KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Students can download Class 10 Sociology Chapter 4 Social Problems Important Questions, KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Social Science Important Questions and Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka SSLC Class 10 Social Science Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 1.
Name any two social problems of India.
Answer:
Child labour, female foeticide, hunger and malnutrition, gender discrimination, child marriage and child trafficking are some of the social problems of India.

Question 2.
What is meant by child labour?
Answer:
The labour of children below the age of 14 years in order to earn money is called child labour.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 3.
Who is a child labourer?
Answer:
A child below the age of 14 years, working for financial consideration, is called a child labourer.

Question 4.
How many child labourers are there in India as per 2011 census?
Answer:
There are 12.6 million child labourers in India as per the 2011 census.

Question 5.
Which law regulates the employment of children as labourers?
Answer:
The Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 as amended in July 2016, regulates the employment of children as child labourers.

Question 6.
Who is a child, according to the Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986?
Answer:
According to the Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, child means a person who has not completed his fourteenth year of age.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 7.
Who is an adolescent, according to the Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986?
Answer:
According to the Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, adolescent means a person who has completed his fourteenth year of age but has not completed his eighteenth year.

Question 8.
Mention the provisions of the Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act.
Answer:
According to the Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act:
(a) No child below 14 years of age shall be employed in any sector. Whoever employs any child or permits any child to work shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years, or with fine not exceeding fifty thousand rupees.

(b) Families cannot engage their children below 14 years of age in any household activities during school hours. If they are so engaged, then the parents or the head of the family will be considered as offenders and a fine of ten thousand rupees will be imposed on them.

(c) As per this Act, adolescent means a person who has completed his fourteenth year of age but has not completed his eighteenth year. No adolescent shall be employed or permitted to work in any hazardous occupation. If this provision is violated, then a fine of fifty thousand rupees is imposed on the violators.

Question 9.
How many sectors does the Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, consider as hazardous occupations? Give examples of such sectors.
Answer:
The Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, identifies 31 occupations as hazardous or dangerous. Mining, production of explosives, production of combustible products, iron and steel manufacturing, repair of vehicles, cement and rubber production, manufacture of chemicals are considered hazardous occupations.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 10.
What are the reasons for child labour?
Answer:
The reasons for child labour are:

  1. Lack of social environment that protects the rights of children.
  2. Child marriage and human trafficking of children.
  3. Migration of people from rural areas to urban centres.
  4. Failure to implement compulsory and universal education.
  5. Failure to implement Land Reforms Act and Minimum Wages Act resulting in poor financial condition of families.

Question 11.
What are the consequences of child labour?
OR
What are the demerits of child labour?
Answer:

  1. Child labour affects the physical and psychological growth of children.
  2. Children who have worked as child labourers suffer from ill – health.
  3. As they are engaged in labour at a tender age, they become illiterates.
  4. Child labour restricts the social and economic mobility of the families. Children of such families become the target of exploitation. This leads to child marriage, human trafficking and sexual exploitation of children.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 12.
How can the problem of child labour be solved? Mention some of the measures.
OR
What are the measures to eradicate child labour?
Answer:
Some of the measures to solve the problem of child labour are:

  1. Ensuring that children below the age of 18 years are in school
  2. Ensuring gender equality
  3. Stopping migration of helpless families;
  4. Creating awareness about child marriage and human trafficking;
  5. Ensuring better implementation of child rights through Gram Panchayats.

Question 13.
Name the Act enacted to address the problem of sexual offences against children.
OR
Why was the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 passed?
Answer:
The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act 2012 has been enacted to address the problem of increasing sexual offences against children.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 14.
What is a sexual offence, according to Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012?
Answer:
According to Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012, “Any act of unsafe touch, exploitation, violence, harassment, and assault on any child (boy or girl) under the age of 18 years, is considered a sexual offence”.

Question 15.
Name the offences that are considered sexual offences, according to Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act 2012.
Answer:
The following offences are considered sexual offences, according to Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act 2012:

  1. Penetrative sexual assault.
  2. Aggravated penetrative sexual assault.
  3. Sexual assault.
  4. Aggravated sexual assault.
  5. Sexual harassment.
  6. Using a child for pornographic purposes.
  7. Storing pornographic material in any form for commercial purposes.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 16.
What is meant by female foeticide?
Answer:
Stopping the natural growth of a female foetus in the womb of a mother or aborting the foetus forcibly is know i as female foeticide.

Question 17.
Mention the causes for female foeticide.
Answer:
Issues like preference for male children for inheritance of property, dowry, exploitation by husband’s family, sexual harassment within the family, atrocities on women in public places are some of the causes for female foeticide.

Question 18.
What are the ill – effects of female foeticide?
Answer:
Low sex ratio, female trafficking, increase in rape and other atrocities, decline in population are some of the ill – effects of foeticide.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 19.
How do you prove that society is intolerant towards girl children?
Answer:
As per National Health Survey-3 Report, the mortality rate of male child was 53.6% whereas the mortality rate of female child was 34.6% in the last ten years. But the mortality rate of male child after birth is 16.5% whereas the same for female child is 19.3%. This shows the amount of intolerance society has towards the girl child.

Question 20.
State some measures to stop female foeticide.
Answer:

  1. Ensure equal rights to women in society.
  2. Ensure strict implementation of Pre – Conception and Pre – Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 1994.

Question 21.
Name the Act enacted to stop female foeticide and arrest the declining sex ratio in India.
Answer:
The Pre – Conception and Pre – Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 1994 is the Act enacted to stop female foeticides and arrest the declining sex ratio in India.

Question 22.
What is hunger?
Answer:
Hunger is a state where the necessary intake of food is not available to an individual.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 23.
What is meant by invisible hunger?
Answer:
To be healthy, an individual needs nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and salts in the right proportion. If these requirements are not fulfilled, it is called invisible hunger.

Question 24.
What is the minimum calorie intake necessary for an individual in India, according to FA.O.?
Answer:
According to F.A.O.,the minimum calorie intake necessary for. an individual in India is 1820 calories.

Question 25.
When is a person said to be suffering from hunger and malnutrition?
Answer:
If a person consumes less than 1632 calories of food, he is said to be suffering from hunger and malnutrition.

Question 26.
What are the different forms in which hunger exists?
Answer:
The different forms in which hunger exists are:

  1. Absence of required quantity of food for survival.
  2. Lack of food having nutrition in the required proportion, leading to health complications such as physical handicaps, lack of strength, ill health and untimely death.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 27.
Why is the hunger index created?
Answer:
The hunger index is created to understand the extent of hunger in human society.

Question 28.
Mention the three aspects of hunger index.
Answer:
The three aspects of hunger index are:

  1. The percentage of people who receive less than minimum calorie of food intake.
  2. The percentage of children below five years of age who are underweight.
  3. The mortality rate of children below five years of age.

Question 29.
How is the hunger index calculated?
Answer:
Hunger index is the average of:

  1. The percentage of people who receive less than minimum calorie of food intake.
  2. The percentage of children below five years of age who are underweight.
  3. The mortality rate of children below five years of age. That is,
    KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems 1

Question 30.
What are the ill – effects of hunger?
Answer:
High infant mortality rates, vulnerability to diseases and common illnesses, increased risk of infection, etc., are some of the ill – effects of foeticide.

Question 31.
What is malnutrition?
Answer:
Malnutrition is often used to refer to the condition that results from not having enough to eat or eating a diet in which there is a deficiency of certain vital nutrients.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 32.
What is gender?
Answer:
Gender refers to the state of being male or female. It is typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones.

Question 33.
Why is it necessary to understand development from gender perspective?
Answer:
Gender is commonly understood from woman’s perspective only. In the developmental context, gender is used to study issues related to women. Because women and children are the ones who are usually left behind in the development process, it becomes important to understand development from the gender perspective.

Question 34.
What is gender discrimination?
Answer:
Gender discrimination means discriminating on the basis of a person’s sex or gender. It refers to unequal or disadvantageous treatment of individuals due to their gender.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 35.
Mention the types of gender discrimination.
OR
List the types of gender discrimination identified by Amartya Sen.
Answer:
The following are the types of gender discrimination identified by Amartya Sen:

  1. Inequality in birth rate
  2. Inequality in infrastructure
  3. Inequality in opportunities
  4. Inequality in ownership
  5. Inequality in family.

Question 36.
Explain the different types of gender discrimination.
Answer:
The different types of gender discrimination are:
(a) Inequality in birth rate – In patriarchal societies preference is given to male child over a female child. As a result, female foeticide is a common practice.

(b) Inequality in infrastructure – Even when demographic characteristics do not show much or any anti-female bias, there are other ways in which women are discriminated against. In many countries girls have less access to schooling than boys. Girls are not allowed to participate in developmental programmes.

(c) Inequality in opportunities – Even when there is relatively little difference in basic facilities including schooling, the opportunities of higher education may be far fewer for young women than for young men. In terms of employment as well as promotion in work and occupation, women often face greater handicap than men.

(d) Inequality in ownership – Gender discrimination is evident in land and house ownership. This nakes it harder for women to enter and flourish in economic and even some social activities.

(e) Inequality in family – There are, often, basic inequalities in gender relations within the family or the household, which can take different forms. Sometimes the family arrangements can be quite unequal in terms of sharing the burden of housework and child care.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 37.
What is child marriage?
Answer:
A marriage where either the woman is below age 18 or the man is below age 21 is considered a child marriage according to law.

Question 38.
Why shouldn’t child marriages be encouraged?
OR
Child marriage is considered a crime. Why?
Answer:
First, child marriages are illegal. Secondly, for a girl to enter the institution of marriage, she should be mentally and physically prepared to handle the functions of marriage such as bearing of children. Thirdly, a child marriage affects not only the married couple, it also affects the physical and psychological well-being of the children born out of such marriages. Hence, child marriage is considered a crime.

Question 39.
What are the reasons for child marriage?
Answer:

  1. Gender discrimination is the primary reason for child marriage. It is believed that, since a girl goes to another family after marriage, it is better to send her early.
  2. Lack of education : Children, who do not go to school, end up marrying early.
  3. Lack of proper implementation of the law is another reason.
  4. Lack of participation on the part of the community and the general public in the implementation of child rights and child development programmes.

Question 40.
Child marriages breed child marriages. Justify.
Answer:
People who went through child marriages strive to get their children married off early. Thus child marriages breed child marriages.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 41.
How do you say that education plays a major role in the prevention of child marriages?
Answer:
Lack of education is one of the main reasons for child marriage. As the children do not go to school, they end up marrying early. Usually, if a family educates a girl till class 10, the girl is not married off till she attains the age of 18 years. Hence, education plays a major role in the prevention of child marriages.

Question 42.
Name the law enacted to eradicate child marriages.
Answer:
The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 has been enacted to eradicate child marriages.

Question 43.
What are the provisions of the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006?
Answer:
According to the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 it is a crime to marry even when either the girl or the boy is a minor. If a child marriage takes place, the people who initiated the marriage, the people who conducted or motivated the marriage are liable for imprisonment which may extend to two years, or with fine up to Rupees one lakh, or both. As per the provisions of the Act, the parents of the boy/girl, the priest, the photographer, videographer, cook, owner of the marriage hall and whoever encourages or participates in the child marriage are considered as offenders.

Question 44.
What are the effects of child marriage?
Answer:
The holistic development of children is stunted by child marriage. Atrocities like sexual assaults increase. Rights of children such as education, entertainment, childhood, etc., are violated. Children fall into the trap of malnutrition, anemia, diseases, abortions, infanticide and maternal mortality. The chance of a girl becoming a widow at a young age is also more and becomes a victim of violence easily.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 45.
How can you prevent child marriages?
Answer:
The Government of Karnataka has designated 47 officers of different levels as child marriage prevention officers. Hence, whenever a child marriage takes place, one can complain to any of these officers. One can also complain to the headmaster of the neighbouring government school, village accountant, Panchayat Development Officer, Health Inspectors or the nearest police station. Apart from this, all district and taluk level officials are child marriage prevention officers.

Question 46.
Suggest solutions to the problem of child marriage.
Answer:

  1. Implementation of programmes to prevent dropout of children from schools/colleges before the age of 18.
  2. Making registration of births compulsory.
  3. Importance should be given to education of girls and their empowerment.
  4. Child marriages should be questioned, opposed and reported whenever and wherever they take place.

Question 47.
What is child trafficking?
Answer:
If any human being below 18 years of age is employed, transferred, shifted, sheltered, sent or owned with the intention of exploitation, it is called child trafficking.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 48.
What are the reasons for child trafficking?
Answer:
Child labour, child marriage, school dropout, poverty, negligence about children in families, bonded labour are some of the main reasons for child trafficking. Apart from these, frequent migration and shifting of residence, over – exposure to internet and social media, social inequalities, gender discrimination, lack of skills, financial difficulties in families are also responsible for child trafficking.

Question 49.
Devadasi system is an inhuman practice. Why?
Answer:
Due to devadasi system children are forced into sexual slavery and child marriages.

Question 50.
What are the effects of child trafficking?
Answer:
Child trafficking affects the holistic development of children. Children are exposed to physical, psychological and sexual exploitation. Many children are infected with AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. They undergo unwanted pregnancies, abortions, forced pregnancies, and drug addictions.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 51.
Name the Act enacted to prevent child trafficking.
Answer:
The Immoral Traffic Prevention Act, 1956 has been enacted to prevent child trafficking.

Question 52.
What are the provisions of Immoral Traffic Prevention Act, 1956?
Answer:
The Immoral Traffic Prevention Act, 1956 prohibits trafficking in children and women. Any person who lures children or women with the intention of trafficking or trafficks them, shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

Question 53.
Suggest measures to prevent child trafficking.
Answer:

  1. Formation of Child Rights Clubs in schools.
  2. Formation of Child Protection Committees in schools.
  3. Organising Children Grama Sabhas to know the problems of children.
  4. Formation of Child Rights Protection Units at the Panchayat level to address issues related to children.
  5. Formation of Women and Children Trafficking Prevention Committees at the Panchayat level to not only solve
  6. problems relating to trafficking but also prevent human trafficking in its jurisdiction.
  7. Formation of Baalika Sanghas in all anganwadis to educate girls about gender discrimination,child labour,child marriage, child trafficking, child rights, laws relating to children, malnutrition, etc.

Multiple – choice Questions

Question 1.
This is one of the reasons for child labour:
(A) Lack of education
(B) Child marriage
(C) Sexual violence against children
(D) Gender discrimination
Answer:
(A) Lack of education

Question 2.
The extent of hunger in the world is calculated by ________
(A) calories
(B) malnourishment
(C) malnutrition
(D) hunger index
Answer:
(D) hunger index

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 3.
Gender discrimination is responsible for ________
(A) child labour
(B) child marriages
(C) child trafficking
(D) hunger and malnutrition
Answer:
(B) child marriages

Question 4.
The Immoral Traffic Prevention Act, 1956 prohibits trafficking in ________
(A) women
(B) children
(C) women and children
(D) child labourers
Answer:
(C) women and children

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Social Problems

Question 5.
The Act enacted to prevent female foeticide is ________
(A) The Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
(B) The Pre – Conception and Pre – Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 1994
(C) The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012
(D) The Immoral Traffic Prevention Act, 1956
Answer:
(B) The Pre – Conception and Pre – Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 1994

Fill in the blanks

  1. Article 24 of the Indian Constitution prohibits child labour.
  2. The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act was implemented in the year 2006
  3. A national policy was implemented in the year 1987 for the welfare of child labourers.
  4. The law prohibiting female foeticide was implemented in the year 1994
  5. The law protecting children from sexual offences was implemented in the year 2012

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