Karnataka Class 10 English Solutions Chapter 2 The Elixir of Life

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The Elixir of Life Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

Comprehension Questions:

I. Answer briefly the following questions.

Question 1.
What is the imaginary elixir of life?
Answer:
The divine amrita which can make man immortal.

Question 2.
What according to the writer is the real elixir of life?
Answer:
Plain water.

Question 3.
What is the ‘wonderful difference’ the writer talks about in paragraph 2?
Answer:
The ‘wonderful difference’ the writer talks about is between the two areas: the Libyan desert and the Nile Valley – the sea of billowing sand without a speck of green on the side of the Libyan desert and the green, fertile, densely populated area on the valley of the Nile in Egypt.

Question 4.
What brought about this wonderful difference?
Answer:
The wonderful difference was brought about by the water of the river Nile flowing down to the Mediterranean from its sources a couple of thousands of miles away.

Question 5.
What is the ‘cheering sight’, mentioned in paragraph 5?
Answer:
The ‘cheering sight’ to the writer is the filled rain-fed tanks that are so common in South India.

Question 6.

  1.  What does the writer compare water in a landscape too?
  2. Why does he make this comparison?

Answers:

  1. The writer compares water in a landscape to the eyes in a human face.
  2.  He makes this comparison because water reflects the mood of the hour, being bright and bay when the sun shines, turning to dark and gloomy when the sky is overcast.

Question 7.
How does the water in rainfed tanks get its color?
Answer:
The color of the water in rain-fed tanks is from the silt or finely- divided soil in suspension. This color varies with the nature of the earth in the catchment area and is most vivid immediately after a fresh inflow following rain.

Question 8.
What is the main cause of soil erosion?
Answer:
Sudden bursts of excessively heavy rain resulting in a large run off of surplus water are the principal factors causing soil erosion.

Question 9.
What other factors add to the erosion of precious soil?
Answer:
Contributory causes to the erosion of previous soil are the slope of the land, removal of the natural protective coat of vegetation, the existence of ruts along which the.water can flow rapidly gathering momentum, and the absence of any checks to such flow.

Question 10.
How can soil erosion be prevented?
Answer:
Soil erosion can be prevented by terracing of the land, construction of bunds to check the flow of water, the practice of contour cultivation and the planting of appropriate types of vegetation.

Question 11.
How does the prevention of soil erosion serve a double purpose?
Answer:
Adoption of techniques preventing soil erosion would also help to conserve and keep the water where it is wanted, i.e., on and in the soil.

Question 12.
What are the two sources of water mentioned in paragraph 10?
Answer:
Rain and snowfall.

Question 13.
The land formed of silt in alluvial areas is always fertile (Say whether the statement is True or False).
Answer:
True.

Question 14.
_________ Takes place when water carrying silt mixes with the salt water of the sea (Complete the sentence with the appropriate word).
Answer:
Erosion

Question 15.
Planting of the appropriate type of vegetation will result in _________
a. the continuance of successful agriculture.
b. the terracing of the land.
c. preventing environmental pollution.
d. reducing the momentum of the flow of water.
Answer:
(d) reducing the momentum of the flow of water.

Question 16.
What does the writer mean by ‘civilized forests’?
Answer:
Forests created by the deliberate planting of saplings by human beings, as contrasted with wild and untamed natural jungles.

Question 17.
Mention any two advantages of civilized forests.
Answer:
Civilized forests would, directly and indirectly, prove a source of untold wealth to the country. They would check soil erosion and conserve the rainfall of the country from flowing away to waste.

Question 18.
How will the development of hydro-electric power help to overcome the inadequacy of water supply?
Answer:
The development of hydro-electric power would enable underground water to be tapped to a greater extent than at present, and thus help to overcome the difficulties arising from irregularity or inadequacy of other sources of supply.

Question 19.
Complete the following sentences with appropriate details:
a. The Nile Valley is the creation of ________
Answer:
the river itself. It was brought down as the finest silt in its flood waters, from the highlands of Abyssinia and from remote Central Africa, and laid down through the ages in the trough through which the Nile flows into the sea.

b. _____ are a ‘cheering sight’.
Answer:
Rain-fed tanks in South India when they are full.

c. A remarkable feature of water is its power to carry ______
Answer:
silt or finely-divided soil in suspension.

d. It is the silt which gives _____ to the water in rainfed tanks
Answer:
the characteristic water.

e. __________ the foundation of all agriculture
Answer:
The upper layer of soil.

f. Ruts are formed by __________
Answer:
rapidly flowing rainwater.

g. Terracing of lands helps in _____________
Answer:
preventing soil erosion.

h. Indian agriculture depends heavily on _____________
Answer:
seasonal rainfall.

i. Farmyard manure should not be used as ____________
Answer:
fuel.

j. ____________ would enable the overall development of the rural economy.
Answer:
Availability of electric power.

II. Close Study:
Read the following extracts carefully. Discuss in pairs and then write the answers to the questions given below them.

Question 1.
Much of the Indian agriculture depends on seasonal rainfall and is therefore very sensitive to any failure or irregularity of the same
a. In what context does the writer say these words?
Answer:
The writer talks about soil erosion and the importance of conservation of water. Conservation of water would help agriculture at times of irregular or inadequate rainfall. The techniques of conservation of water would prevent soil erosion which is of great importance to agriculture.

b. What does “same” refer to?
Answer:
“Same” refers to rainfall in India.

c. Why is Indian agriculture “very sensitive”?
Answer:
Since Indian agriculture depends on seasonal rainfall and does not have many other sources of water, it is “very sensitive” – easily affected by inadequate or irregular rainfall.

Question 2.
They would check soil erosion and conserve the rainfall of the country from flowing away to waste and would provide the necessary supplies of cheap fuel, and thus render unnecessary the wasteful conversion of farmyard manure into a form of fuel.
a. What does “they” in the first line refer to?
Answer:
Vegetation like shrubs and trees grown in order to check soil erosion.

b. What is the cheap fuel referred to in the passage?
Answer:
Dried branches and leaves of trees grown to prevent soil erosion.

c. How would cheap fuel help the farmer?
Answer:
He could preserve the farmyard manure to enrich his farmland.

III. Paragraph Writing:

Discuss in pairs/groups of 4 each and answer the following questions. Note down the important points for each question and then develop the points into one paragraph answers.

Question 1.
How does C.V. Raman show that water is the real elixir of life?
Answers:

  1. Water makes the difference between a barren desert and a fertile valley teeming with life and vegetation.
  2. Water plays an important role in shaping the history of the earth.
  3. Water bodies add to the beauty of the scenery.
  4. Water has power to cany silt which is very necessary for agriculture.
  5. Water creates this silt by flowing over the rocks of the earth’s crust.
  6. Water is the basis of all life, animals, plants or human beings.

Paragraph: C.V. Raman shows that water is the elixir of life. He gives us the example of the Libyan desert where there is no vegetation and not a single living thing visible. On the other hand, in the immediate neighbourhood the Nile Valley is teeming with vegetation, and people. The water of the Nile Valley has made all the difference. He says that water is a wonderful thing and it has shaped the history and the civilization of our earth. He also adds that the presence of water makes the countryside beautiful and it has enabled agriculture to thrive. Water enriches soil and makes it fertile. If water is used judiciously, it can improve our economy by generating electricity as well and provide us with cheap means of internal transport. He tells us that water is fundamental for human welfare.

Question 2.
What are the various causes of soil erosion? How can we prevent it?
Answers:

  1. Heavy rain
  2. Slope of land, removal of vegetation, ruts which enable water to flow faster and absence of my barriers to check flow of water.
  3. preventive action would be terracing of land, consu action ui aunds to check flow, contour cultivation, planting of vegetation.

Paragraph : C.V. Raman tells that soil erosion is a major problem in India. Soil erosion happens due to several reasons: Firstly, a sudden downpour of heavy rain can result in excess water carxying top soil into the sea. Secondly, the slope of the land and the removal of the natural protective coat of vegetation, and the existence of ruts along which water can flow rapidly can giv. se to erosion. Thirdly, the lack of bunds to prevent water from flowing forcefully can lead to erosion of soil.

Question 3.
What does C.V. Raman say about rain-fed tanks?
Answers:

  1. Rain-fed tanks common in South India.
  2. Beautiful when full.
  3. Shallow but bottom does not show up.
  4. Play a vital role in agriculture.
  5. Are surprisingly large in size.

Paragraph : C. V. Raman tells us that rain-fed tanks are common in South India and they are beautiful when they are full. But they are not well maintained. These tanks are shallow. The water in these tanks is full of silt. These tanks play an important role in South Indian agriculture. Some of them are large and look beautiful when the sun rises or sets over them.

IV. Vocabulary Exercises:

A. Match the words in group A with their meanings/explanations in group B.

A          B
1. teeming with a. systematic planting of suitable trees
2. precipitation b. the area created with matter deposited by rivers
3. harnessing c. controlling and using
4. alluvial d. man-made forests
5. catchment e. wearing away gradually
6. civilized forests f. coming one after the other
7. afforestation g. full of
8. artesian h. separation of solid matter from liquid
9. successive i. spring /underground water
10. erosion j. an area from which rainwater flows into a particular drive

Answers:

A B
1. teeming with g. full of
2. precipitation h. separation of solid matter from liquid
3. harnessing c. controlling and using
4. alluvial b. the area created with matter deposited by rivers
5. catchment j. an area from which rainwater flows into a particular drive
6. civilized forests d. man-made forests
7. afforestation a. systematic planting of suitable trees
8. artesian i. spring /underground water
9. successive f. coming one after the other
10. erosion e. wearing away gradually

B. Fill in the blanks with the antonyms Of the words underlined.

  1. The rain-fed tanks are ______, not deep.
  2. The authorities who talk about afforestation are actively engaged in _______
  3. The rural students have fared better than their _______ counterparts.
  4. It is a big tragedy that fertile minds are engaged in a _______ debate.
  5. The fruits were fresh, but the cream was _______
  6.  _______ monuments are aesthetically displayed in a modern setting.
  7. In his writings, it is difficult to segregate fact from ________
  8. The joy in the new-found prosperity made them forget their days of _______
  9. When he saw her courage he felt ashamed of his own ________
  10. We need to overcome our temptation, not _______ to it.

Answers:

  1. shallow
  2. deforestation
  3. urban
  4. barren
  5. stale
  6. Ancient
  7. fiction
  8. poverty/adversity
  9. cowardice
  10. succumb.

V. Language Activities:

A. Develop the flow chart into a paragraph- Process Writing:
The following flow chart gives you the process of pickling tender mangoes. Using the information in the flow chart given below, write a paragraph describing how pickle is prepared.
[NOTE: You may use the following expressions to make’ your descriptions precise.]

Question 1.
First,… Next…. Once this is done…
Then… Finally etc….

KSEEB SSLC Class 10 English Solutions Chapter 2 The Elixir of Life 1

Answer:
Here is the procedure of pickle tender mangoes. Firstly, one kg. of small, fresh tender mangoes are washed and cleaned. To drain the water thoroughly, the mangoes are wiped with a clean towel. Next, they are mixed with enough salt and kept in a jar which is covered with a piece of cloth and tied tightly. Once this is done, it is left for 15 days. The mixture is stirred with a clean, dry wooden ladle on the 3rd, 4th, 6th and 8th days. The mangoes will have shrunk and turned to pale yellow color. Then, 3/4 of a cup of mustard powder and 50 gms of red chilly powder are taken along with boiled, cooled salt water or mixed into a paste. This paste is mixed with mangoes. Finally, the mixture is again kept in an air-tight container. It is ready for use in 3 months. A word of caution to be remembered is that only a clean, dry spoon has to be used to mix the mangoes.

B. Report Writing (to be presented in the next class)
Imagine, you are the Secretary of the Eco Club ‘NESARA’ of your school. You have been asked to present the Annual Report of the activities of the club on the Annual Day of your school. Prepare the report to be read out.

Form groups of 4 each. Each one reads out his/her report to the group. Make use of the following guidelines.

  • Address the guests and introduce the task.
  • NESARA – Eco Club-founded in 2006
  • Objective – creating awareness about environmental protection among students
  • Eco club-Head Master, the honorary president-Kishore from X B, the president-you from X A, the secretary and five members
  • June 6 – Inauguration – World Environment Day Celebrated – Well known writer Dr. Narendra Rai Derla, inaugurated. 500 Saplings distributed.
  • July 17 – Slide show on ‘Rain Water Harvesting arranged – noted environmentalist Mr. Shree Padre spoke on the occasion.
  • Aug 2 -‘Pick Plastic’ campaign arranged- members went around the town, picking plastics.- placards exhibited, slogans against the growing menace of plastics.
  • District level elocution competition for high school students held on Nov 15 on the topic, ‘Modern Life Style, A Threat to Environment’ – Cash prize and certificates awarded.

Answer:
‘Honourable Chief Guest of the day, Shri ………….., Respected President of the day’s proceedings, Shri ……….., our beloved Head Master Shri …………, Respected teachers and my dear friends,

It gives me great pleasure to present the Annual Report of the activities of ‘Nesara’ the Eco Club of our school. Our Eco Club -NESARA- was founded in 2006 with the objective of creating awareness about environmental protection among students. Our Headmaster is the honorary president of the club. Kishore from X B is the President and me, Sameer, from X A, the Secretary. There are five more
members.

The activities for the academic year 2014-15 were inaugurated on the 6th of June. World Environment Day was celebrated. The well-known writer, Dr. Narendra Rai Derla, inaugurated the celebrations. 500 saplings were
distributed in the neighborhood.

On the 17th of July, a slide show on ‘Rain Water Harvesting’ was arranged. The noted Environmentalist Mr. Shree Padre spoke on the occasion. On August 2, a ‘Pick Plastic’ campaign was arranged.
The club members went around the town, picking plastics. Placards were exhibited, and slogans against the growing menace of plastics were raised.

Finally, there was a district level elocution competition held for high school students on November 15 on the topic, ‘Modern Life Style – A Threat to Environment’. Many students participated in the competition. Cash prizes and certificates were awarded.

With this, we come to the end of the report of the eco club. We look forward to many more activities next academic year. I thank everybody for their patient hearing.

C. Study the following Pie Chart carefully. It lists the various sectors responsible for gas emissions and their share in creating Global Warming. Using this information write a paragraph in about 100 words on ‘Global Warming’.

KSEEB SSLC Class 10 English Solutions Chapter 2 The Elixir of Life 2

Answer:
The above pie-chart lists the various sectors responsible for gas emissions and their share in creating global warming.

The maximum gas emissions are by electricity at 33% whereas the next place is taken by transport at 27%. Surprisingly, the industry takes the third position at 19% whereas commercial activities and agriculture occupy the fourth position at 7%. Residential activities do not lag far behind. They account for 6% of gas emissions whereas others contribute 1% of gas emissions.

VI. Project : (Time limit: 10 days) (Your Teacher will help you)
Topic: Sharing Cauvery Water with Tamil Nadu.
Task: The class is divided into 4 groups. Each group focuses on one area of the problem-Collects information from different sources, organizes the material and makes an oral/power point presentation to the class. The tasks are given below.

  • Group I: What are the demands of Tamil Nadu?
  • Group II: What is Karnataka’s stand on this issue?
  • Group III: What are the judgments were given by the Supreme Court and what are the orders issued by the Cauvery River Authority?
  • Group IV: Interacts with all the three groups, notes down their findings and comes out with suggestions on how the problem can be resolved and makes a presentation to the class. (Important: ensure objectivity)

Answer:
The sharing of water of the Cauvery has been a source of serious conflict between the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The genesis of this conflict rests in two controversial agreements signed in 1892 and another in 1924 between the erstwhile Madras Presidency and the Princely state of Mysore. The 802 km Cauvery river has 44,000 sq. km basin area in Tamil Nadu and 32,000 sq. km basin area in Karnataka.

  • Group-I: The demands of Tamil Nadu:
    Tamil Nadu pleads that it has already developed almost 3000,000 acres (12,000 sq.km) of land and, as a result, has come to depend very heavily on the existing pattern of usage. Any change in this pattern will adversely affect the livelihood of millions of farmers in the state.
  • Group-II: Karnataka’s Stand :
    The state of Karnataka contends that it does not receive its due share of water as Tamil Nadu does. Karnataka claims that the above agreements were very heavily in favor of Madras Presidency, and has demanded a negotiated settlement based on equitable sharing of the waters.
  • Group-III: Judgements of Supreme Court:
    A three-man tribunal was set up on 2nd June 1990. The Tribunal was headed by Justice Chittosh Mukherjee. The four states presented their demands to the tribunal.

Karnataka claimed 465 billion cubic feet; Kerala claimed 99.5 billion cubic feet; Tamil Nadu claimed the flow should be in accordance with agreements of 1890 and 1924, i.e. 566 billion for TN and Puducherry, 177 billion for Karnataka and 5 billion for Kerala.

Interim Order of the tribunal: ‘The tribunal considered TN’s demand and gave an interim order on June 25 1991, calculating the flow of water for 10 years from 1980-81 to 1989-90. Karnataka had to release 205 billion cu.ft. to TN monitored on weekly and monthly inflows. Karnataka expressed its inability to follow this order as a result of which there was violence, and schools and colleges were closed for a month.

In 1957, the government proposed Constitution of Cauvery River Authority. In 2002, things once again came to a head as a result of the failure of monsoon. A meeting of CRA was called on 27 August 2002, when the Chief Minister of Karnataka walked out.

The Supreme Court ordered the release of 1.25 billion cu.ft. every day, subsequently revised to 0.8 billion cu.ft./ day. Karnataka released for a few days and again stopped, pleading lack of stored water.

The Cauvery Water Dispute Tribunal announced its final verdict on 5 Feb. 2007. According to this, Tamil Nadu is to get 419 billion, Karnataka – 277 billion, Kerala – 30 billion and Puducherry – 7 billion. The actual quantity of water to be released by Karnataka amounted to 192 billion annually. The Government notified the tribunal’s order.

  • Group-IV: The Governments of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
    In the interests of the farmers dependent on the Cauvery water in all the riparian starts should sit together and implement immediately a decision to desilt the KRS dam so that the rainwater going to sea is reduced and so is the water shortage. This would increase the quantity of water available for sharing. Similarly, an effort should be made to enhance the storage in Mettur dam, thereby, instead of fighting for water, the available storage water area is increased wherever possible, and judicious use of water is undertaken.

VII: Grammer Revisited:
Countable and Uncountable Nouns.
A. A set of nouns has been given below. Indicate against each of the following nouns, whether it is a countable noun or an uncountable noun. Just put C or U against each word.
Answer:

KSEEB SSLC Class 10 English Solutions Chapter 2 The Elixir of Life 3

B. Make sentences using any ten uncountable nouns:
(Note: uncountable nouns do not take plural forms, they are not preceded by indefinite articles and they always take a singular verb.)
Answers:
Sentences using ten uncountable nouns.

  1. Safety is of paramount importance when traveling abroad.
  2. Truth often sounds harsh.
  3. Rice is grown widely in these areas.
  4. Her hair has grown very long.
  5. Permission was given to conduct the debate in class.
  6. The sand on that beach is almost white in color.
  7. Wealth should be shared with everyone.
  8. Advice from others is very rarely pleasant.
  9. She does her homework as soon as she comes home.
  10. The smoke passes out through that chimney.

The Elixir of Life Summary in English

1. Dr. C.V. Raman is a great scientist. His explorations are mainly in the field of optics. “Raman Spectra” is one of the greatest explorations in science field invented by him. Water has more importance for us. Unless the water, it is impossible to live in a proper way. Water is the elixir of life.

2. Dr. C. V. Raman gave an important task on the water that water gives beauty to nature such that when the sun shines or sets, that rays in the pond or river give beautiful, tremendous vision to us. Mainly, water adds beauty to the countryside. In South India, all tanks are filled with rain water with cheering sight.

3. Dr. C.V. Raman also suggested to humankind that the conservation and utilization of water is fundamental for human welfare. The precious fluid known to be water is lost if the water is not controlled.

4. Like this Dr. C.V. Raman gave an elaborate note of the unique power of the elixir of life, called water. When water carries silt or fine soil, water takes the color of the soil with which makes the land fertile. This flow of water makes a beneficial role in the formation of the earth’s surface. If we neglect this water, this water can, swept away the silt and finally destroy agriculture.

5. In the absence of plain water, it makes a land a dry and lifeless desert, but the presence of water then it turns the land most fertile.

The Elixir of Life Summary in Kannada

The Elixir of Life Summary in Kannada 1
The Elixir of Life Summary in Kannada 2
The Elixir of Life Summary in Kannada 3

KSEEB SSLC Class 10 English Solutions

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