for its sustenance. The contribution of the private enterprises has been phenomenal in the economic front by generating the employment and thus contributed for economic progress.

(e) Implementation of directive principles of state policy: Part IV of the Indian Constitution emphasizes the establishment of socio-economic democracy through the adoption of revolutionary policies.

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Question 5.
List out causes for caste based inequality. (March 2017,July 2018)
Answer:
Causes for caste based inequality:

(a) Varnashrama system: Since ancient period Varna system is prevalent. It is based on their profession as Brahmin. Kshatriya, Vysya and Shudras. Gradually it was converted into caste based discrimination by the law of Manu. Later on inequality prevailed in Hindu Society.

(b) Social distance: Due to lack of mobility among different castes, culture, traditions, folkways, food habits, social relations social distance is in great extent in Indian society. Finally it leads to strong caste bias among them.

(c) Illiteracy and conservatism: Illiteracy and ignorance among people make them conservative, it motivates them to narrow mindedness and superstition. They believe in old customs and traditions. They oppose strongly to any change in society.

(d) Sense of prestige: The strong desire of the people belonging to a particular caste enhances the prestige of their own, to get benefits and privileges from the society. Other castes which are neglected and unprivileged will suffer from social status.

(e) Marriage restrictions: In this closed society, only endogamous marriages are accepted. Elders do not honor marriages fixed outside the sub-sect. In such a situation strong caste feeling develops and leads to inequality.

Question 6.
What are the causes for gender based inequality (July 2015)
Answer:
Causes for gender based inequality:

(a) Manu smrithi: Earlier the Hindu society followed ‘Manu Smrithi’ which asserted that women should always be under the guardianship of men at different stages of her life. He wanted her to be within the walls, restraining her from the happenings of society.

(b) Male domination: The society is based on physical strength of man where he dominates on female. He doe’s not want that female should take over his responsibility and authority at home as well as in the society.

(c) Denial of education: Male domination is reflected in the field of education too. Denying education for girl from many centuries made her incapable in many fields. Men occupied major jobs and secured well and dominating position in the entire society.

(d) Dowry system: The practice of dowry system contributes for inequality of gender. The boy is treated as an asset and the girl is a burden. This attitude also intensifies the discrimination between men and women.

(e) Inadequate representation: Women constitute 50% of the total population. Female are inadequately represented in the field of politics and economics. Even though women are as capable as men, they are not allowed in this respective field.

Question 7.
Write a note on the role of representative bodies in eradicating gender based inequality7.
Answer:
The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments are landmarks in the political empowerment of women at the grass root level of democracy. Article 243 D provides 1/3rd reservation of seats for women in Panchayath Bodies. Further, out of total reserved seats l/3rd of seats are reserved for SC/ST women. 1/3rd of the total number of offices of Chairpersons in the Panchavaths may also be reserved for women as per law made by the State Legislatures. Similar policy of political reservation is followed in Urban Governments under Article 243 T. Many State Governments including Karnataka have increased the reservation of seats to 50% in Local Bodies.

Question 8.
List out the constitutional provisions to remove gender based inequality.
Answer:
Constitutional provisions: To remove inequality on the basis of gender, the Constitution of . India has made the Provisions as under:
(a) As per Article 15 prohibition of state discrimination based on sex.
(b) As per Article 16 equality of opportunity in public service.
(c) As per Article 23 and 24 Right against exploitation.
(d) As per Article 39(d) equal pay for equal work.
(e) As per Article 51 A(e) protection of the dignity of women.
(f) As per Article 236 voting right to women.

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Question 9.
Describe the causes of illiteracy. (March 2015, 2016, 2018, July 2015)
Answer:
Causes of illiteracy:

(a) Population explosion: India is the second most papulous country in the world. It consists of 17.5% of world’s total population. The population of India has increased 128 crores. hence it has become a challenging task for the government to provide literacy.

(b) Poverty: Due to poverty, majority of children suffer from malnutrition and anemia. Parents from poor and low income families find it difficult to send children to schools.

(c) Social backwardness: Hierarchical caste system, inferiority complex among people, ignorance about importance of education, taboos have prevented large number of people •from getting literacy.

(d) Child labour: Prevalence of child labour due to poor socio-economic conditions is seen all over India. They are working in hotels, small scale industries, carpet weaving and fireworks etc. all these hinder them from getting education.

(e) Poor infrastructure: Most of the schools across the country have no proper buildings, required number of qualified teachers and study materials. The school environment is not conducive for learning and teaching. There is lack of adequate transport facilities for school children particularly in the rural areas.

Question 10.
How literacy acts as an impediment to democracy? (July 2015) (March 2016,2017)
Answer:
Illiteracy acts as an impediment to democracy. It can be justified on the grounds of the following facts:

(a) Lack of political awareness: Illiteracy would contribute for political apathy. Illiterate masses due to their ignorance and indifferences do not take part in political process. They are not able to understand the importance of vote. They do not understand the ideologies of political parties, their manifestos and the performance of ruling party.

(b) Low percentage of votes: Low percentage of votes is common in all the elections. This is due to illiteracy and lack of political awareness. Political legitimacy cannot be achieved to a full extent by low percentage of polling.

(c) Money and muscle power: The nexus between politicians and businessmen is noticeable. The politicians are tactful enough to get votes from the poor people through dubious means who are illiterate.

(d) Politics of populism: The voters in India are attracted by politics of populous. Illiteracy and poverty force them to depend upon the facilities of the government. These populous programmes force them to remain useless category. This becomes an impediment to national development.

Question 11.
What are the constitutional provisions to eradicate illiteracy as found in 86th amendment.
Answer:
Constitutional provisions: The Parliament of India passed the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act in 2002 aimed at making right to education a fundamental right for children between 6 and 14 years of age. Its main provisions are as follows:

(a) Compulsory education means obligation of the government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission and attendance and completion of education to every child in the age group of 6 to 14.

(b) It is compulsory duty of parents and guardians to send the children to schools.

(c) The schools must’have minimum facilities such as adequate pupil-teacher ratio, trained teachers, infrastructure and playgrounds.

(d) The central government and state governments bear the expenditure on the basis of agreed formula.

(e) The school management committee or the local authority should identify the dropouts or out of school children and admit them in classes appropriate to their age.

Question 12.
List out the cause for communism (March 2015,2018,2019)
Answer:
Causes for communalism:

(a) Policy of the British rule: The discriminatory policies of the Britishers regarding divide and rule destroyed the unity between Hindus and Muslims. Bengal was divided in 1905 on the basis of religion. Communal electorate for Muslims was introduced through 1909 Act. All these intensified the causes of communalism.

(b) Hindu-Muslim Nationalism: Communal organisations were formed by separatists. In 1906 Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha came into existence. Mohammad Ali Jinnah created a sense of separateness among Muslims and became the champion of two-nation theory based on religion. These developments led to distrust between Hindus and Muslims.

(c) Communal riots: It took place in India after independence in large scale. Religious minorities both in India and Pakistan were exploited the situation and torcher each other. Later communal riots occurred in many places of the country which finally leads to the demolition of Babri Masjid at Ayodya on 6th December 1992.

(d) Politically manipulated: In India many issues are politically manipulated by leaders for their selfish gain. This leads to hatred among communities.

(e) Communality in organization: Different communities in India established their own organisations based on communality to support particular political parties for their interest.

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Question 13.
How communalism acts as a threat to Indian democracy at the present scenario?
Answer:
Communalism acts as a threat to Indian Democracy:

(a) Threat to National Integrity: Hostility’ among various religious groups is a serious threat to national unity and integrity in India. Partition of the sub-continent to religious differences in 1947 has adversely affected social harmony in India. This is continued among both religious communities and leads to communalistn in democratic government.

(b) Threat to Nationalism and Patriotism: Communalism leads to various forms of religious fundamentalism and orthodoxism. Religious fundamentalists exploit their community people breeds bigotry and religious identity. In such a social environment, national and patriotic feelings are marginalized and even forgotten. Therefore, communalism endangers nationalism and patriotism.

(c) Impediment to National Development: Lack of national outlook, secular attitude and holistic approach sometimes leads to their selfish ends of few religious leaders. Through their provocative speeches and writings create communal disturbances which naturally affect the national developmental programmes.

(d) Weak Political Leadership: Political parties and leadership have failed to control the communalism in India. Communal politics emerged by political parties which finally influenced to fundamentalism. It leads to weak political leadership.

(e) Threat to National Sovereignty: A nation which experiences chronic internal conflicts and socio-religious divisions may become a weak country. Gradually it may lead to foreign invasion and threat to sovereignty.

Question 14.
Write a note on Neighbourhood Peace Committees.
Answer:
After the demolition of Babri Masjid in Ayodhya and subsequent communal riots in all over the country, certain measures have been taken to establish neighbourhood peace committees with eminent and prominent leaders of the community as its members. These members must be nominated from each community in riot-prone or communally sensitive areas. The main objectives of these committees are to control the social tensions which was the main cause for communal riots.

Taking precautionary measures to prevent the eruption of communal clashes. Restoring normalcy in the communally affected area, establishing communal harmonious relationship between the communities and extending all possible help to affected people.

Question 15.
Examine the causes for the rise of terrorism in India.
Answer:
Causes for the rise of terrorism in India:

(a) Separatist movements: Since partition of the country, communal forces are indulging in separatist activities. Fundamentalists in Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab started separatist movements on religious basis. Some terrorist groups are still involving in separatist movements.

(b) Religious fundamentalism: Some religious fundamentalist organisations belonging to Muslims, Hindus, Christians, Sikhs have been supporting and helping the terrorist activities for their long-term political gains. It leads to the rise of religious militancy.

(c) Ethnic problem in the North-East: On the basis of ethnic and regional identity, many self interested fundamentalists organized terrorist activities in North-East region.

(d) Weak political system: Multi party system which has led to the coalition in India has weakened the system. Coalition partners belonging to various ideologies and goals are not supporting firm decisions and strong actions against terrorist activities.

(e) Economic deprivation: The uneven economic development and the exploitation of the poor by rich people has created a great gulf between the ‘haves’ and ‘have not’s’.

Question 16.
How terrorism is a commination to Democracy? (March 2019)
Answer:
Terrorism is commination to Democracy:
(a) Disruption of governance: Terrorist organisations are disrupting the democratic governance in the nation. They are indulging in violent and insurgent activities which have targeted the government, top political leaders and officers and thereby erode the legitimacy of the elected government.

(b) Disrespect for constitution: Though the Constitution is the fundamental law of the country, the terrorist groups and organisations are violating the mandatory provisions of the law and involving terrorist activities.

(c) Violation of human rights: Terrorists have no respect on human rights. They kill and injure the innocent people, attack the leaders and target the public places.

(d) Anti democratic activities: Terrorists are always tries to destabilize the democratic system and disrupt the election process.

(e) Obstacle to economic growth: It also destroys the economic development of the country by diverting the huge amount of money towards curbing terrorist activities.

Question 17.
Explain the various provisions of UAPA (July 2017)
Answer:
The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act was enacted in 2008. The main provisions are as
follows:

(a) The words ‘Terrorist Act’ are defined in Section 15 of the Act. “Any act which threatens the unity, integrity, sovereignty of India or with intent to strike terror in the people or any section of people in India or in any foreign country.

(b) Those persons who have the intention of aiding, abetting or committing a terrorist act shall be punishable with imprisonment for 10 years and fine.

(c) Punishment for raising funds for terrorist acts is 5 years which may extend to life imprisonment and liable to fine.

(d) Prescribe punishment for recruitment of persons for terrorist act and their training. The punishment is 5 years which may extend to imprisonment for life and liable to fine.

(e) Every offence punishable under this Act shall be deemed to be a cognizable offence. If the investigation cannot be completed within 90 days, the court may extend the detention period up to 180 days.

(f) If there are sufficient grounds for detention of an accused person under the Act, no bail is granted. Further, no bail shall be granted to a foreigner who has entered the country illegally except in very exceptional circumstances and for reasons to be recorded in writing.

(g) The Central Government has the power to freeze, seize or attach funds or other financial assets or economic resources of the terrorist groups.
Socio economic development is a remedy to Terrorism. Discuss.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 18.
Socio economic development is a remedy to Terrorism. Discuss (March 2016)
Answer:
Socio-economic development is a remedy to curb the terrorism

(a) Social acceptance: Measures have to be taken to bring the terrorist back to the main stream of social life. They should not be made to suffer the stigma of terrorism.

(b) Education: Lack of moral education and nationality, youth are attracted by terrorism. Providing proper education would help them to realize that there are other goals to achieve.

(c) Employment opportunities: By providing employment to the youths at the suitable stage avoids the undemocratic and anti-national activities and thus effectively prevented from embracing terrorism.

Question 19.
Make a list of causes of corruption. (July 2015)
Answer:
Causes of corruption:

(a) Greediness: Basically man is a selfish, acquisitive, aggressive and greedy. This encourages him to amass wealth whenever he gets an opportunity. Therefore, people are always urge for acquiring wealth and property.

(b) Selfishness: As it is said service to the people is service to God has been ignored by the people who are in power and in public office. They work for their benefit but not for the society though service is there motto.

(c) Corrupt politicians: Though the election system is flawless, the process of implementation
is corrupted. Votes are being purchased and voters are driven to polling booths in order to get votes in their favour.

(d) Lack of morality: Parents and elders at home, teachers in class rooms have to impart moral education. Because it is said that destiny of the country is shaped in class rooms. In case if it is not done, it leads to deterioration of values which finally leads to corruption.

Question 20.
How corruption is a menace to Democracy?
Answer:
Corruption as a menace to Democracy:

(a) Power politics: The common phenomenon all over the country is that “goodness politics” is replaced by power politics. Money power and muscle power has become dominant in the present election system. Politics has become a gainful profession to make money and to get publicity. It endangers the existence of democracy.

(b) Criminalisation of politics: The prevalence of large scale criminalization of politics has increased illegal and illegitimate expenditure on elections. As this scenario is rampant it has become menace to democracy.

(c) Demoralisation of Bureaucracy: Corruption takes the form of favouritism, redtapism, nepotism. Destabilisation of governments due to illegal political operations and administrative corruption by bureaucracy has become threat to democracy.

(d) Violation of social justice: Accumulation of wealth through corruption leads to the concentration of wealth in a few people which finally leads to the violation of socio¬economic justice. Some people enjoy luxurious life and majority suffer from poverty due to deprivation. It is against to democratic values.

Question 21.
Write a note on Lokpal. (March 2015)
Answer:
Organisation: The Lokpal Bill became an Act on 1st January 2013. It consists of 9 members including the Chairman. Sitting Judge of Supreme Court or retired Chief Justice of India is eligible to head the Lokpal Institution. 4 members should be Judges of either Supreme Court or High Court and 4 members must possess minimum 25 years of experience in Vigilance Commission.

According to Administrative Reforms Commission of India the President appoints the Lokpal with the consultation of panel consisting of Prime Minister, Speaker and Leader of Opposition in Loksabha, Chief Justice of India. The tenure is 5 years. They can be removed by the President after the enquiry conducted by the Supreme Court.

The jurisdiction of Lokpal covers employees of Union government including the Prime Minister, Ministers, MPs and State Legislators.
Powers and functions of Lokpal are as follows:
(a) Lokpal has power to sanction prosecution against public servants and can register cases against corrupt officials.
(b) All organisations receiving donations from foreign sources come under the jurisdiction of Lokpal.
(c) Lokpal has the power of superintendence over any probe agency for cases referred by it.
(d) Provision is made for confiscation and attachment of property acquired by corrupt means
(e) If the corruption charges are proved, the concerned officials have to undergo 2 years jail term.

Question 22.
Write the Orgainzation , powers and functions of Lokayukta (July 2018)
Answer:
Organisation: The Lokayukta Institution was came into force in Karnataka in 1984. It comprises 3 members, one is Lokayukta and two are the Upa Lokayuktas. Retired Judge of Supreme Court or Chief Justice of High Court is appointed as Lokayukta and retired Judge of High Court is Upa Lokayukta.
The Governor appoints the Lokayukta with the consultation of committee consisting of Chief Minister, Chief Justice of High Court, Speaker of Assembly, Chairman of the Council and Leaders of Opposition. The Lokayukta is appointed for 5 years and removed from the office by the Governor on the charge of misbehavior or incapability’ proved in the State Legislature. by 2/3rd majority.
The powers and functions of Lokayukta are as follows:
(a) The Lokayukta receives complaints and allegations from any person against the corrupted officials,
(b) The Lokayukta can proceeds to investigate on a prima facie consideration. If it is satisfied that a criminal offence has been committed, it may initiate prosecution.
(c) The Lokayukta may investigate any action taken by the public servant if-it is referred by the state government.
(d) The Lokayukta has extensive powers of raids, searches, seizure of documents, properties, jewellery, cash, etc. which are unaccounted.
(e) In the process of investigation, the Lokayukta deals with the issue of search warrant.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Political Science Nation Building and Challenges To Indian Democracy Ten marks questions and answers:

Question 1.
Describe the components of Nation Building. (March 2017,2019)
Answer:
The components of Nation Building are as follows:

(a) Community support: To realize the process of Nation Building, collective support and endeavor of the people are essential. The quality of the people reflects the quality of a nation. Discipline, work culture and patriotic feeling in the minds of the people also contribute for Nation Building.

(b) Good governance: It ensures accountability, transparency, efficiency, responsibility and responsiveness. In addition, the use of technology has given rise to e-Govemance.

(c) Committed leadership: History depicts many examples of committed leadership. For example In India Nehru’s leadership largely contributed to the process of Nation Building. He formulated goals for Nation Building and introduce planning system, adopted industrialization policy and socialistic pattern of society. He had vision and farsightedness for the transformation of India. Hence Nehru is called the Architect of Modem India.

(d) Political culture: It constitutes a set of values, attitudes and behavior towards a political system. It requires an ideal political behavior to national reconstruction. Leaders have to embody the principles of national interest, public service, probity’ and statesmanship.

(e) Power sharing: To realize the goal, political power needs to be shared among all sections of society. The concentration of political power in the hands of a few people and some families leads to the emergence of dictatorship. Hence sharing of power ensures social justice which is the foundation of socio-economic democracy.

(f) Universal education: It is very essential for the development of a country. It enables the person to understand his potentiality and strengthens dignity. It encourages people to analyse the national problems and to work for national progress. The Right To Education Act was implemented in this regard.

(g) National character: Nationalism and patriotism are the foundation to build national character. One has to acquire knowledge about the history’ of his motherland and its contributions to human civilizations.

(h) Mass media: Mass media is regarded as the 4th estate in Democracy as it plays a vital role in the Nation-Building. It highlights the omissions and commissions of the government and acts as a bridge between the government and the public.

(e) Responsible intelligentia: The contribution of intellectuals is recognized all over the world. Research and Innovations in important areas of human life have contributed to the national development. In India the development in different fields, Amartya Sen, Vandana Shiva, Ashish Nandy, Sir.M. Vishveshwaraiah, Sir C.V. Raman, Dr. C.N.R. Rao, Dr. A.RJ. Abdul Kalam and others have greatly contributed.

(j) National integration: It is the process of uniting the people emotionally, psychologically and politically. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, Vinoba Bhave, Lai Bahadhur Shastri, J.B. Kripalani, Acharya Narendra Dev played a key role in the national integration. November 19th is being observed as National Integration Day, the birthday of Smt. Indira Gandhi.

Question 2.
Describe the hindrances and remedial measures to Nation Building.
Answer:
Hindrances to Nation Building; The hindrances of Nation Building are as follows:

(a) Poverty: Large sections of our society are belongs to the below poverty line. They are denying to the access of good health, sanitation facilities and basic infrastructure and unable to cope up with the national development.

(b) Population explosion: India is a second largest populous country in the world. Though human resource is essential, it is not properly utilized to strengthen the nation. Population explosion has led to unemployment, shortage of shelter, food and other basic amenities.

(c) Regional imbalance: All the states of our country are not evenly developed. The natural resources are not equally distributed. This leads to separatist tendencies that curbs national development.

(d) Social and political disturbances: In India social and political disturbances have become common in recent years causing tension. Some states are communally sensitive areas. The inter-state disputes are in the great extent at present. Hence these issues have affected nation’s march towards development.

(e) Political crisis: The coalition politics and the emergence of too many political parties, regional and sectarian feelings have created political crisis on many occasions. The vested interests have prevented the Parliament and State Legislatures to enact necessary laws for the development of Nation.

Remedial measures to Nation Building: Remedies for the Nation Building:

(a) Political stability: The government elected by the people has to continue for the full term so as to adopt and implement the policies for development. Frequent changes in government result in slow development and political uncertainty. So in order to maintain political stability, there should be full term of government.

(b) Selection of priorities: The government has to choose the areas of priority necessary for Nation Building. These priorities are to be decided on the basis of the needs of the people. Infrastructure, education, transport, employment, agriculture, industries and health services may be accorded priorities for national development.

(c) Effective implementation of plans: Since April 2012. 12th Five year plan is under progress. To fill the gap of the previous plans, it is aimed at channelizing the sources and implementing effectively.

(d) Mixed economy: Public and private partnership not only strengthens the economy but also contributes for its sustenance. The contribution of the private enterprises has been phenomenal in the economic front by generating the employment and thus contributed for economic progress.

(e) Implementation of directive principles of state policy: Part IV of the Indian Constitution emphasizes the establishment of socio-economic democracy through the adoption of revolutionary policies.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
What are the causes for caste based inequality? Reservation as a remedy to eradicate this? Justify. (March 2015)
Answer:
Causes for caste based inequality: Causes for caste based inequality:

(a) Varnashrama system: Since ancient period Varna system is prevalent. It is based on their profession as Brahmin. Kshatriya, Vysya and Shudras. Gradually it was converted into caste based discrimination by the law of Manu. Later on inequality prevailed in Hindu Society.

(b) Social distance: Due to lack of mobility among different castes, culture, traditions, folkways, food habits, social relations social distance is in great extent in Indian society. Finally it leads to strong caste bias among them.

(c) Illiteracy and conservatism: Illiteracy and ignorance among people make them conservative, it motivates them to narrow mindedness and superstition. They believe in old customs and traditions. They oppose strongly to any change in society.

(d) Sense of prestige: The strong desire of the people belonging to a particular caste enhances the prestige of their own, to get benefits and privileges from the society. Other castes which are neglected and unprivileged will suffer from social status.

(e) Marriage restrictions: In this closed society, only endogamous marriages are accepted. Elders do not honor marriages fixed outside the sub-sect. In such a situation strong caste feeling develops and leads to inequality.

Reservation as a remedy to eradicate caste based inequality:

(a) Education: article 15, clauses (4) and (5) of the Constitution provides reservation of seas to SCs, STs and Backward Classes in educational Institutions. Right To Education has also provided reservation to these communities.

(b) Employment: Article 16, clause (4) of the Constitution provides equal opportunities to all in public sendees. Article 335 claims 18% reservation for SCs and STs in Public Services both in Central and State Governments. The Mandal Commission report recommended 27% job reservation for OBCs.

(c) Loksabha and Legislative assembly: Article 330 and 332 of the Indian Constitution provides reservation to SCs and STs both in Loksabha and State Legislative Assemblies.

(d) Local bodies: Article 243D of the Indian Constitution, seats are reserved for SCs and STs in every Panchayath in proportion to their population.

(e) Abolition of untouchability: Article 17 of the Constitution of India provided for abolition of untouchability. The SCs and STs (Prevention of atrocities) Act was enacted by Parliament in 1989 to eradicate caste based inequality’.

Question 4.
What are the causes for gender based inequality? Can the reservation for women be a response to this?
Answer:
Causes for gender based inequality: Causes for gender based inequality:

(a) Manu smrithi: Earlier the Hindu society followed ‘Manu Smrithi’ which asserted that women should always be under the guardianship of men at different stages of her life. He wanted her to be within the walls, restraining her from the happenings of society.

(b) Male domination: The society is based on physical strength of man where he dominates on female. He doe’s not want that female should take over his responsibility and authority at home as well as in the society.

(c) Denial of education: Male domination is reflected in the field of education too. Denying education for girl from many centuries made her incapable in many fields. Men occupied major jobs and secured well and dominating position in the entire society.

(d) Dowry system: The practice of dowry system contributes for inequality of gender. The boy is treated as an asset and the girl is a burden. This attitude also intensifies the discrimination between men and women.

(e) Inadequate representation: Women constitute 50% of the total population. Female are inadequately represented in the field of politics and economics. Even though women are as capable as men, they are not allowed in this respective field.

Reservation for women to eradicate gender based inequality: Constitutional provisions: To remove inequality on the basis of gender, the Constitution of India has made the Provisions as under:
(a) As per Article 15 prohibition of state discrimination based on sex.
(b) As per Article 16 equality of opportunity in public service.
(c) As per Article 23 and 24 Right against exploitation.
(d) As per Article 39(d) equal pay for equal work.
(e) As per Article 51 A(e) protection of the dignity of women.
(f) As per Article 236 voting right to women.

Question 5.
How is illiteracy acts as an impediment to democracy? Explain the remedies.
Answer:
Illiteracy acts as an impediment to Democracy: Illiteracy acts as an impediment to democracy. It can be justified on the grounds of the following facts:

(a) Lack of political awareness: Illiteracy would contribute for political apathy. Illiterate masses due to their ignorance and indifferences do not take part in political process. They are not able to understand the importance of vote. They do not understand the ideologies of political parties, their manifestos and the performance of ruling party.

(b) Low percentage of votes: Low percentage of votes is common in all the elections. This is due to illiteracy and lack of political awareness. Political legitimacy cannot be achieved to a full extent by low percentage of polling.

(c) Money and muscle power: The nexus between politicians and businessmen is noticeable. The politicians are tactful enough to get votes from the poor people through dubious means who are illiterate.

(d) Politics of populism: The voters in India are attracted by politics of populous. Illiteracy and poverty force them to depend upon the facilities of the government. These populous programmes force them to remain useless category. This becomes an impediment to national development.

Constitutional Provisions to eradicate illiteracy: Constitutional provisions: The Parliament of India passed the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act in 2002 aimed at making right to education a fundamental right for children between 6 and 14 years of age. Its main provisions are as follows:

(a) Compulsory education means obligation of the government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission and attendance and completion of education to every child in the age group of 6 to 14.

(b) It is compulsory duty of parents and guardians to send the children to schools.

(c) The schools must’have minimum facilities such as adequate pupil-teacher ratio, trained teachers, infrastructure and playgrounds.

(d) The central government and state governments bear the expenditure on the basis of agreed formula.

(e) The school management committee or the local authority should identify the dropouts or out of school children and admit them in classes appropriate to their age.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
‘Communalism is a threat to Indian democracy’. Prove this statement and list out the remedial measures. (March 2015,2018 – July 2016)
Answer:
Communalism acts as a threat to Indian Democracy:
(a) Threat to National Integrity: Hostility’ among various religious groups is a serious threat to national unity and integrity in India. Partition of the sub-continent to religious differences in 1947 has adversely affected social harmony in India. This is continued among both religious communities and leads to communalistn in democratic government.

(b) Threat to Nationalism and Patriotism: Communalism leads to various forms of religious fundamentalism and orthodoxism. Religious fundamentalists exploit their community people breeds bigotry and religious identity. In such a social environment, national and patriotic feelings are marginalized and even forgotten. Therefore, communalism endangers nationalism and patriotism.

(c) Impediment to National Development: Lack of national outlook, secular attitude and holistic approach sometimes leads to their selfish ends of few religious leaders. Through their provocative speeches and writings create communal disturbances which naturally affect the national developmental programmes.

(d) Weak Political Leadership: Political parties and leadership have failed to control the communalism in India. Communal politics emerged by political parties which finally influenced to fundamentalism. It leads to weak political leadership.

(e) Threat to National Sovereignty: A nation which experiences chronic internal conflicts and socio-religious divisions may become a weak country. Gradually it may lead to foreign invasion and threat to sovereignty.

Securalism: The Constitution makers adopted secularism in order to create sense of security and equality among different religious groups. The state also follows a policy of neutrality in religious matters. Article 26 provides every religious denomination or any section has the right to establish religious organisations. In December 2013, the Central Cabinet approved the ‘Prevention of Communal Violence Bill to punish the offenders who instigate and indulge in communal riots. It is yet to be passed by Parliament.

National Integration: It is the process of uniting the people emotionally, psychologically and politically. India is a land of diversity. For the success of Indian Democracy, promotion of National Integration is necessary. To preserve and sustain National Integration many provisions have been adopted in the Constitution.

Neighbourhood Peace Committees: After the demolition of Babri Masjid in Ayodhya and subsequent communal riots in all over the country, certain measures have been taken to establish neighbourhood peace committees with eminent and prominent leaders of the community as its members. These members must be nominated from each community in riot-prone or communally sensitive areas.

The main objectives of these committees are to control the social tensions which was the main cause for communal riots. Taking precautionaiy measures to prevent the eruption of communal clashes. Restoring normalcy in the communally affected area, establishing communal harmonious relationship between the communities and extending all possible help to affected people.

Question 7.
How terrorism is a threat to Indian democracy 7 Write the legislative measures for the eradication.
Answer:
Terrorism is a commination to Democracy: Terrorism is commination to Democracy:

(a) Disruption of governance: Terrorist organisations are disrupting the democratic governance in the nation. They are indulging in violent and insurgent activities which have targeted the government, top political leaders and officers and thereby erode the legitimacy of the elected government.

(b) Disrespect for constitution: Though the Constitution is the fundamental law of the country, the terrorist groups and organisations are violating the mandatory provisions of the law and involving terrorist activities.

(c) Violation of human rights: Terrorists have no respect on human rights. They kill and  injure the innocent people, attack the leaders and target the public places.

(d) Anti democratic activities: Terrorists are always tries to destabilize the democratic system and disrupt the election process.

(e) Obstacle to economic growth: It also destroys the economic development of the country by diverting the huge amount of money towards curbing terrorist activities.

Legislative measures for the eradication of Terrorism: Socio-economic development is a remedy to curb the terrorism

(a) Social acceptance: Measures have to be taken to bring the terrorist back to the main stream of social life. They should not be made to suffer the stigma of terrorism.

(b) Education: Lack of moral education and nationality, youth are attracted by terrorism. Providing proper education would help them to realize that there are other goals to achieve.

(c) Employment opportunities: By providing employment to the youths at the suitable stage avoids the undemocratic and anti-national activities and thus effectively prevented from embracing terrorism.

Question 8.
Write the causes for corruption and how it is acting as a menace to democracy.
Answer:
Causes of corruption:
(a) Greediness: Basically man is a selfish, acquisitive, aggressive and greedy. This encourages him to amass wealth whenever he gets an opportunity. Therefore, people are always urge for acquiring wealth and property.
(b) Selfishness: As it is said service to the people is service to God has been ignored by the people who are in power and in public office. They work for their benefit but not for the society though service is there motto.
(c) Corrupt politicians: Though the election system is flawless, the process of implementation
is corrupted. Votes are being purchased and voters are driven to polling booths in order to get votes in their favour.
(d) Lack of morality’: Parents and elders at home, teachers in class rooms have to impart moral education. Because it is said that destiny of the country is shaped in class rooms. In case if it is not done, it leads to deterioration of values which finally leads to corruption.

Corruption is a menace to Democracy: Corruption as a menace to Democracy:

(a) Power politics: The common phenomenon all over the country is that “goodness politics” is replaced by power politics. Money power and muscle power has become dominant in the present election system. Politics has become a gainful profession to make money and to get publicity. It endangers the existence of democracy.

(b) Criminalisation of politics: The prevalence of large scale criminalization of politics has increased illegal and illegitimate expenditure on elections. As this scenario is rampant it has become menace to democracy.

(c) Demoralisation of Bureaucracy: Corruption takes the form of favouritism, redtapism, nepotism. Destabilisation of governments due to illegal political operations and administrative corruption by bureaucracy has become threat to democracy.

(d) Violation of social justice: Accumulation of wealth through corruption leads to the concentration of wealth in a few people which finally leads to the violation of socio¬economic justice. Some people enjoy luxurious life and majority suffer from poverty due to deprivation. It is against to democratic values.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Explain various legislative measures to prevent corruption.
Answer:
Anti-Corruption Act (Prevention of Corruption Act)
The Prevention of Corruption Act was enacted by both Union and State governments to curb corruption in public administration. Through the adoption of institutional mechanism like Central Bureau of Investigation in 1963 and Central Vigilance Commission in 1964, investigates cases of misconduct by public servants and other corporate bodies that comes under the purview’ of Union government.

Lokpal: Organisation: The Lokpal Bill became an Act on 1st January 2013. It consists of 9 members including the Chairman. Sitting Judge of Supreme Court or retired Chief Justice of India is eligible to head the Lokpal Institution. 4 members should be Judges of either Supreme Court or High Court and 4 members must possess minimum 25 years of experience in Vigilance Commission.
According to Administrative Reforms Commission of India the President appoints the Lokpal with the consultation of panel consisting of Prime Minister, Speaker and Leader of Opposition in Loksabha, Chief Justice of India. The tenure is 5 years. They can be removed by the President after the enquiry conducted by the Supreme Court.
The jurisdiction of Lokpal covers employees of Union government including the Prime Minister, Ministers, MPs and State Legislators.
Powers and functions of Lokpal are as follows:
(a) Lokpal has power to sanction prosecution against public servants and can register cases against corrupt officials.
(b) All organisations receiving donations from foreign sources come under the jurisdiction of Lokpal.
(c) Lokpal has the power of superintendence over any probe agency for cases referred by it.
(d) Provision is made for confiscation and attachment of property acquired by corrupt meAnswer:
(e) If the corruption charges are proved, the concerned officials have to undergo 2 years jail term.

Lokayukta: Organisation: The Lokayukta Institution was came into force in Karnataka in 1984. It comprises 3 members, one is Lokayukta and two are the Upa Lokayuktas. Retired Judge of Supreme Court or Chief Justice of High Court is appointed as Lokayukta and retired Judge of High Court is Upa Lokayukta.
The Governor appoints the Lokayukta with the consultation of committee consisting of Chief Minister, Chief Justice of High Court, Speaker of Assembly, Chairman of the Council and Leaders of Opposition. The Lokayukta is appointed for 5 years and removed from the office by the Governor on the charge of misbehavior or incapability’ proved in the State Legislature  by 2/3rd majority.
The powers and functions of Lokayukta are as follows:
(a) The Lokayukta receives complaints and allegations from any person against the corrupted officials,
(b) The Lokayukta can proceeds to investigate on a prima facie consideration. If it is satisfied that a criminal offence has been committed, it may initiate prosecution.
(c) The Lokayukta may investigate any action taken by the public servant if-it is referred by the state government.
(d) The Lokayukta has extensive powers of raids, searches, seizure of documents, properties, jewellery, cash, etc. which are unaccounted.
(e) In the process of investigation, the Lokayukta deals with the issue of search warrant.

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