2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 6 Emerging Trends Of Indian Politics

Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 6 Emerging Trends Of Indian Politics

You can Download Chapter 6 Emerging Trends Of Indian Politics Notes, 2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

2nd PUC Political Science Emerging Trends Of Indian Politics One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write the root word of coalition. (July 2015)
Answer:
The term coalition is derived from the Latin word ‘coalitio’.

Question 2.
State the meaning of the root word of coalition.
Answer:
‘Co’ means ‘together’ and ‘Alescere’ means ‘to grow up’. It is a union of parties.

Question 3.
Expand CMP.
Answer:
Common Minimum Programme.

Question 4.
Name the country where the era of coalition started.
Answer:
The era of coalition was started in France.

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Question 5.
State the meaning of coalition. (March 2016)
Answer:
Formation of government by various political parties is called coalition.

Question 6.
In which year India experienced coalition?
Answer:
India experienced coalition in 1977.

Question 7.
Who was the first prime minister of coalition Government in India?
Answer:
Sri Morarji Desai was the first Prime Minister of coalition Government in India.

Question 8.
Who lead the national front in 1989?
Answer:
V.P. Singh lead the National Front in 1989.

Question 9.
When was the united front formed?
Answer:
United Front was formed in 1996.

Question 10.
WH Expand NDA.
Answer:
National Democratic Alliance.

Question 11.
Expand UPA.
Answer:
United Progressive Alliance.

Question 12.
How many subjects are there in union list?
Answer:
There are 100 subjects in Union List.

Question 13.
Name one of the subjects in state list.
Answer:
The subject in the State List is Police.

Question 14.
What is concurrent list?
Answer:
The subjects which are administered by both central and state governments is called concurrent list.

Question 15.
Who can declare National Emergency?
Answer:
The President of India declare the National Emergency.

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Question 16.
Who is empowered to exercise the Residuary Powers?
Answer:
Central government is empowered to exercise the residuary powers.

Question 17.
under which article the State Emergency can be declared?
Answer:
As per Article 356 of Indian Constitution, the State Emergency can be declared.

Question 18.
Who is empowered to appoint Inter-State Commerce Commission?
Answer:
Union Parliament is empowered to appoint Inter-State Commerce Commission.

Question 19.
Can the states levy taxes on import and export?
Answer:
The States cannot levy the taxes on import and export.

Question 20.
Who has the jurisdiction over Inter State Trade and Commerce?
Answer:
Centra! government has the jurisdiction over Inter-State 1 rade Commerce.

Question 21.
Who has the authority to transfer the subject in state list to the union list for a period of one year?
Answer:
Rajya Sabha has the authority to transfer the subject in State list to the Union List for a period of one year.

Question 22.
What is the basic function of Planning Commission?
Answer:
Planning Commission advises all the states to raise the standard of living of the people.

Question 23.
Who constitute the Finance Commission?
Answer:
The President of India constitutes the Finance Commission.

Question 24.
What is consolidated fund of India?
Answer:
The fund which bears the expenses of wages towards the higher officers of India is called consolidated fund.

Question 25.
Who exercises legislative powers on state list during president rule? (July 2018)
Answer:
Parliament.

Question 26.
Who traced the origin of identity politics? (March 2015)
Answer:
L.A. Kauffman traced the origin of identity politics.

Question 27.
Expand LGBT.
Answer:
Lesbian. Gay, Bi-Sexual. Transgender.

Question 28.
State any one region based identity struggles.
Answer:
Telangana struggle is one of the region based identity struggle.

Question 29.
Expand AASU.
Answer:
All Assam Students’Union.

Question 30.
Name any one National problem that you come across.
Answer:
Religious fundamentalism is one of the National problem that we come across.

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Question 31.
Which amendment of the constitution reduced the age of voters from 21 to 18 years?
Answer:
61st Amendment of the Constitution reduced the age of voters from 21 to 18 years.

Question 32.
Write the root word of corruption. (March 2016)
Answer:
The term corruption is derived from the Latin word ‘rumpere’.

Question 33.
Expand IAC.
Answer:
India Against Corruption.

Question 34.
On this earth there is enough for every one’s need, but not for greed’- who said this. (July 2016)
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhiji said that ’on this earth there is enough for every one’s need, but not for greed’

Question 35.
Mention one form of terrorism.
Answer:
Cultural Terrorism is one form of terrorism.

Question 36.
Name one action to keep the terrorists at bay.
Answer:
Educate the youth to create awareness against the evils of terrorism is one of the action to keep the terrorists at bay.

Question 37.
On which day ‘Voters Day’ is celebrated?
Answer:
25th January of every year.

2nd PUC Political Science Emerging Trends Of Indian Politics Two marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
How is the coalition formed?
Answer:
Coalition is formed by various political parties on common agenda when no party gains clear majority on its own. This is the product of multi party system.

Question 2.
Define coalition government. (July 2015)
Answer:
According to F.A. Ogg, “It is a system where members of political parties unite to form a government or ministry.”

Question 3.
How coalition politics operate?
Answer:
Coalition politics is a system of governance by a group of political parties. The partners of the alliance set aside their political ideologies and accept some Common Minimum Programme to run the coalition government.

Question 4.
Mention the era of coalition politics in India.
Answer:
The coalition politics was first emerged in India in 1977 under the leadership of Morarji Desai, V.P. Singh formed the coalition government in 1989 on the banner of National Front. Once again coalition government was formed by H.D. Devegowda in the name of United Front.

Then Atal Bihari Vajapayee formed the coalition government with the help of National Democratic Alliance. Dr. Manmohan Singh formed the coalition government in the name of  United Progressive Alliance. It was once again formed under the leadership of Narendra Modi in 2014 with the help of National Democratic Alliance.

Question 5.
Give two examples of countries having coalition.
Answer:
The two examples of countries having coalition is India and France.

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Question 6.
What is prepoll alliance?
Answer:
Various political parties make alliance with one another to form the government before elections, it is called prepoll alliance.

Question 7.
What is post poll alliance? (July 2016)
Answer:
Various political parties make alliance with one another to form the government alter the elections, it is called post poll alliance.

Question 8.
State any two features of coalition government.
Answer:
(a) Coalition is the product of multi party system.
(b) It is democratic arrangement.

Question 9.
What is collective leadership?
Answer:
All the leaders of alliance in the coalition politics influences on all the decisions taken by the government, it is called collective leadership.

Question 10.
Write any two merits of coalition government.
Answer:
(a)  Coalition takes care of diversity and plurality in administration.
(b) It enables all the coalition partners to have a share in policy making and eliminates regional disparties

Question 11.
Mention two demerits of coalition government.
Answer:
(a) Political instability persists in coalition politics.
(b) Coalition governments can not have long term planning and view.

Question 12.
What is Common Minimum Programme?
Answer:
The partners of the alliance come together, set aside their political ideologies and accept one agenda which, is accessible to all the leaders and form the government. Such an agenda is called Common Minimum Programme.

Question 13.
Name any two alliance partners of NDA.
Answer:
B.J.P and Shivasena are the two alliance partners of NDA.

Question 14.
Mention two alliance partners of CPA,
Answer:
Indian National Congress and D.M.K.. are the two alliance partners of NDA.

Question 15.
Is coalition a democratic arrangement? if so. how?
Answer:
Coalition is a democratic arrangement. It provides broader representation to the people to elect their representatives. It challenges single party dominance.

Question 16.
Name two subjects enlisted in union list.
Answer:
(a) External Affairs
(b) Defence

Question 17.
What is state list? How many subjects are there?
Answer:
The list of subjects which are administered by the state governments is called State List. There are 63 subjects in the State List.

Question 18.
How many subjects arc there in concurrent list? Give an example. (July 2015)
Answer:
There are 52 subjects in the concurrent list. E.x. Marriage and Divorce, Civil Procedure and Criminal Laws.

Question 19.
What is residuary powers?
Answer:
The powers which are not mentioned in the Union list. State list and Concurrent list, is called Residuary powers.

Question 20.
Under what condition the financial emergency be declared?
Answer:
The Financial Emergency he declared if the financial conditions of the nation are precarious.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 21.
When and in which country identity politics originated?
Answer:
The identity polities was originated in America during 1950-60.

Question 22.
What is identity politics? (March 2016)
Answer:
A pattern of belongingness, a search for comfort, an approach to community is called identity politics.

Question 23.
What is corruption? (July 2016)
Answer:
Misuse of public office for the selfish motives is called corruption.

Question 24.
Write two hurdles in creating corruption free India.
Answer:
IIliteracy and lack of moral values are the two hurdles in creating corruption free India.

Question 25.
Give an example of movement against corruption.
Answer:
The movement head by Sri Anna Hazare is India Against Corruption.

Question 26.
Define terrorism. (March 2016)
Answer:
According’ to Paul Wilkinson “Terrorism is a special form of political violence”.

Question 27.
What is state sponsored terrorism?
Answer:
The terrorist activities which are aided and guided by the state and ruling governments is called State Sponsored Terrorism.

Question 28.
Name any two states that fight against Naxalites.
Answer:
Bihar and Jharkhand are the two states fighting against Naxalites.

Question 29.
“If you want to catch them, catch them while they are young” Who said this statement and when?
Answer:
Winston Churchill said, “If you want to catch them, catch them while they are young” while delivering his speech to curb the terrorism.”

Question 30.
Enumerate the remedial measures for terrorism.
Answer:
Youth of India should successfully face the challenges posed by terrorism by successfully using the means of communications to spread peace, love and create a happy neighbourhood.

2nd PUC Political Science Emerging Trends Of Indian Politics Five marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the era of coalition politics in India.
Answer:
The Indian National Congress was in power till 1977 as a single largest political party. The autocratic attitude of the party in power disillusioned the opposition parties mainly National emergency declared on the country by Congress party. When opposition united together, the Indian National Congress began to fail. During the National emergency, the opposition leaders of India have come together and fought against the domination of Indian National Congress.

The general election of 1977has put an end to the single party rule and introduced coalition government under the leadership of Morarji Desai. the first Prime Minister of a coalition government. Later on in 1989, National Front was led by V.P. Singh formed coalition government. In 1996 United Front led by H. D. Devegowda, in 1999 National Democratic Alliance under the leadership of A.B. Vajapayee, in 2004 United Progressive Alliance led by Dr. Manmohan Singh and in 2014 again National Democratic Alliance led by Narendra Modi were formed the coalition governments.

Question 2.
Mention any five features of coalition government.
Answer:
The features of coalition government are as follows:
(a) Coalition is the product of multiparty system.
(b) It is a democratic arrangement.
(c) It challenges single party dominance and in which smaller parties come together to defeat the bigger ones in elections and snatch the power and vice-versa.
(d) Coalition may be pre-poll arrangement or post-poll arrangement.
(e) Alliance partners prefer to have a common minimum programme for governance.

Question 3.
Write any five merits of coalition government. (July 2015,2016)
Answer:
The merits of coalition government are as follows :
(a) It provides broader representation to the people as big and small parties join hands in the governance. It also enables them to have a share in policy making and eliminates regional disparities.
(b) It provides an opportunity for the creation of consensus based politics which represents the public opinion in national policies, issues and programmes.
(c) Coalition takes care of diversity and plurality in administration.
(d) By feeling the pulse of the people, it provides good governance.
(e) The presence of various political parties provides broader choice for the people to elect.

Question 4.
Explain briefly the demerits of coalition government. (March 2019)
Answer:
The demerits of coalition government are as follow s :

(a) Due to the presence of various party leaders believing in different ideologies and policies political consistency is difficult to achieve. Hence political instability persists.

(b) As coalition is the result of mutual consent, heads of government have no say in the formation of their own cabinet and in the formation of national policies or programmes.

(c) In the parliamentary system of government as each coalition partner has its own specific electorate and has assured specific schemes and programmes.

(d) Collective responsibility is a casualty. The ministry has to act as a unit. But in coalition government, this cannot happen. Hence, no one shoulders the responsibility for mismanagement and maladministration.

(e) Official secrecy cannot be maintained. Decisions taken in cabinet which are sensitive in nature are disclosed by its own signatories who cannot be curtailed by the government.

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Question 5.
State the legislative powers of union and state government.
Answer:
The legislative powers of union and state governments are mentioned as follows:

(a) The union list: It contains 100 subjects like defence. External affairs, Currency and Coinage, Atomic Energy, Science and Technology. Customs on which the central government has supreme law making powers.

(b) The state list: It consists of 63 subjects like Police, Health, Agriculture, Local Self Governments. Road Transport, etc. On these subjects, state governments have law making powers.

(c) The concurrent list: It comprises 52 subjects like Marriage and Divorce. Civil Procedure and Criminal Laws, Preventive Detention, Trust and Trusties. Education, etc. On these subjects both the union and state can legislate. In case of disputes, the will of the union government prevails.

(d) Residuary powers: Powers not mentioned in the above three lists are called residuary powers. These powers are given to the union government.

Question 6.
Explain the method of distribution of powers as found in our constitution.
Answer:
India is a federal structure in nature. So the powers have been distributed between union and state governments. Article 245 to 255 of the Constitution of India clearly narrates the distribution of powers. Here the constitutional powers have been categorized into three lists. Firstly the national and international issues are comes in the centre list in which the central government can legislate and the state governments are not permitted to interfere on these issues.

The centre list consists 100 subjects like External affairs, Defence, Currency, Science and Technology. Railway, Central Excise Duty, Import and Export. The regional matters are comes under state list in which the state governments arc permitted to legislate on these matters. The central government cannot interfere on the state list matters in general. The state list consists 63 subjects like Police, Agriculture. Health. Road Transport. Animal Husbandry. Sericulture, etc.

Remaining all subjects are comes under the concurrent list in which both centre and state can pass the legislations. In case of disputes, the will of the central government prevails. The concurrent list consists 52 subjects like Marriage divorce. Press Media, Civil and  Criminal code. Trusteeship, Education, etc.

Question 7.
“Coalitions are politically unstable”- Prove this statement.
Answer:
Coalition governments are politically unstable. It can also called as political arranged system. In this system, no party gets the absolute majority and formed the government with the help of various political parties by making common agenda. Due to the presence of various parties believing in different ideologies and policies, political consistency is difficult to achieve.

Here the leader of the coalition government has to compromise with all the allies partners, otherwise they will withdraw their support for simple reason often and often. The leaders of the coalition government have lost the power in the coalition politics since 1977 for several times. For example the first coalition government which came to power in 1977 under the leadership of Morarji Desai lost the power within 2 years.

In the same manner Y.P. Singh who ’lead the National Front in 1989 lost the power within 20 months. Like wise H.D. Devegowda formed the coalition government in 1996 loses the power with in 10 months. So coalition government cannot be in power for full term.

Question 8.
write note an emergency Powers of the President (March 2016)
Answer:
The President of India exercises three types of emergency powers. They are:

(a) National emergency : Article 5.55 of the India Constitution, the President is empowers to declare National emergency when threat of external aggression. It can he imposed for the . protection of unity and integrity of the country. Till now it had been imposed for thrice. In such circumstances, individual rights are suspended.

(b) State emergency : Article 356 of the Indian Constitution authorizes the President to declare the Presidential rule on the recommendation of the Governor during the breakdown of die constitutional machinery in that stare.

(c) Financial emergency : Article 360 of the Indian Constitution empowers the President to declare financial emergency if the financial conditions of the nation are precarious.

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Question 9
State any five causes for identity politics. (July 2018)
Answer:
Causes for identity politics :
(a) Maladministration leads to the poor economic growth of a particular region or geographical backwardness of the people of a particular ethnic identity.
(b) The rise of regional parties created the local awareness of language or region.
(c) Extreme poverty, exploitation, lack of opportunity and threat to existing group.
(d) Ethnic groups fear of assimilation of cultural dilution.
(e) Rise in standard of living, literacy and aspiration, socio political awareness have led to identity polities.

Question 10.
Explain the different aspects of identity politics.
Answer:
The different aspects of identity politics:

(a) Religion: The fear of losing individual identity has compelled many groups to organize on religious lines. A few groups are involved in militant activities to get recognition. Religious conversion takes place either by force or attraction. Political parties tries to establish their vote bank politics on the basis of religious lines. At the same time religious forces plays a dominant role in the government to protect and safeguard their interests.

(b) Caste: In Indian society one’s social status is decided by the credentials of caste rather than his efficiency and achievements. A person can lose his wealth and property but he can not lose his caste identity and prefers to gain and protect his caste interests. Some caste groups tries to get the benefit from the field of education and employment. Some groups urged for the political representation.

(c) Region: Regional identity plays a dominant role in national and regional politics. Some regional leaders are enjoying dominant position in national politics because of regional popularity. In this way, the regional identity is providing leadership to national politics for the purpose of protecting the regional interests.

(d) Tribal: Behind every major movement, there is the factor of region as it happened in case of Birsa Munda Movement for the identity of tribals and Shibu Soren’s efforts for the creation of Jharkhand are noteworthy. Some agitations and movements are still alive to protect their tribal interests and some are succeeded. For example Telangana movement in Andhra Pradesh.

(e) Linguistic: India is a union of multi lingual states. Language is one of the most sensitive and emotional issues. Throughout the country there are several paramount groups and leaders who want their share from the government on the basis of language. In Karnataka people fought for the implementation of Gokak report to make Kannada an administrative language during 1980’s.

Question 11.
What are the hindrances that youth come across to enter into politics?
Answer:
There are politicians who do not allow the youth to enter politics. The entry of the youth to politics is curbed by systematic suppression. They do not exercise their franchise because of political apathy. Many of them do not perceive politics in a right perspective. They are not ready to participate in mudslinging acts during elections. Women who constitute more than 1/2 of the total population do not adequately represent either in national or state politics because of male domination.

Question 12.
Explain how youth leadership can change the scenario of Indian politics?
Answer:
India is a largest democratic country in the world. It can also regarded as the second largest populous and geographically seventh largest country in the world. Democratic principles are not just found in our Constitution but basically its values are enshrined in our people. The Constitution provides right to vote for all the adult citizens without any discrimination.

The voters are actively participating in the electoral process since the first general election. As per 61st Amendment to the Constitution, the voting age was reduced to 18 years from 21 during 1986. With the reduction in voting age the size of the electorate increased heavily providing an opportunity to the younger generation to participate in choosing their representatives.

With great vigour and zeal, the youth successfully participated in the elections and the tender aged boys and girls made a right choice, it was proved. The country that respects the will of the youth can bring new thinking in all walks of life including politics. Youth have the energy to liberate and purify the political arena of the country as they normally do not accept traditional caste barriers.

Youth have the courage and the capacity to understand burning issues like boundary, language, river water, ethnic disputes and sensitive issues. Increase in the number of the youth in politics enhances the credibility’ of the democracy. The honest involvement of youth in politics strengthen the democratic system. Recent developments show that large number of youth are participating and winning both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.

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Question 13.
How can youth control corruption (July 2017) (March 2018)
Answer:
Role of youth against corruption : Corruption is misuse of public power for private profits by violating the constitution. Independent India has seen scams like – Farefax, Bofors, Share deal, Stamp paper scandal, fodder, 2-G Spectrum, Coal and others involving billions of rupees of public money. Inspite of these scams, still corruption persists in all walks of life including education, health, administration and politics.

Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan the pioneer of the “Total Revolution”, inspired youth during 1970s to revolt against the corrupt administration. Today the mood of the country especially the mood of the youth is against corruption on war footing. The war against corruption is perceived as the mother of all wars.

Anti corruption movement gathered momentum when Sri Anna Hazare kick started the movement and gave a call to the youth to join him in a fight against corruption under the banner of ‘India against corruption’. The overall effect of the youth movement against corruption have resulted in the creation of the institution of Lokpal, passing of the Acts of Right to Information (RTI), Right to Education (RTE), Sakaal and other various drastical measures.

Question 14.
State the role of youth in eradicating terrorism in India. (March 2015,2017)
Answer:
Role of youth against terrorism : Terrorism means deliberately and violently targeting civilians by inflicting physical or mental agony, wound or death that creates fear phychoses for political gains. Hence the youth have to pressurize the governments concerned to create awareness and educate those who are indulged in anti national and inhuman terrorist activities, particularly youth.

Youth have to develop patriotism that is national feeling and involve themselves in constructive activities like nation building through helping the government about terrorist and militant activities taking place in their surroundings which is the prime duty of the youth. Youth have to take the initiative within the jurisdiction of law to fight against terrorism as it happened in Naxal hit states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh where Salwajudum (village army) fighting against Naxalites.

Youth must understand the complicated and multi-faceted terrorism rationally. They have to isolate the terrorists and involve in helping the government to nab the culprits. It is the responsibility’ of the youth to spread the importance of education that saves the younger generation from the clutches of terrorism and communalism.

As it happened in the case of Ms. Malala Yusufa Zai of Pakistan, who survived in the terrorist attack. No Nation can prosper unless strongest measures are executed against terrorism. It is the youth who have a major role in combating terrorism. Youth of India should successfully face the challenges posed by terrorism by successfully using the means of communications to spread peace, love and create a happy neighbourhood.

2nd PUC Political Science Emerging Trends Of Indian Politics Ten marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the development of coalition government in India.
Answer:
The term ‘coalition’ has been derived from Latin word ‘eligere’ which means to go or to grow together. In the political sense, the term coalition is used for an alliance or temporary union between various political groups for the exercise or control of political power. While entering into coalition the partners are expected to give up their rigid stand and make compromise in the spirit of mutual give and take policy. The parties to the coalition, however, do not lose their identity and can withdraw from the coalition as and when they find it difficult to continue as partners.

By and large the centre in India has enjoyed a single party government. From the inception of the constitution till the split of congress in 1969, the congress in 1969, the congress government continued to rule the country with a comfortable majority. For the first time in 1969 after the split in congress, some members of congress party withdrew their support from the government, thus reducing it to a minority. However, the minority congress government continued to rule with the tacit support of CPI and DMK. It is noteworthy that neither CPI nor DMK was represented in the government.

The formation of the first Janatha Government at the Centre (1977) was the result of an accommodative attitude of its constituent political groups. Morarji Desai headed the four party Janatha Government for about two years (1977-1979) following the 1977 general election. Technically it was not a coalition because its four constituents had agreed to merge and fought the election on a single manifesto and on a shared symbol. According to some scholars, the Janatha Government was a sort of coalition government in so far four political parties with a view to provide an alternative to the congress party.

Later on in 1989, National Front was led by V.P. Singh formed coalition government. In 1996 United Front led by H. D. Devegowda, in 1999 National Democratic Alliance under the leadership of A.B. Vajapayee, in 2004 United Progressive Alliance led by Dr. Manmohan Singh and in 2014 again National Democratic Alliance led by Narendra Modi were formed the coalition governments.

Question 2.
List out the features of coalition government.
Answer:
The features of coalition government are as follows :
(a) Coalition is the product of multiparty system.
(b) It is a democratic arrangement.
(c) It challenges single party dominance and in which smaller parties come together to defeat the bigger ones in elections and snatch the power and vice-versa.
(d) Coalition may be pre-poll arrangement or post-poll arrangement.
(e) Alliance partners prefer to have a common minimum programme for governance.
(f) During national emergency or crisis, national government is formed through coalition.
(g) Coalition deteriorates the supreme status of the Prime Minister who heads the government.
(h) A person agreeable not only to big party but also to the alliance partners becomes the leader of the house and natural heads the government.
(i) Coalition partners are always free to cede their relations and fight on one’s identity.
(j) Coalitions are politically unstable.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Write the merits and demerits of coalition government.
Answer:
The merits of coalition government are as follows :

(a) It provides broader representation to the people as big and small parties join hands in the governance. It also enables them to have a share in policy making and eliminates regional disparities.

(b) It provides an opportunity for the creation of consensus based politics which represents the public opinion in national policies, issues and programmes. .

(c) Coalition takes care of diversity and plurality in administration.

(d) By feeling the pulse of the people, it provides good governance.

(e) The presence of various political parties provides broader choice for the people to elect.

(f) Coalition does not allow the autocratic rule of a single dominant party. Minister or members of cabinet including PrimeMinister cannot behave autocraticalIty.

The demerits of coalition government are as follows :

(a) Due to the presence of various party leaders believing in different ideologies and policies political consistency is difficult to achieve. Hence political instability persists.

(b) As coalition is the result of mutual consent, heads of government have no say in the formation of their own cabinet and in the formation of national policies or programmes.

(c) In the parliamentary, system of government as each coalition partner has its own specific electorate and has assured specific schemes and programmes.

(d) Collective responsibility is a casualty. The ministry has to act as a unit. But in coalition government, this Cannot happen. Hence, no one shoulders the responsibility for mismanagement and maladministration.

(e) Official secrecy cannot be maintained. Decisions taken in cabinet which are sensitive in nature are disclosed by its own signatories who cannot be curtailed by the government.

(f) Regional parties always ignore national interests and concentrate on their own parochial interests and chauvinism.

(i) Coalition proves to be highly expensive as it does not complete the full term.

(j) Coalition governments cannot have long term planning and view. Its main aim to escape from the present political volatility.

Question 4.
Describe the new dimensions of centre- state relations with respect to legislative, administrative and financial relations.
Answer:
The legislative relations between union and state governments are mentioned as follows:

(a) The union list: It contains 100 subjects like defence, External affairs, Currency and Coinage, Atomic Energy, Science and Technology, Customs on which the central government has supreme law making powers.

(b) The state list: It consists of 63 subjects like Police, Health, Agriculture, Local Self Governments, Road Transport, etc. On these subjects, state governments have law making powers.

(c) The concurrent list: It comprises 52 subjects like Marriage and Divorce, Civil Procedure and Criminal Laws, Preventive Detention. Trust and Trusties, Education, etc. On these subjects both the union and state can legislate. In case of disputes, the will of the union government prevails.

(d) Residuary powers: Powers not mentioned in the above three lists are called residuary powers. These powers are given to the union government.

Situation during emergencies :

(a) National emergency: Article 353 of the India Constitution, the President is empowers to declare National emergency when threat of external aggression. It can be imposed for the protection of unity and integrity of the country. Till now1 it had been imposed for thrice. In such circumstances, individual rights are suspended.

(b) State Emergency: Article 356 of the Indian Constitution authorizes the President to declare the Presidential rale on the recommendation of the Governor during the breakdown of the constitutional machinery in that state.

(c) Financial Emergency: Article 360 of the Indian Constitution empowers the President to declare financial emergency if the financial conditions of the nation are precarious.

Administrative relations between Centre and State Governments :
(a) President of India has the power to appoint the Governors of all the States and Union Territories.
(b) President by having jurisdiction over the appointment of the Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts, Integrated Judicial System is maintained throughout the country.
(c) Bills passed in State Legislatures during President’s rule are required to get the approval of the President.
(d) The members of All India Services who serve both the Union and State governments are finally regulated by Union.
(e) The Union government issues directions to the states regarding law and order, national unity, safety and security.
(f) Parliament is empowered to appoint Inter State Commerce Commission to maintain cordial relations among the states.
(g) To ensure the rapid and balanced development of the country, National Development Council is created.
(h) Planning Commission advises all the states to raise the standard of living of the people.

Financial relations between centre and state governments :
(a) A Finance Commission has constituted to determine the distribution of financial resources between the union and states.
(b) Parliament may by law establish a contingency fund to meet unforeseen expenditure.
(c) Some duties are leviable by the centre, but they are to be collected and entirely appropriated by the states.
(d) There are some taxes which are both levied and collected by the union but distributed among equally.
(e) The Parliament determines the quantum of assistance every year to the needy states, tribal .areas, etc.
(f) During President’s rule in the state, state financial propriety is managed by the union.

Question 5.
Mark the trace of identity politcs
Answer:
Identity politics is not too old concept. L.A. Kauffman traced the origin of identity politics to Student Non violent co-ordinating committee of U.S. in early 1960’s. The identity politics originated and got its legitimacy in U.S. between 1950-60 in the movements of lesbians, black civil rights, wave of feminists etc., The movement became prominent only in 1980’s.

with Lesbian Gay Bi-Sexual Transgender (LGBT) movement. It is notably found in class movements like feminist movements disability movements, ethnic movements, minority movements. Globalisation, Liberalisation and the setback to the socialistic principles led to the rise of identity’politics.

Crisis of identity is the fundamental reason for the rise of identity struggles in several parts of the world. Each individual, every culture, every language, religion and region are unique in their own way. A community may be poor economically but rich in cultural heritage and loves to retain its identity. A person can forget the loss of wealth but does not forget his inherent caste, culture, language, religion and region.

Loss identity means loss of one’s entity. According to Universal Declaration of Human Rights-1948, every citizen irrespective of nationality, economic standard, lesbian or conventionalist has an inseparable human right of equal opportunities, treatment, practice, participation, etc.

At present the political parties big or small, national or regional are appealing to the voters on sectarian basis namely language, region, caste, religion, river, race, etc. Government announce popular programmes on the basis of caste and community, gender, local or territorial basis. Identity politics is a pattern of belongingness, a search for comfort, an approach to community. It attempts to attain empowerment, representation and recognition of social groups.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Discuss the various aspects of identity politics.
Answer:

The legislative powers of union and state governments are mentioned as follows:

(a) The union list: It contains 100 subjects like defence. External affairs, Currency and Coinage, Atomic Energy, Science and Technology. Customs on which the central government has supreme law making powers.

(b) The state list: It consists of 63 subjects like Police, Health, Agriculture, Local Self Governments. Road Transport, etc. On these subjects, state governments have law making powers.

(c) The concurrent list: It comprises 52 subjects like Marriage and Divorce. Civil Procedure and Criminal Laws, Preventive Detention, Trust and Trusties. Education, etc. On these subjects both the union and state can legislate. In case of disputes, the will of the union government prevails.

(d) Residuary powers: Powers not mentioned in the above three lists are called residuary powers. These powers are given to the union government.

Question 7.
Explain the causes of identity politics.
Answer:
Causes for identity politics :
(a) Maladministration leads to the poor economic growth of a particular region or geographical backwardness of the people of a particular ethnic identity.
(b) The rise of regional parties created the local awareness of language or region.
(c) Extreme poverty, exploitation, lack of opportunity and threat to existing group.
(d) Ethnic groups fear of assimilation of cultural dilution.
(e) Rise in standard of living, literacy and aspiration, socio political awareness have led to identity politics.
(f) Lack of share in natural resources, fear of loss of land, political power and economic growth.
(g) Fear of losing scope in educational and employment field.
(h) Fear of losing ethnic identities like language and culture.
These are the main causes for the emergence of identity politics.

Question 8.
Write the role of youth in Indian politics.
Answer:

India is a largest democratic country in the world. It can also regarded as the second largest populous and geographically seventh largest country in the world. Democratic principles are not just found in our Constitution but basically its values are enshrined in our people. The Constitution provides right to vote for all the adult citizens without any discrimination. The voters are actively participating in the electoral process since the first general election.

As per 61st Amendment to the Constitution, the voting age was reduced to 18 years from 21 during 1986. With the reduction in voting age the size of the electorate increased heavily providing an opportunity to the younger generation to participate in choosing their representatives.

With great vigour and zeal, the youth successfully participated in the elections and the tender aged boys and girls made a right choice, it was proved. The country that respects the will of the youth can bring new thinking in all walks of life including politics. Youth have the energy to liberate and purify the political arena of the country as they normally do not accept traditional caste barriers.

Youth have the courage and the capacity to understand burning issues like boundary, language, river water, ethnic disputes and sensitive issues. Increase in the number of the youth in politics enhances the credibility’ of the democracy. The honest involvement of youth in politics strengthen the democratic system. Recent developments show that large number of youth are participating and winning both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Explain the role of youth against terrorism.
Answer:

Role of youth against terrorism : Terrorism means deliberately and violently targeting civilians by inflicting physical or mental agony, wound or death that creates fear phychoses for political gains. Hence the youth have to pressurize the governments concerned to create awareness and educate those who are indulged in anti national and inhuman terrorist activities, particularly youth.

Youth have to develop patriotism that is national feeling and involve themselves in constructive activities like nation building through helping the government about terrorist and militant activities taking place in their surroundings which is the prime duty of the youth. Youth have to take the initiative within the jurisdiction of law to fight against terrorism as it happened in Naxal hit states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh where Salwajudum (village army) fighting against Naxalites.

Youth must understand the complicated and multi-faceted terrorism rationally. They have to isolate the terrorists and involve in helping the government to nab the culprits. It is the responsibility’ of the youth to spread the importance of education that saves the younger generation from the clutches of terrorism and communalism.

As it happened in the case of Ms. Malala Yusufa Zai of Pakistan, who survived in the terrorist attack. No Nation can prosper unless strongest measures are executed against terrorism. It is the youth who have a major role in combating terrorism. Youth of India should successfully face the challenges posed by terrorism by successfully using the means of communications to spread peace, love and create a happy neighbourhood.

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