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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 4 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a sentence each. ( 10 × 1=10 )
Which is the oldest civilization in India?
Indus Valley Civilization.
In order to implement ‘Beti padavo, Beti bachavo’ programme, which district in ‘Karnataka is selected by Central Government?
How is the word ‘caste’ derived?
The word ‘caste’ is derived from the Spanish or Portuguese word casta which means breed, race, strain or group of people having certain inherited qualities.
Who is Karnavan?
A senior male member who looks after the matriarchal joint family of the Nair community of Kerala. (Tarawad).
In which year was the Untouchability Offence Act passed?
Which organization is working for the welfare of Soligas in Karnataka?
Mention any one committee constituted in Karnataka to study agrarian distress.
G.K. Veeresh Commission.
Television Rating Point.
Who started Bhimasena?
Who coined the term modernisation?
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 to 3 sentences each: ( 10 × 2 = 20 )
Define Sex Ratio.
The number of females per 1000 males is called as Sex Ratio.
What is social inequality?
Unequal access to social resources amongst the people is social inequality.
Define Dominant Caste.
According to M.N. Srinivas, “A caste is dominant when it preponderates numerically over the other castes, when it also wields preponderant economic and political power, and when it enjoys a high ritual status in local caste hierarchy.”
Mention the two views of tribal welfare.
Policy of isolation, policy of integration.
State the two types of joint family.
Matriarchal joint family, patriarchal joint family.
Mention any two characteristics of a village community.
- Small in size
- Mainly agriculture and allied activities as the an occupations.
State any two reasons for farmers’ suicide.
- Event (crop loss, failure of a borewell)
- Stressors (Illness, heavy borrowing).
Mention any two business communities.
List out any two advantages of Internet.
- Internet offers a variety of communication tools.
- An essential communication medium – in professional as well as personal life.
Write any two farmers movement in Karnataka.
- Kagodu Sathyagraha and
- Malaprabha farmers’ agitation.
Mention any two women organizations.
- Vimochana and
- Stree Mukti Sangatana.
What is electronic economy?
Banks,Corporations, Fund Managers and individual investors are able to shift funds through internet which is called electronic economy
III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each. ( 4 × 5 = 20 )
23. Explain the nature of unity in India.
Unity implies one-ness or a sense of we-ness. Meaning of integration wherein hitherto divisive people and culture are synthesized into a united whole, along with higher levels of cooperation, mutual understanding, shared values, common identity, and national consciousness. It lightly holds together the various relationships of ethnic groups I or institutions in a neatly combined through the bonds of planned structure, norms, and values. In India aspects of Diversity and Unity co-exist as follows:
1. Regional Unity:
The Natural boundaries provide India a geographical unity. In ancient times India was known as Bharatavarsha, Bharathakanda, Jambudweepa. This symbolizes the significance of historical unity. The very name “Bharatavarsha” has occupied an important place in the minds of poets, political philosophers, and religious thinkers.
Each of them has conceived the country as a single expanse from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari, a country ruled by one king Bharatha. The concept of Mother India also indicates the realization of geographical unity.
2. Linguistic Unity:
Despite the presence of a number of languages, India also possesses lingual unity. Sanskrit as a common base of Indian languages provides the basis of unity as a result of which the linguistic multiplicity has been solved. Simultaneously, Sanskrit became the language of Hindu culture and all classics were composed in this language, which demanded reverence and respect.
People may speak different languages in different regions but they have common language of English and Hindi to communicate with each other. The formation of linguistic states and using regional languages as medium of teaching at schools, colleges and universities are the products of Independence.
in 2004, the government Of Sbdiffjbeclared that languages that met certain requirements could be’ accorded the status of a classical language in India. Tamil (2004), Sanskrit (2005)7 Kannada (2008), Telugu (2008), Malayalam (2013) and Oriya (2014) were declared as classical languages of India. Thus it is an effort to restore 1 linguistic heritage of India.
3. Religious Unity:
In spite of the religious diversities, it possesses religious unity. The feelings of each religious groups are the same, each accepts the truth of immortality of soul, temporary nature of world, belief in rebirth, the doctrine of karma, salvation, contemplation, etc., There may be differences in the way these elements are treated but each religion preaches a fundamentally single religious faith and shares a belief in purity and values of life in respect of belief in unseen power, benevolence, piety, honesty, and liberality, with every religious faith.
The worshippers may visit different centres of pilgrimage, but all have a common goal of ‘Earning religious merit by visiting a sacred place’. India is the sacred land not only for the Hindus but also for Sikhs, Jains, and Buddhists. Muslims and Christians too have several sacred centers of pilgrimage in India.
4. Cultural Unity:
In art and architecture, dress and food, literature, music and dance, sports and cinema, medicine and technology there is a fusion of style and the emergence of new forms which are the result of their combined efforts. Thus it becomes apparently clear from the above account, that running through various diversities. India has been helped both by nature and nurture, by her geographical condition and historical experiences, by her religious ethics, and political ideas.
To realize a unity to perceive, preserve and strengthen the thread of basic unity which makes India a fine example of unity in diversity, transcending birth, caste, language, ethnicity, and religious groupings to establish a big society and a big nation. Modern education, the development of a network of transport and communications, industrialization and urbanization have provided new bases for unity.
Mention the criteria of backwardness as per Mandal Commission.
The Second Backward Classes Commission came into existence in 1979, under the chairmanship of B. P. Mandal. The Mandal commission in its report has listed 3743 castes and communities in the central list: The commission has recommended 27% reservation for other backward castes.
One of the primary objectives of the Mandal commission was to find out the criteria to be used to determine the socially, economically and educationally backward people. The commission found out 11 criteria for determining the social, economic and educational backwardness of the .communities. These criteria fall into three categories as mentioned below.
A. Social Criteria:
- Social backwardness as considered by others.
- Dependence mainly on manual labour for livelihood.
- Marriage of 25% girls and 10% boys in rural areas, and of 10% girls and 5% boys in urban area at an age below 17 years.
- Female work participation 25% above the state average.
B. Educational Criteria:
- Children between 5 and 15 years never attending school is 25% above the state average.
- Student drop-out rate is 25% above the state average.
- Matriculation rate is 25% below the state average.
C. Economic Criteria:
- Average value of family assets 25% below the state average.
- Families living in kachcha houses 25% above the state average.
- Sources of drinking water at a distance beyond 500 meters for more than 50% of the families.
Compulsion to take loan by households 25% above the state average.
These criteria were differently weighted; three points each for social indicators, two points each for educational indicators, and one point each for economic indicators adding up to 22 points. Any caste getting more than 11 points was counted as backward. The criteria of backwardness recommended by the Mandal Commission are widely applied today to determine the relative backwardness of a community.
Explain the Tribal Welfare programmes.
The following welfare programmes are implemented for the upliftment of tribals.
1. Economic Programmes:
The amount allocated for the tribal welfare schemes in different plans go to prove that tribal development is one of the priorities. The amount allocated in the fifth plan was Rs. 1100 crore and it was Rs. 5535 crore and Rs. 10.500 crore in the sixth plan (1980-85) and seventh plan (1985-90) respectively.
a. The 20-point Programme:
The 20- Point Programme too focused attention on the development of Scheduled Tribes. Economic assistance was lent to tribal families to move above the poverty line.
b. Establishment of LAMPS and TRIFED:
To relieve the tribals of the ‘ bonded labour system, the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act. 1976 was passed. That apart, to loosen the grip of the moneylenders and the middlemen on the tribals, the government organized ‘Large Area Multi-Purpose Societies’ (Lamps). These were intended to provide adequate credit facilities for productive purposes.
These were the Co-operative societies helping tribals in selling their agricultural and minor forest produce and providing them with improved varieties of seeds, manure, -insecticides, agricultural implements, etc. For . marketing the tribal produce, the ‘Tribal Co-operative Marketing Development Federation of India” (TRIFED) has been set up. It works to eliminate exploitation of tribals and realization of better prices.
c. Assistance to Agriculture:
Tribal cultivation is uneconomic and also unscientific. They are being persuaded to take up scientific agriculture. Agricultural implements, manure, seeds and loan facilities are being provided and tribals are also given land rights.
2. Educational Programmes:
They are also provided with free hostels, faculties such as free tuition, stipends, scholarships, mid-day meals, text-books, etc. ‘Ashrama Schools’ with lands attached to them and ‘Technical Schools’ have come up in tribal areas. They are also given training free of cost in poultry, forestry, animal husbandry, apiculture, etc.
Tribal-students taking competitive examinations are given pre-examination coaching free of cost. There are pre examination training centers and coaching- cum-guidance centers exclusively meant for students of Scheduled Tribes. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and Central Institute of Indian languages – Mysore have already prepared teaching module for more than 60 tribal dialects to popularize education among the tribals.
3. Research Programmes:
For the study of tribals in a scientific way, Tribal Research centres have been set up. There are at present 11 such centres in India. To coordinate their activates, a 30 member ‘Central Research Advisory Council’ has also been set up. The council provides guidance on policy formulation.
4. Health, Housing, and other Schemes:
Under various schemes, houses and sites have been given to the tribals. There are a number of voluntary organizations working for the welfare of tribals. For instance, Dr. H. Sudarshan’s Vivekananda Girijana Kendra and Karuna Trust has done commendable work in the upliftment of Soligas, a tribal community inhabiting Biligiri Ranga Hills in Chamarajnagar district of Karnataka. They are helping in Education, Health, and Empowerment of Soligas.
Explain the types of microfinance.
Micro Finance is defined as, financial services such as Savings Accounts, Insurance Funds, and credit provided to poor and low income clients so as to help them to raise their income and thereby improve their standard of living. Microfinance is a source of financial services for entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to banking and related services. Major features of Microfinance
- Loan without security.
- Loans to people who live BPL (Below Poverty Line)
- Even members of Self Help Groups may get benefit from Micro finance
- Maximum limit of loan under micro finance is relatively a small amount.
- The terms and conditions given to poor people
Types of Microfinance:
1. Informal Financial Service Providers:
These include moneylenders, pawnbrokers, savings collectors, chit funds and input supply shops. Because they know each other well and live in the same community, they understand each other’s financial circumstances and can offer very flexible, convenient and fast services.
These services can also be costly and the choice of financial products limited and very short-term. Informal services that involve savings are also risky as many people have lost their money in Chit funds run by unscrupulous people.
2. Member-Owned Organizations:
These include self-help groups, credit unions, and a variety of hybrid organizations like ‘Financial service associations’. They are generally small and local, which means they have access to good knowledge about each other’s financial circumstances and can offer convenience and flexibility.
Grameen Bank, Bangladesh is a member-owned organization started by Muhammad Yunus in 1970. They have proven very innovative, pioneering banking techniques like solidarity lending, village banking, and mobile banking that have overcome barriers to serving poor populations.
3. Formal Financial Institutions:
In addition, to commercial banks, these include State banks, Agricultural development banks, Savings banks, Rural banks, and Non-bank financial institutions. They are regulated and supervised, offer a wider range of financial services, and control a branch network that can extend across the country and U internationally.
However, they have proved reluctant to adopt social missions, and due to their high costs of operation, often can’t deliver services to poor or remote populations. Efforts are being made to link self-help groups to commercial banks, by integrating mobile banking and e-payment technologies into their extensive branch networks.
List out the agricultural and economic problems of Village communities.
Following are the important economic and agricultural problems of villages.
- Discriminatory Policies.
- Vulnerability of the Agricultural Sector. Increase in cost of cultivation and environmental degradation.
- The deliberate withdrawal of welfare programmes from state.
- Globalization and the resultant competition and exploitation by big Capitalists.
- Peculiar Banking Practices and non-availability of Loans from Institutional Sources.
- Failure of the co-operative sector.
- Problems of marginal farmers.
- Dependency on groundwater for irrigation.
- Increase in drought prone areas.
Write a note on the Bastar Tribal Market.
The weekly market as a social institution, the links between the local Tribal economy and the outside, and the exploitative economic relationships between adivasis and others, are illustrated by a study of a weekly market in Bastar district. This district is populated by Gonds, an adivasi group.
At the weekly market, you find local people, including tribals and non-tribals, as well as outsiders-mainly traders of various castes. Forest officials also come to the market to conduct business with adivasis who work for the Forest Department, and the market attracts a variety of specialists selling their goods and services. The major goods that are exchanged in the market are
- Manufactured goods (such as jewelry and trinkets, pots and knives),
- Non-local foods (such as salt and haldi (turmeric)),
- Local food and agricultural products and manufactured items (such as bamboo baskets), and
- Forest produce such as tamarind, oil-seeds and etc. The forest produces that is brought by Adivasis purchased by traders who carry it to towns.
IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each. (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain any five features of Indian demography.
Demography is the systematic study of population. The term Demography is derived from two Greek words i.e. demos (people) and graphein (describe), implying the description of people. The term Demography was coined by Achille Guillard in 1855. Demography studies the trends and processes associated with population including – changes in population size; patterns of births, deaths, and migration; and the structure and composition of the population, such as the relative proportions of women, men and different age groups.
There are different varieties of demography, including Formal demography which is a largely quantitative field, and Social demography which focuses on the social, economic or political aspects of population. All demographic studies are based on processes of counting or enumeration – such as the census or the survey – which involve the systematic collection of data on the people residing within a specified territory.
In India, census was conducted by the British Indian government between 1867-72, and regular ten yearly (decennial) censuses have been, conducted since 1881. Independent India continued the practice, and seven decennial censuses have been conducted since 1951, the most recent being in 2011. Demographic data are important for the planning and implementation of state policies, especially those for economic development and general public welfare.
The Major characteristics of the Demographic Profile of India:
- Size and Growth of India’s population
- Age structure of the Indian population
- Sex-Ratio in India.
- Birth rate and Death rate
- Increasing Literacy rate of Indian population.
- Increasing Rural-Urban differences
1. Size and Growth of India’s Population:
India is the second most populous country in the world after China. According to the 2011 census, India’s population is 121 crores(1.21 billion). Between 1901-1951 the average annual growth rate did not exceed 1.33%, a modest rate of growth. In fact, between 1911 and 1921 there was a negative rate of growth of – 0.03%. This was because of the influenza epidemic during 1918-19.
The growth rate of population substantially increased after independence from British rule going up to 2.2% during 1961-1981. Since then although the annual growth rate has decreased it remains one of the highest in the developing world.
2. Age structure of the Indian population:
India has a very young population – that is, majority of Indians tend to be young, compared to most other countries. The share of the less than 15 age group in the total population has come down from its highest level of 42% in 1971 to 29% in 2011. The share of the 15-60 age group has increased from 53% to 63%, while the share of the 60+ age group is very small but it has begun to increase (from 5% to 8%) over the same period.
But the age composition of the Indian population is expected to change significantly in the next two decades. 0-14 age group will reduce its share by about 11% (from 34% in 2001 to 23% in 2026) while the 60 plus age .group will increase its share by about 5% (from 8% in 2001 to about 12% in 2026).
3. The declining Sex-ratio in India:
The sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in the population. The sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males. The trends of the last four decades have been particularly worrying – from 941 in 1961 the sex ratio had fallen to an all time low of 927 in 1991 before posting a modest increase in 2001.
According to the Census of India 2011, sex ratio has increased and now it is 940 females per 1000 males. But what has really alarmed demographers, policymakers, social activists, and concerned Citizens is the drastic fall in the child sex ratio. The sex ratio for the 0 – 6 years age group (known as the juvenile or child sex ratio) has generally been substantially higher than the overall sex ratio for all age groups, but it has been falling very sharply.
In fact, the decade 1991-2001 represents an anomaly in that the overall 1 sex ratio has posted its highest ever increase of 6 points from the all time low of 927 to 933, but the child sex ratio in 2011 census has dropped from 927 to 914, a plunge of 13 points taking it below the overall sex ratio for the first time.
4. Increasing literacy rate of Indian population:
Literacy varies considerably across gender, regions, and social groups. The literacy rate for women is almost 22% less than the literacy rate for men. However, female literacy has been rising faster than male literacy, partly because it started from relatively low levels.
Female literacy rose by about 11.2 percent between 2001 and 2011 compared to the rise in male literacy of 6.2 percent in the same period. Female literacy which was 8.9% in 1951, has increased to 65.4 in 2011. Male literacy in the same period was 27.2% which has increased to 82.17. Total literacy rate of 18.3% in 1951 has increased to 74.04 in 2011.
5. Increasing Rural-Urban differences:
According to the 2011 Census, 68.8% of the population lives in rural areas while 31.2% of people live in urban areas. The urban population has been increasing steadily, from about 17.3% in 1951 to 31.2 in 2011, an increase of about two-and-a-half times.
State the objectives of Towards Equality Report – 1974.
A National Commission was formed to examine the status and problems of Indian women. Report of this Commission is called as ‘Towards Equality Report 1974’. Objectives of the Towards Equality Report are the following:
1. To examine the Constitutional, legal, and administrative provisions that have a bearing on the social status of women, their education and employment.
2. To assess the impact of these provisions during the last two decades on the status of women in the country, particularly in the rural sector and to suggest more effective programmes.
3. To consider the development of education among women and determine the factors responsible for the slow progress in some areas and suggest remedial measures.
4. To survey the problems of the working women including discrimination in employment and remuneration.
5. To examine the status of women as housewives and mothers in the changing social pattern and their problems in the sphere of further education and employment.
6. To undertake survey of case studies on the implications of the population policies and family planning programmes on the status of women.
7. To suggest any other measures which would enable women to play their roles to the fullest in building up the nation.
Discuss the functional changes in Joint family.
Functional changes in the joint family are the following:
1. Changes in the provision of common residence:
Earlier, a joint family was providing common residence and basic requirements to its members. Nowadays, the location of their jobs is forcing the family members to find their residences elsewhere.
2. Changes in religious functions:
Even though some of the family members are. forced to live separately, they celebrate festivals, feasting, marriages, rituals, ancestral worship together at one place.
3. Changes in the role of protection and socialization of children:
In joint families uers and other relatives used to take care of children and their needs. Today, various agencies are providing protection through day-care centres, insurance companies, schools and playhomes, maternity homes and orphanages. The roles of the elder members and their importance in the process of socialization has significantly reduced.
4. Changes in economic functions :
Earlier, the financial needs of all the members were taken care of by the common fund and emergencies were addressed suitably. As the younger generation move away from the joint family fold, seeking better prospects and employment at far off places, they have to fend for themselves. The earlier economic • functions of joint family have changed drastically.
5. Changes in recreational functions:
Joint family has almost transformed its recreational activities to the external. Commercial agencies, newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, cinema, videogames and sports have taken over the recreational functions of joint family.
Explain the five characteristics of slums.
Slums The magnitude of the problem of slums is alarming. The Government of India in order to implement the various schemes to urban development has defined a slum area as follows:
“A slum area means any area where such dilapidated dwellings predominate, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of buildings, narrowness and faulty arrangement of street, lack of ventilation, lack of sanitation facilities, inadequacy of open spaces and community facilities or any combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health or morals.”
These slum areas are also referred toas the ‘Blighted area’; ‘Renewal area’; ‘deteriorated area’, ‘Gray area’; ‘Lower class neighborhood’; ‘Lower income area’, etc. It is in slums that poor people like industrial workers, casual labourers, hawkers, petty shopkeepers, vegetable-sellers and several others offering useful services to the city find a place to stay.
The National Institute of Urban Affairs, New Delhi, has recorded that the emergence of slums is essentially the product of three forces:
- City life style attracting more people from the rural areas offering greater potential for employment;
- Its incapacity to meet the rising demand for housing,
- The existing urban land policies, which prohibit the access of the poor to the urban land market.
It is further observed that the urban poor are left with no choice but to make or take shelter illegally on any available piece of land. Sometimes a slum is the consequence of blight in the old parts of the city. At times, a slum is inherited in the form of an old village or a haphazardly growing locality within the extended territorial limits of a town.
Characteristics of Slums:
The physical aspects and general conditions of the slums are by and large the same everywhere. The foremost characteristics of slums can be briefly enumerated in the following manner;
1. Dilapidated and in poor condition houses:
Slums are made of poor design and scrap materials. These are often raised on unauthorized land.
2. High Density of population and Housing:
It leads to over-crowding and congestion; one room is often used for all practical purposes of domestic living. In Mum’bai and in many other big cities, it can be seen that in the slum areas one room tenement with 100 sq.f. to 150 sq.f. of space is occupied by more than 10 persons.
3. Lack of Public Utilities and Facilities:
Lack of drainage, sanitation, water, electricity, health centers, sanitation and public parks, etc., are widely observable characteristic of slums.
4. Apathy and Social Isolation:
Though the slum- dwellers are functionally integrated to the city life, apathy and social isolation characterize a s|um. Under these circumstances, the slum- dwellers find it almost impossible to improve these conditions through their own efforts.
Discuss the role of technology in newspaper production.
From the late 1980s and early 1990s, newspapers have become fully automatic – from reporter’s desk to final page proof. The use of paper has been completely eliminated with this automated chain. This has become possible because of two technological changes – networking of personal computers (PCs) through LANs (local area networks) and use of news making software like Newsmaker and other customised software.
Changing technology has also changed the role and function of a reporter. The basic tools of a news reporter a shorthand notebook, pen, typewriter, and telephone has been replaced by new tools a mini tape recorder, a laptop or a personal computer (PC), mobile or satellite phone, and other accessories like modem.
All these technological changes in news gathering have increased the speed of news and helped newspaper managements to push their deadlines to dawn. They are also able to plan a greater number of editions and provide the latest news to the readers. A number of newspapers are using the new technologies to bring out separate editions for each of the districts.
While print centres are limited, the number of editions has grown manifold. Newspaper chains like Vijaya Kamatak are using new technology for news gathering as well as for improving pictorial coverage. The newspaper has a network of nearly a hundred reporters and staffers and an equal number of photographers, feeding news.
All the hundred correspondents are equipped with PCs and modems for news transmission, and the photographers carry digital cameras with them. Digital images are sent to the central news desk via modems.
Explain the processes of modernization in India.
Modernization in India is undergoing the following processes:
1. At the economic level, there is a persistent and growing tendency to adopt the rational, mechanized industrial economy in place of older communal familistic tool economy. This is even responsible for the breakdown of traditional systems like jajmani system.
2. At the political level, the change in the power structure is being introduced through the abolition of semi-feudal group-oriented power structure of the past and by replacing it by a rational parliamentary democratic structure of power.
3. At the cultural level, the change in the realm of values ‘is from sacred value system to secular value system.4. At the social level, there is a decline in the traditional principle of ascribed status and role to achieve status and role. Yogendra Singh in his work “Modernization of Indian Tradition” is of the opinion that a unique feature of modernization in India is that it is being carried forward through adaptive changes in the traditional structures rather than structural dissociation or breakdown.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 sentences each. ( 2 × 10 = 20)
Explain the nature of diversity in India.
The term diversity denoting collective differences so as to find out dissimilarities among groups of people: geographical, religious, linguistic, etc. All these differences presuppose collective differences or prevalence of variety of groups and cultures. Indian society is characterized by unity as well as diversity. Primarily there are four major types of diversities in India, which are;
- Regional diversities
- Linguistic diversities
- Religious diversities and
- Cultural and Ethnic Diversities
1. Regional Diversities:
India is a vast country. From the Himalayas in the North to the Indian Ocean in the south, there are quite lot of differences in altitude, temperature, Flora and Fauna. India has every conceivable type of climate, temperature and physical configuration.
There is the scorching heat of Rajastan and the biting cold of the Himalayas, Rainfall varies from 1200 to 7.5 ems per year.The result is that India has some of the wettest and driest areas in the world. India also possesses arid desserts and fertile riverine lands, bare and hilly tracts and luxuriant open plain.
2. Linguistic Diversities:
Language is another source of diversity. It contributes to collective identities and even to conflicts. The Indian Constitution has recognized 22 languages in the 8th schedule for its official purposes but HN as many as 1652 languages and dialects are spoken in the country.
These languages belong to five linguistic families, namely; Indo- Aryan languages, Dravidian languages, Austric languages, Tibeto – Burman languages and European languages. This makes language planning and promotion difficult. But the mother tongue does evoke strong sentiments and reactions.
As a consequence of this multiplicity, there is considerable bilingualism and administration has to use more than one language. Linguistic diversity has posed administrative and political challenges. Apart from that for people with different mother tongues, communication becomes a problem.
3. Religious Diversities:
There are 8 major religious communities in India. Hindus constitute the majority followed by Muslims, Christians, and Sikhs. Buddhists, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Jews are less than 1% each. Each major religion is further divided along the lines of religious documents, sects, and cults.
Hindus are broadly divided into Shaivites, Vaishnavaites and Shaktas (worshippers of Shiva, Vishnu, and Mother Goddess – Shakthi respectively) and other minor sects.Even though they took birth in India, both Jainism and Buddhism have lost their hold in India and are confined to a few small pockets. Diganibars and Shw’etambars are the two divisions of Jains. Indian Muslims are broadly divided into Shias and Sunnis.
Indian Christians, apart from Roman Catholics and Protestants have other small regional denominational churches. Sikhism is a synthesizing religion that emphasizes egalitarianism. Parsis even though a small community have played an important role in India’s industrial development. The Jews have a white and black divisions.
4. Cultural and Ethnic Diversities:
Another important source of diversity is the cultural diversity. People differ considerably in their social habits. Cultural difference varies from state to state. The conflicting and varying shades of blood, strains, culture and modes of life, the character, conduct, beliefs, morals, food, dress, manners, social norms, Socio-Religious customs, rituals and etc.
causes cultural and ethnic diversities in the country.Dr. R.K. Mukherji rightly said that “India is a museum of cults and customs, creeds and culture, faiths and tongues, racial types and social systems.
Explain the problems of tribal communities.
The problems of Tribals are as follows:
1. Geographical Isolation:
Tribals are the people who have been living in remote areas and hill tracks, without any access to socioeconomic inputs. For centuries, tribals were isolated from the rest of the community, which has also given them wide cultural variations. Their geographical isolation from the mainstream deprived them the chances for progress.
2. Cultural Problems:
At present due to contact with outsiders, the tribal culture is undergoing a change. It has led to the degeneration of Tribal life and Tribal arts such as their dance, music and different types of crafts. In several tribal areas, influence of other religions have affected their culture. This is also responsible for alienating them from their culture. The tribal groups have got divided into several sects on the basis of religion. This has shattered their collective life.
3. Social Problems:
Due to the influence of outsiders, the tribals are facing the problem of dowry, child marriage, infanticide, and un touchability. The contact with outsiders has created several social and health related problems.
4. Economic Problems:
Tribal people are economically backward. The major economic problems of tribals are as follows:
- Alienation of Tribal Land to the Non- Tribals
- Problem of indebtedness
- Exploitation in Forestry Operations
- Primitive methods of Cultivation
5. Educational Problems:
According to the 2011 census, the literacy among the scheduled Tribes was 29.6 percent. Main causes of slow progress in literacy among the scheduled Tribes are poverty of the parents, content of education, inadequate educational institutions and supporting services, absenteeism, medium of instruction and educational policy, etc.
6. Exploitation of tribals by the Moneylenders:
He Tribals continue to be the victims of exploitation by the moneylenders. Indebtedness among the Tribals may be attributed to the following reasons: Poverty loopholes in the existing money lending laws, lack of awareness about sources of institutional finances and existing legal protection, inability to follow the complicated procedures to obtain loan and consumer credit from institutional sources are the major hindrances.
Indifferent attitude of government and bank officials, private money lenders willingness to advance money to the Tribals without any security paves way for later exploitation. Absence of alternative credit facility has compelled the tribals to compromise their fate with moneylenders and accept indebtedness as almost an inescapable aspect of their existence. Lack of employment opportunities add to their woes.
7. Health Problems:
The main cause of their sickness is the lack of clean drinking water, nutritive food, and prevalence of communicable diseases.
Briefly explain the problems of Indian cities.
Problems of Indian cities can be classified in the following ways:
1. Urban Poverty:
Urban poverty is the by-product of industrialization and urbanization. Poverty and overcrowding are the two most visible features of Indian cities. About half of the urbanites are poor and live in substandard life, because of cost of living, lack of regular income, low wages, pro-rich economic policies, inflation, etc.
India has issued its first-ever report on the nature and dynamics of urban poverty in the country undertaken with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), India Urban Poverty Report 2009 which identifies the problems faced by the poor and focuses on the systematic changes that are needed to address them.
The report examines various issues related to urban poverty, such as migration, labor, the role of gender, access to basic services and the appalling condition of India’s slums. It also looks at the dynamics of urban land and capital market, urban governance, and the marginalization of the poor to the urban periphery.
The magnitude of the problem of slums is alarming. The Government of India, in order to implement the various schemes for urban development, has defined a slum area as follows:
A slum area means any area where such dwellings predominate of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of buildings, narrowness and faulty arrangement of streets, lack of ventilation, lack of sanitation facilities, inadequacy of open spaces and community facilities or any combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health or morale,” These slum areas are also referred to as the ‘Blighted area’; ‘Renewal area’; ‘deteriorated area’, ‘Gray area’; ‘Lower class neighborhood’; ‘Lower income area’, etc.
3. Problem of Urban Housing:
The bulk of the people in the Indian cities live in one-room or in thatched huts in the sprawling slums or on the pavements. Another sad feature is total lack of essential municipal services like water supply, drainage, sewarage, lighting, -roads, etc.
Further, large proportion of the rural migrants have been bringing with them unskilled persons who take up unskilled jobs in the services, trade, industries, etc. Generally, a single room has to meet all the requirements of the family including cooking, living, sleeping which make confinement.
It is difficult to keep reasonably clean and sanitary washing and bathing facilities. The inconvenience they have to undergo is aggravated during the rainy days. Almost all the above mentioned conditions are found in shawls of Mumbai, that as of Kanpur, bastis of Kolkata, cherish of Chennai as well as in Dhowrahas of the mining centers and barracks of the plantations in India.
These are made of brick walls and iron roof or huts consisting of bamboo walls and thatched roofs. The lanes are too narrow and the huts are built back to back. These lack facilities like bathing, washing, and toilets, etc.
4. Sanitation and Pollution:
It is accompanied with corrupt Municipal administration and inefficiency. According to UNICEF, lakhs of urban children in India die or suffer from diarrhea, diphtheria, tetanus, and measles, etc.
5. Transportation and Traffic:
Transportation and traffic picture in Indian cities is troublesome. Majority of people use buses and other vehicles, while a few use rails as transport systems. The increasing number of two wheelers and other types of vehicles make the traffic problem worse.
Briefly explain the women movement in India.
Indian Women’s Movement (IWM) emerged as a part of the social reform movement during the British rule. Initially, men and later women reformers devotedly bore social ridicule, religious ex-communication, and loneliness to fight against some of the injustices perpetrated on women, especially the ill-treated widows, such as Sati, prostitution, child marriage etc.
After a prolonged campaign and much reluctance on the part of the British, a law banning Sati was passed in 1829. Women remained confined, by purdah and feudal custom, to household chores. The first Mahila Mandals organised by the Aiya Samaj and the Brahmo Samaj, the reformist organisations,
provided the space for reformation.
By the early 1900s, women’s organisations based on language, religion or welfare services proliferated, mainly in urban centers. For example, a Brahmin Women’s Home was built by Subbalakshmi Ammal in Madras, the Mahila Seva Samaj in Mysore, the Bhagini Samaj in Pune, the Chamanbai Maternity and Child Welfare Board in Baroda etc.
The All India Women’s Conference (AIWC), which was established in 1924, and became the single largest voice of the divergent groups, infused all its old and new demands with an equal rights perspective. They demanded for co-education, while the reform law included marriage, divorce and inheritance; economic equality included a right to one’s husband’s income and pension for widows; and surprisingly the right to abortion was also included.
Independence brought many promises and dreams for women too — the dream of an egalitarian, democratic society in which both men and women would have a voice. After Independence, the dust and din of women’s activism gave way to the development of institutions and organisations.
Many middle class women found a place in the expanding service and educational sectors, government structures or the professions. This – numerically small but conspicuous entry into formerly prohibited areas gave rise to an image of the ‘new’ emancipated Indian woman.
By the 1960s, it was clear that many of the promises of independence were unfulfilled. Thus the 1960s and 1970s saw a spate of movements in which women took part in campaigns against rising prices, movements for land rights, peasant movements etc. Women from different parts of the country came together to form groups both
inside and outside political parties.
Towards the beginning of the 1980s in Mumbai the Stree Mukti Sanghatana, the Socialist Women’s Group organised study circles and the first women activists’ meeting. The Stree Shakti Sanghatana in Hyderabad influenced the formation of the Purogami Sanghatana in Pune. The Stree Sangarsh, and the Mahila Dakshata in Delhi, Pennurimai gyakkam in Chennai, Vimochana in Bengaluru were a few of the new well known organisations.
Rallying around specific instances of violence against women, the feminists sought to create public awareness through protest marches, sit-in strikes and media publicity. Women’s organisations established in the post-independence days have, consistently attacked the anti-women bias in society, provided support to women in distress and remained vigilant against sexist bias in national policies and implementations.
These include: invasive reproduction and family planning technologies; discriminatory practises in education and employment; and laws that countervail gender equality. The women’s movement in India has, over the years, seen different splits and alliances, organisations and platforms, and responded to different issues with different answers and actions.
The leadership of the women’s movement has remained predominantly middle class The women’s movement in India has chosen to influence and pressurize the State and its organs rather than oppose, fight and seize State power.
VI. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 sentences each. ( 2 × 5 = 10 )
Write a note on Demographic Dividend.
Demographic dividend refers to demographic or population advantage which is obtained due to numerical domination of the young people in the population. It is an advantage due to less dependency ratio.
Dependency ratio means that children less than 14 years and people above 65 years are considered as dependent on the rest of the population. In simple terms, the ratio of the combined age group 0-14 years plus 65 years & above to the 15-65 years age group is referred to as the total dependency ratio.
The younger age groups in the age structure are believed to be an advantage for India. Like the East Asian economies in the past decade and countries like Ireland today, India is supposed to be benefitting from a ‘demographic dividend’.
This dividend arises from the fact that the current generation of working-age people is a relatively large one, and it has only a relatively small preceding generation of old people to support. But there is nothing automatic about this advantage – it needs to be consciously utilised in the following ways.
a. The demographic advantage or ‘dividend’ to be derived from the age structure of the population is due to the fact that India is one of the youngest countries in the world. In 2020, the average Indian will be only 29 years old, compared with an average age of 37 in China and the United States, 45 in Western Europe, and 48 in Japan. This implies a large and growing labour force, which can deliver unexpected benefits in terms of growth and prosperity.
b. But this potential can be converted into actual growth only if the rise in the working age group is accompanied by increasing levels of education and employment.
c. India is indeed facing a window of opportunity created by the demographic dividend. The effect of demographic trends on the dependency ratio defined in terms of age groups is quite visible. The total dependency ratio fell from 79 in 1970 to 64 in 2005.
But the process is likely to extend well into this century with the age-based dependency ratio projected to fall to 48 in 2025 because of continued fall in the proportion of children and then rise to 50 by 2050 because of an increase in the proportion of the aged.
d. This suggests that the advantage offered by a young labour force is not being exploited. Unless a way forward is found, we may miss out on the potential benefits that the country’s changing age structure temporarily offers.
Write a note on Backward Class Movement in Karnataka.
The backward class movement in Karnataka is desire of the underprivileged people to develop their own potentialities and contribute to the. economic development of the nation. In every society, some groups of people are better off and some are not so due to the opportunities they get. By such opportunities people who are already well – off equip themselves and pursue careers which give them prestige and profit. By contrast, the lower or other backward classes have no opportunities to equip themselves.
A new awareness arose among the non-Brahmins in the princely state of Mysore. Vokkaligas, Lingayats and Muslims of Mysore had realized their position of relative deprivation as against the Brahmins. By 1917, these groups formed an alliance called Prajamitra Mandali. In 1918, this mandali pleaded with Maharaja of Mysore for representation in legislature, reservation in posts of public services and educational institutions.
In 1918, a committee of six non-official members presided over by Sir Leslie Miller was formed to study this. Miller committee recommended the acceptance of all their demands. Since then, Backward classes in Mysore state have availed benefits in the field of education, employment and political arena.
A. Naganna Gowda Commission:
The Karnataka Government appointed a Backward class commission in 1960 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Naganna Gowda, It is the First Backward Class Commission in Karnataka. The Commission submitted its report in 1961, which recommends 15% for SCs, 3% for STs and 50% OBCs, providing total 68% of reservation. The government’s attempt to implement the report was stayed by the Supreme Court. However, in 1963 the government issued an order guaranteeing 15% of reservation to SCs, 3% STs and 30% to OBCs.
B. L. G Havanoor Commission:In 1972, the government appointed the second backward class commission headed by Sri L. G. Havanoor. This commission in its report submitted in 1975 stated that though more than 75% of the people in the state belonged to backward classes and deserved reservation facilities, there was no constitutional provision for giving it. Hence, it made provision for up to 50% reservation. Government made provision for 58% reservation. However it was challenged in Supreme Court and govt, gave a submission to court stating to initiate a new commission.
C. Venkataswamy Commission:
In 1983, the government appointed the Venkataswamy Commission, which gave its report in 1986. The report created wide spread dissatisfaction. The government decided not to implement the report but to establish one more commission to find an amicable settlement to this problem.
D. Chinnappa Reddy Commission:
The government instituted the Chinnappa Reddy Commission in 1990, which has been comparatively more widely welcomed. The commission seems to have tried its best to uphold social justice. In Karnataka, the SCs and STs together enjoyed 18% while the OBCs quota is 32%.
Based on the Mandal Commission’s report, the Supreme Court of India gave directions to establish a permanent Backward Classes Commission at the center as well as in states and union territories.Accordingly, a permanent Backward Classes Commission was set up in Karnataka. Sri K. Narayana Rai (1994-1997), Prof, Ravi Verma Kumar (1997-2000), Sri Muniraju (2001-2003), Sri Siddalingaih (2003-2006), Dr. G. S. Dwarakanath (2007-2010) N. Shankarappa (2011 – 13) headed the Backward Classes Commission in Karnataka.
At present H. Kantharaj is the Chairman of Karnataka State Backward class Commission. The commission recommends for inclusion or exclusion of a caste in the backward class list. In Karnataka 101 and 51 Tribes are enlisted as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes respectively.
Explain the causes of farmers’ suicides.
R. S. Deshpumde and Saroja Arora’s work ‘Agrarian Crisis and Farmer Suicides’ is a field work based study. It was Conducted by the Center for Rural Studies, Lai Bahadur Shastri National Academy and Administration, Mussoori in 2007. This volume deals with the problems of farmers’ suicides across the state. Agrarian crisis in Karnataka can be understood in the following way.
It is acknowledged fact that between 1993 and 2003,100,248 farmers committed suicide in India. Suicide is not confined to Karnataka alone. It has been reported among the sugarcane growers of UP, cotton growers of Andhra Pradesh and spice/ coffee growers of Kerala. It has been reported from Orissa and West Bengal as well.
Karnataka has no history of farmers committing suicide even during the situation of acute agrarian crisis. Even the unorganised farmers would resort to other tactics such as throwing agricultural commodities on the roads, burning their crops and so on. However, suicide was an attempt to retain the identity as a distinct social category within the larger economy.
In this context, the report of the Agricultural Department, Government of Karnataka is important. Between 2003 and 2012, a total of2909 farmers committed suicide. On the contrary, the Central Government claimed that from 2000-01 to 2005-06, around 8600 farmers committed suicide which is the highest figure when compared to any other state in fact Maharashtra is relegated to third position in the suicide rate.
However, if we calculate the statistics provided by the Veeresh Committee report, including other press reports one can estimate the number of suicides is more than 5000. Region-wise the highest suicide rate was reported from the Old Mysore areas, followed by the Old Bombay Presidency areas and the Old Hyderabad region.
The Old Madras Presidency area, as well as Coorg also reported suicides, however their number is less. In fact, Old Mysore and Old Bombay Presidency areas are better known for irrigation. Most of these who committed suicide lived near the tail end of the canal. The beginning of the suicides can be traced back to the year 1998, when farmers in Bidar, who were involved in cultivating toor dal, a market oriented agricultural crop committed suicide.
In the two years, farmer suicides were largely concentrated in the drought-prone districts of north Karnataka or confined to economically backward, drought-prone regions such as Gulbarga and Bidar. However, after 2000, the phenomenon shifted to relatively advanced agricultural regions, particularly Mandya, Hassan, Shimoga, Davanagere, Koppal and even Chikamagalur and Kodagu.
Explain the geographical distribution of tribals.
1. The North and the North-Eastern Zone:
This zone comprises the Sub-Himalayan Region and the Mountain Ranges of the North-Eastern Frontier of India, the Tista valley and the Jamuna-Padma portion of the Brahmaputra. It includes Himachal Pradesh, Northern UP, Sikkim and the seven states of the Northeast consisting of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur, and Tripura.
They belong to the Mongoloid race and their language resembles the languages of Austric family. This zone is inhabited by the Tribes such as Gurung, Limbu, Lepcha, Aka, Mishmi, Mikir, Rabha, Kachari, Garo, Khasi, Chakmas, Naga, Angami, Serna, Pham, Chang and so on.
2. The Central Zone:
The Central zone comprises the plateau and mountains between the Indo-Gangetic plains in the North and the Krishna River in the South. It includes WestBengal, Orissa, Bihar, Southern UP, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. The important Tribes among these are the Gonds of Madhya Pradesh, Bhi Is of Rajasthan, Santhalas of Chotanagpur, Ho of Singhbhum, Manbhumi, Khond and Kharia of Orissa, Sawara of Ganjam and the Mundas.
Madhya Pradesh has the largest concentration of tribal population (23.27%). Santhalas of this zone are more advanced. Some of the tribes are engaged in small-scale cottage industries and settled forms of cultivation. Some of them live in very dense forests and difficult terrains.
3. The Southern Zone:
These are the Tribes of South India (Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Kerala, and two Union territories Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep). The Tribes of this zone are the original inhabitants of India and these people speak Dravidian languages. This zone consists of the Tribes like Chenchu, Kota, Kurumba, Badaga, Toda, Kadar, Malaya, Muthuran, Koya, Soliga, Kannikar, Paniya, Yeravas, Irula, Kadu Kuruba, Jenu Kuruba, Akki Pikki, etc.
In the Andaman and Nicobar islands, there are six Tribes namely the great Andamanees, the Onges, the Sentinelese, the Jarawas represent the Negritos race and the Nicobares and Shompens belong to the Mongoloids race. The Nicobares numbering about 22000 are comparatively an advanced Tribe and are settled in the Nicobar Islands. The remaining five Tribes are numerically very small and have been declared as the primitive Tribes.