KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

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Karnataka SSLC Class 10 Social Science History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 1.
Which period is referred to as the Gandhi Era?
Answer:
The phase of the freedom movement from 1920 to 1947 is referred to as the Gandhi Era.

Question 2.
What is Mahatma Gandhi popularly called?
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi is popularly called Bapu.

Question 3.
When and where was Mahatma Gandhi born?
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2nd 1869 in Porbandar of present day Gujarat’s Kathiawar district.

Question 4.
Write a note on Gandhiji’s early life.
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2nd 1869 in Porbandar of present day Gujarat’s Kathiawar district. His father Karamchand Gandhi was the Dewan of Rajkot state. His mother Putalibai instilled moral values in him. After completing his basic education at Porbandar, Gandhiji went to England in 1888 to study law.

After completing his Bar at Law he returned to India. Later he went to Natal state in South Africa to represent Dada Abdulla and Company in 1893. He stayed there for twenty years opposing the Apartheid policy that discriminated between the dark skinned and white skinned people. He invented a new tool of protest caLed satyagraha based on non-violence. He founded the Natal Indian Congress. He returned to India in 1915.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 5.
Describe Gandhiji’s agitation in South Africa against racial discrimination.
Answer:
Gandhiji opposed the apartheid policy in South Africa that discriminated between people on the basis of colour. He conceived the protest based on satyagraha and non-violence for the first time. He founded the Natal Indian Congress. He published a periodical ‘Indian Opinion’ to express his views and also to formulate the opinion of the people. In order to intensify the struggle further, he started the Passive Resistance Organisation. He also started the ‘Tolstoy Farm’and ‘Phoenix Farm’to train the people in satyagraha and non-violent struggle. As a result the government was forced to
withdraw restrictions on Indians and Black people.

Question 6.
In which year did Gandhiji return to India from South Africa?
Answer:
Gandhiji returned to India from South Africa in 1915.

Question 7.
Who was the political teacher or ’Guru’of Mahatma Gandhi?
Answer:
Gopal Krishna Gokhale was the political teacher or ‘Guru’ of Mahatma Gandhi.

Question 8.
How did Gandhiji give institutional shape to his struggle?
Answer:
Gandhiji gave institutional shape to his struggle by establishing the Sabarmathi Ashram at Ahmedabad in 1916.

Question 9.
When and why did Gandhiji launch the Champaran movement?
Answer:
Gandhiji launched the Champaran movement in 1917 in support of the indigo growers.

Question 10.
Why did Gandhiji launch protests in Kheda village of Gujarat?
Answer:
Gandhiji launched protests in Kheda village of Gujarat in 1918 to oppose the land taxes.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 11.
Mention some of the movements/protests launched by Gandhiji before he joined the freedom struggle.
Answer:
After returning to India in 1915, Gandhiji launched several movements and protests based on satyagraha and non-violence. In 1917 Gandhiji launched the Champaran movement in support of the indigo growers and made the British government accept their demands. In 1918 he started a movement in support of the mill workers of Ahmedabad. The British government was forced to accept their demands. In the same year, another protest held in Kheda village of Gujarat to oppose land taxes was also successful.

Question 12.
Mention two of the newspapers launched by Gandhiji.
(OR)
In which periodicals did Gandhiji express his thoughts?
Answer:
‘Young India’ and ‘Harijan’ were two of the newspapers launched by Gandhiji in which he expressed his thoughts. 24.13 Mention the strategies employed by Gandhiji in his struggle for freedom.
(OR)
What were the tools of Candhiji’s struggles?
Answer:
Gandhiji employed the strategies of passive resistance, non-violence and satyagraha in his struggle for freedom.

Question 14.
How did the Indian National Congress become an organisation of common people?
Answer:
With the arrival of Gandhiji the Indian National Congress threw its doors open to all those who wished to become its members. This way the Indian National Congress became an organisation of common people.

Question 15.
Why was the Tilak Swaraj Fund started?
Answer:
The Tilak Swaraj Fund was started by the Congress to aid India’s freedom struggle and resistance to the British rule.

Question 16.
Why is the period from 1920 to 1947 called the Candhian era?
(OR)
What changes took place in the Indian National Congress with the arrival of Candhiji?
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi played a major role in the freedom movement. He created the Gandhian model of struggle for freedom. The thoughts of Gandhiji and the philosophical base of his struggles defined the Indian independence movement during the period from 1920 to 1947. With the arrival of Gandhiji the Indian National Congress threw its doors open to all those who wished to become its members, thus becoming an organisation of common people.

The Congress chose civil disobedience and non-cooperation paths to press its demands on the British. It also undertook many programmes for the upliftment of the downtrodden. It started the Tilak Swaraj Fund in order to implement its programmes. Thus the Congress underwent many changes with the arrival of Gandhiji. Hence the period is referred to as Gandhian era.

Question 17.
Which was the major political weapon of Gandhiji?
Answer:
Satyagraha was the major political weapon of Gandhiji.

Question 18.
What is meant by satyagraha?
Answer:
Satyagraha means ‘the assertion of the truth’. It is a moral weapon based on non-violence. It means, asserting the rightful place of truth by employing peaceful means.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 19.
Which? is the basic trait of Gandhiji’s struggle?
Answer:
Ahimsa or non-violence is the basic trait of Gandhiji’s struggle.

Question 20.
Write a note on ahimsa.
Answer:
Ahimsa or non-violence is the basic trait of Gandhiji’s struggle. He firmly believed that one should face violence with ahimsa and satyagraha. He employed ahimsa and satyagraha as his weapons in his fight against the British.

Question 21.
Why did Gandhiji champion the unity of Hindus and Muslims?
Answer:
Gandhiji championed the unity of Hindus and Muslims during the freedom movement. He believed that it was not only difficult to achieve independence without Hindu-Muslim unity but also difficult to survive as a nation in the future. He always considered Hindus and Muslims as the two eyes of .Mother India.

Question 22.
When was the Rowlatt Act passed?
Answer:
The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919.

Question 23.
What is Rowlatt Act? Why was it passed?
Answer:
The Rowlatt Act was one of the regulations brought into force by the British government to suppress the growing nationalist activities. The Act gave the government the power to arrest anyone and declare him an offender in a court of law. The Act snatched the right of the people to assemble for a meeting, form associations as also the right to freedom of expression.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 24.
How did Gandhiji oppose the Rowlatt Act?
Answer:
Gandhiji formed an association called Satyagraha Sabha to oppose the Rowlatt Act.

Question 25.
Write a note on the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
Answer:
To suppress the agitations against the Rowlatt Act, the British arrested Dr. Fakruddin, Dr. Sathyapal and other leaders who were protesting in Punjab. To protest against these arrests the people assembled in Jallianwala Bagh. General Dyer, who was in charge of the city of Amritsar, fired at the crowd killing about 380 protesters and injuring thousands. Military rule was imposed in Punjab after the incident.

Question 26.
Who was the British military general who was responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy?
Answer:
General Dyer, the British military general of Amritsar, was responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy.

Question 27.
How did Rabindranath Tagore protest against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre?
(OR)
Why did Rabindranath Tagore return his Knighthood?
Answer:
Upset by the massacre at Jallianwala Bagh, Rabindranath Tagore returned the Knighthood conferred on him by the British.

Question 28.
Where and by whom was General Dyer killed?
Answer:
General Dyer was killed in England by Udam Singh, a revolutionary.

Question 29.
Who were ‘Caliphs’? Why did the Muslims protest against the British?
Caliphs were the Sultans of Turkey who were also its religious leaders. During World War I the British harassed the Caliph. Hence the Muslims all over the world protested against the British.

Question 30.
Who started the Khilafat movement? What was the purpose of the movement?
Answer:
The Ali brothers, Muhammad Ali and Shaukath Ali, started the Khilafat movement in India in 1919 in support of Turkey, whose Sultan (Caliph) was harassed by the British during World War.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 31.
In which year was the Khilafat movement started in India?
Answer:
The Khilafat movement was started in India in

Question 32.
Why did Gandhiji support the Khilafat movement?
Answer:
Gandhiji believed that the British would withdraw from india only if the Hindus and the Muslims fought unitedly. Gandhiji wanted the active participant on of the Muslims in the Congress. Hence he extended his support to the Khilafat movement.

Question 33.
When and where was the call for the non-cooperation movement given by Gandhiji?
Answer:
Gandhiji gave the call for the non-cooperation movement at the special session of the Congress held at Calcutta in 1920.

Question 34.
What was the purpose of the non-cooperation movement?
Answer:
Gandhiji gave the call for the non-cooperation movement at the special session of the Congress held at Calcutta in 1920. It aimed at educating the people about the brutal massacre by the British at Jallianwala Bagh as also preventing such incidents in the future. Besides opposing British rule, the movement wanted withdrawal of the Rowlatt Act and reforms in the political system that would lead to complete swarajya.

Question 35.
State the main programmes of the non-cooperation movement.
Answer:

  • Boycotting schools, colleges and courts.
  • Boycotting elections to regional legislative bodies.
  • Returning of all honours and medals given by the British.
  • Resignation of all the members nominated to the local bodies.
  • Boycotting of all government functions.
  • Boycotting of foreign goods.

Apart from these,the movement also aimed at encouraging handloom and khadi products, opening national schools and achieving Hindu-Muslim unity.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 36.
Describe the non-cooperation movement.
(OR)
Mention the major developments that took place during the non-cooperation movement. Gandhiji gave the call for the non-cooperation movement against the British in 1920. Many senior lawyers like Deshabandhu Chittaranjan Das, Motilal Nehru and Rajendra Prasad gave up their legal practice. Students boycotted schools and colleges. The Congress boycotted the elections to the regional bodies by not naming any candidates for the elections. Shops selling foreign goods were boycotted and foreign clothes were burnt. People opposed the visit of the Prince of Wales to India.

Question 37.
What was the impact of the non-cooperation movement?
Answer:
Though the non-cooperation movement could not achieve many of its objectives, it had deep impact on the freedom movement. The freedom movement became a people’s movement. Hindu-Muslim unity was temporarily achieved. The freedom movement spread to the villages. The entry of women into the public domain was a notable achievement of the movement.

Question 38.
In which year did the Chauri Chaura incident take place?
Answer:
The Chauri Chaura incident took place in 1922.

Question 39.
Describe the Chauri Chaura incident.
Answer:
As a part of the non-cooperation movement there were protests and demonstrations all over the country. In 1922 about 3000 farmers gathered in front of the Chauri Chaura police station protesting against the police officer who had beaten Congress workers when they were protesting in front of an arrack shop. The police fired at the crowd from inside the station. Enraged by this the people torched the police station. Twenty-two policemen were burnt alive in this incident.

Question 40.
Why did Gandhiji withdraw the non-cooperation movement?
Answer:
As a part of the non-cooperation movement there were protests and demonstrations all over the country. In 1922 about 3000 farmers gathered in front of the Chauri Chaura police station protesting against the police officer who had beaten Congress workers when they were protesting in front of an attack shop. The police fired at the crowd from inside the station. Enraged by this the people torched the police station killing twenty-two policemen. Such violent incidents were repeated at other places. Gandhiji realised that the people lacked preparation and morality to hold non-violent protests. Hence he withdrew the non-cooperation movement.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 41.
Which incident was responsible for the withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement?
Answer:
The Chauri Chaura incident was responsible for the withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement.

Question 42.
What was the effect of the withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement?
Answer:
The withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement disheartened many Congressmen. Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das advocated the withdrawal of boycott of legislative assemblies. They proposed to enter the legislative assemblies and create impediments in the assembly sessions. This they felt would strengthen the freedom movement.

Question 43.
Who started the Swaraj Party? When and why was it formed?
Answer:
The Swaraj Party was started by Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das in 1923. The party was formed with the intention of contesting elections. The leaders of this party wanted to enter the legislative assemblies and oppose the policies of the British from within.

Question 44.
Why was the Simon Commission appointed?
Answer:
The Simon Commission was appointed to study the effects of the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms or the Government of India Act of 1919. It was also required to suggest suitable changes if necessary.

Question 45.
In which year was the Simon Commission appointed?
Answer:
The Simon Commission was appointed in the year 1927.

Question 46.
Write a note on the protests against the Simon Commission.
The Simon Commission was appointed by the British government to study the effects of the Government of India Act of 1919 and to suggest changes if necessary. The Commission witnessed widespread protests all over the country. People welcomed the Commission with the slogan ‘Simon Go Back’. Bundhs and hartals were organised in different places like Bombay, Lahore and Madras. Lala Lajpat Rai died when the protestors were lathicharged in Lahore.

Question 47.
Why was the Nehru Committee formed?
Answer:
After the protests against the Simon Commission, the British government challenged the Indians to draft a Constitution that would be acceptable to all political parties and communities of India. Hence a committee was formed under Motilal Nehru which came to be called the Nehru Committee.

Question 48.
What were the recommendations of the Nehru Report?
Answer:
A committee called the Nehru Committee was formed under Motilal Nehru, to draft a Constitution for India. The report of the committee, called the Nehru Report, advocated dominion status for India along with an internal federal structure. It recommended the abolition of separate constituencies for minorities, creation of language-based regions, ensuring of human rights to Indians, etc.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 49.
Who presided over the Lahore Session of the Congress?
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru presided over the Lahore Session of the Congress held in 1929.

Question 50.
What was the outcome of the 1929 Lahore session of the Congress?
(OR)
Why is the Lahore session of the Congress important?
Answer:
The Congress, at its session held in 1929 under the presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru, adopted a resolution demanding Poorna Swaraj or complete independence. It announced the celebration of January 26,1930 as the independence day. This session entrusted the responsibility of organising the civil disobedience movement to Gandhiji.

Question 51.
In which Congress session was the goal of Poorna Swaraj adopted?
Answer:
The goal of Poorna Swaraj was adopted at the Lahore session of the Congress held in 1929.

Question 52.
Why was the Indian Constitution adopted on January 26?
(OR)
What is the importance of January 26 in the freedom movement?
Answer:
The Congress, at its session held in 1929 under the presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru, adopted a resolution demanding Poorna Swaraj or complete independence. It announced the celebration of January 26,1930 as independence day. In order to mark the historical importance of this session, the Constitution of India was adopted on January 26,1950.

Question 53.
Why did Gandhiji start the civil disobedience movement?
Answer:
Gandhiji submitted a charter of eleven demands to the Viceroy. He conveyed that if these demands were not met, he would start the civil disobedience movement. But the Viceroy did not consider these demands and Gandhiji started the civil disobedience movement by launching salt satyagraha.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 54.
Describe the salt satyagraha.
(OR)
What is Dandi March? Why was it held?
Answer:
The Working Committee of the Congress met in 1930 at Sabarmathi Ashram and passed a resolution to hold civil disobedience movement under the leadership of Gandhiji. Gandhiji submitted a charter of eleven demands to the Viceroy and conveyed that if these demands were

not met, he would start the civil disobedience movement. But the Viceroy did not consider these demands and Gandhiji started the civil disobedience movement by launching salt satyagraha. He walked from Sabarmathi Ashram to Dandi on the coast of Gujarat, a distance of 375 kilometres, with his followers to produce salt on the seashore. He thus broke the law by producing salt without paying the tax which the British had levied on salt. This event is popularly known as Dandi March.

Question 55.
When was the National Movement Week observed?
Answer:
The National Movement Week was observed from April 6th to 30th 1930.

Question 56.
Who were the participants at the salt satyagraha at Ankola?
Answer:
R.R. Diwakar, Koujalgi Hanumantharao, Gangadhar Rao Deshpande, Hardikar Manjappa and Karnad Sadashiva Rao were the participants at the salt satyagraha at Ankola.

Question 57.
Name some of the leaders who participated in the civil disobedience movement.
Answer:
Besides Gandhiji,Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Kamala Nehru,Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajagopalachari and Rajendra Prasad participated in the civil disobedience movement.

Question 58.
Describe the civil disobedience movement
Answer:
Gandhiji, after assuming the leadership of the civil disobedience movement, submitted a charter of eleven demands to the Viceroy. One of the demands was abolition of tax imposed on salt. But the Viceroy did not consider Gandhiji’s demands. Hence Gandhiji started the civil disobedience movement by launching salt satyagraha. Gandhiji, with his followers, marched to Dandi and produced salt in violation of the law. Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Kamala Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad and thousands of others who had participated in the movement were arrested. Slowly the movement spread to other parts of the country.

Question 59.
When was the first round table conference held? What were the results of the conference?
Answer:
The first round table conference was held in 1930. Leaders like Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, M.R. Jayakar, Tejbahadur Sapru, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Srinivas Shastry participated in the conference. The result was that the British understood that they could not take any decision without the participation of Indian leaders. For the first time representation was given to the untouchable community at the conference.The conference approved dominion status, responsible government and religious representation. Since the Indian National Congress did not participate, the conference was not productive.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 60.
When was the Candhi-lrwin Pact signed? What were the terms of the Pact?
Answer:
The Gandhi-lrwin Pact was signed in 1931. As a result of the pact, the Congress gave up the civil disobedience movement and agreed to participate in the second round table conference.

Question 61.
What was the outcome of the second round table conference?
Answer:
In the second round table conference B.R. Ambedkar asked for separate constituencies for the untouchables. This was opposed by Gandhiji. This resulted in differences between Ambedkar and Gandhiji. As a result, the second round table conference too ended without any conclusions.

Question 62.
What is communal award?
Answer:
After the failure of the second round table conference, the British implemented the communal award in 1932. The award provided for separate electoral constituencies for the untouchables.

Question 63.
What is Poona Pact? What were its provisions?
Answer:
In the second round table conference, B.R. Ambedkar pressed for separate electoral constituencies for the untouchables. This was opposed by Gandhiji. Because of this ideological difference the second round table conference ended without any conclusions.

But the British government announced the communal award in 1932, granting separate electoral constituencies for the untouchables. Gandhiji began a fast unto death against it. Efforts were made to convince Ambedkar. After lengthy negotiations, Gandhiji reached an agreement with Ambedkar and accordingly a few constituencies among the general constituencies were reserved for untouchables. This is called the Poona Pact.

Question 64.
When and why was the third round table conference held? What was the result?
Answer:
The British government wanted to bring a federal government at the center and regional governments in the States. With this in mind, it called for the third round table conference. The Congress did not participate in the conference at it was not happy with the system suggested by the British.

Question 65.
What was the distinct provision of the Government of India Act of 1935?
Answer:
The Government of India Act of 1935 provided for a federal structure at the center with autonomy at the State level. Indians were also given political rights.

Question 66.
Why was the Cripes Mission sent to India?
Answer:
In 1939, when the Second World War started, the British Viceroy unilaterally declared India’s support for the war against Germany. This was opposed by the Congress, which walked out of the cabinet. Gandhiji started an agitation opposing the viceroy’s decision. In order to pacify the Indians and to seek their support, Stafford Cripps was sent to India for mediation.

Question 67.
What were the proposals of Cripes’ Mission?
Answer:
The British government sent Stafford Cripps to mediate and pacify the agitating Indians. The Mission put forward some proposals like granting dominion status to India, forming a Constituent Assembly for the purpose, and giving freedom to the States to either join or remain out of the federation.

Question 68.
When was the Quit India Resolution passed?
Answer:
The Quit India Resolution was passed in the year 1942.

Question 69.
Describe the circumstances leading to the launching of the Quit India Resolution.
(OR)
What were the reasons for Quit India Movement?
Answer:
In 1942, the British government sent Stafford Cripps to mediate and pacify the agitating Indians. Cripps’ Mission put forward some proposals like granting dominion status to India, forming a Constituent Assembly for the purpose, and giving freedom to the States to either join or remain put of the federation. But these proposals were not acceptable to the Congress. The Congress gave a call for the Quit India Movement. Gandhiji gave a call to the Indians to ‘do or die’ and asked the British to quit India.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 70.
Describe briefly the Quit India Movement.
Answer:
Disappointed by the proposals put forward by Stafford Cripps, the Congress adopted the Quit India Resolution in 1942. Gandhiji called upon the Indians to ‘do or die’. The government imprisoned Gandhiji, Nehru, Rajendra Prasad, Abul Kalam Azad, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Acharya Kripalani, Kasturba and other leaders.

Since most of the Congress leaders were in jail, non-Congress organisations took the lead.-This movement paved.the way for the emergence of new leaders. Jayaprakash Narayan.the leader of the Socialist wing of the Congress, assumed leadership of the movement. He carried out revolutionary activities along with his followers. They urged the people to participate in the freedom struggle. They collected funds, and gave proper direction to the movement.

Question 71.
How did the Quit India Movement lead to the emergence of new leaders? What was their role in the freedom movement?
Answer:
With the failure of Cripps’ Mission, the Congress started the Quit India Movement in 1942. The government imprisoned most of the Congress leaders. This paved the way for new leaders and non-Congress organisations to take the lead. Jayaprakash Narayan, the leader of the Socialist wing of the Congress, assumed leadership of the movement.

He carried out revolutionary activities along with his followers. The socialists implemented their plans through a group titled ‘Freedom Struggle Front. Through that organisation they imparted training to workers. They urged the people to participate in the freedom struggle. They collected funds, and gave proper direction to the movement.

Question 72.
Who was Jayaprakash Narayan?
Answer:
Jayaprakash Narayan was a prominent leader of the socialist wing of the Congress.

Question 73.
Name the organisation through which the socialists implemented their plans.
Answer:
The socialists implemented their plans through an organisation called Freedom Struggle Front.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 74.
Why did the Muslim League propose the division of India?
Answer:
In the elections of 1937, the Congress gained majority and formed the government. But the Muslim League was kept out of government formation. When the Congress walked out of the government in 1939 opposing the unilateral decision of the viceroy to participate in World War II,the Muslims celebrated this walk out as ‘Vimukthi Diwas’. Also,the Muslim League did not participate in the Quit India Movement. It proposed the division of India.

Question 75.
What is ‘Vimukthi Diwas’? Why was it celebrated by the Muslim League?
Answer:
Though the Congress and the Muslim League participated in the elections of 1937, the Muslim League was kept out of government formation by the Congress. So, when the Congress walked out of the government in 1939 opposing the unilateral decision of the viceroy to participate in World War II, the Muslims celebrated this walk out as ‘Vimukthi Diwas’.

Question 76.
Write a note on the Esoor incident.
Answer:
Esoor is a village in Shivamogga district. It was the first village in India to be declared independent or Swatantra halli. The villagers barred British officials from entering Esoor. In 1942, the villagers insisted that the government officials visiting the village wear Gandhi caps. Opposing this demand, the policeman who was with the officials fired at the villagers. Enraged by this, the villagers lynched the officials. This incident is known as Esoor incident.

Question 77.
Explain the role of farmer protests/revolts in the freedom struggle.
(OR)
The protests organised by the farmers are important in national freedom struggle, Explain.
Answer:
The protests by farmers during the freedom struggle were influenced by the Congress and the Marxists. During the British administration many farmers rebelled against the British planters and the zamindars. They opposed the growing of indigo in Champaran district. They protested against land tax. The Congress tried to organise the farmers.

The farmers organised themselves and protested in Champaran, Kheda and other places. The farmers of Tebl’.aga, Malabar and other places also revolted against the British and the zamindars. The issues and problems of the farmers merged with the problems focused on in the non-cooperation, civil disobedience and quit India movements. Many of the protests were organised under the banner of Kisan Sabha which was influenced by Leftist ideology. The farmers of Telangana and Bengal rose against the zamindars. In Maharashtra, the farmers protested against low wages.

Question 78.
Explain the role of workers’revolts in the freedom movement.
Answer:
The workers movement started in Calcutta in 1827. The workers of jute and cotton mills as also the railways started organising themselves. The railway workers staged agitations in railway stations. The Printers’ Union of Calcutta and the cotton mill workers of Bombay created national awareness. A labour union was founded in Madras. Subsequently many labour unions were established. The Congress supported these movements of workers’ unions.

Question 79.
Describe the role of tribal revolts in the freedom movement
(OR)
Explain the various tribal revolts in the history of struggle for independence.
Answer:
The tax and forest policies implemented by the British were the reasons for the tribal revolts. The revolts of the Santals, Kolhas, Mundas and the Bedas of Halagali are notable. The people of the Santala tribe lived in the hilly areas of Bengal and Odisha states. With the implementation of the permanent zamindari system, these people became landless.

The zamindars took over their lands. The zamindars, money lenders and the company government exploited the Santals.The Santals revolted at Barahat, Bhagatpur and RajmahaLAs a result,the zamindars and money lenders fled. The government suppressed the revolt. Although the revolt came to an end, it became an inspiration for similar revolts later.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 80.
Name some of the tribes that revolted against the British.
Answer:
The Santals, Kolhas, Mundas and the Bedas of Halagali were some of the tribes that revolted against the British.

Question 81.
Describe the revolt of the Santals against the British.
Answer:
The people of the Santala tribe lived in the hilly areas of Bengal and Odisha states. With the implementation of the permanent zamindari system, these people became landless. The zamindars took over their lands. The zamindars, money lenders and the company government exploited the Santals. As a result, the Santals revolted at Barahat, Bhagatpur and Rajmahal. The zamindars and money lenders fled from these areas. But the government suppressed the revolt. Although the revolt came to an end, it became an inspiration for similar revolts later.

Question 82.
Explain the role of Subhas Chandra Bose in the freedom struggle.
Answer:
Subhas Chandra Bose, popularly called Netaji, was the most prominent among the revolutionary fighters of India. He engaged himself in organising the Indians settled abroad. He travelled to Vienna, Berlin, Rome, Istanbul and other cities and rallied the Indians to support the struggle for independence. In 1934, he established the Congress Socialist Party with Jawaharlal Nehru. Bose became the President of the Congress session held at Haripura in 1938. However, due to difference of opinion with Gandhiji, he left the Congress and established a separate party called Forward Block.

He was arrested for opposing the war preparations of the British and the participation of India in the Second World War. But he escaped to Germany and gained the support of Hitler, the dictator of Germany. He broadcast his speeches to Indians through the Azad Hind Radio.

He joined hands with Ras Behari Bose who had established the India Independence League and the Indian National Army in Tokyo. Bose planned to attack India through Rangoon and began an armed struggle on the Burma border. Fierce fighting took place between the British and the Indian National Army. However, with the death of Bose in a plane crash, the British captured Rangoon and arrested the members of the INA.

Question 83.
Who founded the Indian National Army? What role did it play in the Indian freedom movement?
Answer:
Ras Behari Bose established the military wing of the Indian Independence League at Tokyo and named it Indian National Army (INA). There was also a women’s wing of the INA named Jhansi Regiment. Subhas Chandra Bose joined hands with Ras Behari Bose and planned to attack India through Rangoon and began an armed struggle on the Burma border.Thousands of soldiers who had joined INA were ready to occupy Delhi. Fierce fighting took place between the British and the Indian National Army. However, with the death of Subhas Chandra Bose in a plane crash, the British captured Rangoon and arrested the members of the INA.

Question 84.
What way the women’s wing of the Indian National Army called? Who was its commander?
Answer:
The women’s wing of the Indian National Army was called Jhansi Regiment. Captain Lakshmi Sehgal was its commander.

Question 85.
Name the party founded by Subhas Chandra Bose.
Answer:
Forward Block was the party founded by Subhas Chandra Bose.

Question 86.
Name the party founded by Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru.
Answer:
Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru founded the Congress Socialist Party.

Question 87.
Who started the Mahad and Kafaram movements? Why?
Answer:
The Mahad and Kalaram movements were started by B.R. Ambedkar. He started these movements in order to prove that the untouchables had been denied even basic human facilities.

Question 88.
Write a note on the Mahad and Kalaram movements.
Answer:
In Mahad, a village in Maharashtra, the untouchables .were not allowed to use water from a tank. So Ambedkar started a movement to enable the untouchables to use the water of the tank. Similarly, in Kalaram, the untouchables were not allowed to enter the temple. Ambedkar started a movement so that the untouchables could gain entry into the temple. Though the untouchables became sensitised due to these movements, they were not very successful during that time.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 89.
Why did differences of opinion emerge between Gandhiji and Ambedkar?
Answer:
Differences of opinion emerged between Gandhiji and Ambedkar over the issue of development of Harijans and the leadership of untouchables. Ambedkar’s demand for separate electoral constituencies for the untouchables was opposed by Gandhiji. This resulted in ideological differences between them.

Question 90.
Name the organisations founded by B.R. Ambedkar.
Answer:
Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha and Swatantra Karmika Party were the organisations founded by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

Question 91.
Mention the names of the newspapers published by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
Answer:
‘Prabuddha Bharat’, ‘Janata’, ‘Mooknayak’ and ‘Bahishkrut Bharat’ were the newspapers published by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

Question 92.
Who was the first law minister of independent India?
Answer:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the first law minister of independent India.

Question 93.
Why did Dr. Ambedkar embrace Buddhism?
Answer:
As Dr. Ambedkar was frustrated with the caste system, he gave up Hinduism and embraced Buddhism which opposed the caste system.

Question 94.
What award was given to Dr. Ambedkar posthumously for his lifetime achievements?
Answer:
Dr. Ambedkar was awarded the Bharat Ratna posthumously for his lifetime achievements.

Question 95.
What role did Ambedkar play in the upliftment of untouchables?
Answer:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar strongly believed that political freedom was meaningless without social freedom. He argued that political freedom had no value until the last man in the society got social and economic freedom. He studied the caste system and came up with a plan to eradicate it. In order to show that the untouchables have been denied even basic human rights, he organised the Mahad tank and Kalaram temple movements.

He participated in all the three round table conferences and suggested various means for the upliftment of the downtrodden communities. He demanded separate electoral constituencies for the untouchables. He founded the Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha. He also published the newspapers – ‘Prabuddha Bharat’,‘Janata’, ‘Mooknayak’ and ‘Bahishkrut Bharat’. Ambedkar advocated equality in the Constitution and provided legal protection against the practice of untouchability.

Question 96.
Give an account of the contributions of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
Answer:
Dr. Ambedkar played an important role in the upliftment of untouchables. He studied the caste system and came up with a plan to eradicate it. He started the Mahad tank and Kalaram temple movements seeking basic facilities for the untouchables. He attended the three round table conferences and gave valuable suggestions. He demanded separate electoral constituencies for the untouchables. He served as the Dewan in the court of the Maharaja of Baroda.

He was a member of the Bombay legislative council and later a member of the Viceroy’s legislative council. He founded two organisations – Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha and Swatantra Karmika Party. He published the newspapers – ‘Prabuddha Bharat’, ‘Janata’, ‘Mooknayak’ and ‘Bahishkrut Bharat’. He also strived to get justice for the farm labourers. After independence, Dr. Ambedkar became the first law minister of India. He was elected the chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna posthumously for his lifetime achievements.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 97.
Who was elected president of die Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad was elected president of the Constituent Assembly.

Question 98.
Who was elected chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee?
Answer:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was elected chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.

Question 99.
What were the contributions of Jawaharlal Nehru to the freedom movement?
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru entered the freedom struggle through the Home Rule movement. He played a prominent role in the non-cooperation movement of 1920 and was the President of the Lahore Session of Congress held in 1929. The goal of poorna swaraj was declared during this session. Nehru’s ideas gave a new direction to political activities. Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose established the Congress Socialist Party. Nehru was the President of the 49th session of the Indian National Congress. He became the first Prime Minister of independent India.

Question 100.
Explain the contributions of Jawaharlal Nehru as the Prime Minister of India.
(OR)
“Nehru was the pioneer of developmental programmes in independent India”. Explain.
(OR)
Explain the major achievements of Nehru as the first Prime Minister of India.
Answer:
As the Prime Minister,Jawaharlal Nehru was the architect of industrialisation and modern India. Nehru, through the home minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, was successful in bringing together all the princely states and merging them in the Indian Union. Later Nehru laid the foundation for the diverse culture of India by reorganising the states on linguistic basis.

Nehru sought to develop India through the Five Year Plans by developing infrastructure and heavy industries. He laid the foundation for the development of atomic energy under the leadership of Homi Bhabha. On the external affairs front, Nehru advocated the policy of Non-alignment, which is, keeping equal distance from both the power blocs. He was instrumental in staying away from power politics by adhering to Panchsheel Principles.

Question 101.
Who was the first Home Minister of independent India?
Answer:
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was the first Home Minister of independent India.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 102.
Who was known as the iron man of India? Why?
Answer:
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was known as the ‘iron man of India’ because he was successful in integrating all the princely states in the Indian Union.

Question 103.
Write a note on Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Answer:
Muhammad Ali Jinnah joined the Indian National Congress in 1906 and worked as private secretary to Dadabhai Naoroji. He became popular after he argued in favour of Tilak in the litigations against him. Later he joined the Home Rule League. Condemning the Rowlatt Act, he resigned his post in the Central Advisory Committee (Imperial Legislative Council).

When, in 1937, the Congress and the Muslim League failed to form a coalition government, he changed his strategy. As the days of declaration of freedom for India neared, he intensified his demand for Pakistan. He was successful in creating Pakistan during the declaration of independence.

Question 104.
What were the recommendations of the Cabinet Mission?
Answer:
After the Second World War, the Labour Party came to power in England. It tried to find solutions for the political problems of India. It sent the Cabinet Mission to have discussions with Indians about self-rule. The Mission had discussions with both the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress, and made the following recommendations:

  • a federal government for India,
  • formation of an interim government, and
  • formation of Constituent Assembly to formulate the Constitution.

Question 105.
Why did the Muslim League give the call for ‘Direct Action Day’?
Answer:
The Cabinet Mission, after discussions with the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress, recommended the formation of an interim government. But differences arose between them over formation of a coalition government. The Muslim League gave a call to observe August 16,1946 as ‘Direct Action Day’, pressing for the formation of a separate nation. As a result, communal clashes took place in various parts of the country.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 106.
What were the reasons for the partition of India? ,
Answer:
Muhammad Ali Jinnah joined the Indian National Congress in 1906. He spoke about the need for Hindu-Muslim unity in many of the conferences. But, in 1937, when the Congress and the Muslim League failed to form a coalition government after the elections, Jinnah changed his strategy. As the days of declaration of freedom for India neared, he intensified his demand for Pakistan.

In 1940, at the Lahore Session of the Muslim League, he declared that Hindus and Muslims cannot make one nation. When the Congress and the Muslim League failed to form the interim government as per the recommendation of the Cabinet Mission, Jinnah gave a call to observe August 16,1946 as ‘Direct Action Day’, pressing for the formation of a separate nation. He was successful in partitioning the country at the time of independence.

Question 107.
Who gave the call to observe Direct Action Day? What was its objective?
Answer:
The call for direct Action Day was given by the Muslim League led by Jinnah. The main objective was to press for the formation of a separate nation for Muslims.

Question 108.
Which day was observed by the Muslim League as Direct Action Day?
Answer:
The Muslim League observed August 16,1946 as Direct Action Day.

Question 109.
Write a note on the Mountbatten Plan.
Answer:
Lord Mountbatten was appointed viceroy and sent to India to hasten the transfer of power to Indians. He had discussions with both Congress and Muslim League and prepared a plan to divide India into two independent nations. This plan is called Mountbatten Plan.

Question 110.
When was the Indian Independence Act passed?
Answer:
The Indian Independence Act was passed in July 1947.

Question 111.
When did India attain independence?
Answer:
India attained independence on August 15,1947.

Question 112.
Who was the viceroy at the time of India’s independence?
Answer:
Lord Mountbatten was the viceroy at the time of India’s independence.

Question 113.
Which Commission demarcated the boundary between India and Pakistan?
Answer:
The boundary between India and Pakistan was demarcated by the Radcliffe Commission.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 114.
Who became the first Prime Minister of independent India?
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of independent India.

Question 115.
Describe the part played by Gandhiji in the struggle for freedom.
(OR)
What role did Gandhiji play in India’s freedom movement?
Answer:
The freedom movement in India took a new turn with the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi. He employed the methods of passive resistance, satyagraha and ahimsa in his struggle against the British. He believed that without Hindu-Muslim unity it was difficult to achieve independence. So he extended his support to the Khilafat movement.

To protest against the acts of repression of the British, Gandhiji launched the non-cooperation movement in 1921. However, disappointed by the violence at Chauri Chaura, Gandhiji called off the movement. With the failure of the Simon Commission, the Congress at its Lahore session in 1929 authorised Gandhiji to start the civil disobedience movement. Gandhiji placed eleven demands before the viceroy, which included the abolition of salt tax.The viceroy paid no attention to these demands.

Hence Gandhiji went on a march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi in 1930 and produced salt in violation of the law. Opposing the recommendations of the Cripps’ Commission, Gandhiji launched the Quit India Movement and called upon the Indians to ‘Do or die’. The British government sent Lord Mountbatten as viceroy to prepare a plan to divide India into two independent nations. On August 15th 1947 India became independent. However, within a few months of attaining independence, Gandhiji was assassinated. Thus Gandhiji played a major role in the freedom movement from 1920 to 1947. Hence the period is referred to as the Gandhian era.

Question 116.

  1. The memorial in the picture reminds people of which tragic event?
  2. When did the tragic event take place?
  3. Name the military general of Amritsar who was responsible for the tragedy.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement-1
Answer:

  1. The memorial in the picture reminds people of the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy.
  2. The tragic event took place on April 13,1919.
  3. General Dyer was the military general of Amritsar who was responsible for the tragedy.

Question 117.

  1. What is the event represented in the picture?
  2. In which year did the event take place?
  3. Of which movement was this event a part?

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement-2
Answer:

  1. The event represented in the picture is the Dandi
  2. The event took place in 1930.
  3. The Dandi March was a part of the civil disobedience movement.

Question 118.

  1. Which event does the picture depict?
  2. When did the event take place?
  3. Name one new leader who came into prominence as a result of this event.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement-3
Answer:

  1. The event depicted in the picture is the Quit India Movement.
  2. The event took place in 1942.
  3. Jayaprakash Narayan came into prominence as a result of the Quit India Movement.

Question 119.

  1. Which event is represented in the picture below?
  2. Where was the resolution to start the movement taken?
  3. Why was the movement withdrawn?

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement-4
Answer:

  1. The Non-cooperation Movement is represented in the picture.
  2. The resolution to start the movement was taken at the special session of the Congress in Calcutta on September 4th, 1920.
  3. Gandhiji withdrew the movement as a result of the Chauri Chaura incident.

Multiple-choice Questions:

Question 1.
The first round table conference was held in –
(A) 1930
(B) 1932
(C) 1931
(D) 1942
Answer:
(A) 1930

Question 2.
Swaraj Party was founded in the year –
(A) 1923
(B) 1922
(C) 1929
(D) 1906
Answer:
(A) 1923

Question 3.
The president of Haripur session of the Indian National Congress was –
(A) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
(B) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
(C) La la Lajpat Rai
(D) Subhas Chandra Bose
Answer:
(D) Subhas Chandra Bose

Question 4.
…………….. is known as the iron man of India.
(A) Bhagat Singh
(B) Chandrashekar Azad
(C) Abul Kalam Azad
(D) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Answer:
(D) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 5.
The movement started by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali was –
(A) Vimukthi Diwas
(B) Direct Action Day
(C) Khilafat Movement
(D) Civil disobedience movement
Answer:
(C) Khilafat Movement

Question 6.
Gandhiji withdrew the Non-cooperation Movement after the violent incident at –
(A) Chauri Chaura
(B) Cham pa ran
(C) Dandi
(D) Jallianwala Bagh
Answer:
(A) Chauri Chaura

Question 7.
The party started by Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das was –
(A) Indian National Congress
(B) Forward Block
(C) National Socialist Party
(D) Swaraj Party
Answer:
(D) Swaraj Party

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 8.
The Commission appointed by the government to suggest suitable changes to the 1919 Government of India Act was –
(A) Hunter Commission
(B) Rowlatt Commission
(C) Simon Commission
(D) Cabinet Commission
Answer:
(C) Simon Commission

Question 9.
During the protests against the Simon Commission, the person who died in police lathicharge was –
(A) Motilal Nehru
(B) Lala Lajpat Rai
(C) Bhagat Singh
(D) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Answer:
(B) Lala Lajpat Rai

Question 10.
The Poona Pact was signed by –
(A) Irwin and Gandhiji
(B) Ambedkar and Irwin
(C) Gandhiji and Ambedkar
(D) Nehru and Jinnah
Answer:
(C) Gandhiji and Ambedkar

Question 11.
The movement launched by the Congress after the failure of Cripps’ Mission was –
(A) Khilafat Movement
(B) Quit India Movement
(C) Civil disobedience movement
(D) Non-cooperation Movement
Answer:
(B) Quit India Movement

Question 12.
Who said, “Give me blood, I will give you freedom?
(A) Subhas Chandra Bose
(B) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(C) B.R. Ambedkar
(D) Bhagat Singh
Answer:
(A) Subhas Chandra Bose

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 8 Era of Gandhi and National Movement

Question 13.
Subhas Chandra Bose left the Congress and founded a separate party called –
(A) Revolutionary Party
(B) Forward Block
(C) Abhinav Bharat
(D) Young India
Answer:
(B) Forward Block

Question 14.
The boundary between India and Pakistan was demarcated by –
(A) Radcliffe Commission
(B) Cabinet Mission
(C) McDonald Commission
(D) Cripps’ Mission
Answer:
(A) Radcliffe Commission

Question 15.
India was divided into two independent countries under the plan.
(A) Curzon
(B) Rowlatt
(C) Radcliffe
(D) Mountbatten
Answer:
(D) Mountbatten

Question 16.
The objective with which Tilak organised Shivaji and Ganesha festivals was –
(A) to revive the age-old customs
(B) to bring about Hindu-Muslim unity
(C) to awaken nationalistic feelings among the people
(D) to raise funds for the Congress.
Answer:
(C) to awaken nationalistic feelings among the people

Question 17.
The introduction of Rowlatt Act resulted in –
(A) launching of Khilafat Movement
(B) Jallianwala Bagh incident
(C) civil disobedience movement
(D) passing of Quit India Resolution.
Answer:
(B) Jallianwala Bagh incident

Question 18.
Dandi March is associated with –
(A) Non-cooperation Movement
(B) Quit India Movement
(C) Civil Disobedience Movement
(D) Khilafat Movement
Answer:
(C) Civil Disobedience Movement

Fill in the blanks:

  1. Gandhiji was born in 1869/Porbandar
  2. Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place while protesting against Act. Rowlatt
  3. The movement led by the Ali brothers was Khilafat Movement
  4. The proposal for a separate nation for Muslims was put forward by Jinnah
  5. The President of the 1929 session of the Indian National Congress was Jawaharlal Nehru
  6. Mahad and Kalaram movements were organised by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
  7. The leader of the Jhansi Regiment of the Indian National Army was Lakshmi Sehgal
  8. Gandhiji held salt satyagraha in Dandi
  9. Quit India Movement took place in 1942

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