Students can Download Economics Chapter 4 Labour and Employment Questions and Answers, Notes, KSEEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka State Syllabus Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 4 Labour and Employment
Class 9 Social Science Labour and Employment Textual Questions and Answers
I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
Labour is a __________ input in production.
Working age group refers to ___________ years.
15 to 60
The share of female workers in the total workforce of India is about ___________
As economic development takes place, the share of workers in _________ sector declines.
MGNREGA was passed in the year __________
II. Discuss in groups and answer the following :
What is the meaning of labour?
By labour, we mean the capacity to exercise physical or mental effort for the purpose of producing goods or services by human beings.
What is the unorganized sector?
The unorganised sector includes those small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government.
Unemployment is a situation where able people who are capable of working both physically and mentally at the existing wage rate do not get job opportunities.
How is the unemployment rate measured?
Explain the main causes of unemployment in India.
Main causes of unemployment in India are :
- Jobless Growth: The use of modern technology resulted in a low level of employment creation. The low level of growth in the primary sector curtailed the job opportunities at rural level. Thus it resulted in jobless growth.
- Increase in Labour Force: Population growth has been adding more labour force to the market. In rural areas, whereas op account of growing labour force unemployment has increased mainly in disguised form, in urban areas it is open and visible.
- Inappropriate Technology: In India, the technology being used in agriculture and industries has become increasingly capital intensive leading to less labour absorption.
- Dependence on Agriculture.
- The decline of Small Scale and Cottage Industries.
- Low Mobility of labour.
All these are main causes of unemployment in India.
What are the types of unemployment?
Types of unemployment in India are :
- Rural Unemployment: There are two types of rural unemployment:
- Disguise unemployment,
- Seasonal unemployment.
- Urban unemployment: There are two types in it. They are :
- Industrial unemployment,
- Educated unemployment.
The other types of unemployments are:
- Fractional unemployment
- Casual unemployment
- Structural unemployment
- Technical unemployment
- Cyclical unemployment
- Chronical unemployment
Write the objectives and functioning of MGNREGA.
MGNREGA is the world’s largest anti-poverty programme and has been successful in reducing poverty and empowering women. Outlining the positive impact of MGNREGA, the report said that for the first time women are being paid at par with men, and that women out number men in the job scheme. As many of the women got work for the first time their household income levels also went up. The MGNREGA has also boosted access to a bank account by women as the wages are transferred electronically to the beneficiary’s account.
Write a note on Gender Dimension of Labour.
Gender Dimension of Labour: The following aspects of women employment may be observed:
- Marginalization of work : Women constitute nearly 31% of the labour force in rural area and 20% in urban areas. The female labour force participation is declining while that of males is increasing. Female labour force participation in India declined from approximately 40 per cent in the 1990s to 22.5 per cent in 2011-12.
- Barriers of Employment : Women face multiple barriers relating to access to employment, choice of work, working conditions, employment security, wage parity, discrimination, and balancing the competing burdens of work and family responsibilities.
- Economic dependence of women: In 2004-05, 85 percent of the female population was completely financially dependent and without any, employment/ income.
- characterized by low productivity activities (63 per cent versus 44 per cent of males): a lower share of women are engaged in regular employment (13 per cent, as against 20 per cent of males): and a significant share of urban women work in the service sector as domestic workers.
Higher social spending, including investment in education, can lead to higher female labour force participation Representation of women in higher cadres of employment (IAKAS) needs to be improved as well as in legislative assemblies, councils and Parliament.