1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 10 World Wars and International Organizations

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Karnataka 1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 10 World Wars and International Organizations

1st PUC History World Wars and International Organizations One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
When did the First World War break out?
Answer:
The First World War broke out on 28th July 1914.

Question 2.
Who was the Emperor of Germany during the First World War?
Answer:
Kaiser William-II was the Emperor of Germany during the First World War.

Question 3.
Mention the immediate cause for the First World War.
Answer:
The murder of the Crown Prince of Austria, Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife in the Bosnian capital Sarajevo, was the immediate cause for the First World War.

Question 4.
Why did U.S.A join the First World War?
Answer:
In 1917, U.S.A also joined the side of Allies, because Germany destroyed S.S. Lusitania a British ship, in which many American civilians were travelling.

Question 5.
Which conference officially ended the First World War?
Answer:
The Paris Peace Conference, 1919 officially ended the First World War.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Who was the founder of Fascism?
Answer:
Mussolini was the founder of Fascism.

Question 7.
What is the meaning of the word ‘Fascism’?
Answer:
Fascism is derived from the word ‘fasces’ which means a ‘bundle of rods’ with an axe symbol of power in the ancient Roman period.

Question 8.
Name the paper edited by Mussolini?
Answer:
The Socialist paper ‘Avanti’ was edited by Mussolini.

Question 9.
Who declared ‘Italy must expand or perish’?
Answer:
Mussolini declared ‘Italy must expand or perish’.

Question 10.
Where was Adolf Hitler born?
Answer:
Adolf Hitler was born in Austria in 1889.

Question 11.
Who was the founder of Nazism?
Answer:
Adolf Hitler was the founder of Nazism.

Question 12.
Mention the book written by Hitler.
Answer:
The book written by Hitler was Mein Kampf (My Struggle).

Question 13.
Name the German Parliament.
Answer:
‘Reichstag’ is the German Parliament.

Question 14.
What is Gestapo?
Answer:
‘Gestapo’ was the secret police organized by Hitler, to suppress all the opposition to his regime.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Why did the U.S.A join the Second World War?
Answer:
In December 1941, Japan attacked the naval base of the USA at Pearl Harbour in the Pacific Ocean. Several American ships were sunk and there was a huge loss of property and lives. This forced America to join the war on the side of the Allies.

Question 16.
Who ordered the American Air Force to drop Atom bombs on Japan?
Answer:
Harry S. Truman, the American President ordered the American Air Force to drop Atom bombs f on Japan.

Question 17.
When was Israel created for the Jews?
Answer:
Israel was created in 1948 for the Jews.

Question 18.
When was the U.N.O. established?
Answer:
The U.N.O was established on 24th October 1945.

Question 19.
Which day is celebrated as U.N Day?
Answer:
24th October is celebrated as the U.N. Day.

Question 20.
Where is the Headquarters of U.N.O?
Answer:
The Headquarters of U.N.O is located in New York (U.S. A)

Question 21.
How many member nations are there in the U.N.O at present?
Answer:
As of 2012, there are 193 member nations in U.N.O.

Question 22.
Where is the International Court of Justice located?
Answer:
The International Court of Justice is located at The Hague in the Netherlands.

Question 23.
Who is the present Secretary-General of the U.N.O?
Answer:
Ban Ki-Moon of South Korea. (From 2012).

Question 24.
Expand ECOSOC, ILO, FAO, UNESCO, IBRD, IMF, WHO and WTO.
Answer:

ECOSOC  Economic and Social Council
ILO International Labour Organization
FAO Food and Agricultural Organization
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
IMF International Monetary Fund
WHO World Health Organization.
WTO World Trade Organization.

Question 25.
Which ship was sunk by a German submarine during the First World war?
Answer:
S.S. Lusitania the British ship.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 26.
When was the Treaty of Versailles signed?
Answer:
On 28th June 1919.

Question 27.
Name the Treaty that ended the First World War.
Answer:
Treaty of Versailles.

Question 28.
When was the triple Entente formed?
Answer:
The triple Entente was formed in 1907.

Question 29.
Which organization was formed after the First World War?
Answer:
League of Nations.

Question 30.
Which provinces did Germany hand over to France after the First World War?
Answer:
Alsace and Loraine Provinces were handed over to France.

Question 31.
Who drafted the Treaty of Versailles?
Answer:
President Woodrow Wilson of U S A.

Question 32.
When did the First World War end?
Answer:
World War I ended on 11th November 1918.

Question 33.
When did the Second World War begin?
Answer:
World War II began on 1st September 1939.

Question 34.
Name the Allied nations in the Second World War.
Answer:
England, France, U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 35.
What was the immediate cause for the World War-II?
Answer:
On 1st September 1939, Germany under. Hitler invaded Poland, which was an ally of England and France, and they declared war on Germany.

Question 36.
Name the Axis powers in the Second World War?
Answer:
Germany, Austria, Italy, Japan and others.

Question 37.
Who was the Prime Minister of England during the Second World War?
Answer:
Winston Churchill was the P.M. of England.

Question 38.
What was Winston Churchill’s call to his countrymen in the Second World War?
Answer:
“I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat”.

Question 39.
Who was Adolf Hitler?
Answer:
Hitler was the Dictator of Germany and founder of the Nazi party.

Question 40.
What was the symbol of the Nazis?
Answer:
Swastik.

Question 41.
Which book became Gospel (Bible) for the Nazis?
Answer:
Mein Kampf.

Question 42.
Who organized the Brown Shirts Army?
Answer:
Hitler.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 43.
Who was Mussolini?
Answer:
Mussolini was the dictator of Italy and founder of the Fascist party.

Question 44.
Who organized the Black Shirts army?
Answer:
Mussolini.

1st PUC History World Wars and International Organizations Two Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Name the two rival alliances formed during the First World War.
Answer:
Triple Alliance and Triple Entente were the two rival alliances formed during the First World War.

Question 2.
Name the Treaty signed by the Allied countries with Germany. When was it signed?
Answer:
Treaty of Versailles was signed between the Allied countries and Germany. It was signed on 28th June 1919.

Question 3.
Mention the four Empires which were overthrown after the First World War.
Answer:
Hapsburg of Austria, Hohenzollerns of Germany, Romanovs of Russia and the Turkish Sultanate (Ottoman Empire) were the Empires which were overthrown after the First World War.

Question 4.
When was the League of Nations established? Where was its Headquarters?
Answer:
The League of Nations was established on 1st June 1920. Its headquarters was in Geneva.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Write any two Principles of Fascism.
Answer:
The Principles of Fascism were:

  • Glorification of war
  • Importance to the state
  • Belief in Single party .
  • Opposition to democracy and socialism.
  • Unquestioning supremacy of the regime.

Question 6.
Write any two Principles of Nazism.
Answer:
The main Principles ofNazism were:

  • One party rule
  • Nazification
  • Racial Supremacy
  • Anti-Jewish and anti- religious sentiments
  • Importance to State.

Question 7.
Name the two rival Powers of the II World War.
Answer:
Axis Powers and Allied Powers.

Question 8.
Name the Axis Powers.
Answer:
Germany, Italy, and Japan were the Axis Powers.

Question 9.
Name the Allied Powers.
Answer:
England, France, U.S.S.R and U.S.A.

Question 10.
Name the cities of Japan where Atom bombs were dropped during the Second World War.
Answer:
Nagasaki and Hiroshima are the cities of Japan where Atom bombs were dropped during the Second World War.

Question 11.
Write any two aims of the U.N.O.
Answer:
The aims of U.N.O are

  • To maintain International peace and security.
  • To develop friendly relations among the nations.

Question 12.
Name any two official languages of the U.N.O.
Answer:
English and French are two of the official languages of U.N.O.

Question 13.
Mention the five permanent members of the Security Council.
Answer:
U.S.A, England, France, Russia, China are the five permanent members of the Security Council.

Question 14.
What is ‘Veto’ power?
Answer:
Any permanent member can ‘Veto’ any decision of the Security Council. ‘Veto’ is a special power given to the five permanent members to negate any resolution of the United Nations.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
When did the First World War begin? When did it end?
Answer:
First World War began on 28th July 1914 and ended on 11th November 1918.

Question 16.
Who won the First World War?
Answer:
Triple Entente also known as the Allies, comprising of England, France, U.S.A, Russia, Japan, and others won the First World War.

Question 17.
Which treaty ended the First World War? When?
Answer:
Treaty of Versailles-28th June 1919 A.D.

Question 18.
When was the League of Nations established? Where?
Answer:
In 1st Jan 1920 A.D at Geneva.

Question 19.
Name any two dictators who were responsible for the outbreak of the Second World War.
Answer:
Nazi party leader Hitler in Germany, Fascist party leader Mussolini in Italy, Stalin in U.S.S.R, General Franco in Spain and Prime Minister Hideki Tojo of Japan were the major dictators clamouring for war.

Question 20.
Which party was founded by Hitler? When?
Answer:
Nazi party-1919 A.D.

Question 21.
Who was the founder of Fascist party? When?
Answer:
Mussolini-in 1919 A.D.

1st PUC History World Wars and International Organizations Five Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Describe the various results of the First World War.
Answer:
The results of the First World War are as follows:

1. The horrors and miseries in the aftermath of the war were plenty. The lasting result of the war was the loss of millions of fittest men and permanent disabling of many more. It has been estimated that about 60 million soldiers took part in the war. Out of them, about 10 million were killed and about 20 million were wounded.

2. Most of them were men below the age of 40. Besides, millions of civilians died of starvation, diseases and mindless violence. As a result, women were forced to work in the factories, shops, hospitals, offices, schools, etc. they worked in place of men and thus ended the traditional barrier between men and women.

3. As a result of the war, four old Empires were overthrown. They were the Hapsburg of Austria, Hohenzollerns of Germany, Romanovs of Russia and the Turkish Sultanate. Many new States were setup on the ruins of the old Empires like Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

4. The Treaty of Versailles was an important outcome of the war. By this Treaty, Germany had to give up large number of its territories and colonies. It was imposed a huge war indemnity and its military strength was reduced.

5. It became common after the war to look to the Government for guidance to solve economic, social and other problems of the people. Government control over many aspects of life increased. Acute shortage of goods led to inflation. Each warring nation imposed heavy, taxes to meet the war expenses. World’s production decreased and the cost of living shot
up everywhere. The largest creditor-nations of Europe became debtor-nations.

6. The most important constructive result of the First World War as the establishment of an international organization called the League of Nations to preserve the World peace by avoiding future wars. The Paris Peace Conference accepted the proposal of Woodrow Wilson. The League of Nations came into existence in 1920 with its headquarters at Geneva in Switzerland.

7. Countries like Poland, Belgium and Czechoslovakia became independent after the war.

8. The Paris Peace Conference, in 1919 officially ended the First World War.

Question 2.
Explain the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles.
Answer:
After the First World War the Allied Powers met at Paris for the first time to arrange the terms of Peace. In the Paris Peace Conference the victorious Allies dictated the peace treaties. The main participants in the conference were Woodrow Wilson, the President of America, Lloyd George, the Prime Minister of England, Clemenceau, the Prime Minister of France and Orlando, the Prime Minister of Italy. Five separate treaties were signed by the Allied countries with Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria of them, the most important was the Treaty of Versailles signed between the Allies and Germany on 28th June, 1919.

The date was the fifth anniversary of the murder of Archduke, Francis Ferdinand of Austria. The Allied Powers strongly held Germany responsible for the destruction and suffering caused by the war. Germany was forced to sign the Treaty. It was humiliated and hurt by this Treaty.

Provisions of the Treaty:

1. Alsace and Loraine provinces of Germany were given back to France. France also acquired the Saar coal basin of Germany for a period of 15 years as compensation for the destruction of the coal mines in the north of France.

2. Schleswig and Holstein were given to Denmark by Germany. Danzig was snatched away from Germany and declared a free port.

3. Rhineland area was completely demilitarized. All existing forts in the area were demolished and instructions were given not to build any more forts.

4. The independence of Poland, Belgium and Czechoslovakia were recognized by Germany.

5. Germany gave up all its colonies to the Allies. These were divided between England, France, Japan, and others.

6. Germany was made responsible for the losses of the First World War. So, Germany was made to pay a huge war indemnity of 6,600 million Pounds.

7. Germany was disarmed. The sizes of its army and navy were reduced. The German army was cut down to 1,00,000 soldiers. The import and export of weapons were prohibited. It also imposed a restriction on the manufacture of machine guns and rifles. German warships were converted into commercial ships. Germany was not allowed to maintain Tanks, Submarines and Military aircraft.

Question 3.
Describe the achievements of Mussolini.
Answer:
Mussolini restored order in Italy and industrial strikes were totally banned. Communists were mercilessly massacred. Education was brought under State control to spread fascist ideas. Mussolini realized the importance of securing the support of Church for his regime. So, he made peace with Pope Pius XI by signing the ‘Lateran Treaty’ in 1929. The Pope recognized the Kingdom of Italy, and in return, Mussolini recognized the independence of the Vatican. Through Fascism, Mussolini enforced order and discipline. He encouraged the production of electricity and used natural resources for the increase in foreign trade.

He improved agriculture and developed the Italian industry. Trade and commerce were revived. Construction of railways and shipbuilding were given top priority. Militarism was the main feature of the Fascist Party and compulsory military training was introduced. The army, navy, and air force were strengthened. Further, in order to increase the population, Italian parents with large families were rewarded with incentives like tax exemption, employment, etc.

After consolidating the internal affairs of Italy, Mussolini embarked on his mission of expansion of Italy. He publicly declared, “Italy must expand or perish”. He followed a vigorous and aggressive foreign policy and started his invasions.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Explain the features of Nazism.
Answer:
The main features of Nazism were:

  • One party rule.
  • Nazification.
  • Racial Supremacy.
  • Anti-Jewish and anti-religious sentiments.
  • Importance to state.
  • Glorification of war.

The Nazi Party was made the only political party. Freedom of press and speech were abolished by Hitler. He also centralized all powers of central and local governments, coordinated all labour and youth organizations, and controlled every aspect of national life, including the press, all economic institutions, stage, and the cinema. Everybody and everything was Nazified within the country.

Question 5.
State the results of the Second World War.
Answer:
The main results of the Second World War were as follows:

1. The Second World War was the most destructive of all the wars fought until then. About 25 million people were killed and 50 million were disabled. Millions of people later died of starvation and diseases. There was large scale destruction of houses, industries and communication and transport systems. The destruction of agricultural land led to a shortage of food. After the war, most of the countries faced the problems of post-war reconstructions.

2. World War II ended the dictatorships in Italy and Germany. Italy was declared a Republic under Badogli, and Germany was divided into four zones under U.S.A., U.S.S.R., Britain, and France. A Tribunal was set up at Nuremberg to conduct trials of leading Nazis. Japan gave up all its rights to China. Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers. ( U.S.A)

3. European domination of the world ended after this war. After the Second World War, U.S.A, and U.S.S.R emerged as two superpowers.

4. The distrust between U.S.A and U.S.S.R increased after the war. This led to what is known as the ‘Cold War’. The rivalry between these two superpowers had been the most important feature of international relations since 1945. As a result, world peace was constantly threatened.

5. The World War resulted in the victory of the principle of Nationalism and the liquidation of Colonialism. The colonial Empires of European powers in Asia, Africa, and Latin America came to an end. India, Ceylon, Indonesia, and other countries became independent after the war.

6. The Jews had become homeless during the Nazi regime in Germany. About six million Jews perished in the concentration camps. After the war, with the help of U.S.A., a new
homeland (Israel) for the Jews was created in 1948.

7. Japan experienced disastrous effects of atomic weapons. The entire atmosphere became poisonous. Most of the newborn children suffered from serve deformities.

8. The most important result of World War Second was the birth of United Nations Organization with the object of preventing further wars and maintaining peace in the future.

Question 6.
Write a note on the Organs of the U.N.O.
Answer:
The U.N.O. consists of six principal organs. They are General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and Secretariat.

1. General Assembly:
It is a consultative body of U.N.O. It consists of representatives of all member nations. Each member nation has one vote but may send five representatives. It is empowered to discuss any matter relating to the maintenance of international peace and security. The Assembly meets once in a year in September. But special sessions can be held at the request of a majority of the members of the Security Council. Its resolutions require a 2/3 majority.

It elects the Secretary-General, nonpermanent members of the Security Council, members of Economic and Social Council and Judges of International Court of Justice, and also discusses budgetary questions. The entry of any new members requires 2/3 majority of the General Assembly.

2. Security Council:
The Security Council is the executive body. It consists of 15 members- 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent. The permanent members are the U.S.A., England, France, Russia, and China. The non-permanent members are elected for a term of two years. Any measure to be carried out in the Security Council has to be accepted by 9 members including all the 5 permanent members. Any permanent member can ‘Veto’ any decision of the Security Council.‘Veto’ is a special power given to the five permanent members to negate any resolution of the United Nations. The Security Council is responsible for the prevention of aggression and the maintenance of international peace and security.

3. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC):
The Economic and Social Council consists of 54 members, who are elected by the General Assembly for 3 years, 1/3 of them retire every year. The Council meets at least twice in a year. Its main function is to promote welfare around the world and to improve the economic, social, cultural, educational, health and other related matters.

4. Trusteeship Council:
The Trusteeship Council consists of 14 members. All permanent members of the Security Council are the members of Trusteeship Council. Its duty is to investigate the conditions of Trust Territories and to advice the General Assembly. In 1994 all the Trust territories were detached from Japan and Italy and became independent. Since then, its operations are formally suspended and will meet as and when required.

5. International Court of Justice:
The International Court of Justice is located at The Hague in Netherlands. It consists of 15 Judges, who are elected by the General Assembly. Its main function is to settle the international disputes and to act as an advisory body. The tenure is 9 years and no country can have more than one representative at a time.

6. Secretariat:
It is headed by the Secretary-General. It carries on the day-to-day administration of the U.N.O. Its headquarters is in New York. The term of the Secretary-general is five years. It is the duty of the Secretary General to ensure that all the branches function properly, and to submit annual reports.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
What were the causes of the First World War?
Answer:
Introduction:
World War I was one of the greatest, largest and most destructive events in the history of the modern world. It was the first time when such a large number of countries from Europe and other parts of the world were involved in conflict and affected either directly or indirectly. It destroyed more human lives and material than ever before. It broke out in 1914 and came to an end in 1918. Nearly 30 countries participated in this conflict between highly organised and well armed countries with modern weaponry.

Causes of world war:
1. Aggressive Nationalism:
Nationalistic aspirations have always led to political rivalries. The narrow nationalism which always meant love of their own people, their own nation and culture became a predominant feature. As a result, there began to develop among the Europeans a kind of negligence towards other countries e.g., William-II the King of Germany declared that “Germany should either rule the world or perish”. Even England was not free from this self- exaltation. This competitive patriotism forced them to jump into military and naval competition.

2. Economic and Military imperialism:
The European powers competed with each other for commercial and colonial expansion in the non-European world. The launching of industrial schemes on a large scale needed raw material and also a readus market for their finished goods. This led to colonial competition among the European countries, which was carried on to other fields as well. Commercial competition led to mutual jealousy and tension.

3. Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente:
Bismarck achieved the unification of Germany in 1871 A.D. He fought many wars with the neighbouring countries. He sought to give the Empire stability and security and to achieve that end, formed a Triple Alliance with Austria and Italy. In 1907 A.D, alarmed by the formation of this Triple Alliance, Russia, France, and England came together and formed an alliance called the Triple Entente. Thus Europe came to be divided into two hostile blocks.

4. The Arms Race:
Triple Alliance and Triple Entente led to a keen competition of manufacturing war materials. Germany had made tremendous progress in the manufacture of sophisticated weaponry to produce tanks, machine guns, and submarines, etc., the Greater number of soldiers were recruited and equipped with modern weapons. Kaiser William- II of Germany glorified war. He wished to make Germany a world power. His belief that “The German race alone should rule the world” greatly alarmed England.

England also began to invest more in the Navy and greater effort was undertaken to preserve – the title “Queen of Seas” and that “Sun never sets on British Empire”. The militaristic. the attitude of Germany roused the fear in France which began to strengthen her military. Many European nations introduced compulsory military training. Further, the arms race created fear, suspicion tension, and distrust between each other. All the nations of Europe were preparing for war.

5. Attitude of France:
France had never forgotten her defeat at the hands of Bismarck in the Franco-Prussian war. 1871. After the war, she had also ceded the Alsace and Lorraine provinces to Germany. France was eagerly waiting for an opportunity to take revenge against Germany besides getting back those provinces.

6. Immediate cause:
The Austrian Crown Prince, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, and his wife were assassinated in the streets of Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia on 28th June 1914.
So Austria felt that the Serbian Government was responsible for that and sent an ultimatum to Serbia demanding to hand over the perpetrators within 48 hours. Serbia rejected the ultimatum. Austria backed by Germany, declared war on Serbia on 28th July 1914. Russia coming to the help of Serbia entered the fray and other countries followed suit.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Write the different stages of the First World War.
Answer:
This was the first global war in which most of the European nations took part and the entire world had to feel the impact and repercussions of the war. The murder of Archduke made Austria supported by Germany, to declare war on Serbia on 28<supth July 1914. Serbia appealed to Russia for help. Russia began to mobilize its army on behalf of Serbia. Germany demanded that Russia should stop mobilization of its army, which Russia refused. France decided to help Russia against Austria, and Germany declared war on both Russia and France. Germany had formed the Triple Alliance with Austria and Italy. Later, Turkey and Bulgaria also sided with them. Alarmed by this, England, France, and Russia formed the Triple Entente or the Allies.

Germany invaded Belgium by violating its neutral stand. England did not like Germany’s ascendency in the Balkans and declared war on Germany and Austria. Serbia, Belgium, and Portugal joined the Allies camp. The world came to be divided into two hostile blocks. In 1915, Italy deserted the Triple Alliance and declared her support to the Allies. England continued to dominate the war with its naval supremacy. Germany was equally powerful with its U-boats inflicting much damage to its enemies.

In 1917, in the course of the war, a German submarine sank S.S. Lusitania, a British ship carrying a lot of American civilians, which provoked the U.S.A. into joining the Allies. Soon this small war turned out to be a world (Global) war being fought at different fronts between different powers. An internal revolution broke out in Russia in 1917. The communist government under Lenin withdrew Russia from the war, unwilling to support the Allies further. This was a bit critical for the Allies.

War was waged on land, sea and for the first time in the air too. With the entry of the U.S.A., the Allies slowly started getting the upper hand and went on winning the battles on several fronts. Germany was being pushed back. The Austrian army was destroyed in Italy, and Turkey and Bulgaria were also defeated and they surrendered to the Allied powers. The final victory over Germany and its partners was achieved. The German Emperor Kaiser William abdicated his throne and fled to Holland. The First World War thus came to an end on 11th November 1918.

1st PUC History World Wars and International Organizations Ten Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the causes and results of the First World War.
Answer:
Introduction:
World War I was one of the greatest, largest and most destructive events in the history of the modern world. It was the first time when such a large number of countries from Europe and other parts of the world were involved in conflict and affected either directly or indirectly. It destroyed more human lives and material than ever before. It broke out in 1914 and came to an end in 1918. Nearly 30 countries participated in this conflict between highly organised and well-armed countries with modem weaponry.
Causes of world war:

1. Aggressive Nationalism:
Nationalistic aspirations have always led to political rivalries. The narrow nationalism which always meant love of their own people, their own nation and culture became a predominant feature. As a result, there began to develop among the Europeans a kind of negligence towards other countries e.g., William-Il the King of Germany declared that “Germany should either rule the world or perish”. Even England was not free from this self- exaltation. This competitive patriotism forced them to jump into military and naval competitions.

2. Economic and Military imperialism:
The European powers competed with each other for commercial and colonial expansion in the non-European world. The launching of industrial schemes on a large scale needed raw material and also a ready market for their finished goods. This led to colonial competition among the European countries, which was carried on to other fields as well. Commercial competition led to mutual jealousy and tension.

3. Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente:
Bismarck achieved the unification of Germany in 1871A.D. He fought many wars with neighbouring countries. He sought to give the Empire stability and security and to achieve that end, formed a Triple Alliance with Austria and Italy. In 1907 A.D, alarmed by the formation of this Triple Alliance, Russia, France, and England came together and formed an alliance called the Triple Entente. Thus Europe came to be divided into two hostile blocks.

4. The Arms Race:
Triple Alliance and Triple Entente led to a keen competition of manufacturing war materials. Germany had made tremendous progress in the military to produce tanks, machine guns, and submarines, etc., the Greater number of soldiers were recruited and equipped with modern weapons. Kaiser William-II of Germany glorified war. He wished to make Germany a world power. His belief that “The German race alone should rule the world” greatly alarmed England.

England also began to invest more on Navy and greater effort was undertaken to preserve the title “Queen of Seas” and that “Sun never sets on British Empire”. The militaristic attitude of Germany roused the fear in France which began to strengthen her military. Many European nations introduced compulsory military training. Further, the arms race created fear, suspicion tension, and distrust between each other. All the nations of Europe were preparing for war.

6. Attitude of France:
France had never forgotten her defeat at the hands of Bismarck in the Franco-Prussian war in 1871. After the war, she had also ceded the Alsace and Lorraine provinces to Germany. France was eagerly waiting for an opportunity to take revenge against Germany besides getting back those provinces.

7. Immediate cause:
The Austrian Crown Prince, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, and his wife were assassinated in the streets of Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia on 28th June 1914. So Austria felt that the Serbian Government was responsible for that and sent an ultimatum to Serbia demanding to handover the perpetrators within 48 hours. Serbia rejected the ultimatum. Austria backed by Germany, declared war on Serbia on 28th July 1914. Russia coming to the help of Serbia, entered the fray and other countries followed suit.

Results of the First World War:

1. Loss of life:
The horrors and miseries of the war were plentiful. The total loss of life of all nations put together was some 10 million killed in action, more than 1 crore people wounded and millions permanently disabled. As they were incapable of self-support, they remained a burden on their family and their nations.

2. Economic dislocation:
A large number of people lost their property (186 billion dollars), millions of civilians died of diseases and starvation. The national loan of the participants in the war was enormous. This financial disorder and widespread suffering led to violent social and political changes.

3. The First World War ended with the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. The prominent delegates who represented the different nations in the Peace Conference were Woodrow Wilson, the President of the U.S.A., Lloyd George, the Prime Minister of England, Clemenceau, the Prime Minister of France and Orlando, the Prime Minister of Italy.

4. The victors sought to brand Germany as responsible for the war and all the consequences of the war. It had to give up a lot of its territories and colonies. It was imposed a huge war indemnity and its military strength was reduced.

5. The war created a demand for an international organization to protect world peace. As a result, the League of Nations came into existence on the 1st of January 1929.

6. France reoccupied Alsace and Lorraine, the two provisions from Germany. Besides, France gained the Saar coal basin.

7. The great Empires of Austria, Hungary, Russia, Germany, and Ottoman Turkey came to an end. These were replaced by republics. Poland, Belgium, and Czechoslovakia became” independent.

8. The great depression of 1929 as a result of the First World War.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Explain the causes and results of the Second World war.
Answer:
The causes of the Second World War are:

1. Treaty of Versailles:
The Treaty of Versailles 1919 was too severe, and it humiliated the Germans The Allied Powers treated Germany as they liked and the Germans could not tolerate it any longer. The entire responsibility for the losses of the First World War was put on Germany. The Treaty itself was based on revenge. Germany was waiting for a chance to avenge its humiliation and the seeds for another war were sown by this treaty.

2. Expansionist Policy of Japan and Italy:
Japan and Italy were not satisfied with the ‘Peace Settlement’. They did not get a proper share of the war spoils. Later, these were the countries, hit hard, as they had limited sources. So, with a view to solve their economic problems, they turned to the policy of aggression and expansion. Japan separated from Allied powers and joined Germany. It wanted to liberate Asia from the western yoke.

3. Rise of Dictators:
The rise of dictatorships in Italy under Benito Mussolini, Germany under Adolf Hitler and Japan under the Government of Tojo was another cause for the war. They glorified the war. Mussolini advocated the martial virtues of Italians and reviving the glories of the old Roman Empire. Hitler spoke of the Aryan supremacy and wanted rearmament, revenge and German domination. Japan wanted its own Empire and supremacy. In Russia, Stalin established a totalitarian dictatorship.

4. Colonial and Commercial Rivalry:
Another cause for the war was the colonial and commercial rivalry. It was a sort of Economic Nationalism. It was a struggle for raw materials, markets for their products and colonies for their excess population. After the First World War, Italy, Germany and Japan were not satisfied. All these countries were poor in natural resources.

5. Failure of the League of Nations:
The League of Nations became too weak and incompetent. The league did not have its own army. It was dominated by few countries like England and France. U.S.A remained out of the league. As a result, the League totally failed in preserving peace in Europe.

6. Immediate cause:
On 1st September 1939, Hitler invaded Poland which became the immediate cause for the Second World War. Poland was an ally of England and France. Hence Britain and France declared war on Germany.

The results of the Second World War are:

1. The Second World War was the most destructive of all the wars fought until then. About 25 million people were killed and 50 Million were disabled. Millions of people later died of starvation and diseases. There was large scale destruction of houses, industries and communication and transport systems. The destruction of agricultural land led to a shortage of food. After the war, most of the countries faced the problems of post-war reconstructions.

2. World War II ended the dictatorships in Italy and Germany. Italy was declared a Republic under Badogli, and Germany was divided into four zones under U.S.A., U.S.S.R., Britain, and France. A Tribunal was set up at Nuremberg to conduct trials of the leading Nazis. Japan gave up all its rights to China. Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers. (U.S.A)

3. European domination of the world ended after this war. After the Second World War, U.S.A, and U.S.S.R emerged as two superpowers. The mutual distrust between U.S.A and U.S.S.R increased after the war. This led to what is known as the ‘Cold War’.

4. The rivalry between these two superpowers had been the most important feature of international relations since 1945. As a result, world peace was constantly under threat.

5. The World War resulted in the victory of the principle of Nationalism and the liquidation of Colonialism. The colonial Empires of the European powers in Asia, Africa, and Latin America came to an end. India, Ceylon, Indonesia, and other countries became independent after the war.

6. The Jews had become homeless during the Nazi regime in Germany. About six million Jews perished in the concentration camps. After the war, with the help of U.S.A., a new homeland (Israel) for the Jews was created in 1948.

7. Japan experienced the disastrous effects of atomic weapons. Its entire atmosphere became poisonous. Most of the newborn children suffered from serve deformities.

8. The most important result of the World War Second was the birth of United Nations Organization with the object of preventing further wars and maintaining peace in future.

Question 3.
Describe the political and non-political achievements of the U.N.O.
Answer:
Achievements of U.N.O are manifold:
The U.N.O. has carried out several successful programs and operations. The achievements of the U.N. may be grouped under two headings, namely, political and non-political.

1. Political:
In the political field, the U.N.O has notable achievements. The foremost achievement of the U.N.O is that there has not been a global war and the use Of nuclear weapons since 1945. The first issue that was solved by the U.N.O was the case of Iran. Russian troops were stationed on the Northern borders of Iran during the Second World War. After the war, Iran complained to the U.N.O. So, U.N.O intervened and made the Russian Troops to withdraw from Iran in 1946.

In 1947, a quarrel started in Indonesia between Holland and Indonesia. It was settled by the U.N. in 1948.

1. In September.1948, France, England, and U.S.A. complained to the Security Council about the blockade of Berlin by the U.S.S.R. Later, an agreement was reached due to the efforts of U.N.O.

2. U.N.O. was able to stop the fighting between the Israeli Jews and Arabs in Palestine in 1948.

3. The U.N.O ordered a cease-fire in Kashmir in 1948.

4. In the Korean crisis when war broke out between North and South Korea, the U.N.O used armed forces to settle the dispute.

5. The Suez Canal and Vietnam problems were solved with the mediation of the U.N.O.

6. It also put an end to the fighting between Iraq and Iran in 1989.

7. Iraq occupied Kuwait in 1990. Immediately, Kuwait approached U.N.O for help. So, the U.N. made Iraq vacate Kuwait in 1991.

8. It has worked to maintain peace in several countries of the world. It has carried out peacekeeping missions in Greece, Lebanon, Cyprus, Congo, Cambodia, Korea, Kosovo, etc.,

9. South Africa was following the Apartheid policy. U.N.O. set up a special committee and imposed sanctions against South Africa in 1954. Ultimately the Apartheid regime came 4o an end in 1991.

2. Non-political:
A notable achievement of the U.N.O was the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the General Assembly on 10th December 1948. The Declaration included articles like the right to life, liberty and security of person, freedom from slavery, freedom of thought, the right to vote, to work, etc.

1. U.N.O has done excellent work through its specialized agencies. The ILO has made the member nations to improve the conditions of the labourers.

2. FAO has assisted the nations to increase the food production in farms, forests, fisheries and increase nutrition levels. It has also helped to feed millions of hungry children in the third world countries.

3. IMF and IBRD are giving funds for the economic development of different backward countries.

4. UNESCO has done much work in many backward countries in the social, educational, economic, technological and other fields. U.N.O. helped the refugees of war, earthquakes, tsunami, etc. It had arranged for food, shelter, and rehabilitation of war victims throughout the world. The U.N.O has helped preserve many cultural sites throughout the world as World Heritage Sites like Hampi, Pattadakal, Konark, etc.

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