2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 5 Change and Development of Villages and Urbanisation in India

Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 5 Change and Development of Villages and Urbanisation in India

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2nd PUC Sociology Change and Development of Villages and Urbanisation in India One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
State any one characteristic of village community.
Answer:
Agriculture as a way of life.

Question 2.
Mention any one sociologists who have conducted village studies.
Answer:
M.N. Srinivas.

Question 3.
Who edited the book called “Rural Sociology in India”.
Answer:
A.R. Desai.

Question 4.
Mention the two ancient cities of India.
Answer:
Varanasi, Indraprasta.

Question 5.
Mention any one problem of village community.
Answer:
Increase in Drought prone.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Who considered Indian Villages as Little Republics?
Answer:
Chaurl, Metcalf.

Question 7.
Write one change taken place in Indian villages during British rule.
Answer:
The Britishers discontinued the grant to the village fund from village revenue. This affected the developmental activities which were carried out by the village councils panchayats.

Question 8.
State any one Importance of village studies.
Answer:
Field work antidote to Book view.

Question 9.
Who undertook a study on Rampura village?
Answer:
M.N. Srinivas. .

Question 10.
Who authored Remembered village?
Answer:
M.N. Srinivas.

Question 11.
Who Conducted study on Kisan garhi village.
Answer:
Mcim Marriot.

Question 12.
Mention any one social problem of Indian villages.
Answer:
illiteracy.

Question 13.
Mention any one Health problem of Indian villages.
Answer:
Infant mortality

Question 14.
Mention any one economic problem of Indian villages.
Answer:
Discriminatory policies.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Who edited the book “Agrarian crisis and formers suicide?
Answer:
R.S Deshapande and Saroja Arora.

Question 16.
According to R.S. Deshapande and saroja Arora which are the-events responsible for farmers suicide.
Answer:
Crop failure.

Question 17.
Mention any one committee Appointed by Govt of Karnataka to study Agrarian crisis.
Answer:
G.K. Veeresh Committee.

Question 18.
Which committee recommended Health Insurance schemes (Yeshaswini) to the farmers?
Answer:
G.K. Veeresh Committee.

Question 19.
Which amendment in constitution has given more power to Panchayath Raj.?
Answer:
73rd Amendment.

Question 20.
Expand IRDP.
Answer:
Integrated Rural Development Programme.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 21.
Expand MGNREGA
Answer:
Mahathama Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.

Question 22.
Expand SEZ
Answer:
Special Economic Zone.

Question 23.
Mention any one changes Indian villages according to AR. Desai.
Answer:
Transformation of Agriculture from subsistence to commercial Agriculture.

Question 24.
State any one problem of Indian cities.
Answer:
Urban poverty.

Question 25.
Which company is Responsible for Bhopal Gas Tragedy?
Answer:
Union Carbide Company.

Question 26.
Which toxic gas killed people of Bhopal in Gas Tragedy?
Answer:
Methyl Isocynate.

Question 27.
Who is father of green revolution in India?
Answer:
Dr. M.S. Swaminathan. .

Question 28.
Under whose instances Agricultural census is conducted?
Answer:
Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture and cooperation.

Question 29.
Once in how many years agricultural census is conducted?
Answer:
Once in Five years.

Question 30.
Expand CDP
Answer:
Community Development Programme.

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Question 31.
State one characteristics of slums.
Answer:
Dilapidated and Poor Houses.

Question 32.
State one problems of slums.
Answer:
Lack of public utility service.

Question 33.
State one reason for emergence of slums.
Answer:
Migration of people from village to cities.

Question 34.
What is the slogan of land reforms?
Answer:
Land to the tiller or land to the landless.

2nd PUC Sociology Change and Development of Villages and Urbanisation in India Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define Urbanization.
Answer:
Urbanization has been often used to denote the process of population concentration in an urban area. It is the movement of population from rural to urban areas and the resulting increasing proportion of a population that resides in urban rather than rural places.

Question 2.
What is McKinnsey model of development?
Answer:
WorldTrade organization model of Agricultural is Industry driven Agriculture result in Agriculture business development including Information Technology is called MC Kinsey model of Development.

Question 3.
Define slums.
Answer:
“A slum area means any area where such dwellings predominate of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of buildings, narrowness and faulty arrangement of street, lack of ventilation, lack of sanitation facilities, inadequacy of open spaces and community facilities or any combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health or morale.”

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Question 4.
Write any two characteristics of Indian villages.
Answer:
Small in Size Importance to Primary Relation.

Question 5.
Write any two major problems of Indian cities.
Answer:
Urban Poverty and Slums.

Question 6.
Mention any two rural development programmes.
Answer:
IRDP and MGNREGA.

Question 7.
What is a slum?
Answer:
“A slum area means any area where such dwellings predominate of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of buildings, narrowness and faulty arrangement of street, lack of ventilation, lack of sanitation facilities, inadequacy of open spaces and community facilities or any combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health or morale.”

Question 8.
State any two characteristics of slum.
Answer:
Dilapidated and Poor Houses High Density of Population and Housing,

Question 9.
Define SEZs.
Answer:
SEZ is defined as an earmarked geographical area meant for production of goods and services basically meant for the purpose of export where economic laws are different from the prevailing ones in other parts of the country. Special facilities are provided to the firms operating in SEZs in terms of tax concessions and infrastructural setups as well as regulatory incentives.

Question 10.
Mention any two changes taken place in Indian villages during British rule.
Answer:

  1. The Britishers discontinued the grant to the village fund from village revenue. This affected the developmental activities which were carried out by the village councils panchayats.
  2. The establishment of regular law courts-civil as well as criminal-deprived the village elders of their power and prestige. The village dispute that could have been solved easily was taken to the courts in the town.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Mention any two importance of village studies.
Answer:

  1. Field work is an Antidote to Book View
  2. Calculated Opposition to Change

Question 12.
State the cause for farmer’s suicide According to Deshapande and S. Arora.
Answer:

  1. Actors (moneylenders)
  2. Triggers (Increasing cost of outputs).

Question 13.
Which stressors are responsible for farmers suicide?
Answer:
Heary borrowings, and Illness.

Question 14.
Which Triggers are responsible for farmers suicide?
Answer:
Increase in cost of outputs Absence of Risk mitigating.

Question 15.
Define rural development.
Answer:
Rural Development is designed to improve the economic and social well being of rural poor. The concept of Rural Development connotes overall development of rural areas. It is an improvement of the quality of life of rural people.

Question 16.
Mention any two objectives of land reforms.
Answer:

  1. Abolition Intermediaries
  2. Tenancy reforms.

Question 17.
What is Decentralization of Democracy?
Answer:
Panchayath Raj as a real Democratic Political Appartus which bring masses into political participation to establish a genuine political of rural India called Decentralization of Power.

Question 18.
Mention any two functions of village Panchayath.
Answer:
Provision of water supplay and maintenance of minor Irrigation.

Question 19.
Mention the agricultural and its allied activities.
Answer:
Animal Husbandry and Apiculture.

Question 20.
Write any two reasons for the emergence of slums.
Answer:
(a) City life style attracting more people from the rural areas offering greater potential for employment.
(b) Its incapacity to meet the rising demand for housing.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 21.
Write the problems of Industrial Accidents and sickness.
Answer:
Industrial accidents in recent years show the latent facts of industrialization, for example Bhopal Gas disaster is a catastrophe which has no parallel in industrial history. The tragedy claimed between 16,000 – 30,000 lives. On December 2nd 1984 the most tragic industrial disaster occurred in the city of Bhopal by Union Carbide Company (UCC). Methyl isocynate (MIC) a highly toxic gas accidently released from the factory, which affected the millions of people.

2nd PUC Sociology Change and Development of Villages and Urbanisation in India Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the characteristics of Village.
Answer:

  1. Small in Size: Indian villages are small in size. Due to that the density of population is less in Indian villages.
  2. Importance to Primary Relations: Small number of people share a common and Face to face relationships are common in village.
  3. Social Homogeneity: Village is more homogeneous in language, belief, mores and pattern of behavior. In their occupation villagers participate together and share common interests.
  4. Informal Social Control: Individual behavior is controlled by family, traditions, customs, religion, etc.
  5. Agriculture and Its Allied Occupations: Agriculture is the main source pf livelihood. Along with agriculture, animal husbandry, floriculture, fishing, mining and apiculture and cottage industries are the other occupations.
  6. Role of Neighborhood and Simplicity of Life: Neighborhood relation plays important role in social life of village people and simple way of life is common. There is an interdependent neighbourhood relations.
  7. Village Autonomy: Each village is relatively self-sufficient and independent. Charles Metcalfe called “Indian villages as Little Republics”. Recent studies proved that the Indian villages were never self-sufficient and Republic.

Question 2.
Explain the importance of village studies.
Answer:
Importances of village studies are summarized in the following ways:

(1) Field Work is an Antidote to Book View: According to M.N. Srinivas, studies of Indian village communities would be of great significance for planners and administrators. Information provided by a Sociologist, is based on his intensive fieldwork experience and no account of book knowledge can ever be a substitute for this.

M.N.Srinivas undertakes a study on Rampura village near Mysore, with a view to highlight the agricultural practices of the Indian peasant can only be understood in the context of his Technology, level of knowledge, legal and social institutions, religion and way of life. M.N. Srinivas recorded his experience in Rampura village in his work Remembered Village.

(2) Calculated Opposition to Change: Over the last hundred years or more, the peasant has been represented as extremely conservative, pigheaded, ignorant and superstitious. But the Sociological studies do not subscribe to this view. McKim Marriot’s study of Kishan Garhi village in Uttar Pradesh reveals that the peasants had accepted new crops, techniques of cultivation, etc., and had opposed only few changes.

Thus, the headman of Rampura village wanted bull-dozers and electricity, but not a school. Electricity and bull-dozer would get him name and fame, his authority over others becomes stronger, etc. But, a school would make labour scarcer, educated poor people may lose respect they have for the rich and so on.There are key persons in each village thus, who exploit every change to their benefit. If he then opposes the tool or process, it is not because of stupidity but because of his intelligence. Only a field-study of the village community could shed light on aspects which otherwise go unnoticed.

(3) Literary Bias: Literature on caste states that caste is immobile. This is not a fact, through Sanskritization, castes have tried to move up on the local hierarchy. This is also true of the conditions of women. Condition of women prevalent among the upper castes were generalized to include all Hindus. But, the truth is that the women of lower castes are better placed in comparison to women of upper castes.

Observation of Hindu social life has been vitiated by book view and the upper-caste view. Thus, the only solution for this literary bias lies in doing field research. Field-studies suggest something different, from what is found in religious texts. It is clear that the book-view and upper-caste view may be biased and need not be a fact always. Only field research can help us to overcome literary bias and accept facts about village communities.

(4) Recording for Later Evaluation: Prof. Yogesh Atal states that “Roots of the present are always to be found in the past and an analysis of the present would guide the future. Hence, a comparison and evaluation of the impact of planned change at a later date necessarily demands that the present be recorded”.

(5) Development of Analytical Categories: The study of Indian village community has helped in developing certain analytical categories. Field studies conducted in different parts of the country point to the existence of certain processes of change which have been labelled either locally or on an all India basis.

For instance, analytical models like Sariskritization and Westernisation (M.N. Srinivas), Kulinisation (N. Prasad), De- Sanskritization (Majumdar), Universalisation and Parochialisation (McKim Marriot), Great tradition and little tradition (Robert Redfield), etc., have helped in the analysis of transformation that the village communities are undergoing. A. R. Desai’s Rural Sociology in India is an important work in this regard.

(6) Village Studies are Important for Social Reformation: Prof. Ramakrishna Mukherjee’s analysis makes it clear that the village has become the centre of all discussions and debates. Plan, Budget, Administrative strategy, etc., all have become rural area oriented. Thus, planners, economists, administrators, sociologists, reformers and others concentrate on village and are busy collecting data on them. Under the impact of planned and non-directed changes, villages are undergoing transformation. Thus, there is the need for the study of village communities in India.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Describe the social problems of India villages.
Answer:
(a) Illiteracy: Illiteracy is a major social problem in Indian villages. Lack of educational institution and poor quality education coupled with high rate of dropout rate has aggravated the situation. Majority of the educational institutions are suffering from educational infrastructures like adequate buildings, libraries and reading rooms, sports grounds, etc.

There is a great disparity among rural and urban regions of Indian society regarding educational opportunities. Further, basic facilities like drinking water, sanitation facilities, transport and communications facilities are not up to the mark.

(b) Rural Poverty: On the basis of an empirical study in seven districts in Rajasthan in 1996 sponsored by the World Bank has identified the following causes of poverty in rural areas:

  1. Inadequate and ineffective implementation of anti-poverty programmes.
  2. Low percentage of population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits.
  3. Non-availability of irrigational facilities and erratic rainfall.
  4. Dependence on traditional methods of cultivation and inadequate modem skills.
  5. Non-availability of electricity for agriculture.
  6. Poor quality of livestock.
  7. Imperfect and exploited credit market, communication facilities and markets.
  8. Low level of education.
  9. Absence of dynamic community leadership.
  10. Failure to seek women’s cooperation in developmental activities and associating them with planned programmes.
  11. Inter-caste conflicts and rivalries.
  12. Spending a large percentage of annual earnings on social ceremonies like festivals, marriages, death feast, etc., and people being unwilling to discard expensive customs.

(c) Health Problems: About 74% of the doctors are in urban areas. When it is remembered that 70% people are living in villages the extent to which provision of skilled medical is lacking in the. Fertility and Birth rate as well as death rates are very high.

Infant mortality and maternal mortality are also highest. The problems of Malnutrition, the sporadic outbreak of epidemic diseases like Cholera, Malaria, Plague, Dengue and other communicable diseases are quite common. The housing are very much unsanitary while the addiction to alcohol & nicotine drugs makes the state of health condition even worse. Pesticides like Endosulfan also have caused much health hazardous in rural areas.

There are more than 5000 people affected by endosulfan in Uttara Kannada District alone. At the sametime soil has been degraded rendering it infertile due to excessive use of chemicals and fertilisers and it affect the not only yield but also health of the agriculturists.

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Question 4.
List out the agricultural and Economic problems of Indian villages.
Answer:

  • Economic and Agricultural Problems
  • Disparities
  • Discriminatory Policies
  • Vulnerability of the Agricultural Sector
  • Increase in cost of cultivation & environmental degradation
  • The deliberate withdrawal of welfare programmes from state
  • Globalization Resultant Competition and Exploitation by Big Capitalists
  • Peculiar Banking Practices and Non-Availability of Loans from Institutional Sources
  • Failure of co-operative sector
  • Problems of marginal farmers
  • Dependency on ground water for irrigation
  • Increase in drought prone areas

Question 5.
Explain the Community Development Programme.
Answer:
The planning commission described the community development programme as the method through which five year plan seeks to initiate a process of transformation of the social and economic life of the villages. The community development programme was inaugurated on October 2, 1952. It is a programme of aided self help to be planned and implemented by the villagers themselves, the government offering only technical guidance and financial assistance. Obj ectives of Community Development Programme The aims of community development programme are as follow;

  1. To solve the problem of unemployment in the villages.
  2. To provide safe drinking water facilities.
  3. To develop the mass communication in the villages.
  4. To improve the centres of primary education, public health and recreation in the villages.
  5. To improve the conditions of Houses.
  6. To encourage cottage industries and indigenous handicrafts.

The maximum possible increase in Agricultural production. The Long Term Objectives of community development programme is to complete planned development of all physical and human resources to provide all villagers with full employment. The goal of community development projects is the development of villages in such a way that the citizens of the country may not lack any thing – get adequate food and that everyone should progress socially, morally and financially.

Question 6.
Write the impact of British rule on Indian village communities.
Answer:
Indian villages in British rule lost much of its internal cohesion, many of the administrative duties were taken up into the hands of the government and its subordinate agencies”. Administration was carried out through bureaucratized officers. There were a number of factors responsible for The important ones are:

1. The Britishers discontinued the grant to the village fund from village revenue. This affected the developmental activities which were carried out by the village councils panchayats.

2. The establishment of regular law courts-civil as well as criminal-deprived the village elders of their power and prestige. The village dispute that could have been solved easily was taken to the courts in the town.

3. Rural-urban migration also contributed in some measure for the decay of village -councils. Absence of sufficient avenues for utilizing best elements in the village itself at the one
end and availability of better opportunity, in the city on the other hand forced many to move toward; cities. .

4. The Britishers introduced new system of revenue collection and land settlement. Zamindari system created gross inequality and also affected the relationship between classes ruining the village community.

5. In spite of this, it must be recognized that, by bringing the village agricultural production within the sphere of Indian and world markets, by making agriculture an organic part of Indian economy, the British rule over India elevated Indian agriculture to the status of a national agriculture. This was a progressive aspect of the British conquest.

Since Indian agriculture became national in character, its problems also assumed national significance. Thus the problems of agriculture and the conditions of the agriculturists all became national problems.

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Question 7.
Explain the causes of rural poverty According to world Bank.
Answer:
On the basis of an empirical study in seven districts in Rajasthan in 1996 sponsored by the World Bank has identified the following causes of poverty in rural areas:

  1. Inadequate and ineffective implementation of anti-poverty programmes.
  2. Low percentage of population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits.
  3. Non-availability of irrigational facilities and erratic rainfall.
  4. Dependence on traditional methods of cultivation and inadequate modem skills.
  5. Non-availability of electricity for agriculture.
  6. Poor quality of livestock.
  7. Imperfect and exploited credit market, communication facilities and markets.
  8. Low level of education.
  9. Absence of dynamic community leadership.
  10. Failure to seek women’s cooperation in developmental activities and associating them with planned programmes.
  11. Inter-caste conflicts and rivalries.
  12. Spending a large percentage of annual earnings on social ceremonies like festivals, marriages, death feast, etc., and people being unwilling to discard expensive customs.

Question 8.
Discuss the Health problem of Indian villages.
Answer:
About 74% of the doctors are in urban areas. When it is remembered that 70% people are living in villages the extent to which provision of skilled medical is lacking in the. Fertility and Birth rate as well as death rates are very high. Infant mortality and maternal mortality are also highest. The problems of Malnutrition, the sporadic outbreak of epidemic diseases like Cholera, Malaria, Plague, Dengue and other communicable diseases are quite common.

The housing are very much unsanitary while the addiction to alcohol & nicotine drugs makes the state of health condition even worse. Pesticides like Endosulfan also have caused much health hazardous in rural areas. There are more than 5000 people affected by endosulfan in Uttara Kannada District alone. At the sametime soil has been degraded rendering it infertile due to excessive use of chemicals and fertilisers and it affect the not only yield but also health of the agriculturists.

Question 9.
Briefly discuss Deshpande and Arora’s Methodological analysis of farmer’s suicide in India.
Answer:
R.S. Deshpande and saroj Arora’s methodically analysed the causes of Farmers suicides are as (1) Events, (2) Stressors, (3) Actors, (4) Triggers

(1) Events: Among the ‘events’, crop loss, failure of a bore well, price crash, daughter’s marriage, family problems and property disputes are included.

(2) Stressors: These become ‘stressors’ (stress creators) when two or more such ‘events’ cluster together: Specifically, illness of the individual or any of the family members, heavy borrowings, continued disputes in the family or land-related problems usually act as ‘stressors’. These become lethal in combination with the ‘events’ but further ignition comes through the ‘actors/catalysts’ and ‘trigger’ incidence.

(3) Actors: Actors/catalysts create a sense of insecurity’ or ‘insult’ to the potential victim. These include the moneylender, banker, spouse, relatives and close friends.

(4) Triggers: On the background of the ‘events’ and ‘stressors’, the ‘actors/catalysts’ fire the final act by forcing an occasion to be the ‘Trigger’ for the unfortunate incident. Given this complex nature of the phenomena it certainly becomes difficult to pinpoint one particular reason for the suicide. Emile Durkheim’s monograph on Suicide indicates growing alienation of individual from the family, society and religion as a factor responsible for suicide. According to Durkheim suicides indicate social disintegration.

Among the reasons cited in various studies associated with suicides, indebtedness is one of the reasons but it is not the only risk factor. Multiple risk factors feed into each other and reinforce each other. In addition to the -weather related uncertainties, the farmer is also faced with market (increasing costs and output price shocks), technology, spurious inputs and credit- related vulnerabilities. In the absence of risk mitigation strategies the farmer is at the receiving end. Under stress some farmers end up committing suicide.

Studies indicate that suicides are occurring in the high and medium growth states and are conspicuously absent in the backward states like BIMARU (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh). Scholars have articulated ‘High Aspirations’ or the thrust for upward mobility in the absence of public policy support, as a major, causation for suicides in the backward areas of medium growth states.

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Question 10.
Explain the two committees appointed by the Govt of Karnataka to study the Agrarian crisis.
Answer:
(1) Dwarakanatha Committee: The state government appointed a couple of commissions or committees to study the agrarian issues. One commission was popularly known as the Dwarakanath Committee (2000) under the chairmanship of Dwarkanath (Agricultural Scientist), which had studies like ‘Testing Bt. Cotton in Karnataka’, ‘Agricultural Bio -Technology’ and ‘Role of Hybrid Rice’. Interestingly, this commission supported field trials of Bt. Cotton and thereby supported Bio-Technology in Karnataka.

(2) G.K. Veeresh Committee: G. K. Veeresh Committee in 2002. This committee tried to link suicides to psychological and personal reasons. These include

  1. Alcohol, gambling, spend thriftiness (20.35 percent),
  2. Failure of crop (16.81 percent).
  3. Chit funds (15.04 percent).
  4. Family problems (13.27 percent).
  5. Chronic illness (9.73 percent).
  6. Marriage of daughters (5.31 percent).
  7. Political affiliations (4.42 percent).
  8. Property disputes (2.65 percent).
  9. Debt burden (2.65 percent).
  10. Price crash (2.65 percent).
  11. Borrowing beyond paying capacity and House construction and so on (2.65 percent),
  12. Loss in non-agricultural activities (1.77 percent) and finally
  13. Failure of bore wells (0.88 percent).

Question 11.
Briefly discuss the land reform measures.
Answer:
Land to the tiller or land to the landless were the main slogans of land reforms. The productivity in agriculture is mainly dependent on technological and institutional factors. Technological factors are the use of agricultural inputs and methods such as improved seeds, fertilizers, improved plough tractors, harvesters, irrigation etc., which help to increase the productivity.

The institutional reform include the redistribution of land ownership in favour of the cultivating classes so as to provide them a sense of participation in rural life, improving the size of forms, providing security of tenure and regulation of rents etc., Land reforms aim at redistributing ownership holding from the view point of social justice and reorganizing operational holdings from the point of optimum utilization of land i.e. land to the tiller or land to the landless were the main slogans of land reform measures.

Major objectives land reform measures are as follows:

  1. Abolition of Intermediaries
  2. Tenancy reforms and conferment of ownership on them
  3. Ceilings on land holdings
  4. Consolidation of land holdings
  5. Organization of cooperative forms

Land reform had been conceived as the most important instrument of revolutioning agriculture and improving rural areas. Large numbers of tenants or farmers have become the owners. Absentee landlordism is almost eradicated and yet due to lack of implementation the actual results are far from satisfactory.

Question 12.
Define Panchayath Raj and Explain the functions of village Panchayath.
Answer:
Panchayat Raj is as a real democratic political apparatus, which would bring the masses into active political participation to establish a genuine political of rural India. Generally, it is also called as “Decentralization of Democracy”. Since 1959 “Democratic Decentralization has been gradually extended throughout India. After the implementation of the constitution 73rd amendment act 1992. Panchayat Raj has brought politics down to village level. Balawant Rai Mehta committee recommended three Tier Structure of the Panchayat Raj institution. Namely, In brief, we can understand the general functions of panchayat raj.

  1. Village Panchayat – at the village level.
  2. Panchayat Samithi – at Block level and
  3. Zilla Panchayat – at the District level

Functions of Village Panchayat: The functions of Village Panchayat are (a) Provision of water supply (b) Maintenance of minor irrigation (c) School buildings, (d) Family Planning (e) Construction of wells and tanks (f) Promotion of agriculture and animal husbandry, poultry, fisheries, promotion of village and cottage industries providing electric facility. Construction and maintenance of Roads and Bridges, creating awareness regarding primary and secondary Education, maintenance of Public Health, general Sanitation and Welfare of weaker section, maintenance of public properties and regulation and fairs and festivals and promotion of social and cultural activities.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
Explain briefly the IRDP.
Answer:
The Integrated Rural Development Programme is a programme for improving the living standards of the poorest of the poor living in rural areas and making the process of rural development self-sustaining. A large number of rural development programmes had been introduced in different states often creating confusion, problems of administration and effective implementation. Hence, the Government of India decided to replace all these programmes by a single Integrated Programme for the entire country.

It is in this background the Integrated Rural Development Programme [IRDP] was launched in 1978-79. IRDP was a major attempt to attack poverty. The program is based on “the local needs, resources, endowments and potentialities.” Its major objective is to enable selected families to cross the “poverty line” through “a strategy of productive assets and endowment”.

Now a days IRDP, TRYSEM, millions well scheme, etc are relaunched in the Name of Swama Jayanthi Grama Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) on April 1999 to provide sustainable Income to poor people in Rural Area. This programme aims at providing self – Employment to villagers through the establishment of self Help Groups.

Question 14.
Explain the major Trends of changes in Indian villages.
Answer:
A.R. Desai has identified four major trends of social changes. In Indian villages as follows:
(1) Form to Non-form:

(A) Transformation from Subsistence to Market Economy: The rapid transformation of the agrarian society from the subsistence to a market based, profit oriented and commercialized agriculture. The rise of markets, assisted by the extension of Railways and Roads and the expansion in foreign trade of agricultural commodities transformed the old self-sufficient economy of the village based on barter into a market economy, based on cash.

(B) Transformation Followed by the Introduction of Modern Technology: Introduction of the new technology in the agriculture helped the peasants to attain greater level of self-sufficiency. Improved ploughing materials, hybrid seeds, chemicals and fertilizers, tractors, tillers, trucks, threshers, spraying machines and other modem equipments were introduced to the agrarian society as a result of technology. The green revolution and white revolution have added to the radical increase in the output. India has attained self-sufficiency in food production and dairy products.

(C) Transformation by Abolition of Intermediaries: The advent of Independence with a new promise and hope, the acceleration of economic and social reform measures, resulting in the abolition of the intermediaries consisting of the Zamindars brought about a structural change in the agricultural economy. The protection of the tenants and labourers, the political enfranchisement of the vast population under adult suffrage, have all widened the horizon of economic standards in the village.

(D) Emergence of Various Associations and Institutions: Emergence of a complex network of various associations and institutions within the agrarian society having close links with urban and wide network influences, for example, Co-operative Societies, political parties, peasant associations, youth organizations and educational institutions and panchayt raj institutions etc., Induce social changes.

Governmental agencies have attempted to encourage the growth of a new social organization in the village. The democratic measures, legislations, rural development programs have impact on social, economic, and political life of villagers. Apartment of the above changes we can also see following changes.

(2) Migration from villages to Cities: One consequence of these disparities is the growing migration from core areas to richer ones. For example Labourers from Orissa come to work on coffee plantations in the Coorg, district of Karnataka.

(3) Special Economic Zone (SEZ): SEZ is defined as an earmarked geographical area meant for production of goods and services basically meant for the purpose of export where economic laws are different from the prevailing ones in other parts of the country. Special facilities are provided to the firms operating in SEZs in terms of tax concessions and infrastructural setups as well as regulatory incentives.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Mention the reason for emergence of slums.
Answer:
It is in slums that poor people like industrial workers, casual labourers, hawkers, petty shopkeepers, vegetable-sellers and several others offering useful services to the city find a place to stay. The National Institute of Urban Affairs, New Delhi, has recorded that the emergence of slums is essentially the product of three forces:

  1. City lifestyle attracting more people from the rural areas offering greater potential for employment.
  2. Its incapacity to meet the rising demand for housing,
  3. The existing urban land policies, which prohibit the access of the poor to the urban land market.

It is further observed that the urban poor are left with no choice but to make or take shelter illegally on any available piece of land. Sometimes a slum is the consequence of blight in the old parts of the city. At times, a slum is inherited in the form of an old village or a haphazardly growing locality within the extended territorial limits of a town. .

Question 16.
Suggest measures to solve urban problems.
Answer: Solutions to Urban Problems

  1. Systematic development of cities and creation of job opportunities, which can permit multifunctional activities to sustain people in cities.
  2. To check migration, regional planning to provide employment at their native places is essential.
  3. Encouraging industries to move to backward areas. This will take care of linear development of metropolitan and big cities and also there will not be regional imbalance.
  4. Municipalities should find their own financial resources. A city must bear the cost of its own development.
  5. Encouraging private transportation facilities in view of the better services.
  6. Adopting pragmatic housing policies and encouragement to private investment, use of new and advanced technologies. Building of low cost houses, promotion of cooperative housing societies etc., it has to develop special schemes for the poor and low income people. Structural decentralization of municipal activities and community participation in the city activities. Modified and controlled liberalization, accountable bureaucrats and responsible elected body must work for the sake of area in the honest manner.

Question 17.
Explain the Agricultural panchasutras.
Answer:
The philosophy of the present Agricultural Policy lies in the concept of ‘Pancha Sutra’ that was announced by the State in its budget 2006 – 07 for accelerated growth in agriculture. The five components of Sutra are:

  1. To protect and improve soil health.
  2. Conservation of natural resources, with special emphasis on water and micro irrigation.
  3. Timely availability of credit and other inputs to the farmers.
  4. Integrate post harvest processing with the production process, and
  5. Reducing the distance between ‘Lab to Land’ in transfer of technology.

Agricultural census is conducted in all the States and Union Territories in the Country, at the instance of Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operation, Government of India. It is a quinquennial census conducted once in five years since its inception in 1970-71. So far, Nine Agricultural Censuses have been conducted, the latest being the 2010-11 census.

Question 18.
Explain the importance of MGNAREGA.
Answer:
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guarantee of 100 days of wage employment. The work should be provided within 5 kms. of the village at minimum wage rate. It is the obligation of the government to provide work as stipulated days failing which government has to pay unemployment allowance within 15 days. Along with community participation, the MGNREA is to be implemented mainly by the Gram Panchayaths (GPs).

It guarantees generating productive assets, protecting the environment, empowering rural women, reducing rural-urban migration and fostering social equity among others. Under this programme, all permissible works like water conservation, water harvesting, drought proofing, afforestation, irrigation works, restoration of traditional water bodies, land development, flood control, rural connectivity and works notified by the government included.

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2nd PUC Sociology Change and Development of Villages and Urbanisation in India Ten Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain Agrarian Crisis and Formers’ Suicide in Karnataka.
Answer:
R. S. Deshpande and Saroja Arora’s work “Agrarian Crisis and Farmer Suicides” is a field work based study. It was conducted by Center for Rural Studies, Lai Bahadur Shastri National Academy and Administration Mussoori in 2007. This volume deals with the problems of farmer’s suicide across the state. Agrarian crisis in Karnataka can be understood in the following way.

The Indian acknowledges the fact that between 1993 and 2003, 100,248 farmers committed suicide in India. Suicide is not confined to Karnataka alone. It has been reported among the sugarcane growers of UP, cotton growers of Andhra Pradesh and spice/coffee growers of Kerala. It has been reported from Orissa and West Bengal as well.

Karnataka has no history of farmers committing suicide even during the situation of acute agrarian crisis. Even the unorganised farmers would resort to other tactics such as throwing agricultural commodities on the roads, burning their crops and so on. However, suicide was an attempt to retain the identity as a distinct social category within the larger economy.

In this context, the report of the Agricultural Department, Government of Karnataka is important,, between 2003 and 2012 a total of2909 farmers committed suicide. On the contrary, the Central Government claimed that from 2000-01 to 2005-06, around 8600 farmers committed suicide which is the highest figure when compared to any other state in fact Maharashtra is relegated to third position in the suicide rate. However if we calculate the statistics provided by the Veeresh Committee report, including Other .press reports one can estimate the number of suicides is more than 5000.

Region-wise the highest suicide rate was reported from the Old Mysore areas, followed by the Old Bombay Presidency areas and the Old Hyderabad region. The Old Madras Presidency area, as well as Coorg also reported suicides, however their number is less. In fact, Old Mysore and Old Bombay Presidency areas are better known for irrigation. Most of those who committed suicide lived near the tail end of the canal.

The beginning of the suicides can be traced back to the year 1998, when farmers in Bidar, who were involved in cultivating toordal, a market oriented agricultural crop committed suicide. In the two years, farmer suicides were largely concentrated in the drought-prone districts of north Karnataka, or confined to economically backward, drought-prone regions such as Gulbarga and Bidar. However, after 2000, the phenomenon shifted to relatively advanced agricultural regions, particularly Mandya, Hassan, Shimoga, Davanagere, Koppal and even Chikamagalur and Kodagu.

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Question 2.
Explain the importance of Village Studies.
Answer:
Importances of village studies are summarized in the following ways:

(1) Field Work is an Antidote to Book View: According to M.N. Srinivas, studies of Indian village communities would be of great significance for planners and administrators. Information provided by a Sociologist, is based on his intensive fieldwork experience and no account of book knowledge can ever be a substitute for this M.N.Srinivas undertakes a study on Rampura village near Mysore, with a view to highlight the agricultural practices of the Indian peasant can only be understood in the context of his Technology, level of knowledge, legal and social institutions, religion and way of life. M.N. Srinivas recorded his experience in Rampura village in his work Remembered Village.

(2) Calculated Opposition to Change: Over the last hundred years or more, the peasant has been represented as extremely conservative, pigheaded, ignorant and superstitious. But the Sociological studies do not subscribe to this view. McKim Marriot’s study of Kishan Garhi village in Uttar Pradesh reveals that the peasants had accepted new crops, techniques of cultivation, etc., and had opposed only few changes.

Thus, the headman of Rampura village wanted bull-dozers and electricity, but not a school. Electricity and bull-dozer would get him name and fame, his authority over others becomes stronger, etc. But, a school would make labour scarcer, educated poor people may lose respect they have for the rich and so on.

There are key persons in each village thus, who exploit every change to their benefit. If he then opposes’the tool or process, it is not because of stupidity but because of his intelligence. Only a field-study of the village community could shed light on aspects which otherwise go unnoticed.

(3) Literary Bias: Literature on caste states that caste is immobile. This is not a fact, through Sanskritization, castes have tried to move up on the local hierarchy. This is also true of the conditions of women. Condition of women prevalent among the upper castes were generalized to include all Hindus. But, the truth is that the women of lower castes are better placed in comparison to women of upper castes.

Observation of Hindu social life has been vitiated by book view and the upper-caste view. Thus, the only solution for this literary bias lies in doing field research. Field-studies suggest something different, from what is found in religious texts. It is clear that the book-view and upper-caste view may be biased and need not be a fact always. Only field research can help us to overcome literary bias and accept facts about village communities.

(4) Recording for Later Evaluation: Prof. Yogesh Atal states that “Roots of the present are always to be found in the past and an analysis of the present would guide the future. Hence, a comparison and evaluation of the impact of planned change at a later date necessarily demands that the present be recorded”.

(5) Development of Analytical Categories: The study of Indian village community has helped in developing certain analytical categories. Field studies conducted in different parts of the country point to the existence of certain processes of change which have been labelled either locally or on an all India basis.

For instance, analytical models like Sariskritization and Westernisation (M.N. Srinivas), Kulinisation (N. Prasad), De- Sanskritization (Majumdar), Universalisation and Parochialisation (McKim Marriot), Great tradition and little tradition (Robert Redfield), etc., have helped in the analysis of transformation that the village communities are undergoing. A. R. Desai’s Rural Sociology in India is an important work in this regard.

(6) Village Studies are Important for Social Reformation: Prof. Ramakrishna Mukherjee’s analysis makes it clear that the village has become the centre of all discussions and debates. Plan, Budget, Administrative strategy, etc., all have become rural area oriented. Thus, planners, economists, administrators, sociologists, reformers and others concentrate on village and are busy collecting data on them. Under the impact of planned and non-directed changes, villages are undergoing transformation. Thus, there is the need for the study of village communities in India.

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Question 3.
Explain the Agricultural and Economic problems of Indian villages.
Answer:
Following are the important economic and agricultural problems.

(i) Desparities: Economic growth in contemporary India is marked by considerable disparities of region and class. The Nobel-prize-winning economist Amartya Sen worries that, “as these inequalities intensify, one half of India will come to look and live like California, the other half like sub-Saharan Africa.” Already, prosperity co-exists with misery, technological sophistication with human degradation.

(ii) Discriminatory Policies: Farmers as a group today feel let down by the policies of the State that puts them relatively in a disadvantageous position. This is made abundantly clear by many analysts in the recent past. In other words, it is not that the state is discriminatory against the farmers as a group, but the policies are sufficiently provocative in widening the gap between the net incomes of farmers and agricultural labourers on the one hand and the remaining professions on the other.

During the decade of the 1990s the situation became aggravated, both due to policy failure and the successive droughts at the end the prices did not pick up even in the event of low production. This was compounded by the economic reforms which took the agricultural sector for granted.

(iii) Vulnerability of the Agricultural Sector: The agricultural sector operates under a large number of constraints. State policies dictate prices of most of the factors of production required for agriculture: electricity, water, fertilisers, pesticides and minimum wages. The credit market operations are largely dictated by the credit policy of the reserve bank, as well as the difficulties in access to credit. Difficulties in accessing institutional credit compel the farmers to approach moneylenders and a new emerging institution; namely the input dealer.

Weather uncertainties, availability of irrigation water and inputs like fertilisers and pesticides are a cause of concern. These are compounded by product market imperfections and the price fluctuations that the farmer faces. The process of globalisation intensified some of these concerns, both because of the prominence of trade and the resulting commercialisation process in the agricultural sector.

(iv) Increase in Cost of Cultivation and Environmental Degradation: Increasing cost of cultivation and environmental degradation on one side due to significant increase in the input prices, technology and un-protected farming based on the monsoon on the other makes the farmers hopelessly vulnerable. Farmers also face high transaction costs and low bargaining power, which leave them with poor returns. The ecological crisis in the rural regions where declining water tables, loss of agricultural bio-diversity and the onset of a range of plant diseases and pests have become a challenge to the conduct of agriculture.

(v) The Deliberate Withdrawal of Welfare Programmes from State: The deliberate withdrawal of the state from its welfare role for the farmers and agriculture labourers contributed to the accentuation of the agrarian crisis. The capitalist agriculture in India could thrive because of the proactive role of the state in providing infrastructure, irrigation and credit through institutional agencies.

The gradual reduction in the state investment in agriculture was also instrumental in the decline in agricultural productivity and production. The partial withdrawal of subsidy given to the farmers or to agriculture. The power given free to agriculture was withdrawn and also the fact that it increased the power tariff drastically.

(vi) Globalization Resultant Competition and Exploitation by Big Corporates: The agrarian crisis is due to adoption of World Trade Organization model of agriculture or what is called McKinsey Model of development that created spaces for industry-driven agriculture which ultimately resulted in agri-business development including Information Technology. This model of development has not only exacerbated the crisis leading to an environmental catastrophe but also destroyed millions of rural livelihoods.

(vii) Peculiar Banking Practices and Non-Availability of Loans from Institutional Sources: NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) refinances the cooperative banking institutions and therefore imposes certain conditions for delivery and recovery of the credit. ‘Eligibility’ is probably the most important concept in dictating the performance of the sector.

A branch of a cooperative bank is categorized as eligible/ non-eligible based on the repayment performance and naturally the Primary Credit Cooperative Societies in the underdeveloped regions have lower repayment performance. As a consequence over the years, these societies, do not get adequate supply of credit and therefore, farmers from these regions have to depend upon the other informal sources of credit.

(viii) The Failure of the Co-operative Sector: The Cooperative sector could have helped the farmers in overcoming their debts. The Karnataka government failed to make the cooperative movement a success. For instance, in Karnataka, there are 32,382 cooperative societies at the village level, almost 40 percent of them are running heavy losses while nearly 20 percent of them are either defunct or at the verge of Bankrupt.

(ix) Dependence on Ground Water for Irrigation: Irrigation is another major source for agricultural growth. The actual area under canal and tank irrigation has been declining since the 1990’s. On the other hand, there is a phenomenal increase in the dependencey on the ground water resources through the wells and bore wells. Its aptly noted that the unstable growth of borewells combined with mansoon failure and decline in surface irrigated area that led to drying up of borewells due to inadequate recharge.

(x) Rise in Drought prove Areas: Drought prone Areas in India is rising. Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharastra are condisered as the major drought prone states. Karnataka ranked second in the drought prone areas. It has increased from 63% to 72 percent owing to erratic monsoon and lack of drought proofing methods.

12, 123 taluk in 23 districts were declared as drought hit. A total of 157 taluks and 64 taluks were declared dorught hit in 2012-13 and 2013-14 respectively according to NABARD.

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Question 4.
Discuss the methodological analysis of farmer’s suicide in India.
Answer:
R.S. Deshpande and saroj Arora’s methodically analysed the causes of Farmers suicides are as (1) Events, (2) Stressors, (3) Actors, (4) Triggers.

(1) Events: Among the ‘events’, crop loss, failure of a bore well, price crash, daughter’s marriage, family problems and property disputes are included.

(2) Stressors: These become ‘stressors’ (stress creators) when two or more such ‘events’ cluster together: Specifically, illness of the individual or any of the family members, heavy borrowings, continued disputes in the family or land-related problems usually act as ‘stressors’. These become lethal in combination with the ‘events’ but further ignition comes through the ‘actors/catalysts’ and ‘trigger’ incidence.

(3) Actors: Actors/catalysts create a sense of‘insecurity’ or ‘insult’ to the potential victim. These include the moneylender, banker, spouse, relatives and close friends.

(4) Triggers: On the background of the ‘events’ and ‘stressors’, the ‘actors/catalysts’ fire the final act by forcing an occasion to be the ‘Trigger’ for the un-fortunate incident. Given this complex nature of the phenomena it certainly becomes difficult to pinpoint one particular reason for the suicide. Emile Durkheim’s monograph on Suicide indicates growing alienation of individual from the family, society and religion as a factor responsible for suicide. According to Durkheim suicides indicate social disintegration.

Among the reasons cited in various studies associated with suicides, indebtedness is one of the reasons but it is not the only risk factor. Multiple risk factors feed into each other and reinforce each other. In addition to the -weather related uncertainties, the farmer is also faced with market (increasing costs and output price shocks), technology, spurious inputs and credit- related vulnerabilities. In the absence of risk mitigation strategies the farmer is at the receiving end. Under stress some farmers end up committing suicide.

Studies indicate that suicides are occurring in the high and medium growth states and are conspicuously absent in the backward states like BIMARU (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh). Scholars have articulated ‘High Aspirations’ or the thrust for upward mobility in the absence of public policy support, as a major, causation for suicides in the backward areas of medium growth states.

Question 5.
Write the recent policy initiatives in mitigate farmer’s Suicide.
Answer:
(1) Loan Waivers and Relief: In 2008 Government of Karnataka 2007-08, the government waived the principal amount of outstanding loan to all farmers up to Rs 25,000 and waived the interest to those who have borrowed above Rs 25,000, if they pay the principal amount before 31 March 2008.

(2) Exorbitant Interest Rate Act-2004: The Government of Karnataka has enacted the Karnataka Prohibition of Levying of Exorbitant Rates of Interest Act, 2004, to check levying exorbitant rates of interest by private money lenders. It has provisions for taking stringent action against those money lenders who violate the Money Lenders Act and . levy exorbitant interest. Any such violation would attract imprisonment up to three years and a fine of Rs 30,000 or both.

G.K. Veeresh Committee came out with a series of recommendations such as i) the creation of farmer’s welfare fund, ii) establishment of nodal department for the welfare of farmers, iii) social security measures and so on.Following this, the Government of Karnataka had taken a series of steps in order to meet the distress, in consultation with the members of the Committee. These are listed below:

(A) Health Insurance Scheme for the farmers, namely Yeshaswini was put in place and the farmers had direct access to the best medical facilities available in the State-run hospitals. This has significantly reduced the expenditure of farmers on health. This has been introduced throughout the rural region of Karnataka in 2000 for a premium payment of Rs 120 per year per family. Participants are covered for all surgical interventions and for outpatient services at any of the designated network hospitals.

(B) The interest rates on loans from Cooperative banks were reduced to six percent per annum Reduction of the Intrest rate reduced to four percent per annum in the 2007¬08. This longs significantly helped the farmers.

(C) Review of compensation policy to the family of the victims (who have committed suicide) was thoroughly reviewed and compensation was allowed only in the case where suicide was directly related to the farming activities.

(D) Information Facility to Rayat Samparka Kendras were provided internet access and telephone facilities so that the initial signals of distress were transmitted directly to the state headquarters. Similarly, in the extension wing of the Department of Agriculture Telephone links were established to reach the concerned official with ease.

(E) Crop Insurance crop Insurance was taken up to Hobli level and compensation provided to the farmers based on the Hobli level data.

(F) Scheme on Seed Subsidy was announced and farmers were provided seeds with a subsidy up to 50 percent.

(G) Waters led development programme The Investment on Watershed Development Programmes was increased tenfold and that created increased employment opportunities in the rain-fed areas.

(H) The Market Intervention Scheme This Scheme was reviewed and the corpus fund for the scheme was increased to Rs Three Billion. Similarly, the market intervention scheme was made operational at the regulated market yard.

(I) Priority to agricultural Research. Agricultural Universities were directed to focus on research and development responding to the demand, rather than providing the ‘supply driven’ research priorities.

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Question 6.
Define urbanization and explain the Historical Background of urbanization in India.
Answer:
Generally a city is a Human settlement of Non-Agricultural Hetrogenous and based on secondary relations.

1. According Louis Worth has said “a city may be defined as a relatively large, dense, and permanent settlement of socially heterogeneous population”.

2. George – A Theodorson has defined urban community as a community with a high population density, a predominance of non-agricultural occupation, a high degree of specialization resulting in a complex division of labour and a formalized system of local government. It is also characterized by the prevalence of impersonal secondary relations and dependence on formal social controls.

Indian people had built up a city civilization (Indus Valley Civilization) nearly 5000 years back. Harappa and Mohenjodaro were the then famous cities. The layout of the cities, the regular planning of the streets, the uniformity in weights and measures, all indicate that there must have been a strong centralized state.

At the time of Maghadas and Vedic period Ayodhya, kashi, Pataliputra and Indraprastha were famous educational and religious cities. During the Buddist time famous cities like Nalanda, Takshashila, Kashi, Kausambi, Mithila and other were flourished. The great temple cities of Ayodhya, Mathura, Hardwar, Dwaraka, Kashi, Prayag, Puri, Kanchi and Madurai were very ancient.

In Medieval India cities of Agra, Delhi, Fatherfursikri, Luknow, Hyderabad, Bijapur, Srirangapatna, Mysore, Bangalore, Ahamadabad etc. were built. In British rule, metropolitan port cities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. In post independence post period new cities like Chandigarh, Bhuvaneswar, Gandhinagar, Durgapur, Nyiveli etc., have been built. Some industrial cities like Rurekela, Bhilai, Durgapur, Chitaranjan, Roopanarayanapura, Bhadravathi, Vishakapatana, Sindi etc., have been evolved. Increasing economic, social, political and educational advancement have changed towns into cities and metropolitan cities have growing as cosmopolitan cities.

In India, places with less than 1,00,000 population are referred to as “Towns”, while places with 1,00,000 or more population are referred as “Cities”. Urban centres with more than one million population are categorized as Metropolitan cities. In India, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune, Ahamabad, Lucknow, are some of the Metropolitan Cities. According to 2011 census 31.8 percent of Indian population lives in urban areas.

Question 7.
Explain in brief the problems of Indian cities.
Answer:
Problems of Indian cities can be classified into following ways:

1. Urban Poverty: Urban poverty is the by product of industrialization and urbanization. Poverty and overcrowding are the two most visible features of Indian cities. About half of the urbanites are poor and lives in substandard of life, because of cost of living, lack of regular income, low wages, pro-rich economic policies and inflation, etc.

India has issued its first-ever report on the nature and dynamics of urban poverty in the country undertaken with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), India: Urban Poverty Report 2009 which identifies the problems faced by the . poor and focuses on the systematic changes that are needed to address them.

The report examines various issues related to urban poverty, such as migration, labour, the role of gender, access to basic services and the appalling condition of India’s slums. It also looks at the dynamics of urban land and capital market, urban governance, and the marginalisation of the poor to the urban periphery.

2. Slums: The magnitude of the problem of slums is alarming. The Government of India, Inorder to implementation of various schemes to urban development, has defined a slum area as follows: “A slum area means any area where such dwellings predominate of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of buildings, narrowness and faulty arrangement of street, lack of ventilation, lack of sanitation facilities, inadequacy of open spaces and community facilities or any combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health or morale.” These slum areas are also referred to as the ‘Blighted area’; ‘Renewal area’; ‘deteriorated area’, ‘Gray area’; ‘Lower class neighbourhood’; ‘Lower income area’, etc.

3. Problem of Urban Housing: The bulk of the people in the Indian cities live in one-room or in thatched huts in the sprawling slums or on the pavements. Another sad feature is total lack of essential municipal services like water supply, drainage, sewage, lighting, roads, etc. Further, large proportion of the rural migrants have been bringing with them unskilled persons who take up unskilled jobs in the services, trade, industries, etc.

Further the room has generally to meet all the requirements of the family including cooking, living, sleeping, confinement, it is difficult to keep it reasonably clean and sanitary washing and bathing facilities. The inconvenience they have to undergo is aggravated during the rainy days.

Almost all the above mentioned conditions are found in chawals of Bombay, ahatas of Kanpur, Bastis of Calcutta, Cheris of Madras as well as in Dhowrahas of the mining centres and barracks of the plantations in India. These are made of brick walls and iron roof or the huts consisting of bamboo walls and thatched roofs. The lanes are too narrow and the huts re built back to back. These lack the facilities like bathing, washing and toilets, etc.

4. Sanitation and Pollution: It is accompanied with corrupt municipal administration and inefficiency. According to UNICEF, lakhs of urban children in India die or suffer from diarrhea, diphtheria, tetanus and measles etc.,

5. Transportation and Traffic: Transportation and traffic picture in Indian cities is troublesome. Majority of people use buses and other vehicles, while a few use rails as transport system. The increasing number of two wheelers and other types of vehicles make the traffic problem worse.

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Question 8.
Define slums, explain the characteristics of slums.
Answer:
Slums: The magnitude of the problem of slums is alarming. The Government of India, Inorder to implementation of various schemes to urban development, has defined a slum area as follows: “A slum area means any area where such dwellings predominate of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of buildings, narrowness and faulty arrangement of street, lack of ventilation, lack of sanitation facilities, inadequacy of open spaces and community facilities or any combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health or morale.” These slum areas are also referred to as the ‘Blighted area’; ‘Renewal area’; ‘deteriorated area’, ‘Gray area’; ‘Lower class neighbourhood’; ‘Lower income area’, etc.

It is in slums that poor people like industrial workers, casual labourers, hawkers, petty shopkeepers, vegetable-sellers and several others offering useful services to the city find a place to stay. The National Institute of Urban Affairs, New Delhi, has recorded that the emergence of slums is essentially the product of three forces:

  1. City lifestyle attracting more people from the rural areas offering greater potential for employment;
  2. Its incapacity to meet the rising demand for housing,
  3. The existing urban land policies, which prohibit the access of the poor to the urban land market.

It is further observed that the urban poor are left with no choice but to make or take shelter illegally on any available piece of land. Sometimes a slum is the consequence of blight in the old parts of the city. At times, a slum is inherited in the form of an old village or a haphazardly growing locality within the extended territorial limits of a town. Characteristics of Slums: The physical aspects and general conditions of the slums are by and large the same everywhere. The foremost characteristics of slums can be briefly enumerated in the following manner.

1. Dilapidated and Poor Houses: Slums are made of poor design and scrap materials. These are often raised on unauthorized land.

2. High Density of Population and Housing: It leads to over-crowding and congestion; one room is often used for all practical purposes of domesting living. In Bombay and in many other big cities, it can be seen that in the slum areas one room tenement with 100 sq.f. to 150 sq.f. of space is occupied by more than 10 persons.

3. Lack of Public Utilities and Facilities: Lack of drainage, sanitation, water, electricity, health centers, sanitation and public parks, etc., are widely observable characteristic of slums.

4. Apathy and Social Isolation: Though the slum-dwellers are functionally integrated to the city life, apathy and social isolation characterize a slum. Under these circumstances, the slum-dwellers find it almost impossible to improve these conditions through their own efforts.

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