2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 7 Land and Water Resources

You can Download Chapter 7 Land and Water Resources Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 7 Land and Water Resources

2nd PUC Geography Land and Water Resources One Mark Questions with Answers

Question 1.
What is meant by Land-Use?
Answer:
Utilization of land for different purpose is known as “Land use pattern”.

Question 2.
Which state has the highest area under forests?
Answer:
Madhya Pradesh has the highest area under forests.

Question 3.
What is fallow land?
Answer:
The land which is not utilized for cultivation for last 3 to 5 years is considered as fallow land

Question 4.
What is Land Capability?
Answer:
Land capability is the ability of a Piece of land to provide sustainable support for specific land use.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Mention the main source of surface water resource?
Answer:
The surface water resources are rainfall, rivers, lakes, tanks and springs.

Question 6.
What is Irrigation?
Answer:
It is an artificial supplying of water to the crops or plants or on art of supplying water to the crops.

Question 7.
Which state in India has the highest irrigated land?
Answer:
Uttar Pradesh has the highest irrigated land in India.

Question 8.
What is Well irrigation?
Answer:
Supplying of water from shallow ground to the surface is called Well irrigation.

Question 9.
What is Canal irrigation?
Answer:
It is a type of irrigation in which water is drawn from rivers, tanks and reservoirs to supply water for Agriculture.

Question 10.
What is Tank irrigation?
Answer:
Man made hollows which collects the rain water is and supplies the water in summer season is called tank irrigation.

Question 11.
What is Sprinkler irrigation?
Answer:
The spraying of water to the crops through the pipe with nozzles under great pressure is called Sprinkler irrigation.

Question 12.
What is Drip irrigation?
Answer:
Supplying of water through network of Pipes drop by drop nearest to the roots can be called ‘ as drip irrigation.

Question 13.
Define the multi purpose river valley project?
Answer:
River valley project which provide multiple benefits are known as multipurpose river valley projects.

Question 14.
Which is the first multi purpose river valley project in India?
Answer:
Damodar valley project on IS-11 Feb, 1948.

Question 15.
Across which river Bhakra Nangal dam is constructed?
Answer:
Sutlej river.

Question 16.
What is the name of Bhakra reservoir?
Answer:
Govindsagar.

Question 17.
Which is the longest dam in India?
Answer:
Hirakuddam.

Question 18.
What is meant by Water Conservation?
Answer:
Protection & Preservation of water for future consumption purpose is known as water conservation.

Question 19.
What is Watershed?
Answer:
The land area from which water flows towards a common water rcourse in natural basin is called Watershed.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 20.
What is the present total region of India in percentage?
Answer:
22.8% under total geographical area of India.

Question 21.
What is land share of ‘Net area sown’ in India?
Answer:
46.2% under total reporting land in India.

Question 22.
What is average annual rainfall of India?
Answer:
118 cm.

Question 23.
Mention the quantity of Surface water & Ground water?
Answer:
Surface water is 690 biHion cubic meters and ground water 433 BCM.

Question 24.
Name the state which has the largest number of tube well irrigation?
Answer:
Uttar Pradesh

Question 25.
What is the total irrigated land in India.
Answer:
Total irrigated land is 139.9 million hectares.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 26.
Which is state with highest tank irrigation in India.
Answer:
Andhra Pradesh. It accounts 29.8%.

Question 27.
Which river is called The ‘Sorrow of Bengal’.
Answer:
River Damodar is called Sorrow of Bengal.

Question 28.
Across which river Hirakud dam is constructed.
Answer:
‘River Mahanadi’.,

Question 29.
What is the meaning of Re-use of water.
Answer:
The treated waste water can be used for watering gardens, washing vehicles and floors or the building etc.

Question 30.
What is infiltration of pits?
Answer:
The rain water can be collected and stored in pits, dug in farm lands and used for irrigation.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 31.
What are the methods of rain water harvesting.
Answer:

  • In-Situ rain water harvesting.
  • Ex-Situ rain water harvesting.

2nd PUC Geography Land and Water Resources Two Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
What are the main Physical features determine the Land-use Pattern?
Answer:
Land use is determined by many factors like

  • Relief features
  • Climate
  • Soil
  • Density of Population.

Question 2.
Mention four reason of need for irrigation?
Answer:

  • Nature of rainfall
  • Nature of soil
  • Probability of drought
  • Need of irrigation in Dry Areas.

Question 3.
Which are the major sources of irrigation?
Answer:
Wells and tube wells, canals arid tank are the major sources of irrigation in the country.

Question 4.
What is the difference between Inundation canal and Perennial canal system?
Answer:

  • Inundation canals.taken out directly from rivers without making any barrage or dam.
  • Derennial canals which are taken out from the reservoirs by constructing barrage.

Question 5.
What is Tank irrigation? Mention its inherent drawbacks?
Answer:
Tanks are natural or man made hollows in which rain water is collected.

  • Tanks get silted up soon.
  • Most of the tanks are non-perennial & become dry during winter and summer seasons.

Question 6.
Mention the major objectives of multipurpose project?
Answer:
The main aims of the project are :-

  • Controlling of floods
  • Providing irrigation
  • Generating hydro-electricity
  • Navigation and Pisciculture.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
What is Conservation? Give examples?
Answer:
Protection and Preservation of water is called Conservation.
Example:-

  • Reducing run-off losses
  • Reduction of irrigation losses
  • Re-use of water
  • Prevention of wastage of water.

Question 8.
What is Watershed Management?
Answer:
The rational utilization of land and water resources for optimum production.

Question 9.
Mention the main objectives of rain water harvesting?
Answer:

  • It checks the runoff water and avoid flooding.
  • It Refilling the ground water table and enables the well.
  • It helps to overcome the scarcity of surface water to meet demand of water.
  • It also reduces ground water contamination and improve water quality.

Question 10.
Mention the techniques of rain water harvesting?
Answer:

  • In urban areas the water that falls on the the roofs of buildings is harvested through recharge pit, recharge trench, tube well and recharge well.
  • In rural areas rain water can be harvested through gully plug, Check dams, dug wells recharge, Contour bund, Percolation tank etc.

Question 11.
Mention need of Watershed Management?
Answer:
In recent years, watersheds of India are degraded due to several reasons i.e., unscientific land use, overgrazing, deforestation, mining, shifting cultivation, soil erosion etc. This will result in the depletion of water resources. Thus watershed management is extremely neccessary.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 12.
Mention the benefits of rain water harvesting?
Answer:
(a) It involves collection and storage of rain water at surface or in Sub-surface aquifer before it is lost as surface run off.
(b) It is not only increase water availability but also check the declining water table.

Question 13.
Mention the important types of land utilization in India.
Answer:

  1. Net area sown
  2. Forests area
  3. Land not available for cultivation
  4. Cultivation wasteland
  5. Fallow Land.

Question 14.
Mention highest and lowest rainfall regions in India.
Answer:

  • West coast and north eastern India get very high rainfall.
  • Rajasthan desert and Ladakh get very little rainfall.

Question 15.
Why is canal irrigation very predominant in North India.
Answer:
North Indian plains are very fertile and very level lands, Rivers in this plains are perennials, slightly sloping towards south. It helps to move water easily in canals etc.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 16.
What are the drawbacks of well irrigation.
Answer:

  • They can dry up in the summer season.
  • These are possible only in soft rock layers.
  • To lift water, power is need &
  • More capital is required so poor people cannot dug well easily.

Question 17.
Mention the reservior created by Upper Krishna Project & Tungabhadra dam.
Answer:

  • Upper Krishna created the reservior called ‘Basava sagar’.
  • Tungabhadra created the reservior called ‘Pampa sagar’.

Question 18.
Distinguish between In-situ method & Ex-situ method of rain water harvesting.
Answer:

  • In-Situ MethodThe method of percolating the rain at the point of its fall itself is called
    In-situ rain water harvesting.
  • Ex-Situ Method :- It involves storing of running water and collected in checkdams, huge percolation tanks etc.

Question 7.
What is the meaning of rain water harvesting.
Answer:
Controlling the run off of rain water and make it to percolate the to increase ground water table for future consumption purpose.

Question 8.
Who is called as ‘Water Man’ and Why?
Answer:
Myagassessay award winner Sri. Rajendra Singh in Rajasthan is called ‘Water Man’ because he has productively used the rain water harvesting by check dams method.

2nd PUC Geography Land and Water Resources Five Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Give an account of Land-Use pattern in India.
Answer:
The important types of land use pattern in India are :

  1. Forest area
  2. Land not available for cultivation
  3. Cultivable wasteland
  4. Fallow land
  5. Net area sown.

1. Forest area :

  • According to National Forest Policy 1952, reporting area of the forest must be 33.3.% of the total land.
  • Madhya Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Andaman Nicobar. Islands are reporting more area under forests.
  • It is due to heacy rainfall and relief features.

2. Land not available for cultivation :

  • The land used for human settlements, transport routes, canals, quarries, the mountains, deserts, marshes etc, are coming under this category. It accounts 14.2% of the total land in India.
  • Arunachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, states are having more area under this category.

3. Other Uncultivated lands including fallow land :

  • This category includes permanent pasture as other grazing area, land under miscellanous tree crops, groves and cultivable waste. This category covers about 8.6% of the country’s total reporting land.
  • The cultivable waste land is found more in the states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

4. Fallow lands :

  • The land which is not used for cultivation for last 3 to 5 years is considered as fallow land.
  • It accounts for about 8.13 % of Indias total land.
  • The land under this category is reported more in the states of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand.

5. Net area sown :

  • India has a net sown area of 46.2% of the total reporting land in India.
  • Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmii, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Mizoram.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Discuss the importance of land capability.
Answer:

  • Land capability is the ability of a piece of land to provide sustainable support for a specific land use.
  • Land capability is based on the understanding that every components of land has its own particular capacity to provide ecosystem services.
  • Land capability assessment enables the reconciliation of production and protection.
  • Land capability does not include social or economic components. It focuses entirely on requirements for sustainability of the ecosystem. There is the requirement to overlay this with the social and economic constraints. Thus we have land suitability assessment.
  • Land capability is the inherent physical capacity of the land to sustain a range of land uses and management practices in long term without degradation to soil, air and water resources.
  • If land is used beyond its capacity, degradation is the consequence, which leads to a decline in natural ecosystem values, agricultural productivity and infrastructure functionality.

Question 3.
Explain the Water resources of India.
Answer:

  • Water is a basic resource on the earth for all living organisms including mankind and for development and survival of plant community.
  • Water is needed for daily use of organism.
  • It is used for irrigation, generating hydro-electricity, navigation, industries, domestic use etc.
  • Water Resources can be divided into
    1. Surface water resources and
    2. Ground water resources.
  • The surface water resources are rainfall, rivers, lakes, tanks & springs.

1. Surface water resources :

  • India has been blessed with extensive surface water resorces, because of the large number of rivers and sufficient rainfall.
  • The most important source of surface water is rainfall.
  • The average rainfall in India is 118 cm.
  • The second important source of surface water is the rivers. The average run off in the river system of the country has been assessed at 1869 billion cubic meters [BCM].
  • Approximately 60 – 65% of the total surface water resources are contributed by the North. Indian rivers. The remaining part is provided by other river systems.

2. Ground water resources : –

  • The total collected ground water resources of the country have been estimated at 433 billion cubic metres of this about 40% is found in Ganga basin which has the highest potential in the country.
  • Uttar Pradesh has the maximum potential followed by Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
  • The average rainfall in India is 118 cm.

Question 4.
Explain the distribution of wells and tube wells irrigation in India.
Answer:

  • The largest concentration of wells occurs in the Gigantic plains streching from Punjab to Bihar.
  • Wells are found scattered in eastern Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and TamilNadu.
  • In Gujarat wells and tubewells irrigate 78.8% of the net irrigated area of the state.
  • While Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh etc have more than 50% of their net respective irrigated area under well irrigation.
  • Wells and tubewells are presently most popular source of irrigation in India accounting for 60.7% of the total irrigated area.
  • Digging of tube well started in 1930 in the Gangas plains under minor irrigation programmes during Five-year plans.
  • Today there are more than 45 Lakh tube wells in government and private ownership Pump sets are especially useful for individual farmers.
  • Uttar Pradesh has the largest number of tubewells in the country.
  • The percentage of area under tubewell irrigation in India is 35.6 which is highest in Uttar Pradesh (77.5). followed by Punjab (67.3), Bihar (49.1), West Bengal (36.1), Kerala (28.5), Gujarath (26.5) etc.

Question 5.
Explain the Canal irrigation in India.
Answer:
India has one of the largest canal systems of the world. Canals are the second largest source of irrigation in the country.
Canals are of two types :
1. Inundation canals : taken out directly from rivers, without making any barrage or dam.
2. Perennial canals : which are taken out from the reservoirs by constructing barrage or weir to regulate the flow of water.

  • Canal irrigation is widely practiced in the Sutlej Gangas plains and the deltas of the peninsular rivers.
  • Nearly 79% of India’s canals irrigated area lies in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh,Haryana, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh etc.
  • Uttar Pradesh ranks first in India where canal irrigation is most extensive.

Canal irrigation suffers from a number of draw-backs such as water logging, increase in water table, alkalinity of soils due to capillary action etc.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Discuss the present situation of Tank irrigation in India.
Answer:
Tanks are natural or man hollows or depressions into which rain water is collected.

  • Usually they are built by individuals or groups of farmers by raising bunds across seasonal stream.
  • Tank irrigation is widely practiced in Andhra Pradesh (29.8%), TamilNadu and Karnataka states.
  • Tank irrigation is an ancient method of irrigation in the country. But the area under tank irrigation has decreased in recent years due to some draw backs.
  • The area under tank irrigation decreased from 4.6 million hectare in 1960 – 61 to 1.56 . million hectre in 2007 – 08.
  • It accounts for only 3.2% of the total irrigated area in India. Tank irrigation is suffering from certain inherent drawbacks
    • Tanks get silted up soon.
    • Most of the tanks are non-perennial’and become dry during winter and summer seasons.
    • They occupy large fertile areas which could have been used for cultivation.

Question 7.
Explain the development and distribution of other types of irrigation.
Answer:
Sprinkler Irrigation :

  •  The spraying of water to the crops through the pipe with nozzles under great pressure is called‘Sprinkler irrigation’.
  • In this method water consuming is less but provides more moisture to the plants.
  • The adoption of this system is more expensive.
  • It is more popular in Punjab, Harayana, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Gujarat.

Drip Irrigation :

  • A newly developed irrigation system, orginally developed in Israel is becoming popular in areas with water scarcity. This source of irrigation was introduced in India in the seven-ties.
  • In 2005, the area under drip irrigation was 6.3 Lakh hectares.
  • In this system a small amount of water passes through pipe falls drop by drop just at the position of roots or a limited area around the plant.
  • It saves more water and it is possible to irrigate more arek .
  • Drip irrigation is practiced in Rajastjan, Maharashtra, Karnataka and TamilNadu.
  • Drip irrigation is mainly used for coconut, grapes, citrus fruits, vegetables and plantation crops.

Question 8.
What is Multipurpose River Valley? Explain its importance in India.
Answer:
River valley projects which provides multiple benefits are known as “Multipurpose River Valley Projects”. The importance of these projects’ includes –

  1. Providing irrigation
  2. Generation of Hydro-electricity
  3. Flood Control
  4. Soil Conservation
  5. Afforestation
  6. Drinking water
  7. Navigation
  8. Pisciculture
  9. Recreation
  10. Preservation of Wildlife
  11. Fodder for animals and employment for in habit.
  12. Employment for inhabitants.

In India based on the pattern of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the USA, the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) was started in 1948, to harness the Damodar River. Subsequently many similar projects have been taken up in the country.

Question 9.
Discuss the important features and aims of Damodar Valley Project.
Answer:
The main aims of the project are flood control, Promotion of irrigation, Generating Hydro-Electricity, Navigation, Afforestation, Prevents Soil erosion, Inland fishing and recreation facilities.

Its features are as follows :

Damodar and its tributaries –
It comprises four Dams, three Hydel Power stations one barrage and three thermal power stations. ‘

1. Tilaiya Dam :

  • This dam has been constructed on Barakar river, a tributary of Damodar.
  • Its gross storage capacity is 395 million cubic metres.
  • Two power stations of 200KW each have been set up here. The dam provides irrigation facilities to 40,000 hectares.

2. Konar Dam :

  • It has been constructed on Konar river.
  • Its gross storage capacity is 337 million cubic metres. Its provides irrigation facilities to 1.4 Lakh hectares.

3. Maothon Dam :

  • It has been constructed on Barakar river.
  • Its gross storage capacity is 1,357 million cubic metres. There are three hydro¬electric power units with an installed capacity of 60MW.

4. Panchet Hill Dam :

  • It has been constructed on river Damodar.
  • Its gross storage capacity is 1,497 million cubic metres.

5. Durgapur Barrage : The Network is of 2,495 km long canals. They irrigate 4.75 Lakh hectares in West Bengal.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Explain the main objectives and importance of Bhakra Nangal Project.
Answer:

  • The Bhakra – Nangal Project is a joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. It has been named after the two dams constructed at Bhakra and Nangal on the Sutlej river in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Flood control, irrigation facilities, hydel power generation, promote afforestation.
  • The main objectives of the project are :
    • Flood control
    • Irrigation facilities
    • Hydel power generation
    • Promote afforestation
    • Soil Conservation etc.
  • The Bhakra dam is constructed across the Sutlej river at Bhakra in Himachal Pradesh.
  • It is 518 meters long & 226 metres high.
  • The Reservoir created by the Bhakra-dam covers an area of 173.8 knv and has a gross storage capacity of 9,867 million cubic metres. This reservoir is called the ‘Govindsagar’.
  • The canals have a total length cf about 1104 kms, & their length of their distributaries is 3,360 kms.
  • They provide irrigation to 27.4 Lakh hectares of land-in Haryana, Rajasthan and some parts of Punjab.
  • The Nangal dam is constructed across the Sutlej river at Nangal, 13kms below the Bhakra dam.
  • It is 305 metres long and 29 metres high.
  • The Nangal canal irrigates 26.4 lakh hectares of land in Haryana and 50.2 lakh hectres of land in Punjab.
  • This project plays an important role on Agriculture in the North Western part of India by providing irrigation where rainfall is scanty.

Question 11.
Explain the chief aims and importance of Hirakud Project.
Answer:
Importance :

  • It is an ambitious multipurpose river valley project in Odisha, planned for harnessing the waters of Mahanadi river.
  • There dams are constructed across the Mahanadi at different places.
  • The 4801 mt long dam has been built across the Mahanadi at Hirakud, 9.7 kms up stream of Sambalpur. –
  • The height of the dam above the river bed is 61 metres.
  • It is the longest dam in India and forms 650 km2 reservoir.
  • It has a gross storage capacity of 810 crore cubic meters of water.
  • They irrigate 2.54 lakh hectares.
  • The project has two hydro-electric power stations with an installed capacity of 270 m.
  • The second and third dams are constructed at Tikarapara and Naraj respectively.
  • The Mahanadhi Delta Irrigation scheme can provide irrigation for 6.84 lakh hectares.
  • The third one comprises of 1353 km and 386.2 km long canals with irrigation potential of 5.4 lakh hectares.
  • Chief Aims of this projects are :
    • Flood control
    • Irrigation development
    • Generation of hydro-electric power
    • Provides navigation, recreational facilities and afforestation.

Question 12.
Explain the main features and importance of Upper Krishna Project.
Answer:
This is the biggest Multipurpose project in North Karnataka across the river Krishna.

  • It comprises two dams namely Alamatti and Narayanapura.
  • The Alamatti dam is constructed near Alamatti village in Basavana Bagewadi taluk and the Narayanapura dam is located near Siddapur village in Muddebihal taluk of Bijapur district.
  • The Alamatti dam is 1,578 mt long & its height is 47.8 mt above the lowest foundation level with a gross capacity of 5,285 mcum.
  • The Narayanapura dam is 10,637 mt long and 29.7 mt high above the lowest foundation level with a gross capacity of 10,66 mcum.
  • It is going to irrigate about 6.22 lakh hectares of land in Bagalkot district, Bijapur district, Yadgir district, Gulbarga district, Raichur district.
  • The project also include 6 units of power generation at Alamatti having a total capacity of 268 mw.

Question 13.
Give an account of Water Conservation and Management.
Answer:
1. Water Conservation refers to the action taken to use water effeciently. It involves the controlling, protecting, managing & planning for the wise use of our scarce water resources.
2. The following stratergies can be adopted for conservation of water.

  • Reducing run-off losses : It can be achieved by using contour cultivation, terrace . fanning, mulching, water storage structures like farm ponds.
  • Reduction of irrigation losses : It can be reduced by drip and sprinkler irrigation, use of lined or covered canals to reduce seepage.
  • Re-use of water : The treated waste water can be used for watering .gardens, washing vehicles and floors of the building. It helps in saving fresh water.
  • Prevention of wastage of water : Preventing by closing taps when not in use, repairing any leakage from pipes and using small capacity flush in toilets.

Question 14.
Explain the Watershed Management.
Answer:
The Land area from which water flows towards a common water course in natural basin is called ‘Watershed’.

  • Importance of Watershed : Watersheds are the sources of river which supply water – for irrigation, generating hydro-electricity, domestic use.
  • Meaning of Watershed Management : “The Rational utilization of land and water resources for optimum production.
  • Need of Watershed Management : In recent years, Watersheds of India are degraded due to several reasons i.e., unscientific land use, overgrazing, deforestation, mining, shifting cultivation, soil erosion etc.

Methods of Watersheds Management :

  1. Water harvesting :- Proper storage of water is done with provision for use in dry season in low rainfall areas.
  2. Afforestation & Agroforestry :- They help to prevent soil erosion & retention of moisture.
  3. Scientific Mining & Quarrying :- These can minimize the destructive effects in watershed areas.
  4. Mechanical Measures :- These Measures including terracing, binding, bench terracing, contour cropping strip cropping etc.
  5. Public Participation :- The involvement of local people including farmers & tribals is essential to the success of watershed programme.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Discuss about Rainwater Harvesting?
Answer:

  • Controlling the runoff of rain water and make it to perculate to increase ground water table for future purpose.
  • It involves collection and storage of rainwater at surface or in sub-surface aquifier, before it is lost as surface runoff. It not only increases water availability but also checks the declining water table.

Objectives: The following are the main objectives of rain water harvesting.

  • It checks runoff water & avoid flooding.
  • It replenishes the ground water table and enables the wells.
  • It helps to overcome the adequancy of surface water to meet demand of water.
  • If the ground water is blackish, it will reduce the salinity.
  • It also reduces ground water contamination and improve water quality.
  • It helps to increase agricultural product and improves ecology of an area.

Methods of Rain Water Harvesting :
1. In-situ method The method of percolating the rain at the point of its fall itself is called In-situ rainwater harvesting.
For example –

  • Infilteration pits : The rain water can be collected and stored in pits, dug in farm lands and used for irrigation.
  • Contour bunds and trenches : The Construction of bunds, trenches or check dams.
  • Roof top water harvesting : The Rain water that falls on the roofs of buildings or in courtyards is collected and stored in underground. Sumps, or wells or in drums and used for domestic purpose such as cleaning, washing etc.

2. Ex-situ method : This method of rainwater harvesting involves storing of running water. It is collected in check dams, huge percolation tanks etc. It is an expensive method.

Question 16.
What is the meaning of Irrigation and Explain the need of Irrigation in India.
Answer:
It is an artificial means of watering the crops or an art of supplying water to the crops.
Need for Irrigation :
Distribution of water resources are highly varied. While some areas are dry some are wet and humid in such circumstances, we have to arrange water for crops through artificial means for fulfilling their needs. Thus, irrigation becomes necessary on account of following reasons.

  • Nature of rainfall Due to irregular, uncertain and limited rainfall scarcity of water is caused so, need for irrigation arises. ,
  • Nature of soil There is greater need of irrigation in sandy soil.
  • Probability of DroughtAt places of droughts irrigation is essential.
  • Need of Irrigation in dry areas In dry areas, where rainfall is less than 40 to 50 cm per year, the need arises for irrigation.
  • More need of w;ater for special crops like rice, jute, sugar cane etc.
  • More need of water to improve new and high yielding varieties of seeds for higher productivity.
  • Water is essential to develop pastures for cattle and dairy development.
  • Population of India is Multiplying fast, and it needs additional food production. This can be possible only through irrigation.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 5 Organising

You can Download Chapter 5 Organising Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 5 Organising

2nd PUC Business Studies Organising Text Book Exercises

2nd PUC Business Studies Organising Multiple Choice Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Which of the following is not an element of delegation?
(a) Accountability
(b) Authority
(c) Responsibility
(d) Informal organisation
Answer:
(d) Informal organisation is not an element of delegation.

Question 2.
A network of social relationship that arise spontaneously due to interaction at work is called
(a) formal organisation
(b) informal organisation
(c) decentralisation
(d) delegation .
Answer:
(b) Informal organisation implies social interaction amongst people.

Question 3.
Which of the following does not follow the scalar chain?
(a) Functional structure
(b) Divisional structure
(c) Formal organisation
(d) Informal organisation
Answer:
(d) Informal organisation does not follow the scalar chain.

Question 4.
A tall structure has a
(a) narrow span of management
(b) wide span of management
(c) no span of management
(d) less levels of management
Answer:
(a) A tall structure has a narrow span of management.

Question 5.
Centralisation refers to
(a) retention of decision making authority
(b) dispersal of decision making authority
(c) creating divisions as profit centres
(d) opening new centres or branches
Answer:
(a) Centralisation implies concentration of all decision making functions at the apex of the management.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
For delegation to be effective, it is essential that responsibility be accompanied with necessary
(a) Authority
(b) manpower
(c) incentives
(d) promotions
Answer:
(a) Authority refers to the right of an individual to command his subordinates Thus, it is essential that responsibility be accompanied with necessary authority.

Question 7.
Span of management refers to
(a) number of managers .
(b) length of term for which a manager is appointed
(c) number of subord inates under a superior
(d) number of members in top management
Answer:
(c) Span of management is the number of subordinates under a superior.

Question 8.
The form of organisation known for giving rise to rumours is called
(a) centralised organisation
(b) decentralised organisation
(c) informal organisation
(d) formal organisation
Answer:
(c) As in informal organisation, excess of interactions among people giving rise to rumours.

Question 9.
Grouping of activities on the basis of product lines is a part of
(a) delegated organisation
(b) divisional organisation
(c) functional organisation
(d) autonomous organisation
Answer:
(b) Divisional organisation implies grouping of activities on the basis of product lines.

Question 10.
Grouping of activities on the basis of functions is a part of
(a) decentralised organisation
(b) divisional organisation
(c) functional organisation
(d) centralised organisation
Answer:
(c) Functional organisation implies grouping of a activities on the basis of functions

2nd PUC Business Studies Organising Short Answer Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Define ‘Organizing’.
Answer:
Organising is the second function of management. Organising is the process of identifying and grouping the activities of the enterprise and establishing authority and relationship among them, (or) According to Henry Fayol “To organise a business is to provide it with everything, useful to its functioning – raw material, machines, tools, capital and personnel”.

Question 2.
What are the steps in the process of organising?
Answer:
Identification & Division of work.

Question 3.
Discuss the elements of delegation.
Answer:
There are three elements of delegation.

  1. Granting the authority to the subordinates
  2. Assigning responsibility to subordinates
  3. Accountability among subordinates.

Authority: Authority is the power to command employees and instruct them to perform a job. It flows from top to bottom. The subordinates execute the given jobs as per the instructions of the superior. Authority is always restricted by rules and regulation of the organization.

Responsibility: Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform the assigned duty. The responsibility flows upwards. It includes all the physical and mental activities to be performed by the employee for a job. Delegation starts when the superior transfers some of his responsibility to the subordinates.

Accountability: It is the obligation on the part of the subordinates to perform the assigned duties as expected by the managers. For this purpose, accountability is created. Accountability means being answerable for the final results. Accountability can never be delegated.

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Question 4.
What does the term ‘Span of management’ refer to?
Answer:
It is the number of subordinates under a superior or we can say, it means how many employees can be effectively managed by a superior. The span of management, to a large extent gives shape to the organisational structure, e.g., if the number of subordinates under a superior keep increasing when we move downward, then the shape of the organisational structure will be as follows.
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 5 Organising - 1

Question 5.
Under what circumstances would functional structure prove to be an appropriate choice?
Answer:
Functional structure would prove to be most suitable when the size of the organisation is large, has diversified activities and operations that require a high degree of specialisation. If promotes control and co-ordination within a department, increased managerial and operational efficiency, results in increased profits.

Question 6.
Draw a diagram depicting a divisional structure.
Answer:
Diagram of divisional structure
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 5 Organising - 2

Question 7.
Can a large sized organisation be totally centralised or decentralised? Give your opinion.
Answer:
No large organisation can not be totally centralised or decentralised. Complete centralisation would imply concentration of all decision making functions at the apex of the management hierarchy. Such a scenario would obviate the need for a management hierarchy.

On the other hand, complete decentralisation would imply the delegation of all decision making functions to the lower level of the hierarchy and this would finish off the need for higher, managerial positions. Both the situations are unrealistic.

As an organisation grows in size and complexity, there is a tendency to move towards decentralised decision making. This is because, in large organisations those employees, who are directly and closely involved with certain operations tend to have more knowledge about them than the top management, which may only be indirectly associated with individual operations. Hence, there is a need for balance between these co-existing forces.

Question 8.
Decentralisation is extending delegation to the lowest level. Comment.
Answer:
Decentralisation is extending delegation to the lowest level Decentralisation explains the manner in which decision making responsibilities are divided among hierarchical levels. Decentralisation refers to delegation of authority through all the levels of the organisation.

Decision making authority is shared with lower levels and is consequently placed nearest to the point of action. In other words, decision making authority is pushed down the chain of command. Delegation is the process and decentralisation is the end result, e.g., If the director give the responsibility to production head to complete the target of20,000 units and authorise him to hire the workers, production head further shares his responsibility with manager to select the worker.

Manager shares his responsibility with supervisors, who are dealing with workers, authorise them to select workers. Here, the responsibility gets distributed at every level. That’s why we

say systematic delegation leads to decentralisation.

2nd PUC Business Studies Organising Long Answer Type Questions With Answers

Question 1
Why is delegation considered essential for effective organising?
Answer:
Effective delegation leads to the following benefits
1. Effective Management : By empowering the employees, the managers are able to function more efficiently as they get more time to concentrate on important matters. This makes the working of all the levels effective and efficient.

2. Employee Development: As a result of delegation, employees get more opportunities to utilise their talent and this may give rise to talent abilities in them. It makes them better leaders and decision makers. Delegation empowers the employees by providing them with the chance to use their skills, gain experience and develop themselves for higher positions.

3. Motivation of Employees: Delegation helps in developing the talents of the employees. It also has psychological benefits. Responsibility’ for work builds the self-esteem of an employee and improves his confidence. He feels encouraged and tries to improve his performance further.

4. Facilitation of Growth: Delegation helps in the expansion of an organisation by providing a ready workforce to take up leading positions in new ventures. Trained and experienced employees are able to play significant roles in the launch of new’ projects.

5. Basis of Management Hierarchy: Delegation of authority establishes superior- subordinate, which management. The extent of delegated are the basis of hierarchy of authority also decides the power that each job position enjoys in the organisation.

6. Better Coordination: Due to delegation, work, duties, power all becomes very clear. This helps to avoid overlapping of duties and duplication of effort as it gives a clear picture of the work being done at various levels. Such clarity in reporting relationships help in developing and maintaining effective coordination amongst the departments, levels and functions of management.

Question 2.
What is a divisional structure? Discuss its advantages and limitations.
Answer:
A divisional structure comprises of separate business units or divisions. Each unit has a divisional manager responsible for performance and who has authority over the unit. Generally, manpower, is grouped on the basis of different products manufactured.
Merits
1. Skill Development: Product specialisation helps in the development of varied skills in a divisional head and this prepares them for higher positions as they gain experience in all functions.

2. Accountability: Divisional heads are accountable for profits, as revenues and costs related to different departments can be easily identified and assigned to them. This provides proper basis for performance measurement.

3. Quick decision making: It promotes flexibility and initiative because each division functions as an autonomous unit which leads to faster decision making.

4. Facilitates Expansion: It facilitates growth as new divisions can be added without interrupting the existing operations, by merely adding another divisional head and staff for the new product line.

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Demerits
The divisional structure has certain disadvantages
1. Conflicts: Conflicts may arise among different divisions with reference to allocation of funds.

2. Higher cost: Providing each division with separate set of similar functions increases expenditure.

3. Ignoring organisational goals : It provides managers with the authority to supervise all activities related to a particular division. In course of time, sucn a manager may gain power and in a bid to assert his independence may ignore organisational interests.

Question 3.
Decentralisation is an optional policy. Explain why an organisation would choose to be decentralised.
Answer:
Decentralisation is much more than mere transfer of authority to the lower levels of management hierarchy. Its importance can be understood from the following points
1. Develops Initiative among subordinates: When lower managerial levels are given freedom to take their own decisions they learn to depend’ on their judgement. A decentralised policy helps to identify those executives, who have the necessary potential to become dynamic leaders.

2. Develops Managerial Talent for the future: Formal training plays an important part in equipping subordinates with skills that help them rise in the organisation, but equally important is the experience gained by handling assignments independently. It gives them a chance to prove their abilities and creates a reservoir of qualified manpower.

3. Quick decision making: In a decentralised organisation, however, since decisions are taken at levels, which are nearest to the points of action and there is no requirement for approval from many levels the process is much faster.

4. Relief to top Management: Decentralisation leaves the top management with more time, which they can devote to important policy decisions rather than occupying their time with both policy as well as operational decisions.

5. Facilitates growth: Decentralisation awards greater autonomy to the lower levels of management as well as divisional or departmental heads. This allows them to function in a manner best suited to their department and develops a sense of competition amongst the departments. Consequently, the productivity levels increase and the organisation is able to generate more returns, which can be used for expansion purposes.

6. Better control: Decentralisation makes it possible to evaluate performance at each level and the departments can be individually held accountable for their results. The extent of achievement of organisational objectives as well as the contribution of each department in meeting the over all objectives can be ascertained.

Question 4.
How does informal organisation support the formal organisation?
Answer:
The informal organisation offers many benefits Important among them are given as follows
1. Quick feedback: Prescribed lines of communication are not followed. Thus, the informal organisation leads to faster spread of information as well as quick feedback.

2. Social needs: It helps to fulfill social needs of the members and allows them to find like minded people. This enhances their job satisfaction, since it gives them a sense of belongingness in the organisation.

3. Organisational objectives: It contributes towards fulfilment of organisational objectives by compensating for inadequacies in the formal organisation e.g., feedbacks on new policies etc can be tested through informal network.

Question 5.
Distinguish between centralisation and decentralisation.
Answer:
Difference between centralisation and decentralisation
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 5 Organising - 3

Question 6.
How is a functional structure different from a divisional structure?
Answer:
Difference between functional and divisional structure.
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 5 Organising - 4

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2nd PUC Business Studies Organising Case Problems

A company, which manufactures a popular brand of toys, has been enjoying good market reputation. It has a functional organisational Structure with separate departments for production, marketing, finance, human resources and research and development. Lately to use its brand name and also to cash on to new business opportunities it is thinking to diversify into manufacture of new range of electronic toys for which a new market is emerging.

Question 1.
Prepare a report regarding organisation structure giving concrete reasons with regard to benefits the company will derive from the steps it should take.
Answer:
In the given situation, organisation should shift from functional structure to divisional structure as the company wants to diversity, by adding a new product line. The reasons and benefits are

  • The performance of each unit can be easily assessed,
  • New product lines can be easily added without disturbing the existing units.
  • Decision making is faster.
  • Divisional structure maintains short line of communication with customers and provide better services to them.

Question 2.
A company manufacturing sewing machines set up on 1945 by the British promoters follows formal organisation culture in totality. It is facing a lot of problems in delays in decision making. As the result it is not able to adapt to changing business
environment. The work force is also not motivated since they cannot vent their grievances except through formal channels, which involves red tape. Employee turnover is high. Its market share is also declining due to changed circumstances and business environment.

You are to advise the company with regard to change it should bring about its organisation structure to overcome the problems faced by it. Give reasons in terms of benefits it will derive from the changes suggested by you. In which sectors can the company diversify, keeping in mind the declining market for the product the company is manufacturing?
Answer:
The suggestions are as follows :
1. To overcome the limitations of formal organisation, the management should encourage workers to interact and socialise with each other through get together outings. In this way, everyone will interact and like minded people will come closer. The net result will be more satisfied workforce.

2. The management should try to decentralise organisation structure.

3. The suggested area where the business can be diversified is textile machineries like embroidery units, sequencing units, buttoning units.

Question 3.
A company X limited manufacturing comsetics, which has enjoyed a pre-eminent position in business, has grown in size. Its business was very good till 1991. But after that, new liberalised environment has seen entry of many MNC’s in the sector. With the result the market share of X limited has declined. The company had followed a very centralised business model with directors and .divisional heads making even minor decisions. Before 1991, this business model had served the company very well as consumers had no choice. But now, the company is under pressure to reform.

What organisational structure changes should the company bring about in order to retain its market share? How will the changes suggested by you help the firm? Keep in mind that the sector in which the company is FMCG
Answer:
The company X Ltd is working in a centralised way, which is not giving enough time to the higher officials to think of better policies, strategies to handle the changes in the changing environment. The company should thus get decentralised so that the routine type of work, Involving minor decisions can be looked after by the lower levels. This will give/save more time for the directors and divisional heads to plan strategies to fight with competition.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Organising Additional Questions

2nd PUC Business Studies Organising One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Give the meaning of organizing.
Answer:
Organizing is the process of identifying, grouping the work to be performed for the people to work most efficiently together to achieve the objectives (or) defining and delegating authority and responsibility and establishing relationship among them for accomplishment of specific objectives.

Question 2.
Name any one type of organization structure.
Answer:
Functional structure

Question 3.
Give the meaning of formal organization,
Answer:
Formal organization is one which has a system of well defined Positions, Authority, responsibility, Policies, Principles etc.

Question 4.
Give the meaning of informal organization.
Answer:
Informal organization refers to the relationship between the people in the organization based on the personal attitude, prejudices, likes & dislikes etc.

Question 5.
Write any one element of delegation.
Answer:
Authority or Responsibility or Accountability.

Question 6.
Give the meaning of centralization.
Answer:
It refers to the concentration of authority of decision making by top level managers is called centralization.

Question 7.
State any one importance of organizing.
Answer:
Effective administration or Optimum Utilization of resources.

Question 8.
State any one suitability of functional organizational structure.
Answer:
Functional structure is suitable when the Size of the organization is large

Question 9.
State any one suitability of divisional organizational structure.
Answer:
Divisional structure is suitable when Organization have Centralized authority.

Question 10.
Give the meaning of authority.
Answer:
Authority is the power to command employees and instruct them to perform a job.

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Question 11.
State the importance of delegation.
Answer:
Better coordination & Quick decision making.

Question 12.
Name any one type of organisation structure.
Answer:
(a) Functional Structure
(b) Divisional Structure

Question 13.
Give the meaning of formal organisation.
Answer:
Formal organisation refers to structure of well-defined jobs each bearing a definite measure of authority, responsibility and accountability.

Question 14.
Give the meaning of centralisation.
Answer:
Centralisation refers to concentration of authority at top level for decision making with one or few manager.

Question 15.
Give the meaning of decentralisation.
Answer:
Decentralisation means dispersal of authority to take decision to the lower levels of organization.

Question 16.
What is meant by departmentalisation?
Answer:
The process of grouping the activities of similar nature under same department is known as Departmentalisation.

Question 17.
What is delegation?
Answer:
Delegation is a process of transferring authority from a superior to his subordinate.

Question 18.
State any one advantages of functional organisation structure.
Answer:
It helps in increasing managerial and operational efficiency

Question 19.
State any one limitation of functional organisation structure.
Answer:
Inflexibility

Question 20.
State any one limitation of divisional organisation structure.
Answer:
Increase in costs

Question 21.
State any one advantages of divisional organisation structure.
Answer:
Product specialisation

Question 22.
State any one advantages of formal organisation.
Answer:
It is easier to fix responsibility

Question 23.
State any one limitation of divisional organisation.
Answer:
Delay in decision making.

Question 24.
State any one feature of informal organization
Answer:
An informal organization originates from within the formal organization.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Organising Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is functional structure of an organization?
Answer:
Grouping the jobs based on similar nature and organizing them different departments isknown as functional structure. The functional structure enforces a clear chain of command within the organization. Here top level management act as a primary decision maker.

Question 2.
What is divisional structure of an organization?
Answer:
Grouping the activities on the basis of product is known as divisional Structure. The large organizations which have more than one product have this kind of organizational structure.

Question 3.
What is delegation?
Answer:
Delegation is the process of transferring authority from a superior to his subordinate. Delegation of authority is necessary for the smooth functioning of a business.

Question 4.
What is decentralization?
Answer:
Decentralization refers to even & systematic distribution of decision making power to lower level management. Decentralization motivate subordinates & increase their morale & team spirit as they are involved in decision making.

Question 5.
State any two importance of organizing?
Answer:
The importance of organizing are: Effective administration, Optimum Utilization of resources.

Question 6.
State any two differences between formal & informal organization?
Answer:
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 5 Organising - 5

Question 7.
State any two importance of decentralization of authority.
Answer:
Importance of Decentralization are

  1. Reduces work load,
  2. Quick Decision Making

Question 8.
What is centralization of authority?
Answer:
It refers to the concentration of authority of decision making by top level managers is called centralization.

Question 9.
Give the meaning of organisation structure
Answer:
The organisation structure can be defined as the framework within which managerial and operating tasks are performed. It specifies the relationships between people, work and resources.

Question 10.
State any two importance of organisationing.
Answer:
a. Benefits of Specialisation
b. Clarity in Working Relationships

Question 11.
Define formal organisation
Answer:
According to Brown “Formal organisation refers to structure of well-defined jobs each bearing a definite measure of authority, responsibility and accountability”.

Question 12.
Define informal organisation
Answer:
According to Keith Davis “Informal organisation refers to the relationship between the people in the organisation based on the personal attitudes, likes and dislikes etc”.

Question 13.
Define Delegation
Answer:
According to Haimman “Delegation of authority merely means the granting of authority to subordinates to operate within prescribed limits”

Question 14.
Name any two basis for departmentalisation.
Answer:
a. On the basis of territory
b. On the basis of function
c. On the basis of type of product manufactured

Question 15.
Name any two element of delegation.
Answer:
a. Authority
b. Responsibility

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Question 16.
State any two advantages of functional organisation structure.
Answer:
a. Promotes efficiency in utilisation of manpower
b. It helps in increasing managerial and operational efficiency

Question 17.
State any two limitation of functional organisation structure.
Answer:
a. Inflexibility
b. Problems incoordination

Question 18.
State any two limitation of divisional organisation structure.
Answer:
a. Increase in costs
b. Ignorance organisational interests

Question 20.
State any two advantages of divisional organisation structure.
Answer:
a. Product specialisation
b. Facilitates expansion and growth

Question 21.
State any two advantages of formal organisation.
Answer:
a. It is easier to fix responsibility
b. Provides stability to the organisation

Question 22.
State any two limitation of divisional organisation.
Answer:
a. Delay in decision making.
b. Does not provide a complete picture

Question 23.
State any two feature of informal organization
Answer:
a. Formal communication channel is used.
b. It is created to achieve predetermined objectives.

Question 24.
State any two difference between delegation and decentralisation
Answer:
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 5 Organising - 6

Question 25.
State any two difference between authority and responsibility Answer:
Answer:
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 5 Organising - 7

Question 26.
Give the meaning of authority.
Answer:
Authority refers to the right of a superior to command his subordinates. It arises from formal position of individual.

Question 27.
Give the meaning of responsibility.
Answer:
Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to properly perform the assigned duty. It arises from delegated authority.

Question 28.
Give the meaning of accountability.
Answer:
Accountability implies being answerable for the final outcome. It arises from responsibility.

Question 29.
What do you mean by organising process?
Answer:
Organising process refers to identifying and grouping of activities to be performed, defining and delegating authority, casting responsibility and establishing relationships to enable people to work together effectively in accomplishing objectives.

Question 30.
State any two importance of delegation.
Answer:
a. Quick decision making
b. Effective management

Question 31.
State any two importance of decentralization.
Answer:
a. Relief to top management
b. Quick Decision-Making

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2nd PUC Business Studies Organising Four Marks Questions and Answers

Questi0n 1.
Explain the steps in organizing process.
Answer:
The organizing process involves the following steps:

  1. Identification and Division of work.
  2. Departmentalization
  3. Assignments of duties
  4. Establishment of reporting relationships

1. Identification and Division of work: This is the first step in the organizing process. Here the total work of the organization is divided into a number of small units and assigned to achieve the predetermined goals.

2. Departmentalization: It refers to the process of grouping the activities of similar nature under the same department. The department can be done on the basis of function, on the basis of type of product and on the basis of territory.

3. Assignment of duties: Here the jobs are assigned to the employees based on their skill and caliber to ensure effective performance. It is more important to balance the nature of job and the capabilities of the employee before assigning the duties.

4.Establishment of reporting relationships: After assignment of duties, it is necessary to establish an authority between superior and subordinates. The individuals should know from whom they can take the order and to whom they are accountable.

Question 2.
Explain the importance of delegation.
Answer:
Importance of delegation are as follows:
1. Effective Management: Delegation enables superiors to assign the routine activities to the subordinates and he can be relived and can concentrate on other important functions. Thus a manager can increase his efficiency.

2. Employee development: The manager delegates the work to subordinates according to the skill, ability & knowledge of the subordinates. This makes the employees to get an opportunity to use their skill and talent to perform the assigned work effectively.

3. Facilitates growth & Expansion: Delegation of authority is done on the basis of the ability of the employees which provides opportunity for them to perform better. This leads to specialization and increase in the productivity of employees which ultimately results in growth & expansion of the organization.

4. Better coordination: The systematic assignment of work gives clarity of work to everyone and avoids duplication of work. Delegation of work brings better coordination and help to reach the organization goal effectively.

5. Quick decision making: Delegation saves time by enabling the subordinates to deal with the problems promptly. They can take quick decisions with in their authority. They need not go to their superiors for the day to day routine matters.

6. Basis for management Hierarchy: Delegation of authority defines who has to report to whom. It creates a chain of superior and subordinate relationship which is the basis for hierarchy of management.

Question 3.
Explain the importance of decentralization.
Answer:
The Importance of Decentralization are:
1. Quick decision making: As the powers to make decisions are delegated throughout the organization, decisions are made quickly. Employees need not wait for the approval of the top level management. Decentralization makes the enterprise to enjoy quick decision making.

2. Relief to Top management: In the process of decentralization, top level management is relived form the burden of performing various activities. The authority to take decision is delegated to lower levels so that they can concentrate of more important functions.

3. Democratic system: Decentralization shares the authority and responsibility’between managers. Democratic system of delegation avoids the concentration of powers in few hands.

4. Incentive to workers: Decentralization delegates the power of decision making to lower level which boosts the morale of the employees. It provides them with job satisfaction by providing them independence, status and participation in the activities of the enterprises.

5. Facilitate growth: Decentralization enables mangers at lower level to perform to their full potential and develops a sense of competition among different department of the organization. Such positive spirit contributes towards the growth of organization.

6. Reduce work load: Decentralization is the technique of distributing authority, responsibility and duty among mangers. So the work load of the managers is reduced and restricted to the job assigned to them.

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Question 4.
Explain any five benefits of organizing.
Answer:
The benefits of organizing are:
1. Benefit of specialization: The total work of an organization is divided into different departments and responsibilities are assigned to different people. This leads to the specialization of work. Right man is placed for right job increase the efficiency of the organization.

2. Clarity in work relationship: Organising helps in establishing working relationship & clearly defines lines of communication and also’ specifies who need to report to whom. This further helps in responsibility of authority which an individual can exercise.

3.Optimum utilization of resources: Organising leads to proper use of materials, financial & human resources. Proper allocation of Jobs helps in avoiding over lapping of work & minimizing use of resources without any wastage.

4.Adaption to changes: Organizing helps in adopting & adjustingto the activities in response to the changes in the external environment. It brings stability & growth to the organization.

5. Effective administration: This helps to avoid confusion & duplication. Clarity in working relationships enables proper extraction of work. Thus management of an enterprise becomes easy & brings effectiveness in administration.

2nd PUC Business Studies Organising Eight Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define organizing. Explain the importance of organizing?
Answer:
Organizing is the process of identifying, grouping the work to be performed, delegating authority & responsibility, establishing a relationship & purpose for the people to work most efficiently together to achieve the objectives.
The importance of organizing are:
1. Benefit of specialization: The total work of an organization is divided into different departments and responsibilities are assigned to different people. This leads to the specialization of work. Right man placed in right job increase the efficiency of the organization.

2. Clarity in work relationship: Organising helps in establishing working relationship & clearly defines lines of communication and also specifies who need to report to whom. This further helps in responsibility of authority which an individual can exercise.

3. Optimum utilization of resources: Organising leads to proper use of materials, financial & human resources. Proper allocation of Jobs helps in avoiding over lapping of work & minimizing use of resources without any wastage.

Adaption to changes: Organizing helps in adopting & adjusting to the activities in response to the changes in the external environment. It brings stability & growth to the organization.

4. Effective administration: This helps to avoid confusion & duplication. Clarity in working relationships enables proper extraction of work. Thus management of an enterprise becomes easy & brings effectiveness in administration.

5. Development of personnel: Sound organizing ensures that every individual is placed on the job for which he is best suited. Such matching of jobs and individuals helps in better use of human talent. It also provides the benefits, which results in economy of organizations & reduction in cost.

6. Expansion & Growth: Organizing promotes growth & diversification of an enterprise. It enables the enterprise to take up new challenges. Organising can easily add more job positions & new product lines, this leads to increase in sales & profit.

Question 2.
Briefly explain the functional and divisional structure of an organization.
Answer:
Functional structure: Grouping the jobs based on similar nature and organizing them different departments is known as functional structure. The functional structure enforces a clear chain of command within the organization. Here top level management act as a primary decision maker.
Functional structure is suitable:

  • When the Size of the organization is large
  • When Organization have decentralized authority.
  • When the product line have only one product.
  • When there is a need for high degree of specialization in operations.

Divisional structure: Grouping the activities on the basis of product is-known as divisional Structure. The large organizations which have more than one product have this kind of organizational structure.
Divisional structure is suitable when:

  • When the size of organization is large or is growing.
  • When Organization have Centralized authority.
  • An enterprise produce more than one product
  • When organization need high degree of specialization in product.

Question 3.
Distinguish between formal and informal organization?
Answer:
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 5 Organising - 8

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2nd PUC Business Studies Organising Five Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Neha runs a factory wherein she manufactures shoes. The business has been doing well and she intends to expand by diversifying into leather bags as well as Western formal wear, thereby making her company a complete provider of corporate wear. This will enable her to market her business unit as the one stop for working women. Which type of structure would you recommend for her expanded organisation and why?
Answer:
Neha should decide for divisional structure because.

  1. She will diversify her unit now’into varied product lines.
  2. Such a structure would enable her to know the profit margins from each product line and accordingly, she can plan and select the specific product for future diversification.
  3. It will facilitate further expansion without disturbing the existing units.

Question 2.
The production manager asked the foreman to achieve a target production of 200 units per day, but he doesn’t give him the authority to requisition tools and materials from the stores department. Can the production manager blame the foreman if he is not able to achieve the desired target? Give Reasons.
Answer:
No, the production manager cannot hold the foreman responsible for the incomplete work as the foreman was not given enough authority by the manager. The principle of authority responsibility says that there should be a balance between the authority and responsibility. If the authority given is more, then it leads to misuse of authority and if responsibility is more, then the work will not be completed.

Question 3.
A manager enhances the production target from 500 units to 700 units per month, but the authority to draw raw material was not given by him. The production manager could not achieve the revised production target. Who is responsible and which principle was violated?
Answer:
The manager is responsible for work not being completed. The principle of authority responsibility

Question 4.
A company has its registered office in Delhi, manufacturing unit at Gurgaon and marketing and sales department at Faridabad. The company manufactures the consumer products. Which type of organisational structure should it adopt to achieve its target?
Answer:

  • As a company is performing separate functions in separate areas, then it should adopt functional structure
  • The services of experts are common to all products. It will be economical as no duplication will take place.
  • Span of management can be increased as workers will be doing the same type of work

2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 6 Population of India

You can Download Chapter 6 Population of India Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 6 Population of India

2nd PUC Geography Population of India One Mark Questions with Answers

Question 1.
What is the total population of India according to 2011 Census?
Answer:
According to 2011 Census, the total population of India was 121.01 crores.

Question 2.
Name the state recorded as highest literacy rate of India.
Answer:
The state recorded as highest literacy rate of India is Kerala with 93.91%.

Question 3.
Which state has the highest density of population.
Answer:
The state which has the highest density of population is Bihar with 1102 persons/sq km.

Question 4.
What is the average birth and death rate of India?
Answer:
The Average birth rate is 22.22 per thousand persons in 2011. The Average death rate is 6.4 per thousand persons in 2011.

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Question 5.
Which state has highest sex ratio?
Answer:
Kerala (1084 females for every 1000 males) according to 2011 census.

Question 6.
Name the highest and lowest density states of India.
Answer:
The highest density state is Delhi (11927) and lowest density state is Andaman and Nicobar Islands has lowest density (463) of population.

Question 7.
What is the average population density of India according to 2011 Census?
Answer:
The average population density of India according to 2011 census is 382 persons per square km.

Question 8.
Which Union territory has highest population density?
Answer:
The Union territory that has highest population density is Delhi (11297 persons / sq km).

Question 9.
In which year family planning programme was introduced in India?
Answer:
The family planning programme was introduced in India in the year 1952.

Question 10.
Which decade is known as great divide in India census?
Answer:
The decade which is known as great divide is 1901 – 1921.

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Question 11.
What is the average literacy rate of India according to 2011 census?
Answer:
The average, literacy rate of India is 74.4%.

Question 12.
What is migration?
Answer:
The movement of people from one place to another is known as migration.

Question 13.
Which stream of internal migration is called as women migration?
Answer:
Rural to Rural stream of internal migration is called as women migration.

Question 14.
What is the rank of human development index of India according to 2011?
Answer:
The rank of human development index of India according to 2011 is 134th Rank.

Question 15.
Which decade has lowest population growth after the independence of India?
Answer:
The Lowest population growth was recorded in the decade 2001-2011.

Question 16.
Expand UNDP.
Answer:
United Nations Development Programme.

Question 17.
In which year the first population census in India was conducted.
Answer:
In 1872.

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Question 18.
In which stage the growth rate of population is very high.
Answer:
In third stage The population grew from 361 million (1951) to 686 million (1981).

Question 19.
Name the state recorded Lowest literacy rate of India.
Answer:
B b w with 63.82% is the Lowest Literacy state.

Question 20.
What is the highest birth and death rate of India.
Answer:
It was 49.2 births per thousand persons (highest birth rate)
It was 42,6 deaths per thousand persons, (highest death rate)

Question 21.
What is the average literacy rate of India as per 2011 Census?
Answer:
As per 2011 census the average literacy rate of India is 74.4% (Male – 82.1%, Female – 65.5%).

Question 22.
Which state of country first birth control area project was started and when?
Answer:
Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka, in the year 1973.

Question 23.
Name the highest and lowest density Union territories of India?
Answer:
Delhi is highest (11297) whereas Andaman & Nicobar Islands have lowest density (463) of population.

Question 24.
Which state has lowest sex ratio?
Answer:
Haryana (877 females per thousand males).

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Question 25.
What is family planning?
Answer:
It is a programme to reduce the number of persons in a family. The first camp is hold 1961 in Maharastra. ‘

Question 26.
Which is the most populous city in India?
Answer:
Mumbai is the most populous city in India with 1.63 million population.

Question 27.
What is present life expectancy rate of India.
Answer:
The present life expetancy rate of India is 65.77 year for males and 67.95 years for females.

Question 28.
State the percentage of Urban and Rural population in India.
Answer:
23.6% lived in Urban areas
76.4% lived in Rural areas.

Question 29.
Who is called unproductive population in India?
Answer:
Generally, below the age 0-14 years infants and above the 60 years old age considered as unproductive.

Question 30.
What is called as sterilization of males.
Answer:
The clinical method of controlling births from male can be called sterilization of males.
For ex: Vasectomy.

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Question 31.
What is ‘Brain drain’.
Answer:
Highly calculated and skilled professionals have migrated from India to some of the most advanced countries like the USA, UK, Canada etc is known as brain drain.

2nd PUC Geography Population of India Two Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
What do you mean by Population explosion.
Answer:
More number of births & less number of deaths. This leads to rapidity in the growth of population which is known as Population explosion.

Question 2.
What is Population density?
Answer:
The total number of persons per square kilometers area is known as density of population.
2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 6 Population of India - 1

Question 3.
Give any four causes for high birth rate in India?
Answer:
The causes for high birth rate in India are:-

  1. Early Marriage
  2. Universal Marriage
  3. Religious and social supertitions
  4. Illiteracy etc.

Question 4.
What is the difference between immigration and emigration?
Answer:
Immigration : is used for in-migration from across the international border where.
Emigration : is used for out-migration from one country to another.

Question 5.
Give any four causes for low death rate in India.
Answer:
The causes low death rate in India are due to:

  1. Control of epidemics
  2. Expansion of medical facilities
  3. Control of infant mortality
  4. Spread of education.

Question 6.
What is the difference between Intra-State and Inter-State migration?
Answer:

  • Movement of people from one state to another is called ‘Inter-state migration’ for ex¬ample people can migrate from Karnataka to Goa.
  • In Contrast movement of people within the state is called ‘Intra-state migration.
    For example people can migrate from Chamarajanagar to Mysore or Bengaluru.

Question 7.
What are the four streams of Internal Migration.
Answer:
The four streams of Internal Migration are:

  1. Rural to Rural
  2. Rural to Urban
  3. Urban to Urban
  4. Urban to Rural.

Question 8.
State any two Positive effects of Migration.
Answer:
The two positive effects of migration are:

  1. It helps the people to get employment.
  2. It reduces the problem of scarcity of labour.

Question 9.
Name any two factor influenced on Human development Index in India.
Answer:
The two factors influenced on Human development Index in India are:

  1. Birth and Death rate.
  2. Life Expectancy.

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Question 10.
Name the states of highest and lowest HDI in India.
Answer:
Kerala has highest and Chhattisgarh has lowest HDI in India.

Question 11.
What is Natural increase of Population.
Answer:
Population explosion due to difference of high birth rate and low death rate. This kind of increase in population is called as natural increase of Population.

Question 12.
What is the meaning of Census?
Answer:
It is an official periodic count of population. This includes the information such as Sex, age, occupation, etc is called census.

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Question 13.
What are the different stages of growth of population in India.
Answer:
The four Wellmarked stages in Census report 2011 are as –

  1. 1901 – 1921 : Stagnant population.
  2. 1921 – 1951 : Steady growth.
  3. 1951 – 1981 : Rapid growth.
  4. 1981 – 2011: High growth with definite signs of slowing down.

Question 14.
Name any two important journals of family planning programme.
Answer:

  1. Centre calling in English and
  2. Hamaraghar in Hindi.

Question 15.
What are the birth rate and death rates?
Answer:

  1. Number of births per thousand persons in a year is called birth rate.
  2. Number of deaths per thousand persons in a year is called death rate.

Question 16.
What are the ‘BIMARU’ States.
Answer:
The most populated states namely Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan & Uttar Pradesh are called ‘BIMARU’ which literally means ‘Sick states’.

Question 17.
Define Literacy.
Answer:
Literacy is defined as a person aged 7 years and above his ability to read and write with understanding short & simple statement in any language.

Question 18.
What do you mean by Grey India?
Answer:
Life expectancy is projected to increase more by 2040 and more percentage of the population at this stage will have Gray hair. This situation is described as grey India.

Question 19.
Mention any four important causes of migration.
Answer:

  1. Marriage
  2. Employment
  3. Education &
  4. Lack of security.

Question 20.
Name the four important programmes to control poverty and malnutrition in India.
Answer:

  1. Sarva Shikshana Abhiyana.
  2. Anna Bhagya Yojane.
  3. Ksheera Bhagya Yojane.
  4. Cooly gagi kalu &
  5. Ba Maralishalege.

2nd PUC Geography Population of India Five Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Explain the trend of population growth in India.
Answer:
The Population growth in India between 1901 and 2011 can be divided ‘into four stages as
follows.

  • 1901 – 1921 Stagnant population growth.
  • 1921 -1951 Steady growth.
  • 1951 – 1981 Rapid high growth.
  • 1981 -2011 High growth with definite signs of slowing down.

1. In the first stage: In this decade, population growth was naturally curbed with the outbreak of Plague, Cholera. Malaria, influenza and other epidemics. Thus the decade is considered as ‘the great divide in the history of Indian Census’

2. In the second stage: The population can be considered as moderate The population grow ing from about 251 million (1921) to 361 million (3951), an increase of about 110 million. The main reason was decline in death rate due to control of epidemics like Plague, Cholera etc.

3. The third stage: is very important, because of the growth rate of population is very high. The Population grew from 361 million (195 1) to 686 (1981). an increase of about 325 million The growth has been very rapid after independence. The government of India was implemented many Socio-Economical Programs in all sectors.

4. The fourth stage: It completely differs from other three stages. Here the trend of growth rate of population is gradually slowing down. We can easily justify that, the period from 1981 to 2011 is referred to as a high growth with definite signs of slowing down.
2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 6 Population of India - 2

Question 2.
Describe the factors responsible for rapid growth of population in India.
Answer:
1. High Birth Rate – High birth rate is the dominate factor in rapid growth of population
in India. It was 49.2 in 1901 and has declined to 22.22 per thousand in 2011.

Causes for high birth rate: There are several causes for high birth rate in India.
For example: Early marriage, Universal marriage, religious and superstitions, joint family system, illiteracy, polygamy, predominance of agriculture, poverty, slow urbanization process, tropical climate etc. All these factors have been caused directly or indirectly for high birth rate.

2. Low Birth rate : Death rate was very high (42.6) in 1901, but it was sharply declined to 6.4 per thousand persons) in 2011.

Causes for low death rate : There are many causes for declining trend of deathrate they are control of epidemics, decline in the incidence of Malaria and tuberculosis expansion of medical facilities, control of infant mortality, spread of education, improvement in the nutrition level etc, due to all of these programs and activities, death fate has been declining from one decade to another.

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Question 3.
Explain the factors responsible for uneven distribution of population in India.
Answer:
The important factors are
1. Physical features – The Mountain and hilly regions are emost unstable for human habitation. For example; Northern Mountain, Western and Eastern Ghats, North Eastern hilly regions are moderately populated. The fertile great plains of North India and the river deltas have high density of population.

2. Climate – The density of population is high in good climatic regions. But the-very hot or cold and very dry climatic regions have low density of population.

3. Soils – The fertile soil regions have high crop productivity. So, the Northern, Eastern
and Western coastal plains are most densely populated. In contrast, infertile sandy areas are less productive and they are low populated. :

4. Resources – Mineral and power resources promote rapid economic development. Therefore, such areas are densly populated. For example, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, West Bengal etc.

5. Industries, Trade and Commerce – Highly industrialized, Commercial and business areas of the country have densly populated. For example Mumbai, Surat, Bhilai, Duigapur, Bangalore etc.

6. Security – People like to stay in a good security of life and property. Hence it is also influenced on population distribution. For example, Border areas of Jammu and Kashmir and Rajasthan are sparsely populated.

Question 4.
Discuss the Composition of population in India.
Answer:
The Composition of population includes the study of Sex ratio, Literacy, age structure rural and urban population etc.

1. Sex ratio – The number of females per 1000 males is known as ‘sex ratio’.

  • As per 2011 census,the averages sex ratio of the country was 940 females for every 1000 males.
  • There are 1084 females for every 1000 male in Kerala. In Contrast, Haryana has 877 females for every 1000 males

2. Literacy – In recent years, literacy rate has increased in the country. The average literacy in 1951 was only 18.33%. It has increased to (74.4%) in 2011. Kerala with 93.91%isthehighestliteracystateinlndia. In Contrast, Biharwith 63.82% is the lowest literacy state.

3. Age structure – On the basis of the age the entire population is divided into three major categories namely infants (0-14 year). Adults (15-59 years) and aged group (above 60 years).

  • According to 2011 census, about 31.10% of the total population of the country is infants, 5.3% are old age and adults are only 63.60%.
  • Infants and aged people have become unproductive.
  • Thus, the number of working population is also increasing. It is highly favourable for the development of the country.

4. Rural & Urban population: According to 2011 census, in India 76.4% of the people lives in rural areas and 23.6 lives in Urban areas.

  • Maharashtra has highest urban population.
  • In Contrast, Sikkim has lowest urban population. Thus, Uttar Pradesh has more rural population and Mizoram has low rural population in the country.

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Question 5.
What are the problems caused with rapid growth of population?
Answer:
The Rapid growth of population has led to a number of problems as follows:-
(1) Unemployment and Underemployment : It has been increasing from year to year. It has badly affected on young educated people both in rural and urban areas.

(2) Shortage of food & -Malnutrition : A large number of people are poorly fed. Malnutrition is prevailing throughout the country. It is fatal for the development of the country.

(3) Burden on Civic & Social Amenities : Education, health and medical, housing, drinking water, electricity and problems increases.

(4) Low per capita income : The increase in per capita income is only 15% annually. Low per capita income has a direct impact on the economic condition of the people.

(5) Increase of Unproductive population : Below 15 years (Infants) and above 60 years (old age) are unproductive. They are dependent on earning persons. Thus rapid growth has increased dependents rather than producers. ‘

(6) Others : Slow in economic development, mass poverty, low standard of living, political unrest and the social problems like theft robbery, immortality, corruption and the growth of slums, environment pollution are also directly related to the popualtion explosion.

Question 6.
Explain the types of Migration.
Answer:
The types of Migration are Internal Migration and International Migration.
2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 6 Population of India - 3
1. Internal Migration :
Movement of people from one region to another within the same country’ is called internal migration. In India there are four streams of internal migration. They are

  1. Rural to Rural
  2. Rural to Urban
  3. Urban to Urban
  4. Urban to Rural

1. Rural to Rural: This is estimated that about 65.2% of total migration is of this category’.
Female migrants dominated in this stream. Thus it is an important example for matrimonal migration and it is called women migration.
2. Rural to Urban : Rural to Urban migration (17.6%) is second important type of migration. Rural – Urban migration is caused by both push of the rural areas as well as pull of the urban areas.
3. Urban to Urban : Generally, people like to move from small town with less facility to large cities with more facilities.
4. Urban to Rural : Urban areas are usually affected by the pollution.
The retired and aged people prefer to spend their old age life in nearby villages. Thus people move from Urban to Rural.

2. International Migration : Movement of people from one country to another across international borders is called International migration.

Question 7.
Describe the effects of Migration.
Answer:
The Effects of Migration can be classified into two namely:-

  1. Positive effects.
  2. Negative effects.

1. Positive effects of Migration :

  • Migration controls the high density of population.
  • It helps the people to get employment.
  • It reduces the problem of scarcity of Labour.
  • Migration leads to the change in the demographic structure of a region.
    It helps to reduce the inequality of the society.

2. Negative effects of Migration :

  • It affects on density and distribution of population.
  • Large-scale migration from rural to urban centres results in creation of slums.
  • It also leads to many social problems such as debauchery and immoral activities.
  • Their will be pressure on civic amenties, like electricity etc.
  • Migration causes ethnics, religious and language problems.
  • It will effects on the job opportunities of local people.

Question 8.
Explain the controlling measures of Migration.
Answer:
The Controlling measures of Migration are :

  • Expand the civic amenties to villages as well as cities. It can control Rural to Urban migration.
  • Develop transport facilities between the city and surrounding rural areas.
  • Create more employment opportunities in the surrounding rural areas of the city.
  • Develop satellite towns around big cities with all basic amenities.
  • Encourage labourers to live in the satellite towns rather than in big cities. .
  • Develop Industrial areas outside the cities.

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Question 9.
Discuss the factors affected on Human development index in India.
Answer:
Factors influencing on HDI of India are discussed below:

1. Birth and Death Rate : Declining of birth rate has been much slower than that of the death rate. This results in rapid increase of population. It affects on slow economic growth of the country. It is the main cause for declining of human development index.

2. Life Expectancy : Life Expectancy has gone up 65.77 years for males 67.95 years females respectively in 2011-12. This is due to the consequence of the expansion of food security and medical facilities. It helps to raise the HDI in the country.

3. Food and Nutrition : According to the 2011 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report, India has 15th rank among the leading countries with hunger situation.

  • The World Bank estimates that India is one of the highest-ranking countries in the World for the number of children suffering from malnutrition.
  • It is adversely affecting the Human development.

4. Literacy : Education is the key for socio-economic progress. The Indian literacy rate grew to 74.04% in 2011 from 12% at the end of the British rule in 1947. The large proportion of illiterate females is another reason for the low literacy rate in India. Due to this there is decline in the Human development Index of the country.

5. Poverty :

  • India suffers from a lot of Poverty which means that many people here do not have enough money.
  • Poverty has reflected in poor quality of life, hunger, malnutrition, illiteracy and consequent low level of human development.

Question 10.
Explain the measures to check the growth of population in India.
Answer:
The government of India has taken several steps to control the growth of population in the country are as :

(a) Family Planning Programme : India was the first country in the world to adopt the family planning programme in the year 1952. The main aim is to control births by various means such as free sterilization (Vasectomy for males Tubectomy for females). Adopting contraceptives etc.

(b) Improvement of the status of women : The social, economic and political status of women have been improved through education and various women welfare scheme. For ex: In Karnataka free Education, Government jobs, Bhagyalaxmiyojana etc.

(c) Programmes to control infant mortality: The government of Karnataka has introduced many child welfare programmes to control infant mortality. For ex: Jananisurakshayojan, Madilu Prasooti Araike etc.

(d) Area Projects : Under this project health worker visit door to door and advise. In addition they are also motivating the people to adopt contraceptives and undergo sterilization. .

(e) Publicity : Broadcasting the benifits of small family through the Radio, Television and Newspapers etc.

Question 11.
Explain the distribution of density of population in India.
Answer:
In India, the population is unevenly distributed. This is due to varied geographical & cultural -Matures. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in the country with 19975 million people in Contrast Sikkim with a population of 6.0 lakh has the lowest in the country.

Distribution of population in India has been divided into 3 Zones.

  1. High – density Zone
  2. Medium – density Zone &
  3. Low – density Zone.

Please draw the Density of population map. It is in textbook page no – 94.

  • High density zone : The area which consists of more than 501 persons per square km either state or Union territories. Bihar (1102) West bengal (1030), Kerala (859), Uttar pradesh (828) states, Delhi (11297), Chandigarh (9252), Panduchey (2598) Union – Territories.
  • Medium density zone : The area which consists of 251 to 500 persons per square km. It includes Jharkhand (414), Assam (397), Goa (3 94), Maharashtra (365), Tripura (350), Karnataka (319) etc.
  • Low density zone : The areas which consists lessthan 250 persons per square lan, Madhya pradesh (236), Rajasthan (201), Uttarkhand (189), Chattisgarh (189), Meghalaya (132) and other northeastern states.

Question 12.
What is the meaning of Migration? Explain the impotant causes of Migration.
Answer:
The movement of people from one place to another place is knowm as Migration.
Causes of Migration : Migration is caused by a variety of factors including economic, social and political factors. Some of them are briefly discussed below.

  • Marriage : Every girl has to migrate to her husband’s place after marriage, thus the entire female population of India has to migrate over short or long distance.
  • Employment : The agricultural base of rural areas does not provide employment to all the people living here. In contrast, urban areas provide vast scope for employment in industries, trade, transport & services. Hence people like to migrate towards the urban areas.
  • Education : Educational facilities are very- low in the rural areas especially those of higher education and rural people have to migrate to the urban centers for this purpose.
  • Lack of security : Large number of people have migrated out of Jammu and Kashmir and Assam during the last few years due to disturbed conditions there. In this situation, people would like to migrate towards well secure areas.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 4 Planning

You can Download Chapter 4 Planning Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 4 Planning

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Text Book Exercises

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Short Answer Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
What are the main points in the definition of planning?
Answer:
The main points in the definition of planning are as follows

  1. Planning is deciding in advance what to do and how to do.
  2. It is one of the basic managerial function.
  3. Planning involves setting objectives and developing an appropriate course of action to achieve these objectives.
  4. It bridges the gap between where we are and where we want to reach.

Question 2.
How does planning provide direction?
Answer:
Planning provides direction for action by deciding in advance what has to be done, how to do, when to do and who will do. When we try to seek answers to the above questions, which are well planned, then directions are automatically highlighted.

Question 3.
Do you think planning can work in a changing environment?
Answer:
Planning may not work in a changing environment. The environment consists of a number of dimensions, economic, political, social, legal and technological dimensions. The organisation has to constantly adapt itself to changes. It becomes difficult to accurately assess future trends in the environment. Planning cannot foresee everything and thus, there may be obstacles to effective planning.

Question 4.
If planning involves working out details for the future, why does it not ensure success?
Answer:
Planning does not guarantee success. The success of an enterprise is possible only when . plans are properly drawn up and implemented. A plan needs to be translated into action or it becomes meaningless. Managers have a tendency to rely on previously tried and tested successful plans. It is not always true that just because a plan had worked before it will work again. This kind of false sense of security may actually lead to failure instead of success

Question 5.
Why are rules considered to be plans?
Answer:
Rules are specific statements that inform what is to be done. They do not allow for any flexibility or discretion. It reflects a managerial decision that a certain action must or must not be taken. They are usually the simplest type of plans because there is no compromise or change unless a policy decision is taken.

Question 6.
What kind of strategic decisions are taken by business organisations?
Answer:
Major strategic decisions include whether the organisation will continue to be in the same line of business or combine new lines of activity with the existing business or seek to acquire a dominant position in the same market.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Long Answer Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Why is it that organisations are not always able to accomplish all their objectives?
Answer:
Organisations are not always able to accomplish all their objectives due to the following reasons.
1. Planning leads to Rigidity: In an organisation, a well defined plan is drawn up with specific goals to be achieved, within a specific time frame. These plans then decide how the work will progress in the future and managers may not be in a position to change it. This creates a problem as flexibility is very important. Adhering to the plan may not always give us the desired results.

2. Planning may not work in a Dynamic Environment: The business environment is dynamic, nothing is constant. The business environment is a totality of external forces, wherein some changes or the other keep on taking place. Plans decide in advance, what has to be done in future. Planning cannot foresee everything and thus there may be obstacles to effective planning.

3. Planning reduces creativity: Planning is generally done by top management. Usually the rest of the members just implement these plans. As a consequence, middle management and other decision makers are neither allowed to deviate from plans nor are permitted to act on their own. Thus, planning in a way reduces creativity since people tend to think along the same lines as others, there is nothing new or innovative.

4. Planning involves huge cost: Planning involves huge cost in their formulation. These may be in terms of time and money. The costs incurred sometimes may not justify the benefits derived from plans.

5. Planning is a time consuming process: Sometimes plans so drawn take up so much of time, that there is not much time left for their implementation and the objectives to be achieved.

6. Planning does not guarantee success: Any plan needs to translated into action or it becomes meaningless. Managers have a tendency to rely on previously tried and tested successful plans. It not always true just because a plan has worked before, it will work again.

Question 2.
What are the main features to be considered by management while planning?
Answer:
The main features to be considered by the management while planning are as follows :
1. It focuses on achieving objectives : Planning is purposeful. Planning has no meaning unless it contributes to the achievement predetermined organisational goals.

2. It is the Primary Function: Planning lays down the base for other functions of management. All other managerial functions are performed within the framework of the plans drawn. Thus, planning precedes other functions.

3. Planning is pervasive: Planning is required at all levels of management as well as in all departments of the organisations. The top management undertakes planning for the organisation as a whole. Middle management does the departmental planning. At the lowest level, day-to-day operational planning is done by supervisors.

4. Planning is continuous: Plans are prepared for a specific period of time, may be for a month, a quarter or a year. At the end of that period, there is need for a new plan to be drawn on the basis of new requirements and future conditions. Hence, planning is a continuous process.

5. Planning is futuristic: The purpose of planning is to meet future events effectively to the best advantage of an organisation. It implies peeping into the future, analysing it and predicting it.

6. Planning involves decision making: Planning essentially involves choice from among various alternatives and activities. If there is only one possible goal then there is no need for planning. The need only arises when alternatives are available. Planning thus, involves

7. Planning is a mental exercise: Planning is basically an intellectual activity of thinking rather than doing, because planning determines the action to be taken. Planning requires logical and systematic thinking rather than guesswork or wishful thinking.

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Question 3.
What are the steps taken by management in the planning process?
Answer:
Planning is concerned with determination of the objectives of the organization and formulating strategies, policies, rules and programmes to accomplish the objectives.
Steps in planning:
(a) Setting objectives: This is a first function in the process of planning. Objectives are the goals which determine what the organization wants to achieve. They must be specific, realistic and measurable.

(b) Developing premises: Planning premises are the assumptions about the future conditions and events like trends in population, changes in political and economic environment, variation in production cost and prices etc. plans should be framed within the framework of the planning premises.

(c) Identification of alternative course of action: Once the objectives are set and assumptions are made then alternative course of action should be identified. The management should know all the alternative course of action to achieve the objectives.

(d) Evaluating alternative courses: The next step is to analyze the strengths and weakness of each alternative. There is a need to evaluate each and every course of action in the light of objectives to be achieved.

(e) Selecting an alternative: After examining each and every possible course of action, the best is to be selected which is feasible, profitable for attainment of the objectives of the organization.

(f) Implementing the plan: This step is concerned with putting the plan into action to achieve the objectives. Implementation requires the formulation of policies, procedures, Budgets and programmes. It requires delegation of authority and responsibility to the subordinates.

(g) Follow up action: To see whether plans are being implemented are also a part of planning process. Monitoring the plan is equally important to ensure that objectives are achieved

Question 4.
Is planning actually worth the huge costs involved? Explain.
Answer:
Planning involves huge cost, when plans are drawn up, huge costs are involved in their formulation. These are in terms of time, money, effort etc. Detailed plans require scientific calculations to ascertain facts and figures. The costs incurred sometimes may not justify’ the benefits derived from the plans There are a number of incidental costs as well (which are indirect) like expenditures on organising a meeting, consultation fees given to professional experts, market survey etc. But despite the high cost no firm can work without proper planning if used properly.

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Case Problems

An auto company C Ltd is facing a problem of declining market share due to increased competition from other new and existing players in the maket. Its competitiors are introducing lower priced models for mass consumers who are price sensitive. For quality conscious consumers, the company is introducing new models with added features and new technological advancements.

Question 1.
Prepare a model business plan for C Ltd to meet the existing challenge. You need to be very specific about quantitative parameters. You may specify which type of plan you are preparing.
Answer:
In such a situation, formulating a strategy would be advisable.
A strategy is a Single use plan It is normally made to fight competition in the market. The model business plan, i.e., strategy will be the following:

  1. It is objective and its purpose is that how much sales it wants to increase over a specified time.
  2. The company should then list down its strengths and weakness. This brings in light as to what will be easy and what will be difficult.
  3. Aggressive, advertising and sales promotion techniques to be adopted.

Question 2.
Identify the limitations of such plans.
Answer:
Limitations of the above strategy can be the following :

  1. Shortage of funds.
  2. Shortage of technical professionals.
  3. Top level may not be competent enough to develop a suitable strategy.
  4. The company may not be successful in assessing the future plans of the competitors as compared to its own strategy.

Question 3.
How will you seek to remove these limitations?
Answer:
The above limitations can be overcome by these actions.

  1. Arranging funds in advance.
  2. Effective methods of recruitment should be adopted to ensure availability of effective staff in all manageent.
  3. Middle level should be encouraged to propose plans in the form of suggestions. After considering all these, a strategy should be planned.
  4. The company should be able to assess the moves of the competitors.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Additional Questions

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is planning?
Answer:
Planning is concerned with deciding in advance the future course of action.

Question 2.
State a benefit of Planning.
Answer:
Planning provides direction is a benefit of planning

Question 3.
State a limitation of planning.
Answer:
Planning leads to rigidity is a limitation of Planning.

Question 4.
State the function of management which determines the objectives of an organization.
Answer:
Planning is the function which determines the objective of an organization.

Question 5.
Mention the first step of planning process.
Answer:
Setting objectives is the first step in planning process.

Question 6.
State a type of plan.
Answer:
Standing plan or repeated use plan is a type of plan.

Question 7.
What is a method under planning.
Answer:
The prescribed way of doing planned task for achieving objectives is known as method under plan.

Question 8.
What is programme under planning.
Answer:
A programme is a precise plan laying down the operations to be carried out to complete a given task within a specified period of time.

Question 9.
Give an example for budget.
Answer:
Sales budget is an example for budget.

Question 10.
What is planning?
Answer:
Planning is deciding in advance what to do, when to do, how to do, when to do it and who is to do it.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
What are objectives?
Answer:
Objectives are the goals, aims or purpose that organization wish to achieve by its operations over a period of time.

Question 12.
Give one example for procedures.
Answer:
Procedure for the admission of student in the college

Question 13.
Give one example for rule.
Answer:
No smoking

Question 14.
Give one example for strategy.
Answer:
Divide and rule

Question 15.
Give one example for methods.
Answer:
Remunerating sales personnel under commission method

Question 16.
What are methods under planning?
Answer:
The prescribed way or manner of doing each planned task for accomplishing the objectives is known as method

Question 17.
Give one example for programmes.
Answer:
Programme for sale of 300 cars in the month of December.

Question 18.
What is programme under planning?
Answer:
A programme is a precise plan which lays down the operations to be carried out to accomplish a given task within a specified period of time.

Question 19.
State the functions of management that determines the objectives of an organisation.
Answer:
Planning

Question 20.
Give one example for policies.
Answer:
Pricing Policy

Question 21.
State any one Importance of Planning.
Answer:
Planning acts as a guide.

Question 22.
State any one features of planning.
Answer:
Planning is a Goal – oriented.

Question 23.
What is rule under Planning.
Answer:
Rules are the established principles for carrying out the activities in a systematic manner.

Question 24.
Give the meaning of policy.
Answer:
They are the general statements which serve as guideline in the decision making process.

Question 25.
Give the meaning of Budget.
Answer:
Budget is a statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define planning?
Answer:
According to Koontz and O’Donnell “Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do, when to do it and who should do it. Planning bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to go”
OR
According to Louis Allen “Planning involves a development of forecast, objectives, polices, programs procedures, schedules and budgets.

Question 2.
State the first two steps in planning process.
Answer:

  • Setting objectives or goals, the organization wants to achieve.
  • Developing planning premises which are the assumption of the future conditions of the business.

Question 3.
What are Objectives?
Answer:
Objectives are the ends towards which the activities of an organization are directed. Objectives are usually set by the management. They decide future state of affairs which the organization strives to realize. Objectives lay down the guidelines for activities and bench mark for measuring the performance of the organization.

Question 4.
Give the meaning of strategy.
Answer:
They are specific programs of action for achieving the objectives of an organization by using resources efficiently and economically. Strategies are formulated by the top management. Examples: Divide & Rule, Strike while iron is hot, Time is a great healer.

Question 5.
What are policies?
Answer:
Policies are the general statements which serve as a guideline to the decision making in the organization. It is a frame work with in which the decision makers are expected to act while making decisions.

Question 6.
What is planning premises?
Answer:
Plans are formulated with certain assumptions about the future condition and events like changes in political and economic environment, government and legal regulations, variation in prices etc. these assumptions are known as planning premises.

Question 7.
What is decision making under planning?
Answer:
Decision making in planning refers to selecting best alternative course of action for accomoplishment of the objectives of an organisation.

Question 8.
Give the meaning of budget
Answer:
A budget is a statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms, it is a plan which quantifies future facts and figures.

Question 9.
What are rules?
Answer:
Rules are the specific statement which prescribes code of behaviour to the people of and organization and specifies what is to be done and what is not to be done.

Question 10.
What are procedures?
Answer:
Procedures are plan prescribing the exact chronological sequence of specific task. It provides details about series of steps to be followed in a regular order for accomplishing any work.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Mention any two types of plan.
Answer:
a.Objectives
b. Strategy

Question 12.
Mention any two limitations of planning
Answer:
a. Planning leads to rigidity
b. Planning does not guarantee success

Question 13.
How rule is different from policy?
Answer:
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 4 Planning - 1

Question 14.
What is Single-use Plan?
Answer:
A single-use plan is developed for a one-time event or project. Such a course of action is not likely to be repeated in future, i.e., they are for non-recurririg situations. These plans include budgets, programmes and projects. It is also called adhoc plan.

Question 15.
What is Standing Plan?
Answer:
A standing plan is used for activities that occur regularly over a period of time. It is designed to ensure internal operations of an organisation run smoothly. Standing plans include policies, procedures, methods and rules.

Question 16.
Give the meaning of procedure under planning.
Answer:
They are the plans prescribing the exact time sequence for the work to be done. Procedures are the guidelines to action and they are suited to the works which are repetitive in nature.
Examples: Procedure for execution of the customer’s order for supply of goods, Procedure for the admission of students in a college.

Question 17.
What is follow up action under planning?
Answer:
Follow up action refers to see whether plans are being implemented it is also a part of planning process. Monitoring the plan is equally important to ensure that objectives are achieved.

Question 18.
What is Adhoc Plan?
Answer:
Adhoc plan are also called as single use plan. Adhoc plan are non repetitive in nature. They are designed for a specific situation and for short duration.

Question 19.
What do you mean by standing plan?
Answer:
Standing plan are also called as repeated use plAnswer: These types of plan are used in organizations again & again. They are long term in nature & act as a ready guide for action.

Question 20.
What is method under planning?
Answer:
The prescribed way or the manner of doing each planned task to achieve the goals is known as method. It tells how each step of the procedure should be performed. Selection of proper method saves time, money and effort and increases the efficiency.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Four Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the importance of planning.
Answer:
Importance or advantages of planning:
1. Planning provides direction: It provides direction for action by stating in advance how a work is to be done. It ensures that the goals and objectives are clearly stated so that the workers are aware of what they must do to achieve the goals.

2. Planning reduces the risk of uncertainty: A business organization has to work in an environment which is uncertain and ever changing. Planning helps to assess the future uncertainties and helps the organizations to face it.

3. Planning reduces wastages: Planning serves as the basis for coordinating the activities . and the efforts of the different individuals and departments of the organization. It helps to detect the inefficiency and to take corrective measures to minimize the wasteful activities.

4. Planning provides innovative ideas: Planning is basically the thinking function of management. It encourages the managers for innovative creative thinking. Many ideas come to the minds of the managers when they are planning.

5. Planning facilitates decision making: Decision making is a process of selecting the best course of action from various available alternatives after evaluating each one of them. Planning provides guidelines for evaluation of the alternatives in taking rational decisions.

6. Planning establishes standards for controlling: Planning helps in controlling. It determines goals and standards for every individuals and departments of the organization and makes it easy to compare the actual performance of the individuals and departments with the standards fixed.

Question 2.
Explain any five limitations of planning.
Answer:
Limitations of planning are:
1. Rigidity: In organizations a well-defined plan is drawn up with specific goals to be achieved with a time limit. This leads to rigidity in the activities of the managers which restricts the individual freedom, creativity and initiative.

2. Environmental constraints: The business environment is dynamic in nature, nothing is constant. Planning do not take into consideration the possible changes in economic, political, legal and social dimensions.

3. Lack of creativity: Planning is done by top management and the subordinates just implement the plAnswer: As a result the middle management are not allowed to deviate the plans and also not permitted to act on their own. Thus, their creativity is reduced.

4. Expensive: It is a costly process. Collection and analysis of information, evaluation of best course of action involves huge expenses.

5. Time consuming: Planning process is time consuming. Collection of facts and figures, selection courses of action involves much time.

Question 3.
What is planning? Explain any two types of plAnswer:
Answer:
Planning is concerned with determination of the objectives of the organization and formulating strategies, policies, rules and programmes to accomplish the objectives.

Repeated use plans or standing plans: It is a type of plan which is used in the organization again and again. It is long term in nature. They act as a ready guide for actions.

Standing plans are of different types as follows:
1. Objectives- Objectives are the end towards which the activities of an organization are directed. They are set up by the top management. They lay down guidelines for the activities and serves as a bench mark for measuring the performance of the organization. Usually the objectives are put in the form of written statement.

2. Strategies- Strategies are the specific programmes of action for achieving the objectives of the organization by employing the resources efficiently and economically. It is formulated by the top management for successful accomplishment of the objectives in the organization. Formulation of strategy involves three aspects:

  1. Determination of the long term objectives
  2. Adopting a course of action to achieve the objectives
  3. Allocating resources necessary to achieve the objectives.

Examples of strategies: Strike iron while it is hot Divide and rule Time is a great healer.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Explain any five characteristics of planning?
Answer:
Planning is the basic function of management. It’s important features or characteristics are:
a.Goal Oriented
b. Universal function
c. Continuous process
d.Flexible
e. Future oriented

Goal Oriented: Planning start with the setting of objectives and then developing policies, procedures & strategies to achieve the goal. It gives directions to the activities.

Universal Function: Planning is done at all the levels of management. The scope of management differs from one level to another level.

Continuous Process: Planning is an ongoing and never ending process. Planning should be flexible enough to changes according to the changing circumstances.

Flexible: Planning is a dynamic function. It is should be adaptable both the external & internal changing environment.

Future Oriented: Planning is concerned with looking forward. It is always future oriented as it involves forecasting & making provision to tackle future events.

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Eight Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the importance and limitations of planning.
Answer:
Importance or advantages of planning are:
1. Planning provides direction: It provides direction for action by stating in advance how a work is to be done. It ensures that the goals and objectives are clearly stated so that the workers are aware of what they must do to achieve the goals.

2. Planning reduces the risk of uncertainty: A business organization has to work in an environment which is uncertain and ever changing. Planning helps to assess the future uncertainties and helps the organizations to face it.

3. Planning reduces wastages: Planning serves as the basis for coordinating the activities and the efforts of the different individuals and departments of the organization.
It helps to detect the inefficiency and to take corrective measures to minimize the wasteful activities.

4. Planning provides innovative ideas: Planning is basically the thinking function of management. It encourages the managers for innovative creative thinking. Many ideas come to the minds of the managers when they are planning.

5. Planning facilitates decision making: Decision making is a process of selecting the best course of action from various available alternatives after evaluating each one of them. Planning provides guidelines for evaluation of the alternatives in taking rational decisions.

6. Planning establishes standards for controlling: Planning helps in controlling. It determines goals and standards for every individuals and departments of the organization and makes it easy to compare the actual performance of the individuals and departments with the standards fixed.

Limitations of planning:
1. Rigidity: In organizations a well-defined plan is drawn up with specific goals to be achieved with a time limit. This leads to rigidity in the activities of the managers which restricts the individual freedom, creativity and initiative.

2. Environmental constraints: The business environment is dynamic in nature, nothing is constant. Planning do not take into consideration the possible changes in economic, political, legal and social dimensions.

3. Lack of creativity: Planning is done by top management and the subordinates just implement the plans As a result the middle management are not allowed to deviate the plans and also not permitted to act on their own. Thus, their creativity is reduced.

4. Expensive: It is a costly process. Collection and analysis of information, evaluation of best course of action involves huge expenses.

5. Time consuming: Planning process is time consuming. Collection of facts and figures, selection courses of action involves much time.

6. Success not guaranteed: The success of an enterprise us possible only when the plans. are properly drawn up and implemented. Managers have a tendency to depend upon the previously tested and successful plans which may not be a success again.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Explain any five types of plan.
Answer:
Repeated use plans or standing plans: It is a type of plan which is used in the organization again and again. It is long term in nature. They act as a ready guide for actions.
Standing plansare of different types as follows:
1. Objectives- Objectives are the end towards which the activities of an organization are directed. They are set up by the top management. They lay down guidelines for the activities and serves as a bench mark for measuring the performance of the organization. Usually the objectives are put in the form of written statement.

2. Strategies- Strategies are the specific programmes of action for achieving the objectives of the organization by employing the resources efficiently and economically. It is formulated by the top management for successful accomplishment of the objectives in the organization. Formulation of strategy involves three aspects:

3. Determination of the long term objectives

4. Adopting a course of action to achieve the objectives

5. Allocating resources necessary to achieve the objectives.
Examples of strategies: Strike iron while it is hot, Divide and rule Time is a great healer.

(k) Policies: They are the general statements which serve as guideline in the decision making process. It helps the organization to deal with a particular situation in a systematic manner. An established policy helps to resolve the problems and issues easily.

(l) Procedures: They are the plans prescribing the exact time sequence for the work to be done. Procedures are the guidelines to action and they are suited to the works which are repetitive in nature.
Examples: Procedure for execution of the customer’s order for supply of goods Procedure for the admission of students in a college.

(m) Methods: The prescribed way or the manner of doing each planned task to achieve the goals is known as method. It tells how each step of the procedure should be performed. Selection of proper method saves time, money and effort and increases the efficiency.
Examples: Training employees under, on job training method.
Remunerating sales personnel under commission method.

(n) Rules: Every organization likes to operate in an orderly way. Rules are the established principles for carrying out the activities in a systematic manner. Rules are rigid and do not permit any deviations.
Examples: Wear identity cards compulsorily at work place
No Smoking
No admission without permission.

Question 3.
Explain the features of planning.
Answer:
1. Planning focuses on achieving objectives: Organisations are set up with a general purpose in view. Specific goals are set out in the plans along with the activities to be undertaken to achieve the goals. Thus, planning is purposeful. Planning has no meaning unless it contributes to the achievement of predetermined organisational goals.

2. Planning is a primary’ function of management: Planning lays down the base for other functions of management. All other managerial functions are performed within the framework of the plans drawn. Thus, planning precedes other functions. This is also referred to as the primacy of planning.

3. Planning is pervasive: Planning is required at all levels of management as well as in all departments of the organisation. It is not an exclusive function of top management nor of any particular department. But the scope of planning differs at different levels and among different departments.

4. Planning is continuous: Plans are prepared for a specific period of time, may be for a month, a quarter, or a year. At the end of that period there is need for a new plan to be drawn on the basis of new requirements and future conditions. Hence, planning is a continuous process.

5. Planning is futuristic: Planning essentially involves looking ahead and preparing for the future. The purpose of planning is to meet future events effectively to the best advantage of an organisation. It implies peeping into the future, analysing it and predicting it. Plan¬ning is, therefore, regarded as a forward looking function based on forecasting.

6. Planning involves decision making: Planning essentially involves choice from among various alternatives and activities. If there is only one possible goal or a possible course of action, there is no need for planning because there is no choice. The need for planning arises only when alternatives are available.

7. Planning is a mental exercise: Planning requires application of the mind involving foresight, in judgement. It is basically an intellectual activity of thinking rather than doing, because planning determines the action to be taken. However, planning requires logical and systematic thinking rather than guess work or wishful thinking.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Bring out the steps involved in planning while establishing a new business unit.
Answer:
The following are the steps involved in planning while establishing a new business unit:

  • Setting objectives
  • Developing premises
  • Identification of alternative course of action
  • Evaluating alternative courses
  • Selecting an alternative
  • Implementing the plan
  • Follow up action

2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Human Settlements

You can Download Chapter 5 Human Settlements Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Human Settlements

2nd PUC Geography Human Settlements One Mark Questions with Answers

Question 1.
What is Settlement?
Answer:
Settlement means the places inhabited by people permanently in village, a town or a city is called Settlement.

Question 2.
What is rural settlement?
Answer:
All settlement not Qualifying for an URBAN Status are called rural settlement. They are engaged mainly in Primary activities.

Question 3.
What are wet point settlement?
Answer:
Normally rural settlements are located near water points like rivers, lakes and springs where water can obtain easily. These settlement are aslo known as ‘Wet point settlements’.

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Question 4.
What are Hamlets?
Answer:
These are smaller than villages and lacking of public utilities.

Question 5.
Which is the first million city of the world?
Answer:
London by around 1810.

Question 6.
What is a city?
Answer:
A densely populated area of considerable size is a city which is larger than a town. An urban center with 1 lakh and more Population is called a city.

Question 7.
Define the meaning of Megalopolies?
Answer:
Megalopolies is a Greek word which means “Great city ” consisting of several sites merging with the suburbs of one or more cities.

Question 8.
What is Mega city?
Answer:
Mega city is a metropolitan area with total Population of more than 10 million people.

Question 9.
Which is the largest mega city in the world?
Answer:
Newyork is the largest mega city in the world.

Question 10.
Define the term ‘conurbation’?
Answer:
The term Conurbation applies to a large area of urban development that resulted from the merging of several towns of cities.

Question 11.
What is Random Pattern.
Answer:
It is a type of settlement in this neither very closer to each other nor highly dispersed.

Question 12.
What is Linear Pattern.
Answer:
In such settlements, houses are located along a road, railway line, river, and canal.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
What is Double Village.
Answer:
These settlements extend on both sides of a river where there is a bridge.

Question 14.
How many million cities are there in the world.
Answer:
Approximately 180 cities.

Question 15.
What is Break points.
Answer:
The point of changing transport modes like sea route to land route can be called as “Break points”.

Question 16.
What is Star shaped pattern.
Answer:
Where several roads meets, Star shaped settlements develop as the houses are built along the roads.

Question 17.
What is town.
Answer:
A town is one in a rural community, having much smaller in size of population than a city.

Question 18.
What is Economic problems.
Answer:
Increasing population in the urban centers causes unemployment. It is called economic problems.

Question 19.
Which are the areas that are suitable for the Tourist centres.
Answer:
The place where it has specific natural scenery, a good landscape a beach or greenery may become the tourist centres.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 20.
What is environmental problems?
Answer:
Urbanization causes deterioration of environment quality by pollutions and disposal of waste.

2nd PUC Geography Human Settlements Two Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Define rural and urban settlements?
Answer:
Rural settlements: are the settlements whose occupants are engaged mainly on Primary activity like Agriculture & animal Husbandary etc.
Urban Settlements : The word urban means town or a city it is larger then the villages. These are dominated by Secondary and Tertiary occupations.

Question 2.
Mention the important pattern of rural settlements?
Answer:
There are 5 important pattern of rural settlements.

  1. Uniform Pattern
  2. Clustered Patttem
  3. RANDOM Pattern
  4. Dispersed Pattern
  5. Hamlets Pattern.

Question 3.
Define city & million city?
Answer:
City : The urban center with 1 lakh and more population is called a city.
Million city : Total Population of 1 million and above the urban area is known as million city.

Question 4.
Give two examples of Educational towns?
Answer:

  1. Mysore
  2. Dharwad.

Question 5.
Mention any two cultural & religious towns?
Answer:

  1. Mecca
  2. Rome
  3. Puri
  4. Varanasi
  5. Madurai.

Question 6.
List out the trading & commercial towns of the world?
Answer:

  1. Mumbai
  2. Lahore
  3. Baghdad
  4. Pittsburg and Jamshedpur.

Question 7.
Give two examples of administration towns.
Answer:

  1. New Delhi
  2. Canberra
  3. Beijing.

Question 8.
Distinguish between Uniform Pattern and Clustered Pattern of Settlements.
Answer:
The distribution of houses which indicate the equal distribution of resources can be called as ‘Uniform Pattern”.
A cluster pattern refers to the settlements which are very closer to each other. These are located near the rivers, fertile lands, mining points etc.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Distinguish between Rectangular Pattern and Circular Pattern of rural settlements.
Answer:
The roads are’rectangular and cut each other at right angles along which houses are built is known as rectangular pattern.
Circular village develop around Lakes, tanks. The Central part remains open and is used for keeping the animals to protect them from wild animals.

Question 10.
Define “Pull and Push factors” of Urbanization.
Answer:
The facilities of the cities attract people from the rural areas which are called “‘pull factors”. In contract rural areas have many problems which force people to migrate outwards, are called push factors.

Question 11.
What is occupational structure of urban settlements?
Answer:
The Economic activities is an important criteria for designing occupational structure of urban settlements interms of population size & their occupation. The secondary & tertian occupations are predominant in the urban areas.

Question 5.
Write the important problems of slums.
Answer:

  1. Poverty
  2. Housing problems
  3. Sanitation problems &
  4. Scarcity of water facilities.

Question 6.
Write about the ‘dry point settlements’.
Answer:
The houses are built on stilts to protect from floods, as well as from the wild animals, those are called ‘dry point settlements’.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Geography Human Settlements Five Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Explain the patterns of rural settlement.
Answer:
The term ‘settlement pattern’ refers to the spatial arrangement of houses.
The rural settlement pattern may be mainly classified into following types.

  1. Uniform pattern : A Unifonn pattern of settlement is the distribution of houses which indicate the equal distribution of resources.
  2. Clustered pattern : A Cluster pattern refers to the settlements which are very closer to each other. These patterns are located near the rivers, fertile lands, mining points etc.
  3. Random pattern : In this type of settlements neither they are clustering not highly dispersed.
  4. Dispersed settlements : In this, the settlements, the houses are located away from each other individually for Ex: farm houses. This kind of settlement is also called scattered settlements.
  5. Hamlets : Thses are smaller than villages lacking of Public utilities.

Question 2.
Explain the shapes-of rural settlements.
Answer:
The rural settlements are of different shapes such as:-

  1. LINEAR PATTERN – In such settlements, houses are located along a road railway line, river and canal, edge of a valley.
  2. RECTANGULAR PATTERN – Such patterns of rural settlements are found in plain areas or wide inter mountain valleys. The roads are rectangular and cut each other at right angles along which house are built.
  3. CIRCULAR PATTERN – Circular villages developed around lakes, tanks and sometimes the villages is planned in such a way that the Central part remains open to protect the domestic animal from wild life.
  4. STAR SHAPED PATTERN – Where the several roads meets, star shaped settlements develop as the houses built along the roads.
  5. T, X, Y AND T SHAPED SETTLEMENTS – These settlements develop at tri¬junctions of the roads.
  6. DOUBLE VILLAGE – These settlements extend on both sides of a river where there is a bridge.
  7. TRIANGULAR PATTERN – This shape of settlements set by the confluence of two rivers and also the junction point of two railway lines are often triangular.

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Question 3.
Discuss the problems of rural settlements.
Answer:
Some of the most important common problems of rural settlements are –

  • Supply of water is most inadequate. People in the rural areas particularly in mountain and desert region walks for long distances to Fetch drinking water.
  • The Water borne disease such as cholera, jaundice etc, are the common problems.
  • Many rural areas are facing the problems of natural diasters which occur frequently such as floods and droughts.
  • Agriculture areas are severely affected due to lacking of irrigation.
  • Being dominated by agriculture the effects of droughts are severe and have effects which strech for many years.
  • The ruraljiouses are lacking toilet and disposal facilities of solid waster/garbages which cause health related problems.
  • The houses are made up of mud, wood and thatch which are damaged by heavy rains & floods. They require proper maintainance every year.
  • Most of the houses do not have proper ventilation and the design of the houses also includes animal shed with fodder storage.
  • The rural settlements are lacking roads and other modem communications.

Question 4.
Describe the types of Urban settlements.
Answer:
The types of Urban settlements are designated as towns, cities, million cities etc. It is based on their size of population.

  • Town – A town is one in a rural community, having much smaller in size of a population than a city.
  • City – A densely populated area of considerable size is a city which is larger than a town. An urban center with 1 lakh and more population is called a city.
  • Conurbation – The term conurbation applies to a large area of urban development that resulted from the merging of several towns of cities eg: Greater London. Greater Mumbai etc.
  • Megalopolis – Megalopolis are the extended urban or metropoliton area, typically consisting of several sites merging with the suburbs of one or more cities.
  • Million City – Total population of 1 million and above, the urban area is known as million cities.
    The total number of million cities was 160 in 1975, 438 in 2005 & 468 in 2013.
  • Mega city – A megacity is a general term for cities together with their suburbs with population of more than 10 million people or megacity is defined as a metropolitan area with total population in excess of 10 million people.

Newyork was the first to attain the status of a megacity by 1950 with population of 12.5 million.

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Question 5.
Explain the Urban settlements based on occupation and functions.
Answer:
The Urban settlements based on occupation and functions are as follows.

1. Occupational structure – The Economic activities such as secondary and tertiary- occupations are predominant in Urban area.

2. Functions – All urban settlements have some common functions. The following are the important urban functions.

  • Administration towns – Some urban centers are engaged in administrative function which may be termed as the good administrative centres. Eg. NewDelhi, Canberra, Beijing Addis Abada, Washington D C and London,
  • Trading and Commercial towns – Now a days many towns are turned into trading and commercial functions such as market centers like Mumbai.
    • Additional functions which the cities are performing like industrial are Pittsburg and Jamshedpur, Mumbai, Manchester, Shangai, Tokyo.
    • Mining and quarrying – Dhanbad, Johannesburg.
  • Cultural and religious towns – The places of pilagrimage and worship like Jerusalem, Mecca, Rome, Puri Jagannath, Varanasi, Mathura, Madhurai.are the important cultural and religious towns.
  • Educational towns – Some urban centres are well known for education with good institutions, such as schools, colleges and univerisities. Eg. Aligarh, Mysore, Oxford, Dharwad. Cambridge etc.
  • Tourist centres – The place where it has specific natural scenery, a good landscape a beach or greenery may become the tourist centres.

Question 6.
Discuss the problems of urban settlements.
Answer:
Large scale urbanizations results with many problems.

  • Economic problems – Increasing population in the urban centres causes unemployment.
  • Socio-cultural problems
    • Increasing the population results in lacking of social sendees as they cannot reach to everyone.
    • Insufficient financial resources fail to create adequate social infrastructure and scarcity ‘ to the basic needs of huge population.
  • Environment problems – Urbanization also causes deterioration of environment quality by pollutions and disposal of waste.,
  • Problems of slums
    • Slums are the most important and severe problem of urban settlements.
    • Poverty, housing, sanitation, water facilities are the problems.
    • Now-a-days the slums are occupying a large space of the urban centres and are still expanding.
    • Ex: Dharavi of Central Mumbai is the fastest grown and the largest slum of Asia.

Question 7.
Explain the factors affecting the location of rural settlements.
Answer:

  • Water supply : Normalv rural settlements are located near water points like rivers, Lakes and springs where water can be obtianed easily.
  • Land : Most of the people settle near the fertile land for agriculture purposes.
  • Upland location : In the flood plains and marshy lands people have built settlements on highter areas for the sake of protection.
  • Building materials : Rural settlements are constructed with available building materials like mud, wood and stone etc.
  • Defence : Due to political instability and hostility villages were built on hills and islands. In india most of the forts are located on higher grounds or hills.

Question 8.
Write a brief note on Urban Settlements.
Answer:
Urbanization is the most modem trend of the world. More than 51 percent of the world population is living in the urban areas. They are involved in the functions such as administration, education, industrial as well a’s socio-cultural activities,

  • The word urban is generally used to mean a city or a town, which in larger than villages and engaged in secondary & tertiary occupations.
    Acording to census of India, the urban refers to a settlement which fulfil the following criteria.
  • All places with a municipality, corporation, contonment board or notified town area committee etc and all other places which satisfied the following criteria:-
    • A minimum population of5,000;
    • At least 75 percent of the male working population engaged in non-agricultural
    • A density of population of a least 400 persons per, sq.km area.
  • On account of all facilities urban centers are growing rapidly with large influx of population.
  • Approximately 180 cities on the world have emerged as Million cities.
  • Industrial development and commercialization have also boosted rapid urbanization.

Thus in the year 1900 the urban population of the world was only 14 percent under the total world population and it has increased to 51 percent in 2013.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 3 Business Environment

Karnataka 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 3 Business Environment

You can Download Chapter 3 Business Environment Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Text Book Exercises

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Multiple Choice Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Which of the following does not characterise the business environment?
(a) Uncertainty
(b) Employees
(c) Relativity
(d) Complexity
Answer:
(b) Employees does not characterise the business environment

Question 2.
Which of the following best indicates the importance of business environment?
(a) Identification
(b) Improvement in performance
(c) Coping with rapid changes
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) Identification, Improvement In performance, coping with rapid changes all are the indicators of importance of business environment.

Question 3.
Which of the following is an example of social environment?
(a) Money supply in the economy
(b) Consumer Protection Act
(c) The Constitution of the country
(d) Composition of family
Answer:
(d) Social environment includes social forces thus, composition of families is the example of social environment

Question 4.
Liberalisation means
(a) integrating among economies
(b) reduced Government controls and restrictions.
(c) policy of planned disinvestments
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(b) Liberalisation means end of license, quota and reduction of government controls and restrictions

Question 5.
Which of the following does not explain the impact of Government policy changes on business and industry?
(a) More demanding customers.
(b) Increasing competition
(c) Change in agricultural prices
(d) Market orientation
Answer:
(c) Change in agricultural prices does not explain the impact of Government policy changes on business and industry.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Short Answer Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
What do you understand by business environment?
Answer:
The term ‘Business environment’ means the sum total of all Individuals, institutions and other forces that are outside the control of a business enterprise but that may affect its performance. The economic, social political, technological and other forces which operate outside the business enterprise are part of its environment.

Question 2.
Why it is important for business enterprises to understand their environment? Explain briefly.
Answer:
It is important for business organisations to understand their environment because of the following reasons
1. It enables the Firm to identify opportunities and getting the first Mover advantage: Environment provides numerous opportunities for business. Early identification of opportunities helps an enterprise to use it before instead of losing them to competitors.

2. It helps the Firm to identify threats and early Warning Signals. Environmental awareness can help managers to identify various threats on time and serve as an early warning signals.

3. It helps in tapping useful Resources Environment is a source for the various resources for running a business. To engage in any type of activity, a business enterprise assembles various resources called inputs. This can be done better by understanding what the environment has to offer.

4. It helps in coping with rapid changes. All types of enterprises are facing increasingly dynamic environment. In order to effectively cope with these significant changes, managers must understand and examine the environment and develop suitable courses of action.

5. It helps in assisting in Planning and Policy formulation. Since environment is the source of opportunities and threats, it’s understanding and analysis becomes the base for various policies to be framed and strategies to be made.

6. It helps in improving performance The enterprises that continuously monitor their environment and adopt suitable business practices are the ones which not only improve their present performance but also continue to succeed in the market for a longer period.

Question 3.
Mention the various dimensions of business environment.
Answer:

  • Economic Environment
  • Social Environment
  • Technological Environment
  • Political Environment.

Question 4.
Briefly explain the following
(a) Liberalisation
(b) Privatisation
(c) Globalisation
Answer:
The three important features of New Economic Policy, 1991.
(a) Liberalisation: Under the new economic policy of 1991, the economic reforms that were introduced aimed at liberalising the Indian business and industry’ from all unnecessary controls and restrictions. They signalled the end of the licence-permit quota Raj.

(b) Privatisation: The new set of economic reforms that aim at giving greater role to the private sector in the nation building process and a reduced role to the public sector.

(c) Globalisation: Globalisation means the integration of the various economies of the world leading towards the emergence of a cohesive global economy. Till 1991, Indiahad a policy which strictly regulated imports in value and volume terms. After 1991, the reforms aimed at Import liberalisation.

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Question 5.
Briefly discuss the impact of Government policy changes on business and industry.
Answer:
Impact of Government policy changes on business and Industry
1. Increasing Competition : As a result of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation the number of players increased in all sectors and increased the competition for eveiyone.

2. More demanding Customers: Increased competition in the market gives the customer wider choices in purchasing better quality of goods and services, which makes them more demanding.

3. Rapidly changing Technological Environment: New technologies help to improve machines, process products and services. The rapidly changing technological environment creates tough challenges for the smaller firms.

4. Necessity for Change: After 1991, the market forces have become turbulent as a result of which the enterprises have to continuously modify their operations.

5. Need for developing Human Resource: The new market conditions require people with higher competence and greater commitment: Hence, the need for developing human resources has emerged.

6. Market Orientation: Earlier, production was taken up first and then selling was done. Now, due to increasing competition and more demanding customers, firms have to study and analyse the market first and produce goods accordingly.

7. Loss of Budgetary Support to the Public Sector: Public sector have less of budgetary support from the Central Government. Now, they have to generate their own resources and be more efficient in order to survive and grow.

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Long Answer Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
How would you characterise business environment? Explain with examples, the difference between general and specific environment.
Answer:
Features of business environment:
1. Totality of External Forces: Business environment is aggregative in nature as it is the sum total of all things external to business firms.

2. Inter-relatedness: Different elements of business environment are closely related to each other, e.g., increased awareness of health care have increased the demand for many health products.

3. Dynamic Nature: The business environment is highly dynamic. It keeps on changing. Sometimes there is a change in technology, tastes and preference of consumer etc

4. Uncertainty: The environment cannot be predicted. It is highly uncertain and unpredictable.

5. Complexity: Since there are many elements of Business Environment and they are inter-related and dynamic in nature, it becomes very difficult to understand them as a whole.

Difference between Specific and General Environment There are two types of forces operating in Business Environment, Specific and General Specific forces affect the individual enterprises directly and immediately, e.g., customers, suppliers. General forces affect the firms and only indirectly e g, social conditions or political conditions.

Question 2.
How would you argue that the success of a business enterprise is significantly influenced by its environment?
Answer:
Importance of business environment
1. It enables the firm to identify opportunities and getting the first mover advantage Environment provides numerous opportunities for business success. Early identification of opportunities helps an enterprise to be the first to exploit them instead of losing them to competitors, e g., Eureka Forbes introduced Aquaguard and took away the cream of demand.

2. It helps the Firm to identify threats and early Wamirng Signals . Environment happens to be the source of many threats. Environmental awareness can help managers to identity various threats’ in time and serve as an early warning signals e.g.-Lakme took serious steps to improve the quality and types of products as foreign multinational cosmetics companies started coming to India after 1991.

3. It helps in tapping useful resources : Environment offers various resources for running a business. In return, the business enterprise supplies the environment with its outputs such as goods and services for customers and taxes for Government. In order to arrange for the best possible resources, better understanding of the environment becomes important.

4. It helps in coping with rapid changes. It is not the fact of change itself that is so important as the pace of change. There are many changes taking place in the environment and at a fast speed. In order to effectively cope with these changes, managers must understand and examine the environment and develop suitable courses of action

5. It helps in assisting in Planning and Policy Formulation : Since environment is a source of both opportunities and threats, it’s understanding and analysis only helps in formulating the best possible policies to handle the future properly.

6. It helps in improving performance. Continuous monitoring and adopting changes in an enterprise will help in improving not only their present performance, but also continue to succeed in the market in long run.

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Question 3.
Explain with examples, the various dimensions of business environment.
Answer:
Dimensions of business environment
1. Economic Environment: It includes the changes in the system due to economic policies made by the Government. Reserve Bank of India is the key regulator of county’s economic environment since it
(a) influences the Interest rates
(b) controls the flow of money in the economy
(c) regulates the working of banks
Example: When the banks reduce the interest rates on long term loans, automobiles and construction industries get a boost to the business as more spending is made on the purchase of homes and cars through loans.

2. Social Environment: The social environment of business includes the social forces like customs and traditions, values social trends, society’s expectations from business etc. In business terms, these values translate into freedom of choice in the market. Major elements of social environment are
(a) life expectancy
(b) shifts in the presence of women in the workforce
(c) consumer habits
Example: Due to the shift in the presence of women in the workforce the demand for readymade ladies formal wear, cosmetics, packed/processed food and electronic gadgets have gone up.

3. Technological Environment: Technological environment includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.
Example: Because of technological advancement, it has become possible to book railway tickets through internet from home, office etc.

4. Political Environment: Political environment includes political conditions such as general stability and peace in the country and specific attitudes that elected government representatives hold towards business. It is only of use when a business enterprise can predict its business activities under stable political conditions. Major elements of political environment are
(a) The constitution of the country
(b) The nature and profile of political leadership and thinking of political personalities (cj Political ideology and practices of the ruling party.
Example: After the NEP of 1991, due to globalisation the foreign companies started coming to India, but due to the bureaucratic red tape, it became difficult for them to cut through it to do business here. As a result, these companies were discouraged in our country regarding investments. The situation has improved over time.

5. Legal Environment: Legal environment includes various legislations passed by the Government, administrative orders issued by government authorities, court judgements as well as the decisions rendered by various commissions and agencies. It is imperative for the management of every enterprise to obey the law of the land. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of rules and regulations framed by the government is a pre- requisite for better business performance.
Example: There is a government regulation to protect consumer’s interest e.g.. the advertisements of alcoholic beverages is prohibited.

Question 4.
What economic changes were initiated by the Government under the Industrial Policy, 1991? What impact have these changes made on business and industry?
Answer:
Economic changes initiated by the government under the Industrial Policy. 1991

  • The government reduced the number of industries under compulsory licensing to six.
  • The role of public sector was reduced. It was now limited only to four industries of strategic importance.
  • Disinvestment was carried out in case of many public sector industrial enterprises.
  • Foreign Direct Investment was permitted.
  • Automatic permission was now granted for technology agreements with foreign companies.
  • Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) was set up to promote and channelise foreign investment in India.

The Indian corporate sector has come face-to-face with several challenges due to government policy changes. Some of them are as given below.

1. Increasing competition: The competition has increased due to entry of new players (privatisation and globalisation).

2. More demanding Customers: Customers today have become more demanding because they are well-informed. Increased competition in the market gives the customers wider choice in purchasing better quality goods and services.

3. Rapid Changes in Technological Environment: The rapidly changing technological environment creates tough challenges before smaller firms.

4. Necessity for Change: After 1991, the market forces have become turbulent as a result of which the enterprises have to continuously modify their operations.

5. Need for Developing Human Resources: Earlier. Indian enterprises worked with inadequately trained personnel. The new market conditions require people with higher competence and greater commitment. Hence, the need for developing human resources.

6. Market Orientation: Before 1991, all firms worked with production oriented marketing operations. In a fast changing world, there was a shift to market orientation. The firms had to study and analyse the market first and then produce goods accordingly.

7. Loss of Budgetary support to the Public Sector: The public sector undertakings have realised that in order to survive and grow, they will have to be more efficient and generate their own resources for the purpose.

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Question 5.
What are the essential features of
(a) Liberalisation
(b) Privatisation and
(c) Globalisation
Answer:
Essential features of
(a) Liberalisation

  • Abolishing licensing requirements in most of the industries a short list, except
  • No restriction on expansion or contraction of business.
  • Free movement of goods and services
  • Freedom in fixing the prices of goods and services.
  • Reduction in tax rates.
  • Simplifying procedures for imports and exports.
  • Making it easier to attract foreign capital and technology to India.

(b) Privatisation

  • The Government redefined the role of public sector.
  • Policy of planned disinvestments of the public sector
  • Refining of sick enterprises to the Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction.

(c) Globalisation

  • Import liberalisation
  • Export promotion
  • Foreign exchange reforms.

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Case Problems

Lately many companies have planned for significant investment in organised retailing in India. Several factors have prompted their decision in this regard.

Customers income is rising. People have developed a taste for better quality products even though they may have to pay more. The aspiration levels have increased. The government has also liberalised its economic policies in this regard and permitted even cent percent foreign direct investment in some sectors of retailing.

Question 1.
Identify changes in business environment under different heads – economic, social, technological, political and legal that have facilitated the companies decisions to plan significant investments in organised retailing.
Answer:
Changes which have taken place in the following areas are as follows
1. Economic: Availability of more money because of employment opportunities increasing.

2. Social: Tastes of customers are changing. As they are getting more exposure to the outside world, their tastes are changing.

3. Technological: Technological advancements have led to advanced ways of counting, checking, coding, billing and discounts which are convenient for the customer and also retailer.

4. Political: Government policies are encouraging developers to go for mass construction in real estate. As MNCs are coming to India, they have to be provided an Internationally based infrastructure to operate from.

5. Legal: As the Government is providing more rights to the consumers, organised retailing outlets would be more particular in taking care as compared to a small retailer.

Question 2.
What has been the impact of these changes with regard to globalistion and privatistion?
Answer:
Due to globalisation and privation, more retailers from India and abroad are encouraged to make investment in organised retailing. The competition has increased, the consumers are more demanding and experts working force is required in order to cope up with the changes, which have taken place and are further changing.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Additional Questions

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define Business Environment.
Answer:
The term ‘business environment’ means the sum total of all individuals, institutions and other forces that are outside the control of a business enterprise but that may affect its performance.

Question 2.
Mention the external forces of Business Environment.
Answer:
The economic, social, political, technological and other forces which operate outside a business enterprise are part of its environment.

Question 3.
What do you understand by business environment?
Answer:
The term ‘Business environment’ means the sum total of all Individuals, institutions and other forces that are outside the control of a business enterprise but that may affect its performance. The economic, social political, technological and other forces which operate outside the business enterprise are part of its environment.

Question 4.
What has been the impact of these changes with regard to globalisation and privatisation?
Answer:
Due to globalisation and privatisation, more retailers from India and abroad are encouraged to make investments in organised retailing The competition has increased, the consumers are more demanding and expert working force is required in order to cope up with the changes, which have taken place and are further changing.

Question 5.
Mention any two features of Business Environment.
Answer:

  1. Totality of external forces
  2. Inter-relatedness

Question 6.
Mention any two important of Business Environment.
Answer:

  1. It enables the firm to identify opportunities and getting the first mover advantage
  2. It helps the firm to identify threats and early warning signals.

Question 7.
What do you mean by liberalization?
Answer:

  • Liberalization refers to laws or rules being liberalized, or relaxed by a government.
  • The removal or loosening of restrictions on something, typically an economic polictical system.

Question 8.
What do you mean by privatisation?
Answer:
Privatisation is the process of transferring an enterprise or industry from the public sector to the private sector.

Question 9.
What do you mean by globalisation?
Answer:
Globalisation implies the opening of local and nationalistic perspectives to a broader outlook of an interconnected and interdepended world with free transfer of capital, goods and services across national frontiers.

Question 10.
List out any two Indian industrial policy features.
Answer:
(a) The Government reduced the number of industries under compulsory licensing to six.
(b) Disinvestment was carried out in case of many public sector industrial enterprises.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Four Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the features of Business Environment.
Answer:
Business environment, has the following features:
1. Totality of external forces: Business environment is the sum total of all things external to business firms and, as such, is aggregative in nature.

2. Specific and general forces: Business environment includes both specific and general forces. Specific forces (such as investors, customers, competitors and suppliers) affect individual enterprises directly and immediately in their day-to-day working. General forces (such as social, political, legal and technological conditions) have impact on all business enterprises and thus may affect an individual firm only indirvectly.

3. Inter-relatedness: Different elements or parts of business environment are closely inter-related.

4. Dynamic nature: Business environment is dynamic in that it keeps on changing whether in terms of technological improvement, shifts in consumer preferences or entry of new competition in the market.

5. Uncertainty: Business environment is largely uncertain as it is very difficult to predict future happenings.

6. Complexity: Since business environment consists of numerous interrelated and dynamic conditions or forces which arise from different sources, it becomes difficult to comprehend at once what exactly constitutes a given environment.

7. Relativity: Business environment is a relative concept since it differs from country to country and even region to region. Political conditions.

Question 2.
Explain the importance of Business Environment.
Answer:
Importance of Business Environment
A good understanding of environment by business managers enables them not only to identify and evaluate, but also to react to the forces external to their firms. The importance of business environment and its understanding.
1. It enables the firm to identify opportunities and getting the first mover advantage: Opportunities refer to the positive external trends or changes that will help a firm to improve its performance. Environment provides numerous opportunities for business success. Early identification of opportunities helps an enterprise to be the first to exploit them instead of losing them to competitors.

2. It helps the firm to identify threats and early warning signals: Threats refer to the external environment trends and changes that will hinder a firm’s performance. awareness can help managers to identify various threats on time and serve as an early warning signal.

3. It helps in tapping useful resources: Environment is a source of various resources for running a business. To engage in any type of activity, a business enterprise assembles various resources called inputs like finance, machines, raw materials, power and water, labour, etc., from its environment including financiers, government and suppliers.

4. It helps in coping with rapid changes: Today’s business environment is getting \ increasingly dynamic where changes are taking place at a fast pace.

5. It helps in assisting in planning and policy formulation: Since environment is a source of both opportunities and threats for a business enterprise, its understanding and analysis can be the basis for deciding the future course of action (planning) or training guidelines for decision making (policy).

6. It helps in improving performance: The final reason for understanding business environment relates to whether or not it really makes a difference in the performance of an enterprise.

Question 3.
Write a note on Economic Environment in India.
Answer:
Economic Environment in India.
The economic environment in India consists of various macro-level factors related to the means of production and distribution of wealth which have an impact on business and industry.
These include:
(a) Stage of economic development of the country.
(b) The economic structure in the form of mixed economy which recognises the role of both public and private sectors.
(c) Economic policies of the Government, including industrial, monetary and fiscal policies.
(d) Economic planning, including five year plans, annual budgets, and so on.
(e) Economic indices, like national income, distribution of income, rate and growth of GNP, per capita income, disposal personal income, rate of savings and investments, value of exports and imports, balance of payments, and so on.
(f) Infrastructural factors, such as, financial institutions, banks, modes of transportation communication facilities, and so on.

Question 4.
Mention of the objectives of Economic Environment towards India’s development.
Answer:
The main objectives of India’s development plans were:
(a) Initiate rapid economic growth to raise the standard of living, reduce unemployment and poverty;
(b) Become self-reliant and set up a strong industrial base with emphasis on heavy and basic industries;
(c) Reduce inequalities of income and wealth;
(d) Adopt a socialist pattern of development based on equality and prevent exploitation of man by man.

Question 5.
List out the features of new Indsutrial Policy of 1991.
Answer:
As a part of economic reforms, the Government of India announced a new industrial policy in July 1991.
The broad features of this policy were as follows:
(a) The Government reduced the number of industries under compulsory licensing to six.
(b) Many of the industries reserved for the public sector under the earlier policy, were dereserved. The role of the public sector was limited only to four industries of strategic importance.
(c) Disinvestment was carried out in case of many public sector industrial enterprises.
(d) Policy towards foreign capital was liberalised. The share of foreign equity participation was increased and in many activities 100 per cent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) was permitted.
(e) Automatic permission was now granted for technology agreements with foreign companies.
(f) Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) was set up to promote and channelise foreign investment in India.

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Question 6.
Hightlights the impact of liberalisation for the economic reforms in India.
Answer:
Liberalisation: The economic reforms that were introduced were aimed at liberalising the Indian business and industry from all unnecessary’ controls and restrictions. They signalled the end of the licence-pemit-quota raj. Liberalisation of the Indian industry lias taken place with respect to:

  • abolishing licensing requirement in most of the industries except a short list,
  • freedom in deciding the scale of business activities i.e., no restrictions on expansion or contraction of business activities
  • removal of restrictions on the movement of goods and services,
  • freedom in fixing the prices of goods services
  • reduction in tax rates and lifting of unnecessary controls over the economy,
  • simplifying procedures for imports and experts, and
  • making it easier to attract foreign capital and technology to India.

Question 7.
Hightlights the impact of Privatisation for the economic reforms in India.
Answer:
Privatisation: The new set of economic reforms aimed at giving greater role to the private sector in the nation building process and a reduced role to the public sector. This was a reversal of the development strategy pursued so far by Indian planners. To achieve this, the government redefined the role of the public sector in the New Industrial Policy of 1991, adopted the policy of planned disinvestments of the public sector and decided to refer the loss making and sick enterprises to the Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction.

The term disinvestments used here means transfer in the public sector enterprises to the private sector. It results in dilution of stake of the Government in the public enterprise. If there is dilution of Government ownership beyond 51 percent, it would result in transfer of ownership and management of the enterprise to the private sector.

Question 8.
Hightlights the regulations of industeral policy of 1991 towards Globalisation.
Answer:
Globalisation: Globalisation means the integration of the various economies of the world leading towards the emergence of a cohesive global economy. Till 1991, the Government of India had followed a policy of strictly regulating imports in value and volume terms. These regulations were with respect to (a) licensing of imports, (b) tariff restrictions and (c) quantitative restrictions. The new economic reforms aimed at trade liberalisation were directed towards import liberalisation, export promotion through rationalisation of the tariff structure and reforms with respect to foreign exchange so that the country does not remain isolated from the rest of the world.

Globalisation involves an increased level of interaction and interdependence among the various nations of the global economy. Physical geographical gap or political boundaries no longer remain barriers for a business enterprise to serve a customer in a distant geographical market.

Question 9.
Explain the various dimensions of business environment.
Answer:
1. Economic Environment: Interest rates, Inflation rates value of rupee and many more are the economic factors that can affect management practices in a business enterprise.

2. Social Environment: The social environment of business includes the social forces like customs and traditions, values, social trends etc.

3. Technological Environment: This includes forces relating to scientific improvements and Innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.

4. Political Environment: This includes political conditions such as general stability and peace in the country and specific attitudes that elected government representatives hold towards business.

5. Legal Environment: This includes various legislations passed by Government authorities and Court Judgements It is important for the management of every enterprise to obey the law of land and for this, enough of knowledge of rules and regulations framed by the Government is a pre-requisite for better performance.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Eight Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the impact of Government Policy Changes on Business and Industry.
Answer:
Impact of Government Policy Changes on Business and Industry
The policy of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation of the Government has made a significant impact on the working of enterprises in business and industry. The Indian corporate sector has come face-to-face with several challenges due to government policy changes.

These challenges can be explained as follows:
1. Increasing competition: As a result of changes in the rules of industrial licensing and entry of foreign firms, competition for Indian firms has increased especially in service industries like telecommunications, airlines, banking, insurance, etc. which were earlier in the public sector.

2. More demanding customers: Customers today have become more demanding because they are well-informed.

3. Rapidly changing technological environment: Increased competition forces the firms to develop new ways to survive and grow in the market. New technologies make it possible to improve machines, process, products and services.

4. Necessity for change: In a regulated environment of pre-1991 era, the firms could have relatively stable policies and practices.

5. Need for developing human resource: Indian enterprises have suffered for long with inadequately trained personnel. The new market conditions require people with higher competence and greater commitment.

6. Market orientation: Earlier firms used to produce first and go to the market for sale later. In other words, they had production oriented marketing operations. the firms have to study and analyse the market first and produce goods accordingly.

7.) Loss of budgetary support to the public sector: The central government’s budgetary support for financing the public sector outlays has declined over the years. The public sector undertakings have realised that, in order to survive and grow, they will have to be more efficient and generate their own resources for the purpose.

On the whole, the impact of Government policy changes particularly in respect of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation has been positive as the Indian business and industry has shown great resilience in dealing with the new economic order.

Question 2.
Explain the different Dimensions of Business Environment.
Answer:
Dimensions of Business Environment
Dimensions of, or the factors constituting the business environment include economic, social, technological, political and legal conditions which are considered relevant for decision-making and improving the performance of an enterprise.

However, management of every enterprise can benefit from being aware of these dimensions instead of being disinterested in them.
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank With Answers Chapter 3 Principles of Management 1
The various factors constituting the general environment of business is given below:
1. Economic Environment: The economic environment includes interest rates, inflation rates, changes in disposable income of people,

2. Social Environment: The social environment of business include the social forces like customs and traditions, values, social trends, society’s expectations from business, etc. Values refer to concepts that a society holds in high esteem. Social trends present various opportunities and threats to business enterprises.

3. Technological Environment: It includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.

4. Political Environment: Political environment includes political conditions such as general stability and peace in the country and specific attitudes that elected government representatives hold towards business. The significance of political conditions in business success lies in the predictability of business activities under stable political conditions. Political stability, thus, builds up confidence among business people to invest in the long term projects for the growth of the economy.

5. Legal Environment: Legal environment includes various legislations passed by the Government administrative orders issued by government authorities, court judgments as well as the decisions rendered by various commissions and agencies at every level of the government centre, state or local.

an adequate knowledge of rules and regulations framed by the Government is a pre-requisite for better business performance. Non-compliance of laws can land the business enterprise into legal problems.

2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 4 Transport and Communication

You can Download Chapter 4 Transport and Communication Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 4 Transport and Communication

2nd PUC Geography Transport and Communication One Mark Questions with Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each:

Question 1.
What is Transportation?
Answer:
Transport is the means of carrying Goods & Passangers from one place to other by Human. Animals and different kinds of vehicles.

Question 2.
When was the First Railway Started?
Answer:
1825 between Stockton and Darlington in northern England.

Question 3.
Which continent has the highest density of rail network in the world?
Answer:
Europe is the highest density of Rail network in the world.

Question 4.
What is Ocean transport?
Answer:
Water transport is the means of carrying the goods and passangers through the boats, ships, steamers etc on the water from place to place.

Question 5.
What is Ocean transport?
Answer:
Carrying of heavy goods and Passangers through to the steamers and ships on the ocean from one country to another is called Ocean transport.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
What are the inland waterways?
Answer:
The Movement of Goods, Passengers, through rivers canals, lakes is know as inland water¬ways.

Question 7.
What is Pipeline Transport?
Answer:
Pipeline is the means of carrying the liquid, slary and Gases through the pipes from one place to another.

Question 8.
What is Communication?
Answer:
Communication refers to Exchange of ideas and Information. From one person to another person.

Question 9.
What is Internet?
Answer:
An Inter connected system of networks that connects computers around the world.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
What is cyberspace?
Answer:
The electronic medium of computer Networks, in which on line communication takes place.

Question 11.
Which is the Busiest canal in the world?
Answer:
The Suez canal is the Busiest canal in the world.

Question 12.
Expand ISRO?
Answer:
ISRO : INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION. .

Question 13.
Which is the largest news agency in the world?
Answer:
The larget news Ageny in the world is Reuter. It is the first News Paper in the world.

Question 15.
What is Satellite Communication?
Answer:
An Artificial body in orbit around the Earth or another planet in order to collect and distribute information one place to another.

Question 16.
What is Road transportation?
Answer:
The means of carrying Goods and Passengers by road from one place to another place.

Question 17.
What is Rail transportation?
Answer:
The means of carrying heavy goods and large number of passengers for long distance through the Trains.

Question 18.
Who invented steam engine for the first time & when?
Answer:
Steam engine was invented by James Watt in 1781.

Question 19.
What is the total motorable road length of the word.
Answer:
15 Million kms.

Question 20.
When the Romans have constructed roads for the first time.
Answer:
In 400 BC.

Question 21.
When the Indians were built the road for the first time.
Answer:
During the period of Emperor Ashoka.

Question 22.
Which continent has the highest road density of the World.
Answer:
North America.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 23.
Name the pass which connects between canton to Ticino.
Answer:
The Gottard Pass located in Switzerland.

Question 24.
Name the highway of India which connects from Kanyakumari to Varanasi.
Answer:
NH – 7.

Question 25.
Name the longest road of the World.
Answer:
Pan American highway which connects Alaska – Canada – United States – Mexico.

Question 26.
Mention the total length of railways on the World.
Answer:
13,70,782 kms.

Question 27.
Which country has highest Length of railways for every l00sq km area.
Answer:
USA – 278.3/100 sq km area.

Question 28.
Name the railway proposal linking between Istanbul to Bangkok.
Answer:
Trans Asiatic railway.

Question 29.
Which is the busiest sea route in the World.
Answer:
North Atlantic sea route it is called “The Big trunk route”.

Question 30.
Which is the oldest sea route of the world.
Answer:
The Cape of Good Hope. ,.

Question 31.
Who discovered cape of Good hope & when.
Answer:
Vasco-Da-Gama in 1498.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 32.
Who was the first European reached the pacific for the construction of Panama canal.
Answer:
Vasounez-De-Balboa in 1517 A.D.

Question 33.
Who invented Aero plane for the first time.
Answer:
American wright brothers in 1903.

Question 34.
When was the first commercial aviation started in the world.
Answer:
1926 in USA.

Question 35.
Mention the places a flight reaches just 45 minutes.
Answer:
From Mumbai to Newyork.

Question 36.
Name the country which supplies milk through the pipelines from forms to Factories.
Answer:
NewZealand.

Question 37.
Who invented Telegraph.
Answer:
Samuel morse in 1844.

Question 38.
Who invented Telephone.
Answer:
Alexender Graham bell in 1875.

Question 39.
Who invented Radio.
Answer:
Marconi in 1888.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 40.
Who invented Television.
Answer:
LogiBlaird.

Question 41.
Who invented colour Television.
Answer:
Peter Mark USA in 1940.

Question 42.
Which is first newspaper in the world.
Answer:
Relation Alter Fumemmen in 1605 in German Language.

Question 43.
Name the cyclone which hists the Eastern coast of India in 2013.
Answer:
Phailyn Cyclone.

Question 44.
Name the first artificial satellite launched by India.
Answer:
Aryabhata-On 19 April 1975.

Question 45.
Name the satellite which helps the weather forecast.
Answer:
“Metsat Satellite”.

Question 46.
What is E-Commerce?
Answer:
Purchasing, selling and exchanging of goods and services over computer network.

Question 47.
What is E-Learning?
Answer:
It refers to using electronic application and processes to learn.

2nd PUC Geography Transport and Communication Two Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
State the different types of Transportation?
Answer:
The Different Types of Transportation are:

  1. Land Transport
  2. Water Transport
  3. Air Transport
  4. Pipeline Transport.

Question 2.
Name any two different highways of North America?
Answer:
The Highways of North America are:

  1. The Trans-Canadian Highway.
  2. The Alaskan Highway.

Answer:3.
Name any two important Trans-continental Railways of Canada?
Answer:
The trans-Canadian Railways are as follows:

  1. Halifax in the East to Vancouver on the Pacific coast.
  2. Quebec – montreal industrial region.

Question 4.
Name the two shipping canals of the world?
Answer:
The shipping canals of the world are:

  1. The Suez
  2. The Panama canal.

Question 5.
Name nay two major International Airports of South America?
Answer:
International Airport of South America are:

  1. Rio-de-Janeiro and
  2. Brasilia.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Mention any two Inland Waterways in the world.
Answer:
The Waterways in the world is:

  1. The Rhine waterways
  2. The Danude waterways.

Question 7.
Mention any two means of modern communication?
Answer:
The means of modem communication is:

(a) Television
(b) Satellites
(c) Computer networking
(d) Internet, Email.

Question 8.
Expand GIS and GPS.
Answer:
GIS = Geography Information system.
GPS = Global Positioning system.

Question 9.
Name any two different highway of Australia.
Answer:
(a) The trans – continental stuart highway – connects Darwin to Melbourne.
(b) The southern highway passes through Kalgoorlie and Koolgardie.

Question 10.
Which is first continental under water railway line when it was opened.
Answer:
Marmary under water railway line. It was opened – In-2013 between Asia & Europe.

Question 11.
Who inaugurated Trans-Siberian railway & when it was opened for Transport.
Answer:
The Czar Nicolson-1891 and opened for transport in 1904.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 12.
Name any two important Trans-Siberian railway in Russia.
Answer:

  1. Moscow to the Atlantic coast in the West. ’
  2. Vladivostok along the pacific coast in the East.

Question 13.
Distinguish between Liners and Cargoes.
Answer:
Liners – are ships used for the transportation of passengers.
Cargoes – are the ships carrying only the goods. ’

Question 14.
Distinguish between Tankers and Refrigerators.
Answer:
Tankers – are ships used for the transportation of Petroleum products.
Refrigerators – Ships are used for the transportation of perishable products.

Question 15.
Write the important sea route connects of American side and Asian side.
Answer:

  • American side: The north-pacific sea-route connects the ports are Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, sanfrancis co-losangeles.
  • Asian.side: Yakohama, Koba, shanghai, Honking, Manila, Singpore.

Question 16.
Write the two canal linkages of Volga waterway.
Answer:

  1. The Volga – Mascow eanal.
  2. The Volga – Don canal with the block sea. –

Question 17.
Write the Pecularities of world wide Air routes.
Answer:

  • Planes leave from Rome Airport of every 3 minus
  • London’s Heathrow Airport is the busiest in the world interms of mail and fright.
  • The British Airways is one of the most important which connects the entire world.

Question 18.
What is World Wide Web?
Answer:
It is the Electronic digital World for communicating or accessing information over computer networks.

Question 19.
What is E-mail?
Answer:
A system for sending and receiving messages electronic all over a computer network, as between personal computers.

Question 20.
What is E-Governance?
Answer:
The employment of internet and the World-Wide-Web for delivering government information and services to the citizens.

Question 21.
What is GI.S?
Answer:
Geographical information system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and .present all types of geographical data.

Question 22.
What is GP.S?
Answer:
Global Positioning system is a space based satellite navigation system that provides local and time information in all weather conditions anywhere on the Earth.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Geography Transport and Communication Five Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Write about the World Road Transport.
Answer:
The Means of carrying Goods & Passengers from One place to another place by Road is called Road Transport.

World Distribution of Road:

  • In North America highway density is about 0.65 kms/km, as every place is within 20kms just away from highway.
  • The highest road density & the highest number of vehicles are in North America which accounts 33% of the total length of the roads in the world.
  • Europe has the good density of road network which connects the entire Western and Central European countries.
  • Russia, a vast country developed a dense highway Network in the industrial region West of urals with Vladivostok in the east.
  • Asia has a good Networks of roads. A great highway connects from Turkey in the west to Malaysia in the east through India. In India N.H-7 connecting Varanasi from the north to Kanyakumari in the south is the longest road way.
  • The Longest Road in the World is Pan American highway which connects Alaska- Canada-United States-Mexico.
  • Africa has a few number of good quality roads which connects Algiers in the North to Guinea.
  • In South America, Brazil has parallel Road along the Eastern coast.
  • In Australia 90% of the road network is found along the Coastal Region.

Question 2.
Write a note on the World Water Transport.
Answer:
Water Transportation is ideal for the movements of bulky heavy large quantities of commodities as well as perishable products. As such the oceans are considered as the natural high ways of the world. Some of the important ocean routes are:

  • The Northern Atlantic Sea Route: It connects North Eastern USA & North Western Europe, the two industrially developed regions of the World. The North Atlantic Sea Route is the busiest Route in the world and called “The Big Trunk Route”.
  • The Mediterreanean Sea Route: This Route passes through the heart of the old world and serves more countries.
  • The Cape of Good Hope Sea Route: The Cape of Good Hope Sea Route is the oldest route of the World, Discovered by Vasco-Da-Gama in 1948. Many Ships follow this route to avoid Heavy Taxation at the Suez canal.
  • The North-Pacific Sea Route: The North-Pacific sea route connects the ports are Vnconver, Seattle, Postland, Sanfrancisco, Losangles on American side and Yakohoma, Kobe, Shangai, Hanking, Manila, Singapore on the Asia side.
  • The South Atlantic Sea Route: The Eastern Coast of South America with Western Coast of South America with Western Coast of Africa and Europe. This route is not well developed. ‘
  • Shipping Canals: The shipping canals are most important and plays a crucial role in the World transport pattern. The Major shipping canals in the world are – The Suez and the Panama Canals.

Question 3.
Write the World distribution of railways
Answer:
Europe has the highest density of rail. Network in the world. It has about 4,40,000 kms of railway track.

  • Marmary is the first continental under water railway line. It is between Asia and Europe. It is about 13Kms through Bosporus strait (sea of Marama) & was opened in 2013.
  • Railways are more in Russia. From Moscow major lines radiating to different parts of the Country.
  • North America has one of the most extensive rail Networks accounting for nearly 40% of the World’s total.
  • Chile rail route connects the coastal centres, mining centres as well as interior. Peru, Bolivia, Eurador, Colombia, Venezuela.
  • In Asia rail Network is the most dense in Japan, China & India. Japan has 20,035 kms of rail routes.
  • Africa has 82,000 kms of Railway route in which 18000 kms lies in South Africa alone due to the concentration of gold, diamond and copper mines. Africa has many major railway route which connects Benguela, Katanga, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe.
  • The Tranzam-great Churn railway is connecting the Copper mines of Zambia with the port of Dar-es-Salam of Tanzania.
  • The Benguela railway links the Copper mines of Zaire with the Atlantic coast ports via Angola.
  • The Blue train run for from Cape Town to Pretoria in the republic of South Africa.
  • The Algeria, Senegal, Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia railway lines connects the port cities to interior centres.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Write a note on the Mediterranean Sea route.
Answer:
The Mediterraneas sea route: It passes through the heart of the old world and serves more countries. It passes through the Suez Canal, South of Asia and connects South East and East Asia on one hand and also Australia and NewZealand on the otherhand. A variety of products are transported through the route, in this the crudeoil is the most important, west bound product from the Middle east region.

The Suez Canal: It was first visualised by Napolean Bonaparte, but it was constructed by British in Egypt between Port said in the north and Port Suez in the South which connects the Mediterranean and Red Sea. It is.narrpw with 190 kms long & 19 meters deep. It is the gateway to the Indian Ocean and reduces the distance compared to the Cape of Good Hope.

Question 5.
Write about the Trans-Siberian & Trans-Canadian railways.
Answer:
1. The Trans-Siberian Railway system : It lies in Russia. It is the longest in the world. It connects Asia & Europe continents, Moscow with Vladivostok.

  • It connects St. Petersberg, Moscow, Yekaterinbug, Tgumen, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Chita & Vladivostok. The total length of this railway is 9,289 kms.
  • The Trans-Siberian Railway was Inaugurated by Czar Nicolson in 1891 & opened for transport in 1904. The Most important train Russio which runs in the Trans-Siberian Railway. It takes 6days and 10 hours to complete the. Journey.

2. Trans-Canadian railway –

  • This railway has the length of2,500kms which runs from Halifax in the east to Vancouver on the Pacific coast passing Through Montreal, Ottawa, Winnipeg and Calgary. It was constructed in 1886.
  • The Quebec-montreal industrial region & the wheat belt of Prairie region with the coniferous forest region in the North.
  • This railway line is the economic artery of Canada through which wheat and meat are exported.

Question 6.
Write a note on the inland waterways of the world.
Answer:
Inland Waterways – The movement of goods, passengers, through rivers, canals, lakes known as Inland Waterways.
The Main Inland Waterways are:

  • The Rhine Waterways – The Rhine River flows through Germany & Netherland which is navigable for 700 kms from Rotterdam of Netherlands to Basel in Switzerland.
  • The Danube Waterways – This important inland waterway serves Eastern Europe. The river Danube rises in the black forest of Germany flows through many countries.
  • The Volga Waterways – The Volga waterway in Russia provides a navigable waterway of 1200 kms and drains into the Caspian Sea. It has two Canal linkages. They are:
    • The Volga-Moscow – Canal connects with the Moscow region.
    • The Volga-Don – Canal with Black sea.
  • The Great Lakes – St Lawrance Seaway. A Unique commercial waterway in the North Eastern Part of America. This waterway has Duluth and Buffalo ports.
  • The Missipssipi Waterway – The Mississipi Ohio water way connects interior part of USA with the Gulf of Mexico in the south.

Question 7.
Write a note on the World air routes.
Answer:

  • The North America – The Greatest air traffic is found in USA with internal and international flights. It has the top airports like Attanta, Chicago, Losangeles, Dallas.
  • South America – It has far air routes.
    The Major international airports are:
    Rio-de-Janeiro, Brasilia, Saopaulo, Santiago and Buenos Aires.
  • Africa – It is served by 2 international Airlines.
    • The East African air route through London, Rome, Cairo, Nairobi and Johannesbrug.
    • SriLanka and South East Asia and the Central air route connects Paris, Capetown, logos.
  • Australia – It is a well developed internal and external air services. Sydney is an important international airport.
  • Asia – China has external links with other countries of the world. Its enroute location is between Europe, Asia, Australia and Africa.
  • The Russian International Air Routes: Russia and other countries of former Soviet Union are well connected by air service. All Countries of the World connects each other through airlines of different comers.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Describe the Importance of Pipelines.
Answer:

  • Pipelines have become more popular for transporting certain products for lpng distances.
  • USA has a large network of pipelines. They are transporting natural gas, petroleum and refined products.
  • BIGINCH is the famous pipelines which carries pertroleum from Gulf of Mexico to the north-east states.
  • About 17% of all commodities is carried through pipelines in USA.
  • In Europe pipeline system was laid to distribute refined products from sea ports to inland markets.
  • In Africa, Pipe lines are found in Nigeria and other countries to carry crude oil and natural gas production.
  • In NewZealand Milk is being supplied through Pipelines from farms to factories.
  • China has one of the most impressive networks of pipelines.
  • India has good network of pipelines connecting oil ports and gas fields, refineries and markets.
  • Turkmenistan in Central Asia. Asia has extended pipelines to Iran and also parts of china. ‘

Question 9.
Explain the importance of Mass communication.
Answer:

  • Communication plays a significant role in the Modem World. They create awareness about the policies, programme of developments, learning.
  • Adopt new technological innovations in agriculture and industry as well as transportation.
  • People can acquire information of day’s affairs of the world.
  • It brings out the unity, integrity and stability of the country.
  • It helps in the development of cultural, political and social aspects as well as trade and commerce. ‘
  • They have laid a base for modem business. Thus, communication plays a vital role in the development of a nation.
  • Speed with messages could be sent across the world with in a second.
  • The Telephone or Radio are linked the people Worldwide and they can speak each other directly.
  • Even today newspaper touch every part of the country as it coves international, national and local news as well as entertainments with other information.
  • The radio has its own name by broadcasting news and information which will reach all comers of country and abroad.
  • Television allows the audio and video facilities to gain information for public.
  • It has a profound role to play in the forecasting of weather, the direction of aircraft, shipping and warning of usual events such as Hirricanes, snow fall and rainfalls as well as floods.
  • Rapid communication have great political implication for leaders can speak to people all over the country.

Question 10.
Explain the significance of transportation.

  • Transport is a service to facilitate the movements of goods and persons from one place to other by humans, animals and different, kinds of vehicles.
  • Transport network is essential for economic development and commerce it helps agriculture, industry, forestry, mining, fishing, animal husbandary etc.
  • To carry the raw materials from their source to the industries and the finished goods from industry’ to market.
  • It also helps in the promotion of trade. Economic development of a nation.
  • Requires the quick and efficient transportation.
  • It is also required to establish tourism, conservation of culture and tradition as well as integration of a country.
  • Thus “The Agriculture and Industry are the body and bones of the nation, transport and communication are the nervous system. Transport also help in unifying the scattered people of the globe.

Question 11.
Explain Internet, Remote sensing, E-mail and Satellite communication.
Answer:

  • Internet: An Interconnected system of networks that connects computers around the world.
  • E-Mail : A system for sending and receiving messages electronically over a computer network, in between personal computers.
  • Remote Sensing: Remote sensing is the scanning of the earth by Satellite or aircraft to abtain information about it. It is also the gathering and recording of information through aerial Photographs and Satellite images.
  • Satellite Communication: An artificial body placed in orbit round the earth or another planet in order to collect information for communication with other purposes.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 12.
Explain the Evolution of transportation in detail.
Answer:
In the primitive days transportation depended largely on animals and human beings the industrial revolution has opened a new era of transportation.

  • New machines were invented which have revolutionized the transportation.
  • Road and railway tracks were constructed.
  • The introduction of air transport reduced the jomey time and the people were brought closer to each other as the wide world has become a global village.

2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 4 Transport and Communication - 1

  • International Movement of goods is largely handled by Ocean freighters.
  • Road transport is cheaper and faster over short distances. ,
  • Railways are most suited for large volumes of bulky materials over long distances.
  • High valued, light and perishable products are moved by airways.
  • Recently Pipelines have become an important means to carry crude oil, natural gas, water and ores.

Question 13.
Explain the Longest Trans-continental railways of the world (The Railway lines moves from east to west or north to south).
Answer:

  • The trans-Siberian raiway : It lies in Russia it is Longest in the World. It connects Asia & Europe continents, moscow with Vladivostok its length is 9,289.
  • Trans-canadian railway : It has the length of 22,500 kms which runs Halifax in the East to Vancouver on the pacific coast.
  • The union and pacific railway: It connects New york on the Atlantic coast to Sanfrancisco on the pacific coast.
  • The Chile-Argentina railway: it is the longest railway line in South America. It connects the Buenos-Aires on Atlantic coast and Valparaiso a- major port on the coast of pacific.
  • The Australian trans-continental railway : It locates in the southern part of Australia as . the Large interior part of desert. It connects perth & Sydney. ‘
  • Northern trans-continental railway : It connects Seattle to Newyork in USA.
  • The southern trans-continental railway : It connects Losangles to Newyork.
  • The Canadian National railway : Iy connects saint John to Vancouver.
  • Trans caucasioan railway : This railway line connects Batum to Kursk.
  • Cape-Cairo railway : It connects Cape Town to cairo in Africa.

Question 14.
Describe the important Ocean routes of the World.
Answer:
Ships follows paricular paths are called

  • The Nothem Atlantic sea route – It connects north eastern USA and north western Europe. The two industrially developed regions of the world and it is busiest route of the world.
  • The Mediterranean sea route – It passes through the heart of old world like Suez canal, South of Asia and connects South cost & East Asia.
  • The cape of Good hope sea route – It is Oldest sea route. It begins from western Europe countries along the West coast of Africa around cape of Good hope to connect Australia and Newzealand. –
  • The north – pacific sea route – It links the ports on the west coast of North America. It is not well developed.
  • The south pacific sea route – This sea route connects western europe and north America with Australia, New-zealand and the scattered pacific.islands.
  • The south Atlantic sea route – It connects the Eastern coast of south America with Western coast of Africa and Europe. It is also not well developed.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Explain the role of Satellite in the communication in detail.
Answer:
Communication through satellites emerged as a new Era in communication technologes.

  • Artificial satellites now are successfully even the remote areas of the globe.
  • In India ISRO (Indian Space Reasearch Organisation) at Bangalore is responsible for . ‘ satellite building and launching.
  • Satellites helps to have STD. ISD, Telegraph, Telephone. Telex, E-Mail, Computer networking, Radio, Television, Internet, GIS, GPS and Remote sensing.
  • India has launched INSAT, METSAT and EDUSAT Satellites for different purposes.
  • Insat Satellites helps Television.
  • Metsat Satellites helps the Meterological Department and Weather forecast.
  • Edusat – Satellites helps the education field.
  • Billions of people are using the internet : cyber space will expand the Economic and social space of Humans through email – commerce, E – learning & E – governance.
  • Development of Telecommunication and Satellite communication has made the world into a samll global village.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 3 Human Economic Activities

You can Download Chapter 3 Human Economic Activities Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 3 Human Economic Activities

2nd PUC Geography Human Economic Activities One Mark Questions with Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each:

Question 1.
What do you mean by Economic Activities?
Answer:
The activities pursued by Human beings perform to satisfy their needs of food, clothing, shelter and other are known are ‘Economic Activities’.

Question 2.
What are Primary Activities?
Answer:
Primary Activities such as food gathering, hunting, lumbering, animal rearing, fishing, agriculture & mining etc.

Question 3.
What are Secondary Activities?
Answer:
The activities of the man which converts the raw materials into finished goods. All industrial activities are secondary activities.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
What is Lumbering?
Answer:
Lumbering is an art of Gathering forest products for livelihood by Man.

Question 5.
What is Hunting?
Answer:
Hunting Was the practice of killing wild animal for Food, Skin, Recreation & Trade.

Question 6.
What is Agriculture?
Answer:
Agriculture is an art of tilling the soil for the purpose of raising crops to provide food for the man & fodder for the animals.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
What is meant by Animal Rearing?
Answer:
Domestication of Animals for a specific purpose such as milk, meat, bones, skins, hair & wool is known as Animal rearing.

Question 8.
What is an Industry
Answer:
The activities which are related to manufacturing are called Industry.

Question 9.
What is Minning?
Answer:
Minning refers to the Extraction of the minerals from the Earth such as Iron ore, Manganese, Gold, Coal, Diamond and Petroleum.

Question 10.
What are the tertiary occupations?
Answer::
It includes all kinds of services, retail, entertainment, banking, education, healthcare, transportation & communication.

Question 11.
What is Fishing.
Answer:
The term fishing refers to the large scale catching of fishes, crabs, sharks etc in the seas and rivers.

Question 12.
What is Jhumming or Shifting Cultivation?
Answer:
Changing of agricultural regions again & again due less soil fertility is known as Jhumming or Shifting cultivation.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
What is meaning of Sedentary forming.
Answer:
Growing of crops in a given region permanently without changing the place with the help of family members and by using domestic animals.

Question 14.
Mention the name of shifting cultivation in Central America and Mexico.
Answer:
Milpa.

Question 15.
Write the name of shifting cultivation in Indonesia and Malaysia.
Answer:
Ladang.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 16.
What are Agro based industries?
Answer:
The group of industries which are depending on Agriculture for the raw material purposes for ex: Cotton, Jute & Sugarcane industries etc.

Question 17.
What are Forest based Industries?
Answer:
The group of industries which are depending on Forest for the raw material purpose For ex: Paper, Rubber industries etc.

Question 18.
What are’Mineral based industries?
Answer:
The group of industries which are depends on mineral for ores can be called as Mineral based industries for ex: Iron ore, Bauxite etc.

2nd PUC Geography Human Economic Activities Two Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Differentiate between Secondary and Tertiary Activities?
Answer:
The processing and conversion of raw materials into useful products are concidard as Secondary activities.
Where as Tertiary sector is basically the part of the Economy that helps both the sectors of Primary and Secondary it includes all kinds of services.

Question 2.
Mention the different technique of Mining?
Answer:
The different technique of Mining are:

  • Open Cast mining
  • Underground mining
  • Shaft mining.

Question 3.
Bring out the importance of Secondary occupation? ,
Answer:
The importance of Secondary occupation are:

  • (a) They provide employment to the people.
    (b) They help to modernize the Agricultural sector by providing Tractors, Fertilises, Manures
  • and Scientific Technology.

Question 4.
What are the different types of Fishing?
Answer:
The different types of Fishing are:
(a) Fresh water fishing (b) Coastal fishing and
(c) Open sea fishing.

Question 5.
Why lumburing has developed in cold temperate regions of the world?
Answer:
Coniferous forest region is ideal for the gathering forest products for livelihood by man. Which is found in cold temperate region. So it encrages largely on this part of the World.

Question 6.
Write a short note on Food Gathering.
Answer:
Gathering of products from nature to fulfill their basic needs like food, clothing and shelter. In some parts of the world, the people lead a simple life depanding upon the nature for thier livelihood like collect the wild fruits roots, nuts, leaves for the food, bark of trees, leaves and grass for clothing, branches of trees, bamboo, leaves for making their homes for example few nomadic tribes in the world.

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Question 7.
What are the basic requirements of the human being.
Answer:
(a) food
(b) clothing
(c) shelter and
(d) others.

Question 8.
Mention the factors which influences the Economic activities of the man.
Answer:
(a) Geographical factors.
(b) Economic factors.
(c) Socio-cultural factors etc.

Question 9.
Name any four important Hunting region of the world.
Answer:
(a) The Indians of Amazon Basin
(b) The Pigmies of the Congo basin (Zaire)
(c) The semangs of Malaysia &
(d) The Bushman of Kalahari desert.

Question 10.
Write the four important reasons configerous forestes is mpst suitable for the Lumbering activities.
Answer:
(a) Single variety of trees are distributed in a large area.
(b) Wood is utilized for the manufacturing of Wood pulp, Paper and building materials.
(c) Modem scientific technology has help in cutting the trees easily.
(d) Adequate transport facilities are available.

Question 11.
What are uses of Animal rearing.
Answer:
(a) Source of employment for the formers.
(b) Source of income for the former & revenue to the Government.
(c) For animal products like milk, meat, bones, skins, hair and wool etc.
(d) Source of natural manure for the agriculture.

2nd PUC Geography Human Economic Activities Five Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Explain animal rearings in the world? ‘
Answer:
Domestication of animals for the purpose of animal products like milk, meat, bones, hair & wool is known as animal rearing.

Regions of animal rearing in the world :
Animal rearing is carried on two methods

  1. Traditional methods
  2. Modem method.

1. Traditional methods:
(a) Under this method the Fulani of Nigeria and the Masai of East Africa are the cattle herders in the tropical grasslands. Where the grass is short sheep and goats are reared. The animals provides milk, meat & wool to the Masai people.
(b) The Bedouins of Sahara migrate with their cattle and goat in search of pasture. The Kirghiz of Central Asia in the past, had large flocks of sheep. Now it reduced because they are leading a settled life.

2. Modern method:

  • Commercial grazing use scientific methods rearing animals which doesnot depend entirely on natural Grasslands. Fodder crops like com & grasses like alfalfa are cultivated over extensive areas and the animals are fed.
  • It is practiced in temperate grass lands namely, Praires of North America, Pampas of South America, steppers of Asia, downs of Australia. In USA and Argentina beef cattle are reared on large scale.

Question 2.
Explain Agriculture in detail.
Answer:
Agriculture is an art of tilling the soil for the purpose of raising the crops to provide food for
the man and fodder for the animal.

Methods of Agriculture:

  • Subsistence farming: Through people needed a regular supply of food they started growing of crops only to fulfill their family not for the sale.
  • Shifting cultivation: The tribal people move from one place to another clearing the forests for growing crops. When soil fertility’ is exhausted new patches of forest land is cleared again for the Cultivation. It is called shifting cultivation or jhumming.
  • Sedentary farming: Growing of crops in same region again and again by using domestic animals for Ploughing, Manures, Chemical fertilizers etc. there was no need to migrate.
  • Commercial farming: Growing of crops with Scientific technology. Plantation agriculture was introduced with huge investments.

Percentage of people involved in agriculture is declining. It is only 4% in UK. It is 60% in India, 80% Kenya. Agriculture is mechanized in the developed countries.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
What is Mining? Explain the types, advantages and disadvantages of mining.
Answer:
Mining refers to the extraction of the minerals from the earth such as Iron ore, Manganese, Gold, Coal, Diamond and Petroleum. ‘

Types of the Mining:

  1. Open cast mining: Extracting the mineral ore is by removing the soil for example: Coal &„ Iron ore.
  2. Under ground mining: The method of extracting mineral ore’s from the greater depth through drilling and pumping for example: Petroleum & Natural gas.
  3. Shaft mining: It is a method obtain minerals that are located at greater depth for example: Coal, lead, Iron ore etc.

Advantages:

  • It’s the source of employment.
  • Which supplies valuable minerals ore’s to the mankind.
  • It provides raw materials to the mineral based industries.
  • It develops secondary and tertiary activities of the human beings.

Disadvantages:

  • Depletion of the environment for ex: iron ore mining in Bellary has creates environmental degradation in Karnataka.
  • Minerals are exhaustible in its nature.
  • Water resource are affected and polluted.
  • Both flora and fauna are affected by mining.

Question 4.
Explain Fishing in detail.
Answer:
The term fishing refers to the catching of fishes, crabs, sharks and collection of sea-shells from, the seas and freshwater.

Types of Ashing:
Based on fishing grounds, fishing has been divided into 3 categories:

  1. Fresh water Ashing: Carried out in ponds, tanks, rivers and lakes (mainly Inland)
  2. Coastal fishing: Carried out along the sea coast.
  3. Open sea Ashing: Carried out in open the sea coast on a large scale.

The developing countries are following primitive methods like Bows, Arrows, Bare-Hands, Small nets or Small Boats. Whereas in the developed countries of the world modem techniques of catching fish are used modem fishing vessels, open sea fishing day and night. The large ships as floating factories that completes the process of catching and packing into tins. Fishing has developed in Japan, USA, Baltic states, UK and Norway on a commercial scale.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Differentiate between tertiary and quaternary activities.
Answer:
Tertiary activities:

  • Tertiary services occur at different stages some are confined to industry, some to people & few to both industry and people.
  • Transport services are also provided to the individual consumers.
  • Different services rendered by the teachers, musicians, physicians and lawyers.

In developed countries of world about 75% of people are engaged in services compared to the developing countries. The trend of employment in the tertiary sector is increasing.

Quaternary activities:

  • It refers to the economic activities that deals with the handling and processing of knowledge and information like software, sports, recrations etc.
  • The quaternary occupation along with the tertiary occupations have replaced most of the Primary and Secondary employment for the economic growth of a nation.
  • They are not tied to resources, but localized by market.

Question 6.
Explain the Secondary occupations?
Answer:
Industries are concerned with processing and conversion of raw metrials into finished goods these are called as Secondary occupations.

  • The manufacturing industries play an important role in the Economic Development of a country.
  • Advancement of modem technology, huge capital, skilled labour etc these are created employment opportunities and improved the standard of the people.
  • They helps in earning good foreign exchange in the developed countries like Western, Europe, Russia, USA and Japan more people engaged in secondary than the primary occupations.

Importance of Secondary occupation:

  • They provide employment to the people.
  • They help to modernize the agriculture sector by providing tractor, tillers, fertilizers, manures and scientific technology.
  • They reduces the pressure on agriculture sector by employing more labour in Industries.
  • The industrial hubs can develop trade, education, transport and communication, banking etc.

Question 7.
What is the meaning of Hunting? Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Hunting.
Answer:
It is the practice of killing the wild animal for food, skin, recreation and trade.

Advantages of the Hunting:

  • For food: Animals like deer, duck, squirrels etc were hunted for the sake of food.
  • Hunting also provides clothing and shelter to the tribal people. ‘
  • Fur and hide were used to make clothes.

Disadvantages:

  •  We are hunting the entire animal community for ex: Wolves whales, Tigers Lions are decreasing in its number because we are killing them to the maximum extent.
  • Hunting of marine life (aquatic animals and plants) is leading to the imbalance of oxygen in seas, oceans etc.
  • This creates ecological imbalance it results of environmental pollutions etc.

Question 8.
Explain the classification of the Industries.
Answer:
The industrial sector has been classified into following groups based on the source of raw materials.

  1. Agro based Industries.
  2. Forest based Industries.
  3. Mineral based Industries.

1. Agro based Industries: The group of industries which are depending on agriculture for the raw materials for ex: Cotton for cotten textile Industries, Jute for Jute industries, Sugarcane for Sugar industry & Sericulture for silk Industry.

2. Forest based Industries: The group of industries which are depending on forest for the raw materials for ex: Bamboo for Paper industry, Rubber for Rubber industry etc.

3. Mineral based Industries: The group of Industries which are depending on minerals for ores for ex: Iron ore for Iron and steel industry, Bauxite for Aluminium Industry.

Thus secondary occupation are concerned with manufacturing and constructions therefore primary and secondary economic activities are interdependant & co-related.

KSEEB Solutions

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