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Karnataka State Syllabus Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India
Class 10 Social Science The Impact of British Rule in India Textual Questions and Answers
I. Fill in the following blanks with suitable answers:
Diwani Adalat in civil court was introduced by ……..
The post of Superintendent of Police was created by ………
The Permanent Zamindari system was implemented in Bengal and Bihar provinces in ……….
The Land tax system was, implemented by Alexander Reed is ………
The British Officer who supported the Modern Education in India is ………
The Regulating Act was implemented in the year ……….
II. Discuss and answer the following questions:
Illustrate the judicial system formulated through East India Company.
A new Judicial System started finding roots when the British rule began taking over from the Mughal rule. After the Battle of Buxar, the Mughal Emperor ShaAlam handed over the ‘Diwani Rights’, the authority to collect land taxes to the British. With this, Dual¬Administration came into effect in Bengal region. This is also called as ‘Dual¬Governance’. Under this, the authority to collect land taxes, civil and judiciary were given to the Indian officials, whereas the British retained the authority of managing the revenue collected. Later on the British thought of bringing more centralized judicial system in India. With the implementation of this system, the British overtook the authority of the Mughal and established their supremacy in India. This was attained by implementing new Judicial System in India.
According to the administrative plan devised by Warren Hastings who took over the administration as Governor in 1772, two types of courts were heeded to be established in each district:’ ‘A Dewani Aadalat as a civil court and ‘A Fouzadaari Aadalat as a criminal court. In these civil courts Hindus were dispensed justice as per the Hindu scriptures and the Muslims as per the Shariyat. Slowly, the British legal procedures were introduced in the criminal courts. Civil courts came under the administration of European officers. Though the criminal courts were under the control of ‘Qajis’, they were functioning under the supervision of European officers.
What are the measures under taken at the time of British in Police system?
The Police are in charge of maintaining the internal law and order situation. Lord Cornwallis implemented the efficient Police System in India for the first time. He created the new post of Superintendent of Police (SP). He divided a district into many ‘Stations’ and put every station under a ‘Kotwal’. Similarly he put every village under the care of ‘Chowkidhar’. ‘Kotwal’ was made accountable for thefts, crimes and other law violations at village level.
The severe drought of 1770 led to the weak law and order situation. Hence, the entire police system was brought under the control of the British Officers. The system of appointing British Magistrates started in 1781. The Police Officers were under the power of the Magistrates. The Police system underwent continuous changes. In 1861, the Police Law was implemented. This law is the base of good law and order administration. But, Indians were not appointed for the post of officers. In 1902, the Police Commission Law allowed the appointment of suitable educational qualification for the post of the police officers. In spite of all these measures, the discrirnination against the Indians did not end.
In permanent Zamindari system the Indian farmers “were born in debt, lived in debt and died in debt”. How? Prove.
- In order to generate steady revenue per annum. This was called the permanent Zamindari system.
- Lord corn Wallis has introduced this system in Bihar and Bengal.
- Zamindar became the landowner. He agreed to pay the land tax to the company.
- He was free to collect any amount of land taxes from the farmers
- He could retain the excess money collected.
- This benefited the zamindar more.
- If the Zamindar was unable to collect land taxes due to floods and famine and pay the company the ownership of the lands was taken away by the company.
- Both the zamindar and the company were benefited by this system.
- The farmers were the grave suffered.
- Farmers and labourers suffered due to irregular work.
- They were exploited and had to lead a life of insecurity. So Charles Metcaff say that: the Indian farmers were born in debt, lived in debt and died in debt due to land tax policies.
What were the main aspects of Ryotwari system?
The Ryotwari System was first implemented in Baramahal region by Alexander Reed in 1792. This system was later implemented in Madras and Mysore region by Thomas Monroe in 1801. Most of these regions had become part of British Empire by that time. Under this system, both the farmer and the company were directly linked. The tiller of the land was recognized as the owner of the land. The owner had to pay fifty percent of produce as land tax to the company government. The land tax had thirty years tenure. The tax could be reviewed after this tenure.
Though the small farmers were given land ownership, they were subjected to more suffering due to heavy land taxes.The officials took punitive actions to collect land taxes. The farmers had to borrow from the money lenders whenever the crops failed. They had to sell their lands whenever they failed to repay the loans. Though the company government claimed that the new system benefits the farmers, the irony was that more farmers had to lose their lands due to its implementation.
What were the effects of British Land taxes?
Following are the effects of British Land Tax System:
- A new class of Zamindars who exploited the farmers was created.
- The farmers who were subjected to the exploitation of the Zamindars became landless slowly.
- Land became a commodity. Loans could be raised by mortgaging the lands.
- Many Zamindars also had to mortgage their lands in order to pay the land taxes.
- The Agriculture sector became commercialized and had to grow raw materials needed by industries back in England.
- The money lenders became strong.
Make a list of the effects of British Education in India.
The traditional education of Indians was in practice continuously. Certain changes occurred in the traditional education system during the rule of Muslim kings during the middle, ages. Later, new changes occurred during the British rule during the 18th century. New schools were started for the children of British and Europeans living in India. Since these facilities were never extended to the locals, it was of no use for them. Warren Hastings facilitated the expansion of modern education in India. In 1781, he started ‘Calcutta Madarasa’. Jonathan Duncan, a British individual started Sanskrit College in Banaras in 1792. But, it was Charles Grant who pressed for the universalization of British’ education in India. It effects are :
- Indians could develop modernity, secularism, democratic attitudes and rationality along with Nationalistic ideals.
- The impetus was received for the local literature and languages. This facilitated unity in thinking process among the educated class.
- Periodicals started emerging. These scrutinized the policies and. working of the government which in turn enabled the Indians to have critical opinions on various issues.
- New social and religious reformation movements emerged.
- The thoughts of thinkers like J.S. Mill, Rousseau and Montesquieu brought fresh thinking in the mind of educated youth of India.
- The freedom struggles that were taking place across the globe influenced the Indians also.
- Indians could understand and appreciate their rich tradition.
Like this, the new thinking and cultural perception that emerged due to the British Education System created a new generation of Indians with progressive attitudes.
What were the restrictions imposed in Regulating Act?
The restrictions imposed in Regulating Act are :
- Before the implementation of the act, there were three presidencies under British rule. They are Bengal, Madras, and Bombay. All these three were independent administrative units. Under Regulating Act, the Bengal Presidency gained control over the other two presidencies.
- The Governor of Bengal became the Governor-General of all the three Presidencies.
- The Governor-General was authorized to direct, exercise control and to supervise over the other two presidencies.
- The Bombay and Madras presidencies could not declare, war on anyone or enter into peace agreements without prior approval of the Governor-General of Bengal Presidency and the Board of Directors of the Company. Only during acute emergencies, they were entitled to act independently.
- According to this Act, ‘Supreme Court of Judicature’ was established in Calcutta. In this central court, one Chief Justice and three ordinary judges were there.
What are the important features of the Indian government act of 1858?
The important features of the Indian Government Act, 1858 are :
- The license of East India Company was canceled and India was brought under the direct administration of the Queen.
- The post of Governor General was changed into ‘Viceroy’. Lord Canning became the first Viceroy of India.
- A new post called ‘Secretary Of State for India’ was created in the British government. The secretary was part of British cabinet and was responsible for the administration of India.
- A Council of India was created in order to assist the secretary in the administration. The council had fifteen members.
How does the India Government Act of 1935 become the base of Indian Constitution?
Most of the provisions in the Indian Constitution are based on this act. This act allowed the formation of fully responsible government by Indians. This act was applicable both to the Indian principalities and also to the British India regions. The following are the important features of this act:
- A federal system of Indian Principalities, British governed regions and dominion states was formed.
- Reserve Bank of India was established.
- Diarchy was established at the Centre.
- Diarchy was canceled at the regional level and autonomy was granted.
- The Federal Court was established.
What are the important features of 1919 act?
The following are the important features of this act:
- Act formulated the Bi-Cameral legislative body. Lower House and Upper House were formed.
- Diarchy was allowed at regional governments.
- A high commissioner was appointed for India.
- Promised to improve local self-government.
- The provincial budget was separated from the central budget.
- Separate Electoral College’ was extended for Muslims, Sikhs, Anglo- Indians, and Europeans.
Class 10 Social Science The Impact of British Rule in India Additional Questions and Answers
In order to achieve complete domination in India the British employed ……….. and ………. methods cleverly.
……….. established two courts namely, A Dewani Adalat and A Fouzadaari Adalat.
……….. was the base of administration during the British Rule.
In 1828 ………. was appointed as Government-General of India.
The Governor-General Lord Dalhousie established Universities in ………., ………. and ……….
Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras.
Charters were implemented once in …….. years.
Lord Cornwallis created the new post of ………….
Superintendent of Police (SP).
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