2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 7 Contemporary Political Trend

Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 7 Contemporary Political Trends

You can Download Chapter 7 Contemporary Political Trends Notes, 2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

2nd PUC Political Science Contemporary Political Trends One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is economic liberalization?
Answer:
A process of removal of controls and restrictions in the economy in exchange for greater participation of private entities is called economic liberalization.

Question 2.
What is Laissez – faire?
Answer:
A process of liberating the economy from various regulatory mechanisms and freeness in the market is called Laissez-faire.

Question 3.
When was liberalization started in India? (July 2015)
Answer:
Liberalization was started in India in 1991.

Question 4.
Name one area in which the new economic policy introduced changes.
Answer:
The new economic policy introduced changes in the field of international external debt.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
What is brain drain? (March 2016)
Answer:
The citizens knock at the door of international opportunities with their knowledge and skill, it is called brain drain.

Question 6.
Which country introduced privatization for the first time? (March 2015)
Answer:
England and USA introduced privatization for the first time.

Question 7.
Expand IMF.
Answer:
International Monetary Fund.

Question 8.
What is privatization? (July 2016)
Answer:
A process of transferring ownership of enterprise from public sector to the private sector is called privatization.

Question 9.
Name one of the defects of privatization.
Answer:
Bane to local industries is one of the defects of privatization.

Question 10.
What is globalization? (March 2017)
Answer:
A process of integrating the economy of the country with world economy is called globalization.

Question 11.
Expand LPG.
Answer:
Liberalization, Privatization. Globalization.

Question 12.
Name one of the democratic principles.
Answer:
Liberty and equality is one of the democratic principles.

Question 13.
Expand SPA.
Answer:
Seven Party Alliance.

Question 14.
What was the aim of the popular movement of 2006 in Nepal?
Answer:
Ending the rule of kind and restoring democracy was the aim of popular movement of 2006 in Nepal.

Question 15.
When did the popular government assumed office in Nepal?
Answer:
The popular government assumed office in Nepal on 18th May 2006.

Question 16.
Who lead significant role in the democratic movement of Bhutan?
Answer:
Rongthong Kunley Dorji lead significant role in the democratic movement of Bhutan.

Question 17.
Which situation brought tremendous setback for the democratic movement of Bhutan?
Answer:
Death of Rongthong Kunley Dorji was a tremendous setback for the democratic movement of Bhutan.

Question 18.
When were the first democratic elections held for the National Council?
Answer:
The first democratic elections held for the National Council on 24th March 2008.

Question 19.
When was the Constitution of Bhutan enacted?
Answer:
The Constitution of Bhutan was enacted on 18th Julv 2011.

Question 20.
Expand PDPA.
Answer:
People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 21.
Expand KHAD.
Answer:
Khadamat-e-Aetelaat-e-Davvlati.

Question 22.
Mention the period of KarmoPs rule.
Answer:
The period of Karmol’s was May 1978.

Question 23.
Expand DRA.
Answer:
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

Question 24.
Expand ISA.
Answer:
Islamic State of Afghanistan.

Question 25.
Name any two terrorist groups of Afghanistan. (July 2018)
Answer:
(a) Taliban
(b) Al-Qaeda.

Question 26.
Name any two political leaders of Egypt.
Answer:
General Abdul Fatah Al-Sisi and Mohammad Morsi.

Question 27.
Expand NATO.
Answer:
North Atlantic Treat} Organization.

Question 28.
Name the President of Afghanistan who was elected in April 2014.
Answer:
Dr. Mohamed Ashraff Ghani. the President of Afghanistan elected in April 2014.

Question 29.
Who became the President of Egypt in 2012 elections?
Answer:
Mohammed Morsi became the President of Egypt in 2012 elections.

Question 30.
Name the king of Libya who headed the constitutional and hereditary monarchy in 1951.
Answer:
King Idris headed the constitutional and hereditary monarchy in 1951.

Question 31.
Expand GNC.
Answer:
General National Congress.

Question 32.
Expand NTC.
Answer:
National Transitional Council.

Question 33.
What was the main responsibility of GNC?
Answer:
The main responsibility of the GNC is to form a constituent assembly which will write Libya’s permanent constitution for approval by a referendum.

Question 34.
Name the basis of the law of Libya.
Answer:
Shariat was the basis of the law of Libya.

Question 35.
As per GNC who should be the de facto head of state?
Answer:
President should be the de facto head of state as per GNC.

Question 36.
Who is authorized to write the permanent Constitution for Libya?
Answer:
General National Congress is authorized to write the permanent Constitution for Libya.

Question 37.
Name the distinct feature of Syrian population.
Answer:
Multi-ethnic population is the distinct feature of Syrian population.

Question 38.
Name any one ethnic groups in Syria.
Answer:
The ethnic group in Syria is Arabs.

Question 39.
When was Syria liberated?
Answer:
Syria was liberated in 1946.

Question 40.
Which party won the larger victory in May 2012 elections in Syria?
Answer:
Baath party won the larger victory in May 2012 elections in Syria.

Question 41.
Who was the dictator of Libya? (July 2017)
Answer:
Muammar Gaddafi.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Political Science Contemporary Political Trends Two marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define Liberalization (March 2016)
Answer:
According to Oxford Dictionary, ‘’Liberalization is the willingness to respect or accept behavior or opinions different from one’s own open to new ideas”.

Question 2.
How does technological importance takes place rapidly in liberal economy?
Answer:
There is no restrictions of government in the liberal economy and provided free entries of private entities, hence technological importance takes place in liberal economy.

Question 3.
How is new economic policy consumer friendly?
Answer:
Consumer can get the goods and services according to his wishes. He would fulfill his needs, desires and feel satisfaction with his choice of things. So the new economic policy is consumer friendly.

Question 4.
State any two merits of liberalization.
Answer:
(a) Promotes world business class.
(b) Promotes technological advancement.

Question 5.
How does liberalization promote competition?
Answer:
Liberalization extends competition within different company’s trade firms. Basically they keep the standards and cheaper prices for consumers. Competition promotes efficiency and avoids wastage of resources.

Question 6.
When and where did privatization begin?
Answer:
The privatization begin in England and USA in 1980.

Question 7.
How does privatization and good performance go together?
Answer:
Privatization leads to good performance. It brings efficiency which always looks forward to survive in the competitive world. So privatization and good performance go together.

Question 8.
What is global village?
Answer:
Availability of the goods of all countries under one roof is called global village.

Question 9.
Bring out the relation between opportunities and brain drain.
Answer:
The skilled and educated people goes to abroad countries for more salary and high position. Under such situations opportunities have been provided to these people. By utilizing the opportunities they can earn more.

Question 10.
Mobility of labour force is made simple in globalization- how?
Answer:
It allows free movement of people in search of jobs or getting education at global level. Hence mobility is made simple and easy in globalization.

Question 11.
What is outsourcing?
Answer:
The companies hires regular service from external sources and from other countries, it is called outsourcing.

Question 12.
Bring out the relation between life style and globalization.
Answer:
Globalization has largely affected the younger generation. Food habits, general behavior, mutual relationships, respect to elders, human values and ultimately the whole generation has become slave in the clutches of globalization.

Question 13.
How does globalization affect political stability?
Answer:
The impact of globalization mainly is economic depression, boom or even recession which directly affects the political stability of a country.

Question 14.
What is crony capitalism? (July 2016)
Answer:
A close relationships between business people and government officials in a capitalist economy is called crony capitalism.

Question 15.
Bring out the rise of democratic movements in 21st century.
Answer:
21st century is known as era of democratic movements. These movements have started to overthrow despotic, autocratic and other authoritarian government. They were inspired by the democratic values of liberty, equality’ and fraternity.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 16.
When did the democratic Maoist movement started in Nepal and which country influenced it?
Answer:
The Democratic Maoist Movement started in I960 in Nepal mainly because of the influence of the India and China freedom struggle movements.

Question 17.
What was the result of limited democracy in Nepal during 1980?
Answer:
In 1980, limited democracy resulted in the creation of multi party parliamentary monarchy. The political war was launched by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) in 1996 with the overthrow of the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a People’s Republic.

Question 18.
When did the Maoist insurgency begin and when did it come to an end?
Answer:
The Maoist insurgency begin in 1996 and it come to an end in 2001.

Question 19.
Bring out the geographical sketch of Bhutan.
Answer:
Bhutan is surrounded by east Himalayas, by north Tibet and by South India.

Question 20.
Who succeeded Jigme Dorji Wangchuck and when?
Answer:
Jigrne Singye Wangchuck succeeded his father Jigme Dorji Wangchuck in 1972.

Question 21.
When did peaceful rallies held against Royal Bhutan army and who lead this?
Answer:
In 1990, peaceful rallies were held against Royal Bhutan Army lead by S.K. Neupane.

Question 22.
Bring out the geographical sketch of Afghanistan.
Answer:
Afghanistan is a landlocked country-‘ in the mountains of South-Central Asia, sharing borders . with Pakistan to the south east and Iran to the west. Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan lie across northern frontier and China to the north east.

Question 23.
What is the role of PDPA in Afghanistan’s politics?
Answer:
PDPA plays a predominant role in Afghanistan politics. The government of Mohamed Daoud was overthrown and he was assassinated by the leaders of PDPA namely Nur Mohamed Taraki, Babrak Karmol and Amin Taha in a military coup in April 1978. Mohamed Taraki became the President, Prime Minister and General Secretary of PDPA in May 1978 and the country was renamed as democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

Question 24.
Give a picture of Afghanistan up to 2006 about the rift between Talibanis and the elected government.
Answer:
On 1 Lh September 2001 attack on WTC by Taliban’s led by Al-Queda leader Osama Bin Laden. As a result, the NATO alliances rushed towards Afghanistan to hunt for Talibanis with the support of US government. Ultimately the Talibanis regime came to an end and the era of democracy began.

Question 25.
Bring out the role of NATO allies in strengthening democracy with in the framework of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
Answer:
After the attack of IIth September 2001. NATO alliances rushed towards Afghanistan and suppress the Talibanis. The democratic process began with the adaption of new constitution in 2004 and later presidential elections were held. In 2005. election was held to Parliament and Provinces. The new National Assembly was inaugurated in December 2005.

Question 26.
Bring; out the geographical sketch of Egypt.
Answer:
Egypt shares land borders with Libya to the west. Sudan to the South and by the Baza strip and Israel to the East.

Question 27.
Make a note on the first phase of the transition that took place in Egypt.
Answer:
A military coup ushered in 1952 against the single party rule. As a result, a new constitution was framed in January 1956 and Gamal Abdel Nasser was elected as the President. After him Hosni Mubarak became the president and ruled the country more than 3 decades.

Question 28.
Bring out the scenario after the resignation of Hosni Mubarak of Egypt.
Answer:
Hosni Mubarak ruled the country more than 3 decades. A wave of democracy started in 2011 and democratic movements were took place. Hosni Mubarak resigned and supreme council of armed force assumed power. In 2012. presidential elections were held and Mohammad Morsi later on became the President of Egypt.

Question 29.
How did Muammar Gaddafi come to power?
Answer:
A group of military officers under the leadership of Muammar Gaddafi revolted against the king Idris, finally he came to power and ruled the country till 2011.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 30.
Who was authorized to write Libya’s permanent Constitution?
Answer:
General National Congress was authorized to write Libya’s permanent constitution.

Question 31.
Name any two ethnic groups in Syria. (March 2015)
Answer:
Arabs, Kurds, Armenians are the ethnic groups in Syria.

Question 32.
When was Syria liberated and by whom?
Answer:
Syria was liberated in 1946 by France.

Question 33.
When was the new constitution of Syria put to referendum and note the remarkable change in it?
Answer:
The new Constitution of Syria was put to referendum in the year 2011-12. As per the new Constitution, political system of the state shall be based on the principle of political pluralism and exercising power democratically through the ballot box.

Question 34.
What are the contradictory issues emphasized by the Baath party in Syria?
Answer:
The Baath party emphasizes socialism and secularism, despite its doctrine on nation building rather than ethnic identity.

2nd PUC Political Science Contemporary Political Trends Five marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
How did liberalization emerge in India?
Answer:
India adhered to the mixed economy of capitalist and socialist policies after independence. A’major attempt was made in 1985 by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi towards new economic system. In 1991. India met with an economic crisis relating to its external debt. It had to pledge 20 tonnes of gold to Union Bank of Switzerland ND 47 tonnes to Bank of England as part of a bailout deal with the International Monetary Fund. India approached the World Bank and IMF and received $7 billion as loan. In addition, the IMF asked India to undertake a series of structural economic reforms. All these situations made the Indian government to introduce a new set of economic policies.

The Union government headed by Sri P.V. Narasimha Rao and Finance Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh implemented wide range of economic reforms that IMF imposed. The Neo-liberal policies included opening for international trade and investment, deregulation, initiation of privatization, tax reforms and measures of controlling inflation. Thus liberalization emerge in India.

Question 2.
State the importance of LIberlization (July 2015,2017,2018) (March 2017,2018)
Answer:
Importance of liberalization is as follows :

(a) Liberalisation believes in ‘free market economy’. Therefore, it implies the gradual reduction of government control. This means the abolition of a licence-raj. It results in the removal of red-tape, procedural delay and bureaucratic regulation of economic activities.

(b) Liberalisation lays the foundations for multiplication of business, trade and commerce. In a free market economy, diversification of business, trade and organisation takes place.

(c) As there is expansion of business and as more and more capital is injected into the economy, the use of technology and automation becomes necessary. This helps in mechanization of work and computerization of administrative processes. Efficiency and economy are ensured.

(d) Under the process of liberalization, the consumer is benefited in many ways. There is a wider choice of goods and services. There is a great improvement in quality of goods and after-sales services.

(e) Liberalisation introduces a competitive market system. In every matter there is free competition. To the extent such competition is regulated by government, the competition is healthy. This ensures not only better standards of goods and services, but also reasonable prices.

(f) Finally, liberalization in the long-run brings about economic growth and progress of the nation. Of course, there must be adequate, planned and goal oriented governmental regulation.

Question 3.
What are the politics implications of Liberalization (July 2016)
Answer:
The political implications of liberalization are as follows :
(a) In the name of liberalized policy citizens knock at the door of international opportunities with their knowledge and skill. The developing nations face lots of problems from such brain drain.
(b) As the process itself is capital intensive. it reduces dependency on labour and cuts opportunities for jobs.
(c) The incessant industrial activity at the global level generates lot of wastage leading to environmental degradation.
(d) The price of certain commodities like life saving drugs, fertilizers, etc. are automatically controlled by the world trade forums and associations.
(e) It affects the common man in his day to day life as he finds it difficult to earn his livelihood.
(f) Flexibility of monetary and fiscal policies of the government may lead to financial crisis like recession and depression.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Explain the importance of privatization. (March 2015, 2016)
Answer:
The importance of privatization is as follows :

(a) Performance: Privatization leads to good performance. It brings efficiency which always looks forward to survive in the competitive world. The company provides good salaries to the employees and in return they work better and show their performance.

(b) Efficiency: Private companies have a greater urge to produce more goods for the utmost satisfaction of the consumer.

(c) Innovative ideas: Major companies solely depend upon new techniques and innovative ideas to bring their specialized products in a different style at global level.

(d) Goals: Private companies have their specific goals and strive to achieve the endeavor. It shows their consistency to reach the peak and maintain global standards.

(e) Capital: Private concerns many a times raise funds and invest in the financial markets. This promotes faster growth and stabilizes the financial position of the company.

Question 5.
Explain the importance of Privatization (March 2015,2016)
Answer:
The political implications of Privatization are as follows:

(a) Concentration of wealth: Privatization encourages concentration of wealth in the hands of big business group. It results in great disparities of income and wealth. It goes against the principle of egalitarian society.

(b) More profits: Corporate sectors generate more profits. But they share a meager percentage with the share holders. They enjoy the lion share out of share holders investment. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor is widened.

(c) Bane to local industries: Cocal people borrow money from indigenous banks and also get loans from government concerns with subsidized rates of interest to start the industry. Multi-National Companies with good financial back up survive even in case of loss. Whereas, this is not the case with local industries.

(d) Threat to national interest: Key areas like national defence, space, science and technology are to be retained with the government. Assigning these areas to private sector harms national interests.

(e) Lack of service motto: The private firms are concerned more about their profit rather than providing good serice conditions and extending welfare programmes to its employees and even to society.

(f) No job security : Private companies extract work from employees till they are fit. The companies ruthlessly sack them when they suffer from ill health or fitness problems. So there is no job security for employees in private sectors.

Question 6.
Describe the political implications of privatization (March 2016, 2019) (July 2016,2018)
Answer:
Globalization is the process of integrating the economy of the country with world economy. It is a movement towards greater interaction, integration and interdependence among people and organization across borders. The strongest manifestation of globalization has been the increasing economic integration among countries in trade and investment.
The importance of globalization is as follows :

(a) Efficiency: Globalisation focuses on the best quality of services and goods. It encourages the global trade and commerce. It increases competitive nature which makes firms more efficient.

(b) Transformation of technology: Through this technology, improvements are made all over the world. As a result, all countries can reap the benefits of improved technology by enhancement in income and increase in jobs.

(c) A global village: The concept of global village mainly brings a feeling of oneess among the citizens of the world. Contacts are made easily accessible through technology and communication.

(d) Mobility of labour force: It allows free movement of people in search of jobs or getting education at global level. Hence mobility is made simple and easy.

(e) Emerging global competition: Global competition is emerging as a result of growing skill and techniques. The world is looking for better opportunities and performance at competitive rates.

(f) Outsourcing: This is an important outcome of the globalization process. In outsourcing, a company hires regular service from external sources and from other countries.

Question 7.
What is Globalization? Discuss its importance. (Martch 2016,2019) (July 2016,2018)
Answer:
Globalization is the process of integrating the economy of the country with world economy. It is a movement towards greater interaction, integration and interdependence among people and organization across borders. The strongest manifestation of globalization has been the increasing economic integration among countries in trade and investment.
The importance of globalization is as follows :

(a) Efficiency: Globalisation focuses on the best quality of services and goods. It encourages the global trade and commerce. It increases competitive nature which makes firms more efficient.

(b) Transformation of technology: Through this technology, improvements are made all over the world. As a result, all countries can reap the benefits of improved technology by enhancement in income and increase in jobs.

(c) A global village: The concept of global village mainly brings a feeling of oneess among the citizens of the world. Contacts are made easily accessible through technology and communication.

(d) Mobility of labour force: It allows free movement of people in search of jobs or getting education at global level. Hence mobility is made simple and easy.

(e) Emerging global competition: Global competition is emerging as a result of growing skill and techniques. The world is looking for better opportunities and performance at competitive rates.

(f) Outsourcing: This is an important outcome of the globalization process. In outsourcing, a company hires regular service from external sources and from other countries.

Question 8.
Describe the political implications of Globilization (March 2015,2016,2019)
Answer:
The political implications of globalization are as follow s :

(a) Power subjugation: The effects of globalization brought lots of changes in the world economy. For small countries it is inevitable to accept the economic decisions of big countries, which leads to power subjugation.

(b) Affects sovereignty : As a result of globalization in the fields of economy, trade, transportation, etc. the sovereign countries are bound by the decisions of strong countries. Hence it affects the sovereignty of a country in totality.

(c) Cultural invasion: Culture is a complex thing and exclusive to each country. The influence of globalization in the name of cultural exchange not only invades but also degenerates the youth who are the architects of the future.

(d) Enslavement of lifestyle : Globalization has largely affected the younger generation. Food habits, general behavior’, mutual relationships, respect to elders, human values and ultimately the whole generation has become slave in the clutches of globalization.

(e) Elimination of subsidies: The major impact of globalization is the curtailment of subsidies to all sectors including agriculture in a phased manner. The worst-hit are the peasants who are the backbone of the country.

(f) Political instability: The impact of globalization mainly is economic depression, boom or even recession which directly affects the political stability of a country. Hence development comes to a standstill.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Describe the nature of Crony Capitalism. (March 2019)
Answer:
The nature of Crony capitalism is as follows :

(a) Favours political authorities: Crony capitalism is a system in which close associates of the people in power who enact and execute policies get favours that have large economic value.

(b) Cronies get capital and reward: Cronies are rewarded with the ability to charge higher prices for their output than would prevail in a competitive market. Funneled to the enterprises of cronies through government controlled banks.

(c) Protection of assets: Crony capitalism allows government to guarantee a subset of asset holders that their property rights will he protected. As long as their assets are protected, these asset holders will continue to invest as if there were universal protection of property rights.

(d) Share in the rents generated by the asset holders: The members of the government share the rents generated by the asset holders. This may take the form of jobs, co-investments el-even transfers of stock. Crony capitalism goes hand in hand with corruption.

(e) Concentration of economic power: A few business groups which are cronies influence state policies and pool their assets in private corporate sectors. Such concentration gives birth to crony capitalism.

Question 10.
Explain the role of crony capitalism in modern economy.
Answer:
Basically capitalism means a process of investing the capital, produce the products, creates the demand and earning of profit by the private people. Crony capitalism is the new’ term in the place of traditional capitalism. It refers to the business dealings carried out between business class and government officers in a capitalist economy.

The success in modern economy depends on close relationships between business people and government officials. It may be exhibited by favoritism in the distribution of legal permits, government grants, special tax breaks or other forms. In this system, the government policies are always in favour of the business class and trying to protect their interests to get reward and other means Crony capitalism is an economic phenomenon with political consequences.

Here the government must be able to make deals in closed doors without public review’ and approval. Personal connections of particular asset holders and government actors continue so long as that particular government is in power. Hence the crony capitalism plays an important role in the modern economy.

Question 11.
Bring out the democratic movement that took place in Nepal.
Answer:
Nepal was a small country which is near and close to India. Monarchy was prevailed in Nepal since 18th century. Maoist movements started mainly because of the influence of the India and China. Nepal’s democratic experiment suffered a serious setback in December 1960 when the first elected government led by National Congress leader Koirala was dissolved and the whole party activities were banned in Nepal in later parts of the decade and that continued till 1979.

In 1980 limited democracy resulted in the creation of multi party parliamentary monarchy. The political war was launched by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) in 1996 with the overthrow of the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a peoples’ Republic. Maoist insurgency began in 1996 ended with the Communist victory in 200!. The comprehensive Peace Accord was signed on 21st November 2006. The Crown prince massacred king Birendra and the royal family, bringing the unpopular Gyanendra to the throne.

Nepal witnessed a popular movement in 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy. At the same time the king reinstated old Nepal House of Representatives with an assurance of permanent peace and the multi party democracy. The king called upon the Seven Party Alliance to bear the responsibility of taking the nation on the path of national unity and prosperity. It declared that under the leadership of Girijaa Prasad Koirala, the.new parliament will hold the elections and frame new constitution.

The popular government assumed office on 18th May 2006 and withdrawn all the privileges given to the kind unanimously.

Question 12.
List out the contents of Nepalis Magna Carta.
Answer:
The main provisions of Nepalese Magna Carta are as follows:
(a) Imposing tax on the royal family and its asses.
(b) finding the Raj Parishad, a Royal Advisory Council.
(c) Eliminating Royal references from army and government titles.
(d) Declaring Nepal a secular country not a Hindu kingdom.
(e) Scrapping the national anthem until a new one is composed.
(f) Eliminating the king’s position as the supreme commander of the army.

Question 13.
Bring out the democratic movements held in Bhutan.
Answer:
Bhutan is a small kingdom which is also called as a neighbouring country of India. The influence of the Indian Democratic polity on Nepal and Nepal’s political developments encouraged Bhutan’s political transformation. It began in I950’s with legal transformation like abolition of slavery and enactment of constitution.

In 1972 jigme Singhye Wangchuck succeeded his father Jigme Dorji Wangchuck. A group of leaders protested against the government of its act of cultural suppression, arbitrary, restriction of freedom of speech and press, etc. In 1990, peaceful rallies were held against Royal Bhutan Army lead by S.K. Neupane.

It forced the government for democracy and human rights for Bhutanese. Rongthong Kunley Dorji played significant role in the democratic movement. In the meanwhile, the death of the Dorji was a tremendous setback for the movement.

The first democratic elections were held for the Nation’s Council on 24Ih March 2008 for the Himalayan Kingdom which marked the beginning of the democratic system which still persists. The Constitution was enacted on 18th July 2011.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 14.
How did the incident of 11th September 2001 was responsible for the end of Talibanis?
Answer:
On 11th September 2001 attack on World Trade Centre b\ Taliban’s led by Al-Queda leader Osama Bin Laden attracted the attention of the whole world. USA has suffered a lot and loses heavily by this incident. Even though it is a super power block, the economic condition has been deteriorated into a deep level due to die bad effect of this attack.

As a result, the North Atlantic Treaty’ Organization alliances rushed towards Afghanistan to hunt for Talibanis with the support of the US government. Ultimately the Talibanis regime came to an end and the era of democracy began.

Question 15.
How did the era of Talibanis come to an end? Mark the beginning of democracy in Afghanistan.
Answer:
Talibanis were in power in Afghanistan for so main years with their fundamental ideologies. They pulled the people into dark by imposing the cruel fundamental principles. There was no civil liberty and sanctioned a very strict restrictions on medias. Voice raised by any civilians against the cruel rule of Talibanis was suppressed brutally.

Afghanistan was reached into a very low economic condition since there was sanctions and restrictions by the world countries against Afghanistan. People of the country were suffered heavily from having the basie requirements. Children dies due to lack of milk and medicines. Poor people suffered due to lack of healthy food. Unemployment problem led the youths to become anti social elements.

Totally people of the country were unable to come into the mainstream of society due to the strict fundamental ideologies of the Talibanis. During such situations. Al-Queda supported by Talibanis attacked World Trade Centre on 11i: September 2001. As a result NATO alliance supported by USA rushed to Afghanistan and that was the end of the regime of Talibanis and thus democracy was established in Afghanistan.

Question 16.
Write about the democratic movements in Afghanistan.
Answer:
Afghanistan was a small Islamic country which, is near to Pakistan. The government of Mohamed Daoud was overthrown and he was assassinated by a group of Nur Mohamed Taraki, Babrak Karmol and Amin Taha in a military coup in April 1978. Mohamed Taraki became the president. Prime Minister and General Secretary of Peoples’ Democratic Party of Afghanistan in May 1978 and the country was renamed as democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

Later on Dr. Najibullah appointed to PDPA secretariat and then became General Secretary. The Democratic Republic of Aghanistan became Islamic State of Afghanistan and an interim government was setup for the purpose of transition. In the meanwhile, Talian’s Islamic fundamentalists bombed Kabul in 1995 and were defeated by Islamic state government under Ahmed Shah Masood.

The UN interactions with the Afghan delegation lead to Bonn Agreement of 2001. It intended for broad based, gender sensitive, multi-ethnic and fully representative government.

On 11th September 2001 attack on World Trade Centre by Taliban’s led by Al-Queda leader Osama Bin Laden attracted the attention of the whole world. As a result, the NATO alliances rushed towards Afghanistan to hunt for Talibanis with the support of the US government. Ultimately the Talibanis regime came to an end and the era of democracy began.

The democratic process began with the adaption of new constitution in 2004 and later presidential elections were held in 2005. The new National Assembly was inaugurated in December 2005.

The NATO allies were able to prevent the Al-Queda and Talibanis to strengthen the democratic system in Afghanistan.

Question 17.
Bring out different phases of democratic movements in Egypt.
Answer:
In Egypt traditional monarchy was prevailed till April 1923. When the monarchy lost the grip, opportunists took the advantage. The transition took place in phases.

The first phase: A military coup ushered in 1952 against the single party rule, state propaganda and a powerful police state of the existing monarchy. As a result, a new constitution was framed in January 1956 and Gamal Abdel Nasser was elected as the President. Then Hosni Mubharak became the President and ruled the country more than 3 decades.

The second phase: It began in 2011 but failed.

The third phase: In third transition a continuation of the previous one which represented democratic and social ideals. President Mohammad Morsi the first democratically elected government was thrown out by a military coup.

The policy of Egypt is based on republicanism with a semi-presidential system of government of .2011. With the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak, executive power was assumed by the supreme council of the armed force, which dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution. In 2012 presidential elections were held and Mohammad Morsi later on became the President of Egypt. General Abdul Fatah Al-Sisi announced the removal of President Mohamad Morsi from June 2013 and suspended the constitution. Mean while the Egyptian democratic Movement is yet to define itself fully.

Question 18.
Explain the democratic movements in Libya.
Answer:
Libya is an Arab State became independent Nation on 24th December 1951. King Idris headed constitutional and hereditary monarchy came into exist. King Idris was the last hereditary monarch of Libya when a group of military officers revolted against the King. Under the leadership of Muammar Gaddafi continued his rule along with political parties but banned them in 1972 and emerged as the military ruler till the collapse of his government in 2011.

In the mean while, anti Gaddafi force pressurized the government for the introduction of multi-party democracy through National Transitional Council in February 2011. This enraged the dictator who became more furious. He ignored the UN Security Council in this regard. But NTC declared itself as the sole governing body. It was supported by more than 100 countries. After the death of Gaddafi, the Vice Chairman Abdul Hafiz Ghoga declared that Libya to be liberated on 23rd October 2011.

In 2012, an election was held for the General National Congress to replace the National Transitional Council. As per the declaration Libya became a Parliamentary Republic governed by the General National Congress which was elected in July 2012. The main responsibility of GNC is to form a constituent assembly which will frame Libya’s permanent constitution for approval by a referendum. The law of Libya is based on Shariat.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 19.
Discuss about the democratic movements in Syria.
Answer:
The government in Syria has a multi-ethnic population containing Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, Assyrians and Turkmens. The Syria was liberated in 1946 by France and named as the Democratic Republic with its own Constitution. Several elections were held to Parliament followed by military coups. The coup of 1963 was a threat to democracy and existing multi party system. It lasted for a long time, which is the ruling Military Junta today.

The democratic movement in Syria demanded for the termination of the ruling Military Dictatorship since 1963 and for cancellation of the old laws of the state of emergency. It also demanded for the termination of the exclusive rule of the Baath party and transfer of power of state to multi party system through free election based on principles of Liberal Democracy. Its objectives was to set up a committee for the preparation of a Democratic Constitution to live up to the international standards.

The last parliamentary election was held on 7th May 2012 and the result was announced on 15th May 2012. The Baath party won larger victory than it did in previous elections. During the 2011-12 Syrian uprising, a new constitution was put to a referendum. Amongst other changes, it abolished Article 8 which entrenched the power of the Baath party. The new Article 8 reads “the political system of the state snail be based on the principle of political pluralism and exercising power democratically through the ballot box.

The Baath party emphasizes socialism and secularism, despite its doctrine of Nation Building rather than ethnic identity. The issues of ethnic, religious and regional allegiances still remain important in Syria. These developments indicating the democratic process in the nation.

2nd PUC Political Science Contemporary Political Trends Ten marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the meaning, importance and political implications of liberalization.
Answer:
Meaning: Liberalization primarily means removal of controls and regulations at various levels of the economy facilitating market forces to determine its course and direction. It favours a competitive market solution to economic issues and a reduced role for the state in economic management.

Importance: Importance of liberalization is as follows :

(a) Liberalisation believes in ‘free market economy’. Therefore, it implies the gradual reduction of government control. This means the abolition of a licence-raj. It results in the removal of red-tape, procedural delay and bureaucratic regulation of economic activities.

(b) Liberalisation lays the foundations for multiplication of business, trade and commerce. In a free market economy, diversification of business, trade and organisation takes place.

(c) As there is expansion of business and as more and more capital is injected into the economy, the use of technology and automation becomes necessary. This helps in mechanization of work and computerization of administrative processes. Efficiency and economy are ensured.

(d) Under the process of liberalization, the consumer is benefited in many ways. There is a wider choice of goods and services. There is a great improvement in quality of goods and after-sales services.

(e) Liberalisation introduces a competitive market system. In every matter there is free competition. To the extent such competition is regulated by government, the competition is healthy. This ensures not only better standards of goods and services, but also reasonable prices.

(f) Finally, liberalization in the long-run brings about economic growth and progress of the nation. Of course, there must be adequate, planned and goal oriented governmental regulation.

Political implications: The political implications of liberalization are as follows :
(a) In the name of liberalized policy citizens knock at the door of international opportunities with their knowledge and skill. The developing nations face lots of problems from such brain drain.
(b) As the process itself is capital intensive. it reduces dependency on labour and cuts opportunities for jobs.
(c) The incessant industrial activity at the global level generates lot of wastage leading to environmental degradation.
(d) The price of certain commodities like life saving drugs, fertilizers, etc. are automatically controlled by the world trade forums and associations.
(e) It affects the common man in his day to day life as he finds it difficult to earn his livelihood.
(f) Flexibility of monetary and fiscal policies of the government may lead to financial crisis like recession and depression.

Question 2.
Describe the meaning importance and political implications of privatization.
Answer:
Meaning : Privatization is the transfer of control of ownership from the public sector to private sector. It refers to full shifting of property rights from the state or collective ow ners to private owners.

Importance : The importance of privatization is as follows :

(a) Performance: Privatization leads to good performance. It brings efficiency which always looks forward to survive in the competitive world. The company provides good salaries to the employees and in return they work better and show their performance.

(b) Efficiency: Private companies have a greater urge to produce more goods for the utmost satisfaction of the consumer.

(c) Innovative ideas: Major companies solely depend upon new techniques and innovative ideas to bring their specialized products in a different style at global level.

(d) Goals: Private companies have their specific goals and strive to achieve the endeavor. It shows their consistency to reach the peak and maintain global standards.

(e) Capital: Private concerns many a times raise funds and invest in the financial markets. This promotes faster growth and stabilizes the financial position of the company.

Political implications: The political implications of Privatization are as follows:

(a) Concentration of wealth: Privatization encourages concentration of wealth in the hands of big business group. It results in great disparities of income and wealth. It goes against the principle of egalitarian society.

(b) More profits: Corporate sectors generate more profits. But they share a meager percentage with the share holders. They enjoy the lion share out of share holders investment. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor is widened.

(c) Bane to local industries: Cocal people borrow money from indigenous banks and also get loans from government concerns with subsidized rates of interest to start the industry. Multi-National Companies with good financial back up survive even in case of loss. Whereas, this is not the case with local industries.

(d) Threat to national interest: Key areas like national defence, space, science and technology are to be retained with the government. Assigning these areas to private sector harms national interests.

(e) Lack of service motto: The private firms are concerned more about their profit rather than providing good serice conditions and extending welfare programmes to its employees and even to society.

(f) No job security : Private companies extract work from employees till they are fit. The companies ruthlessly sack them when they suffer from ill health or fitness problems. So there is no job security for employees in private sectors.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
What is globalization? Discuss its importance and political implications.
Answer:
Meaning and Importance:

Globalization is the process of integrating the economy of the country with world economy. It is a movement towards greater interaction, integration and interdependence among people and organization across borders. The strongest manifestation of globalization has been the increasing economic integration among countries in trade and investment.
The importance of globalization is as follows :

(a) Efficiency: Globalisation focuses on the best quality of services and goods. It encourages the global trade and commerce. It increases competitive nature which makes firms more efficient.

(b) Transformation of technology: Through this technology, improvements are made all over the world. As a result, all countries can reap the benefits of improved technology by enhancement in income and increase in jobs.

(c) A global village: The concept of global village mainly brings a feeling of oneess among the citizens of the world. Contacts are made easily accessible through technology and communication.

(d) Mobility of labour force: It allows free movement of people in search of jobs or getting education at global level. Hence mobility is made simple and easy.

(e) Emerging global competition: Global competition is emerging as a result of growing skill and techniques. The world is looking for better opportunities and performance at competitive rates.

(f) Outsourcing: This is an important outcome of the globalization process. In outsourcing, a company hires regular service from external sources and from other countries.

Political implications :

The political implications of globalization are as follows: (a) Power subjugation: The effects of globalization brought lots of changes in the world economy. For small countries it is inevitable to accept the economic decisions of big countries, which leads to power subjugation.

(b) Affects sovereignty: As a result of globalization in the fields of economy, trade, transportation, etc. the sovereign countries are bound by the decisions of strong countries. Hence it affects the sovereignty of a country in totality.

(c) Cultural invasion: Culture is a complex thing and exclusive to each country. The influence of globalization in the name of cultural exchange not only invades but also degenerates the youth who are the architects of the future.

(d) Enslavement of lifestyle: Globalization has largely affected the younger generation. Food habits, general behavior’, mutual relationships, respect to elders, human values and ultimately the whole generation has become slave in the clutches of globalization.

(e) Elimination of subsidies: The major impact of globalization is the curtailment of subsidies to all sectors including agriculture in a phased manner. The worst-hit are the peasants who are the backbone of the country.

(f) Political instability: The impact of globalization mainly is economic depression, boom or even recession which directly affects the political stability of a country. Hence development comes to a standstill.

Question 4.
What is crony capitalism and bring out its effects on modern governments?
Answer:

Basically capitalism means a process of investing the capital, produce the products, creates the demand and earning of profit by the private people. Crony capitalism is the new’ term in the place of traditional capitalism. It refers to the business dealings carried out between business class and government officers in a capitalist economy.

The success in modern economy depends on close relationships between business people and government officials. It may be exhibited by favoritism in the distribution of legal permits, government grants, special tax breaks or other forms. In this system, the government policies are always in favour of the business class and trying to protect their interests to get reward and other means Crony capitalism is an economic phenomenon with political consequences.

Here the government must be able to make deals in closed doors without public review’ and approval. Personal connections of particular asset holders and government actors continue so long as that particular government is in power. Hence the crony capitalism plays an important role in the modern economy.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Describe the process of democratic movements that took place in Nepal.
Answer:

Nepal was a small country which is near and close to India. Monarchy was prevailed in Nepal since 18th century. Maoist movements started mainly because of the influence of the India and China. Nepal’s democratic experiment suffered a serious setback in December 1960 when the first elected government led by National Congress leader Koirala was dissolved and the whole party activities were banned in Nepal in later parts of the decade and that continued till 1979.

In 1980 limited democracy resulted in the creation of multi party parliamentary monarchy. The political war was launched by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) in 1996 with the overthrow of the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a peoples’ Republic. Maoist insurgency began in 1996 ended with the Communist victory in 200!. The comprehensive Peace Accord was signed on 21st November 2006. The Crown prince massacred king Birendra and the royal family, bringing the unpopular Gyanendra to the throne.

Nepal witnessed a popular movement in 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy. At the same time the king reinstated old Nepal House of Representatives with an assurance of permanent peace and the multi party democracy. The king called upon the Seven Party Alliance to bear the responsibility of taking the nation on the path of national unity and prosperity. It declared that under the leadership of Girijaa Prasad Koirala, the.new parliament will hold the elections and frame new constitution.

The popular government assumed office on 18th May 2006 and withdrawn all the privileges given to the kind unanimously.

Question 6.
How democratic movements ushered in Bhutan?
Answer:

Bhutan is a small kingdom which is also called as a neighbouring country of India. The influence of the Indian Democratic polity on Nepal and Nepal’s political developments encouraged Bhutan’s political transformation. It began in I950’s with legal transformation like abolition of slavery and enactment of constitution.

In 1972 jigme Singhye Wangchuck succeeded his father Jigme Dorji Wangchuck. A group of leaders protested against the government of its act of cultural suppression, arbitrary, restriction of freedom of speech and press, etc. In 1990, peaceful rallies were held against Royal Bhutan Army lead by S.K. Neupane.

It forced the government for democracy and human rights for Bhutanese. Rongthong Kunley Dorji played significant role in the democratic movement. In the meanwhile, the death of the Dorji was a tremendous setback for the movement.

The first democratic elections were held for the Nation’s Council on 24Ih March 2008 for the Himalayan Kingdom which marked the beginning of the democratic system which still persists. The Constitution was enacted on 18th July 2011.

Question 7.
Give an assessment of democratic movements in Afghanistan.
Answer:
Afghanistan was a small Islamic country which, is near to Pakistan. The government of Mohamed Daoud was overthrown and he was assassinated by a group of Nur Mohamed Taraki, Babrak Karmol and Amin Taha in a military coup in April 1978. Mohamed Taraki became the president.

Prime Minister and General Secretary of Peoples’ Democratic Party of Afghanistan in May 1978 and the country was renamed as democratic Republic of Afghanistan. Later on Dr. Najibullah appointed to PDPA secretariat and then became General Secretary.

The Democratic Republic of Aghanistan became Islamic State of Afghanistan and an interim government was setup for the purpose of transition. In the meanwhile, Talian’s Islamic fundamentalists bombed Kabul in 1995 and were defeated by Islamic state government under Ahmed Shah Masood. The UN interactions with the Afghan delegation lead to Bonn Agreement of 2001. It intended for broad based, gender sensitive, multi-ethnic and fully representative government.

On 11th September 2001 attack on World Trade Centre by Taliban’s led by Al-Queda leader Osama Bin Laden attracted the attention of the whole world. As a result, the NATO alliances rushed towards Afghanistan to hunt for Talibanis with the support of the US government. Ultimately the Talibanis regime came to an end and the era of democracy began.

The democratic process began with the adaption of new constitution in 2004 and later presidential elections were held in 2005. The new National Assembly was inaugurated in December 2005.

The NATO allies were able to prevent the Al-Queda and Talibanis to strengthen the democratic system in Afghanistan.

Question 8.
Give an account of historical democratic movements in Egypt.
Answer:
In Egypt traditional monarchy was prevailed till April 1923. When the monarchy lost the grip, opportunists took the advantage. The transition took place in phases.

The first phase: A military coup ushered in 1952 against the single party rule, state propaganda and a powerful police state of the existing monarchy. As a result, a new constitution was framed in January 1956 and Gamal Abdel Nasser was elected as the President. Then Hosni Mubharak became the President and ruled the country more than 3 decades.

The second phase: It began in 2011 but failed.

The third phase: In third transition a continuation of the previous one which represented democratic and social ideals. President Mohammad Morsi the first democratically elected government was thrown out by a military coup.

The policy of Egypt is based on republicanism with a semi-presidential system of government of .2011. With the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak, executive power was assumed by the supreme council of the armed force, which dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution.

In 2012 presidential elections were held and Mohammad Morsi later on became the President of Egypt. General Abdul Fatah Al-Sisi announced the removal of President Mohamad Morsi from June 2013 and suspended the constitution. Mean while the Egyptian democratic Movement is yet to define itself fully.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Analyze the new democratic movements in Libya.
Answer:
Libya is an Arab State became independent Nation on 24th December 1951. King Idris headed constitutional and hereditary monarchy came into exist. King Idris was the last hereditary monarch of Libya when a group of military officers revolted against the King. Under the leadership of Muammar Gaddafi continued his rule along with political parties but banned them in 1972 and emerged as the military ruler till the collapse of his government in 2011.

In the mean while, anti Gaddafi force pressurized the government for the introduction of multi-party democracy through National Transitional Council in February 2011. This enraged the dictator who became more furious. He ignored the UN Security Council in this regard. But NTC declared itself as the sole governing body. It was supported by more than 100 countries. After the death of Gaddafi, the Vice Chairman Abdul Hafiz Ghoga declared that Libya to be liberated on 23rd October 2011.

In 2012, an election was held for the General National Congress to replace the National Transitional Council. As per the declaration Libya became a Parliamentary Republic governed by the General National Congress which was elected in July 2012. The main responsibility of GNC is to form a constituent assembly which will frame Libya’s permanent constitution for approval by a referendum. The law of Libya is based on Shariat.

Question 10.
Write a note on democratic movements in Syria.
Answer:
The government in Syria has a multi-ethnic population containing Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, Assyrians and Turkmens. The Syria was liberated in 1946 by France and named as the Democratic Republic with its own Constitution. Several elections were held to Parliament followed by military coups. The coup of 1963 was a threat to democracy and existing multi party system. It lasted for a long time, which is the ruling Military Junta today.

The democratic movement in Syria demanded for the termination of the ruling Military Dictatorship since 1963 and for cancellation of the old laws of the state of emergency. It also demanded for the termination of the exclusive rule of the Baath party and transfer of power of state to multi party system through free election based on principles of Liberal Democracy. Its objectives was to set up a committee for the preparation of a Democratic Constitution to live up to the international standards.

The last parliamentary election was held on 7th May 2012 and the result was announced on 15th May 2012. The Baath party won larger victory than it did in previous elections. During the 2011-12 Syrian uprising, a new constitution was put to a referendum. Amongst other changes, it abolished Article 8 which entrenched the power of the Baath party. The new Article 8 reads “the political system of the state snail be based on the principle of political pluralism and exercising power democratically through the ballot box.

The Baath party emphasizes socialism and secularism, despite its doctrine of Nation Building rather than ethnic identity. The issues of ethnic, religious and regional allegiances still remain important in Syria. These developments indicating the democratic process in the nation.

Leave a Comment

error: Content is protected !!