2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 7 The Gardener

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Karnataka 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 7 The Gardener

The Gardener Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

The Gardener Comprehension I

Question 1.
What qualities of the old man impressed the narrator?
Answer:
The old man impressed the narrator by his eyes suffused with strange memories and native intelligence. He had strong muscular arms, grey hairs and a beak-like nose. He had a newspaper tucked under his arm and a spade in his hands. The narrator felt the old man was a labourer, overseer and philosopher all rolled into one – a multi-dimensional personality.

Question 2.
Is it a significant factor that the old man came to the garden after walking hundreds of miles?
Answer:
Yes. The narrator learns from the old man that he had come to that garden after he had walked hundreds of miles. This fact becomes significant because, when he left his place, his intention was to die but once he came there the coconut grove and the place probably convinced him that he could live there comfortably. Moreover, before reaching this place he may have received the news of Basavaiah’s death and must have realized that life or death had no meaning for him. This transformation in his mindset may have prompted him to settle there.

Question 3.
The owner of the garden became lethargic because
a. the income of the garden improved dramatically.
b. he had become dependent upon the gardener.
c. there was nothing much left for the owner to do.
Answer:
(c) there was nothing much left for the owner to do.

Question 4.
Why did the owner’s wife start worrying about the strange ways of her husband?
Answer:
The owner of the coconut plantation was quite normal. He was working hard to bring about improvement in his earnings. Probably he had little expertise in managing agricultural workers. Therefore, he was looking for someone who would help him. That is why, the moment he spoke to the old man (Tamanna) he felt that he had got the kind of man he wanted. His expectations proved right and the old man helped him in every way and solved all his problems, which eventually resulted in increase in his income.

Once his worries disappeared and he had hardly any work to engage himself in, his personal attention went towards acquiring property and social prestige. It is quite natural that with social prestige also follow certain vices among which adultery was one. Adultery affects any woman. All along, her husband had been faithful to her and once his wife came to know that he was spending his money and time with other women, she got seriously worried. She found it hard to decide whether the arrival of the old man had done good or bad to her husband.

Question 5.
When did the old man decide to narrate his story?
Answer:
The old man, who had settled there in the coconut plantation for good, had watched the activities of the owner. Initially, the owner used to show interest in improving his plantation. Once the old man had solved all the problems, the owner had plenty of leisure and he became lazy. Secondly, he had more money which led him to expand his plantation. Then he had turned his gaze towards acquiring property and social prestige. Then he cultivated certain vices among which adultery was one.

KSEEB Solutions

One day, he saw the owner’s wife in the plantation. He saw her looking worried. He guessed that her husband’s activities had given her the worries. Therefore, when he saw her in the plantation he thought he should narrate his own story and try to caution her about her husband. He had understood the way we face ups and downs in our life. By doing so, he probably believed that she might be able to convince her husband about his mistakes and set his life right.

Question 6.
Tammanna considers his rival, Sangoji/Basavaiah, an important possession because
a. competition helps in the development of an individual.
b. Sangoji/Basavaiah leads a more colourful life.
c. rivalry offers new possibilities of life for him.
Answer:
(c) rivalry offers new possibilities of life for him.

Question 7.
“No, his name was not Sangoji, but Basavaiah,” said the old man because
a. he had really forgotten the name.
b. he wanted to keep the identity of his rival a secret
c. he was fictionalizing his past.
Answer:
(c) he was fictionalizing his past.

Question 8.
What unique strategy did Tammanna conceive to annihilate Basavaiah?
Answer:
When Tammanna came to know that Basavaiah had forcibly acquired two hundred acres of his land, he could not tolerate this invasion. Though his supporters explained to him all the means available to him, he was not satisfied with them because he knew that sooner or later Basavaiah would again try to outdo him by hook or by crook. Tammanna did not want Basavaiah to trouble him again. So, he hit on a unique plan. He took recourse to singing ballads and telling the people through them about the cruelty and the meanness of Basavaiah. This way he thought he could annihilate him completely.

Question 9.
Why does Basavaiah start inviting scholars and musicians to his place?
OR
How did Basavaiah try to overcome his humiliation?
Answer:
Once Tammanna started making mention of Basavaiah’s cruelty and meanness in his songs, Tammanna became very popular among scholars of folklore and critics. Basavaiah watched all this in humiliation. Basavaiah tried to redress his humiliation by acquiring material wealth. He bedecked himself with gold, diamonds and other precious stones, and started living in a palatial mansion. But the visitors to his house told him that his house looked dull and empty because Tammanna’s books were not there. Basavaiah thought of investing his home with meaning by inviting scholars, poets and musicians to his place.

Question 10.
What was Basavaiah’s ray of hope in his attempts to outwit Tammanna?
Answer:
When Basavaiah failed in all his attempts to outwit Tammanna, he came to know that Tammanna had fallen ill. This news cheered up Basavaiah’s spirits. This gave him a ray of hope that by keeping himself healthy he could outwit Tammanna who was ill. Tammanna’s disease became Basavaiah’s health.

Question 11.
Tammanna decides to give up everything and leave the place because of
a. he sees no purpose in living there.
b. he wants to create an impression that he is dead.
c. he wants to put an end to the rivalry.
Answer:
(b) he wants to create an impression that he is dead.

Question 12.
Tammanna forgets his songs and ballads because
a. he finds them futile.
b. he doesn’t need them anymore.
c. he avenges himself.
Answer:
(b) he doesn’t need them anymore.

The Gardener Comprehension II

Question 1.
How did the owner’s lifestyle change after the arrival of the old man?
OR
“The old man’s stay on the farm led to many changes in the owner’s lifestyle.” Illustrate with details from the short story to support this statement.
Answer:
The owner had been working hard to improve his plantation, but there were many problems which he had not been able to solve. However, when the old man met him, he came to know that the old man was well-versed in agriculture and had native intelligence. Therefore he appointed him immediately. His expectations proved right. The old man proved his worth in solving all the problems. Consequently, the income from the garden improved dramatically. This caused a perceptible change in the lifestyle of the owner. He expanded his plantation.

However, he became lethargic and shied away from hard work. His wealth and social prestige also increased. He acquired a number of friends in the next town as well as in his own village. Even though he had precious little to do, his life became crowded with colourful events. He cultivated umpteen vices including adultery.

Question 2.
What advice did the supporters of Tammanna give for getting back his land?
Answer:
When Basavaiah acquired Tammanna’s two hundred acres forcibly, Tammanna could not tolerate this invasion. Tammanna’s supporters advised him about the various methods available for getting back his land. They told him that he could go to the court of law. He could also take recourse to the police. If he did not want to do either, there were any number of persons ready to attack Basavaiah and using force and violence to wrest his land from him.

Question 3.
How did Tammanna react to Basavaiah’s encroachment of his land?
Answer:
When Tammanna-came to know that Basavaiah had forcibly taken away two hundred acres of his land, he could not tolerate this invasion. When his supporters advised him to either go to the court or seek the help of the police or ask some persons to attack Basavaiah and take back his land forcibly, Tammanna hit on a unique idea, of annihilating Basavaiah. He thought of getting all his experiences composed in the form of ballads and telling the people through them about the cruelty and the meanness of Basavaiah.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
How did Basavaiah try to overcome his humiliation?
Answer:
When Tammanna started singing ballads through which he told the people about Basavaiah’s cruelty and his meanness, he became very popular. Many scholars of folklore and literary critics translated his songs and earned their share of the fame. All this made Basavaiah shrink in humiliation. However, he tried to redress his humiliation by acquiring more material wealth and luxuries. He got a palatial mansion built for himself. He appointed a number of persons just to praise him. He bedecked himself with gold, diamonds, and other precious stones. He even started inviting scholars, poets and musicians to his place with the intention of investing his home with meaning.

The Gardener Comprehension III

Question 1.
The rivalry between Tammanna and Basavaiah keeps moving from the visible domain to the invisible. Comment.
Answer:
In the beginning, there appeared to be a healthy competition between Tammanna and Basavaiah. Tammanna did not take Basavaiah as his rival at all. Therefore, when Basavaiah acquired fifteen admirers to outdo Tammanna’s ten friends, it did not come to Tammanna’s notice at all. Tammanna did whatever he wanted without bothering about Basavaiah. But Basavaiah did not keep quiet. When he came to know that Tammanna possessed one thousand acres of land, and he had only eight hundred, he could not tolerate this. He sent word to Tammanna asking him to sell two hundred acres to him. Tammanna did not agree.

On the contrary, he offered to buy all the land that belonged to Basavaiah. Therefore, Basavaiah went along with his people and acquired two hundred acres of Tammanna’s land forcibly and got a fence built around it. Tammanna could not tolerate this invasion. Later, when his supporters suggested to him that he could go to the court of law or the police or use his own people to attack him and forcibly wrest his land from him, Tammanna did not accept their suggestion. Tammanna probably thought that competing with Basavaiah by physical means has no end to it because it depends on who is able to muster more muscle power. Muscle power has its own limitations. Secondly, muscle power needs the involvement of many more people apart from Tammanna.

Moreover, as long as both of them were fighting by visible means people will not know who was trying to compete with whom. Until then, Basavaiah was the first one to show to the people he had more land, more friends, more wealth, etc. Tammanna never did anything to spite Basavaiah. Whatever Tammanna did, was on his natural inclination and not to spite Basavaiah. Therefore, Tammanna realized the limitations of competing with Basavaiah by physical means. That is why he thought of putting an end to the unhealthy rivalry of Basavaiah by taking recourse to something invisible. He took recourse to singing ballads and telling the people through them about the cruelty and the meanness of Basavaiah.

Question 2.
How does Tammanna adopt a counter-strategy to challenge the material wealth of Basavaiah?
Answer:
When Tammanna came to know that the rivalry between him and Basavaiah had reached a peak and that two hundred acres of his land had been forcibly taken away from him and had been even fenced up, Tammanna hit on a plan of annihilating Basavaiah completely. He got all his bitter experiences with Basavaiah composed in the form of ballads and started singing them before the people, announcing to everyone Basavaiah’s cruelty and his meanness. This way his reputation as an artist started spreading fast and critics and scholars of folklore thronged him and translated his songs.

Question 3.
Tammanna turns reflective in the course of his life. What does this tell us about human nature?
Answer:
‘The Gardener’ is the story of Tammanna, an old man, now employed in a coconut plantation. Though the story is initially narrated by the author, Tammanna himself becomes the narrator later. Tammanna is the protagonist in the story and he tells the story of the rivalry between two farmers Tammanna and Basavaiah. Though Tammanna is one of the characters in the story, the narrator does not disclose his identity till the end. The second narrator tells us that Tammanna was a farmer, had ten acres of land, a comfortable house and people too ready to carry out his orders. Then he tells us about his rival Basavaiah.

We learn from the narrator that Tammanna did not perceive Basavaiah as his rival initially. Tammanna led a normal life and became prosperous gradually and came to possess 1000 acres of land. Until some point whatever Basavaiah did to keep himself on par with Tammanna was seen as healthy competition.

But, one day, Basavaiah asks Tammanna to sell him his two hundred acres of land and Tammanna refuses. Basavaiah takes the land forcibly. Though there were various options available for getting his land back, Tammanna searches for a method that could annihilate Basavaiah completely. Instead of proving might is right or seeking justice from the court of law, Tammanna uses a different strategy. He composes and sings ballads about Basavaiah’s meanness and cruelty. Very soon Tammanna becomes very popular and Basavaiah has no answer to his brainy ideas.

KSEEB Solutions

Secondly, Tammanna having found meaningful engagement in ‘art’ forgets Basavaiah’s bad deeds. Just when Basavaiah is contemplating what to do next to spite Tammanna, he comes to know that Tammanna is ill. Basavaiah is pleased with the news. But their rivalry does not end there. Tammanna decides to outbeat him by manipulating the situation itself. He gives up everything and goes away to Chennarayapatna so as to spread the news that Tammanna is dead. Later Basavaiah dies a natural death. When Tammanna comes to know about his death, he becomes reflective. Though there is no cause-effect relationship between the rumour of Tammanna’s death and Basavaiah’s real death, Tammanna is shaken out of his senses.

Until then both Basavaiah and Tammanna indulged in rivalry to satisfy their ego. With the death of Basavaiah, Tammanna loses his identity and he becomes a non-entity. This makes Tammanna reflect over human nature and comes to the conclusion that man needs some issue to fight for or cling on to. In this game, when the loser dies it is natural for the winner to feel guilty. He suffers from a sense of guilt that he was responsible for Basavaiah’s death. Naturally, when Tammanna is accused by his own conscience, he becomes reflective. When one becomes reflective, one tends to review one’s own actions objectively. We do not normally attach emotions to our thinking and then we discover what went wrong and where. Here, both Tammanna and Basavaiah have not done anything ‘bad’ intentionally. They only fought imaginary battles and lived in a dream world of their own.

Man is mortal and all the glory that man believes to enjoy is created by our mind. Man is a dreamer and lives in a dream world of his own. Since man’s life has its own limitations, man’s dream and reality rarely go in unison. When reality overtakes man, the man comes to realize that he is only a puppet in the scheme of things and man is in reality ‘nothing’, but builds up his own image to boost his confidence so that life becomes meaningful as long as he is alive.

Question 4.
How does the reference to Russia and America provide another dimension to the story?
Answer:
‘The Gardener’ presents the story of two farmers who get actively involved in rivalry and each one tries to overtake the other in earnings, wealth and social prestige. But, at one point, Basavaiah takes recourse to force and forcibly occupies a part of Tammanna’s landholdings. Until now both of them had tried to upstage the other using tangible means. But now Tammanna realizes the limitations of muscle power and so uses his ‘intellect’ to unleash a strategy by which he wishes to annihilate Basavaiah completely. He gets all his bitter experiences with Basavaiah composed in the form of ballads and songs and sings them in public.

Thus, Tammanna tries to give a fitting reply to Basavaiah’s use of physical force and so their fight takes a psychological dimension. Basavaiah fails to match up to the manipulatory tactics of Tammanna and shrinks in humiliation. However, he tries to console his wounded pride by indulging in luxurious living. No matter what he does, he does not succeed in upstaging Tammanna. It is at this stage higher forces play their own role. Tammanna falls ill and Basavaiah enjoys psychologically telling himself that Tammanna’s disease is Basavaiah’s health. This way, Basavaiah gets the satisfaction of finding a reason to keep himself happy. So, here the story has now passed from the physical dimension to the psychological dimension.

At this stage, Tammanna comes out with another plan. He plans to use something beyond man’s life. Tammanna thinks that as long as Basavaiah knows that he is alive, Basavaiah will continue to take him as his rival. So Tammanna hits on an idea which works at a level higher than the physical and psychological level. His plan is to beat Basavaiah on another plane, which is beyond man’s limits. He knows for sure that if Basavaiah comes to think that Tammanna is dead, Basavaiah will stop treating him as his rival. Tammanna goes away to Chennarayapatna and spreads the news that Tammanna is dead. It is sheer coincidence that Basavaiah dies a natural death. But Tammanna comes to feel guilty that he was the cause of his death. This incident brings him back to his senses and he reflects over his life.

Now, after the death of Basavaiah, Tammanna has become a non-entity. When he reflects over their mutual game plans, Tammanna realizes that man invents several reasons to make his life meaningful. He also realizes that man can go on indulging in whims and fancies until a certain age only. Later, when the man comes to confront reality, he comes to see the truth. Then he becomes spiritual. That is when a man realizes his limitations. Thus we see the plot taking several dimensions from physical to psychological and then to spiritual.

But, this story also takes another dimension. Earlier, stories that used to focus on man’s vices like cruelty, meanness, greed, jealousy, rivalry, etc., used to be portrayed on a smaller canvas and the stories used to be confined to people living in towns, cities and kingdoms. We are now in the post-modern society and the common man is now being influenced by global forces. In traditional societies, solutions to man’s mundane, existential problems used to be found locally. A king or a Lord or a chieftain or a zamindar used to dispense justice. But this story is situated in a post-modern society.

When Basavaiah acquires Tammanna’s land forcibly, Tammanna’s followers offer three solutions – seek the help of the police; seek a legal solution; or take recourse to use muscle power. The three strategies suggested by Tammanna’s followers saturate this story in the post-modern scenario. Their thinking exhibits a modern world where police, law court and mafia exist. Even at the national and international levels, big countries like Russia and America follow such strategies.

The fact that Tammanna makes a reference to Russia and America, is only a hint by the author that the problems of ‘man’ in the modern society cannot be confined to the war between ‘virtues and vices’ of the yesteryears but man’s problems are complex and are reflected at the global level also.

KSEEB Solutions

Similarly, when Tammanna makes a reference to Russia’s declaration to America that America is not their enemy and she will not wage a war against America, it is only a strategy by the writer to suggest that Tammanna and Basavaiah belong to post-modern society. One can also infer that a literary artist in the modern world cannot be blind to man’s problems in general and try to suggest solutions at the local level. Man’s problems are deep-rooted and have implications at different levels. Man’s problems go beyond a nation and though problems of human society are the same, they assume different dimensions as human society becomes more and more complex every day.

Question 5.
Observe how the story employs multiple narratives. How does this technique unveil the mystery of human relationships?
Answer:
In the short story ‘The Gardener’ by P. Lankesh, there is a story within a story and there are two narrators.
In the first story, the author in the persona of the first-person narrator introduces the protagonist Tammanna and the story of the owner of the coconut plantation. Then, the first narrator makes way for the second narrator to take over. Interestingly, in the story, the narrator is the protagonist and tells his own story to the second owner’s wife. However, the narrator employs the third-person narrative style and distances himself from the story. Thus ‘The Gardener’ is an example of the use of multiple narratives.

Multiple narratives describe a type of story that follows several protagonists rather than focusing on one main character. In some cases, writers choose this structure to show the individual perspectives of characters in a larger ‘macro story’ and how they relate to each other. ‘The Gardener’ is an example of the second type. Tammanna is the protagonist in both stories.

In the first story, we learn how Tammanna uses his own biography to indirectly give a message to the owner’s wife. He gives to the lady his own perspective of human life and experience. The author has used this technique of multiple narratives to reveal the mystery of human relationships.

In his own life, Tammanna has learnt lessons of being proactive in a rivalry with Basavaiah. He plays his game with Basavaiah, only until he dies. Basavaiah’s death comes as a revelation to him about human nature. Only then does he theorise saying ‘man does not live with the intention of acquiring wealth, or education or art but for some kind of unbearable vengefulness’. Until then, both Basavaiah and Tammanna showed a keen interest in fighting and a zest for life. But once Basavaiah dies, Tammanna loses all enthusiasm for life. He says he is a non-entity now.

Now he has become philosophical. Therefore, when he finds the owner of the coconut plantation cultivating all kinds of vices and the lady getting desperate about her husband, the ‘guilt’ about Basavaiah’s death that was pricking his conscience gets transformed into a virtue or a positive force and that motivates him to tell his own story objectively to the owner’s wife.

Had not the author used multiple narrative structures, Tammanna’s story could not have come out as a story to educate the owner’s wife. Thus, multiple narrative structures is able to unveil the mystery of human relationships.

The Gardener Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in a word, a phrase, or a sentence each:

Question 1.
When, according to the narrator, does man lose his name?
Answer:
After a particular age.

Question 2.
When did Tammanna forget all his songs and ballads?
OR
Whose death made Tammanna forget his songs and ballads in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
After the death of Basavaiah/ Death of Basavaiah.

Question 3.
Where was the coconut grove where the narrator met the old man?
Answer:
Near Chennarayapatna.

Question 4.
How big was the plantation when the old man took over?
Answer:
Ten acres.

Question 5.
What was the most important possession ofTammanna?
OR
Whom did Tammanna consider as the most important among all his possessions?
Answer:
His rival Sangoji or Basavaiah.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Who was Tammanna’s rival?
Answer:
Basavaiah.

Question 7.
How much of Tammanna’s land did Basavaiah acquire forcibly at first?
OR
How many acres of land did Basavaiah encroach?
Answer:
Two hundred acres.

Question 8.
When did the rivalry between Tammanna and Basavaiah move from the visible to the abstract level?
Answer:
When Tammanna composed ballads mentioning Basavaiah’s cruelty and his meanness and sang them, the rivalry between Tammanna and Basavaiah moved from the visible to the abstract level.

Question 9.
Mention one of the ways suggested by Tammanna’s followers to get back his encroached land.
Answer:
‘Going to the court of law seeking justice’ was one of the ways suggested by Tammanna’s followers to get back his encroached land.

Question 10.
What was the theme of Tammanna’s songs?
OR
Whose cruelty and meanness did Tammanna’s songs make mention of?
Answer:
The theme of Tammanna’s songs was cruelty, meanness and the injustice done to him by Basavaiah.

Question 11.
Tammanna’s disease was Basavaiah’s
(a) health
(b) weakness
(c) sorrow.
Answer:
(a) health.

Question 12.
When, according to Tammanna, did Basavaiah have no more reason to live?
Answer:
According to Tammanna, the moment he left the town and disappeared from Basavaiah’s sight, Basavaiah did not have any reason to live.

Question 13.
What became the main reason of Tammanna’s life?
Answer:
Punishing or annihilating Basavaiah for the injustice, cruelty, and meanness showed by him was the main reason of Tammanna’s life.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 14.
Where did the narrator meet the old man by chance?
OR
Where did the author notice the old man standing with a spade in one hand and a newspaper tucked under his arm?
Answer:
The author or the narrator noticed the man standing in a coconut grove near Chennarayapatna.

Question 15.
What had the old man tucked under his arm when the narrator met him?
Answer:
The old man had a newspaper tucked under his arm.

Question 16.
What came to an end after the old man’s arrival in the garden?
OR
When did the petty thefts come to an end?
Answer:
The petty thefts in the garden came to an end after the old man’s arrival.

Question 17.
Who became apprehensive about the plantation owner’s vices?
Answer:
The owner’s wife became apprehensive about the owner’s adultery and his umpteen other vices, cultivated lately.

Question 18.
How many acres of land did Tammanna finally have?
Answer:
Tammanna finally had only eight hundred acres of land.

Question 19.
What did Basavaiah do to counter Tammanna’s fame as a poet?
Answer:
To counter Tammanna’s fame as a poet, Basavaiah started inviting scholars, poets and musicians to his place.

Question 20.
Who became lethargic after the arrival of the old man in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
In The Gardener’, the owner of the plantation in Chennarayapatna became lethargic after the arrival of the old man.

Question 21.
Whose name is said to be Sangoji and later corrected as Basavaiah in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
In The Gardener’, it is Tammanna’s rival whose name is said to be Sangoji and later corrected as Basavaiah.

Question 22.
Who hit upon the idea of composing and singing ballads in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
In The Gardener’, Tammanna hit upon the idea of composing and singing ballads.

Question 23.
Who was felicitated as the best poet of his times in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
In The Gardener’, it was Tammanna who was felicitated as the best poet of his times.

Question 24.
Who appointed a number of persons to praise him in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
In The Gardener’, it was Basavaiah who appointed a number of persons to praise him.

Question 25.
Whose palatial mansion looked dull and empty without Tammanna’s books in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
In The Gardener’, it was Basavaiah’s palatial mansion which looked dull and empty without Tammanna’s books. ‘

Question 26.
When did Basavaiah find the means of surpassing Tammanna in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
In The Gardener’, it was only when Tammanna fell ill, did Basavaiah find a means of surpassing Tammanna.

Question 27.
Whose disease was Basavaiah’s health, according to the narrator of ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
According to the narrator of The Gardener’, Tammanna’s disease was Basavaiah’s health.

Question 28.
When would Basavaiah go on offering stiff competition, according to Tammanna, in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
According to Tammanna, in The Gardener’, Basavaiah would go on offering stiff competition at the level of the body, until he died.

Question 29.
According to the old man, when did he conceive the story of Tammanna and Basavaiah?
Answer:
According to the old man, he conceived the story of Tammanna and Basavaiah, one day, when he found the wife of the plantation owner in a fix, perturbed and confused.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 30.
Who thought his death alone could destroy Basavaiah, in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
In The Gardener’, Tammanna thought that his death alone could destroy Basavaiah.

Question 31.
When did Basavaiah pass away, according to Tammanna, in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
According to Tammanna in The Gardener’, Basavaiah passed away after Tammanna had left his village.

Question 32.
Who says he avenged himself by becoming a non-entity in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
In The Gardener’, Tammanna says that he avenged himself by becoming a non-entity.

Question 33.
Who, according to Tammanna the old man, is not amenable to any advice in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
In ‘The Gardener’, according to Tammanna the old man, the owner of the coconut grove (where he was a labourer), was not amenable to any advice.

Question 34.
How long does a man go on living for some revenge, according to the old man, in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
According to the old man in ‘The Gardener’, the man goes on living for some revenge or the other till the day of his death.

Question 35.
Who paints well, according to the old man, in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
According to the old man in ‘The Gardener’, the young child of Lokya paints well.

Question 36.
What happened to Basavaiah after Tammanna gave up everything and went away?
Answer:
Basavaiah died a few days after Tammanna had left the town giving up everything.

Question 37.
Who narrated his story to the wife of the plantation owner in Gardener’?
Answer:
In ‘The Gardener’, Tammanna narrated his story to the wife of the p. .tation owner.

Question 38.
What was the old man well versed in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
Agriculture.

Question 39.
When did Tammanna forget his songs and ballads?
Answer:
Tammanna forgot all his songs and ballads after Basavaiah’s death.

II. Answer the following questions in a paragraph of 80-100 words each:

Question 1.
Why does Tammanna feel that human nature can be strange?
OR
‘Man goes on living for some revenge’. How is this presented in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
One afternoon, Tammanna finds the owner’s wife coming towards the coconut grove. She looked worried and anxious. However, Tammanna knew why she looked so. Then, he narrates the story of Tammanna and Basavaiah and finally confesses that he was Tammanna, Basavaiah’s rival, and how he had given up all his property and come to Chennarayapatna. Before telling her that Basavaiah had died, Tammanna tells her he had come to realize that human nature is very strange. He offers an explanation of why he thinks so.

According to Tammanna, though man needs wealth, education, and many more things, they do not give him a compelling reason to live. In his opinion ‘Man lives for some kind of unbearable vengefulness’. He arrives at this inference based on his own experience of life. As long as he was staying in his village, Basavaiah had considered him his rival and had gone on trying to out beat him in wealth, health, art, and so on. The very fact that there was a rival to him and he had to strive to compete with him in every aspect, gave him sufficient reason to live. It is here that one finds human nature strange.

KSEEB Solutions

All through his life, though man struggles to earn wealth, education, food, etc., he does not find real happiness in these things. But he derives a kind of pleasure when he finds that there is someone competing with him in these areas. Though it is the making of his own imagination yet he finds pleasure accepting his imaginary rival as real and fighting to out beat him. This gives him the real reason for his existence.

Having come away from Basavaiah, to punish him with the news of his death, Tammanna realizes that human nature is very strange. After the death of Basavaiah, he realises that he had become a non-entity and had lost his name and fame. He tells his own story along with the truth that he had realized, only to convince the owner’s wife that she needs to mend her husband.

Question 2.
What measures did Tammanna adopt to humiliate Basavaiah? Explain.
OR
Give an account of the strategies used by Tammanna to destroy Basavaiah in ‘The Gardener’.
Answer:
When Tammanna came to know that the rivalry between him and Basavaiah had reached a peak and that two hundred acres of his land had been forcibly taken away from him and had been even fenced up, Tammanna hit on a plan of annihilating Basavaiah completely. He got all his bitter experiences with Basavaiah composed in the form of ballads and started singing them before the people, announcing to everyone Basavaiah’s cruelty and his meanness. This way his reputation as an artist started spreading fast and critics and scholars of folklore thronged him and translated his songs.

As days rolled by, Tammanna’s popularity increased, and Basavaiah began to shrink in humiliation. Basavaiah tried to undo the damage to his self-esteem by showing more interest in acquiring all kinds of material wealth. He got a palatial mansion built for himself. Then he bedecked himself with gold, diamonds, and other precious stones. Then he started inviting scholars, poets, and musicians to his place and tried to invest his home with meaning. However, one-day Tammanna suddenly took ill. This news cheered up Basavaiah’s spirits. Tammanna’s disease became Basavaiah’s health. Tammanna thought of yet another method of punishing Basavaiah.

Tammanna thought Basavaiah could no longer compete with him if he came to know that Tammanna had died. Therefore, Tammanna avenged himself by leaving his town, abandoning all his property, and walking away hundreds of miles. When Basavaiah came to know that Tammanna was not there in the village, he had no more reason to live and he passed away.

Question 2.
Why did the plantation owner’s wife find it hard to decide whether the old man’s arrival was for the better or for the worse?
Answer:
Before the arrival of the old man, the owner had only ten acres of land. Though the owner himself was in charge of the work in the plantation, there used to be petty thefts and he could not prevent them. Secondly, he was very busy and hard-working and hardly had any time to spend with his friends. So, he had hardly any friends at all.

Once the old man was appointed as an overseer on the farm, the old man being well-versed in agriculture, understood the problems of the workers and solved all the problems. His efficient supervision resulted in a dramatic increase in the earnings of the farm. Consequently, the owner expanded his farm, became lethargic, and shied away from hard work, leaving the plantation in charge of the old man.

Furthermore, the owner’s wealth and social prestige also increased. Along with that, he acquired a number of friends in the next town as well as in his own village. Even though he had precious little to do, his life became crowded with colourful events. He also cultivated umpteen vices including adultery. These changes in her husband’s lifestyle made the wife wonder whether the old man’s arrival was for the better or for the worse.

Question 3.
How did the rivalry between Tammanna and Basavaiah move towards an invisible, abstract domain?
OR
Trace the course of the rivalry between Tammanna and Basavaiah that moved from a visible domain to an abstract domain.
OR
Give an account of the strategies used by Tammanna to destroy Basavaiah.
OR
Bring out the rivalry between Tammanna and Basavaiah.
OR
The rivalry between Tammanna and Basavaiah started moving from the visible to the invisible domain. Explain.
OR
Explain the methods adopted by Tammanna to humiliate Basavaiah.
Answer:
In the beginning, there appeared to be a healthy competition between Tammanna and Basavaiah. Tammanna did not take Basavaiah as his rival at all. Therefore, when Basavaiah acquired fifteen admirers to outdo Tammanna’s ten friends, it did not come to Tammanna’s notice at all. Tammanna did whatever he wanted without bothering about Basavaiah. But Basavaiah did not keep quiet.

KSEEB Solutions

When he came to know that Tammanna possessed one thousand acres of land, and he had only eight hundred, he could not tolerate this. He sent word to Tammanna asking him to sell two hundred acres to him. Tammanna did not agree. On the contrary, he offered to buy all the land that belonged to Basavaiah. Therefore, Basavaiah went along with his people and acquired two hundred acres of Tammanna’s land forcibly and got a fence built around it. Tammanna could not tolerate this invasion. Later, when his supporters suggested to him that he could go to the court of law or the police or use his own people to attack him and forcibly wrest his land from him, Tammanna did not accept their suggestion.

Tammanna probably thought that competing with Basavaiah by physical means has no end to it because it depends on who is able to muster more muscle power. Muscle power has its own limitations. Secondly, muscle power needs the involvement of many more people apart from Tammanna.

Moreover, as long as both of them were fighting by visible means people will not know who was trying to compete with whom. Until then, Basavaiah was the first one to show to the people he had more land, more friends, more wealth, etc. Tammanna never did anything to spite Basavaiah. Whatever Tammanna did, was on his natural inclination and not to spite Basavaiah.

Therefore, Tammanna realized the limitations of competing with Basavaiah by physical means. That is why he thought of putting an end to the unhealthy rivalry of Basavaiah by taking recourse to something invisible. He took recourse to singing ballads and telling the people through them about the cruelty and the meanness of Basavaiah.

Question 4.
How did Basavaiah try to surpass Tammanna? Why wasn’t he successful?
OR
How did Basavaiah try to surpass his rival in ‘The Gardener’?
OR
How did Basavaiah react to Tammanna’s popularity?
OR
How did Basavaiah start filling his life with all kinds of material wealth?
Answer:
When Tammanna came to know that the rivalry between him and Basavaiah had reached a peak and that two hundred acres of his land had been forcibly taken away from him and had been even fenced up, Tammanna hit on a plan of annihilating Basavaiah completely. He got all his bitter experiences with Basavaiah composed in the form of ballads and started singing them before the people, announcing to everyone Basavaiah’s cruelty and his meanness. This way his reputation as an artist started spreading fast and critics and scholars of folklore thronged him and translated his songs.

Basavaiah tried to surpass Tammanna’s fame by filling his life with all kinds of material wealth. He got a palatial mansion built for himself. He appointed a number of persons just to praise him and bedecked himself with gold, diamonds, and other precious stones. But he was not successful. We can conclude so because the visitors to his house told him that without Basavaiah’s books his house looked dull and empty.

Question 5.
How does Tammanna take revenge on Basavaiah through invisible means?
OR
Explain the invisible means by which Tammanna decided to destroy Basavaiah.
OR
What invisible means did Tammanna use to annihilate Basavaiah completely? Explain.
Answer:
When his supporters advised him to either go to the court or seek the help of the police or ask some persons to attack Basavaiah and take back his land forcibly, Tammanna hit upon a unique idea of annihilating Basavaiah through invisible means. He thought of getting all his experiences composed in the form of ballads and singing them before the public.

When Tammanna started singing ballads through which he told the people about Basavaiah’s cruelty and his meanness, he became very popular. Many scholars of folklore and literary critics translated his songs and earned their share of fame. All this made Basavaiah shrink in shame. This way, Tammanna took revenge on Basavaiah through invisible means.

Question 6.
How did Tammanna and Basavaiah manage their rivalry in the beginning in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
In the beginning, there appeared to be a healthy competition between Tammanna and Basavaiah. Tammanna did not take Basavaiah as his rival at all. Therefore, when Basavaiah acquired fifteen admirers to outdo Tammanna’s penfriends, it did not come to Tammanna’s notice at all. Tammanna did whatever he wanted without bothering about Basavaiah. But Basavaiah did not keep quiet. When he came to know that Tammanna possessed one thousand acres of land, and he had only eight hundred, he could not tolerate this. He sent word to Tammanna asking him to sell two hundred acres to him. Tammanna did not agree.

On the contrary, he offered to buy all the land that belonged to Basavaiah. Therefore, Basavaiah went along with his people and acquired two hundred acres of Tammanna’s land forcibly and got a fence built around it Tammanna could not tolerate this invasion. Later, when his supporters suggested to him that he could go to the court of law or the police or use his own people to attack him and forcibly wrest his land from him, Tammanna did not accept their suggestion. Tammanna realized the limitations of competing with Basavaiah by physical means. That is why he thought of putting an end to the unhealthy rivalry of Basavaiah by taking recourse to something invisible.

Question 7.
What did Basavaiah do to invest his home with meaning in ‘The Gardener’? Explain.
Answer:
As Tammanna’s popularity increased, Basavaiah began to shrink in humiliation. Basavaiah tried to undo the damage to his self-esteem by showing more interest in acquiring all kinds of material wealth. He got a palatial mansion built for himself. He appointed a number of persons just to praise him. Then he bedecked himself with gold, diamonds, and other precious stones. Then he started inviting scholars, poets, and musicians to his place and tried to invest his home with meaning.

Question 8.
Describe the circumstances that led Tammanna to become a non-entity in ‘The Gardener’.
Answer:
Tammanna is the protagonist in the story and he tells the story of the rivalry between himself and Basavaiah. Tammanna was a farmer, had ten acres of land, a comfortable house, and people too ready to carry out his orders. Besides, he also had a rival. It was Basavaiah. Tammanna did not perceive Basavaiah as his rival initially. Tammanna led a normal life and became prosperous gradually and came to possess 1000 acres of land. Until some point whatever Basavaiah did to keep himself on par with Tammanna was seen as healthy competition.

But, one day, Basavaiah asks Tammanna to sell him two hundred acres of his land and Tammanna refuses. Basavaiah takes the land forcibly. Though there were various options available for getting his land back, Tammanna searches for a method that could annihilate Basavaiah completely. Instead of proving might is right or seeking justice from the court of law, Tammanna uses a different strategy. He composes and sings ballads about Basavaiah’s meanness and cruelty. Very soon Tammanna becomes very popular and Basavaiah has no answer to his brainy ideas.

KSEEB Solutions

Just when Basavaiah is contemplating what to do next to spite Tammanna, he comes to know that Tammanna is ill. Basavaiah is pleased with the news. But their rivalry does not end there. Tammanna decides to out beat him by manipulating the situation itself. He gives up everything and goes away to Chennarayapatna so as to spread the news that Tammanna is dead. Later Basavaiah dies a natural death. Though there is no cause-effect relationship between the rumour of Tammanna’s death and Basavaiah’s real death, Tammanna is shaken out of his senses. With the death of Basavaiah, Tammanna loses his identity and he becomes a non-entity.

Question 9.
What circumstances led to the unhappiness of the owner’s wife in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
The owner of the coconut plantation was quite a normal person. He was working hard to bring about improvement in his earnings. Probably he had little expertise in managing agricultural workers. Therefore, he was looking for someone who would help him. That is why the moment he spoke to the old man [Tammanna) he felt that he had got the kind of man he wanted. His expectations proved right and the old man helped him in every way and solved all his problems, which eventually resulted in increasing his income.

Once his worries disappeared and he had hardly any work to engage himself in, his personal attention went towards acquiring property and social prestige. It is quite natural that with social prestige follow certain vices among which adultery was one. Adultery affects any woman.

All along, her husband had been faithful to her and once his wife came to know that he was spending his money and time with other women, she got seriously worried and was very unhappy. She found it hard to decide whether the arrival of the old man had done good or bad for her husband.

III. Answer the following questions in about 200 words each:

Question 1.
How did Tammanna and Basavaiah try to outdo each other?
OR
Describe the rivalry between Tammanna and Basavaiah.
OR
How did Tammanna avenge himself?
OR
How does Tammanna successfully outsmart his rival Basavaiah?
Answer:
In the beginning, there appeared to be a healthy competition between Tammanna and Basavaiah. Tammanna did not take Basavaiah as his rival at all. Therefore, when Basavaiah acquired fifteen admirers to outdo Tammanna’s ten friends, it did not come to Tammanna’s notice at all. Tammanna did whatever he wanted without bothering about Basavaiah. But Basavaiah did not keep quiet. When he came to know that Tammanna possessed one thousand acres of land, and he had only eight hundred, he could not tolerate this. He sent word to Tammanna asking him to sell his two hundred acres to him. Tammanna did not agree. On the contrary, he offered to buy all the land that belonged to Basavaiah.

Therefore, Basavaiah went along with his people and acquired two hundred acres of Tammanna’s land forcibly and got a fence built around it. Tammanna could not tolerate this invasion. Later, when his supporters suggested to him that he could go to the court of law or the police or use his own people to attack him and forcibly wrest his land from him, Tammanna did not accept their suggestion.

Moreover, as long as both of them were fighting by visible means people will not know who was trying to compete with whom. Until then, Basavaiah was the first one to show to the people he had more land, more friends, more wealth, etc. Tammanna never did anything to spite Basavaiah. Whatever Tammanna did, was on his natural inclination and not to spite Basavaiah.

Therefore, Tammanna realized the limitations of competing with Basavaiah by physical means. That is why he thought of putting an end to the unhealthy rivalry of Basavaiah by taking recourse to something invisible. He took recourse to singing ballads and telling the people through them about the cruelty and the meanness of Basavaiah.

As days rolled by, Tammanna’s popularity increased, and Basavaiah began to shrink in humiliation. Basavaiah tried to undo the damage to his self-esteem by showing more interest in acquiring all kinds of material wealth. He got a palatial mansion built for himself. Then he bedecked himself with gold, diamonds, and other precious stones. Then he started inviting scholars, poets and musicians to his place and tried to invest his home with meaning.

KSEEB Solutions

However, one-day Tammanna suddenly took ill. This news cheered up Basavaiah’s spirits. Tammanna’s disease became Basavaiah’s health. Tammanna thought of yet another method of punishing Basavaiah. Tammanna thought Basavaiah could no longer compete with him if he came to know that Tammanna had died. Therefore, Tammanna avenged himself by leaving his town, abandoning all his property and walking away hundreds of miles. When Basavaiah came to know that Tammanna was not there in the village, he had no more reason to live and he passed away.

Question 2.
‘Without vengefulness, there would be no reason for man’s existence’. How does ‘The Gardener’ bring this out?
Answer:
Tammanna did not take Basavaiah as a rival at all. But, Basavaiah took him as his rival seriously and tried to outdo Tammanna in everything. Therefore, when Tammanna bought four more acres adjacent to his land, Basavaiah also did the same. If Tammanna had ten friends, Basavaiah would acquire fifteen admirers. Gradually, it rose to such a pitch that there was no land left in the village for them to buy. All land belonged to either Tammanna or Basavaiah. Tammanna owned one thousand acres and Basavaiah eight hundred. Basavaiah could not tolerate this. He sent word to Tammanna asking him to sell two hundred acres.

Tammanna did not agree. He was prepared to buy all the land that belonged to Basavaiah. Basavaiah went mad with rage. He went along with his people and acquired two hundred acres of Tammanna’s land forcibly. A fence was built around that land. Tammanna could not tolerate this invasion. Though his supporters explained to him all the means available to him, he was not satisfied with them because he knew that sooner or later Basavaiah would again try to outdo him by hook or by crook. Tammanna did not want Basavaiah to trouble him again.

As days rolled by, Tammanna’s popularity increased, and Basavaiah began to shrink in humiliation. Basavaiah tried to undo the damage to his self-esteem by showing more interest in acquiring all kinds of material wealth. He got a palatial mansion built for himself. Then he bedecked himself with gold, diamonds, and other precious stones. Then he started inviting scholars, poets and musicians to his place and tried to invest his home with meaning.

However, one-day Tammanna suddenly took ill. This news cheered up Basavaiah’s spirits. Tammanna’s disease became Basavaiah’s health. Tammanna thought of yet another method of punishing Basavaiah. Tammanna thought Basavaiah could no longer compete with him if he came to know that Tammanna had died. Therefore, Tammanna avenged himself by leaving his town, abandoning all his property and walking away hundreds of miles. When Basavaiah came to know that Tammanna was not there in the village, he had no more reason to live and he passed away.

Question 3.
The arrival of the old man to the garden caused both good and bad things. How is this brought out in ‘The Gardener’?
Answer:
The owner of the coconut plantation was quite a normal person. He was working hard to bring about improvement in his earnings. Probably, as he did not have much experience and expertise in managing agricultural work, he was not able to reap the benefits of his hard work. Often, there used to be thefts and worker-related problems. He also felt that he needed the assistance of a person well- versed in dealing with such problems. Once he had spoken to the old man for a few minutes, he was convinced that he had found the right person and so hired him immediately. Thus the old man became an employee in the coconut grove and stayed on.

The old man was so experienced in agriculture that he easily understood the problems of workers. The petty thefts in the garden came to an end, and naturally, the income from the garden increased dramatically. Consequently, the increase in income brought a perceptible change in the lifestyle of the owner. The plantation expanded, but the owner became lazy and shied away from hard work. Once his worries disappeared and he had hardly any work to engage himself in, his personal attention went towards acquiring property, and fame. His life became crowded with colourful events.

On account of his newly acquired clout, he cultivated umpteen other vices including adultery. He became a source of worry to his wife. The owner’s wife found it hard to decide whether the old man’s arrival was for the better or for the worse. On the whole, one can conclude that the arrival of the old man to the garden caused both good and bad.

Question 4.
Rivalry can make one both aggressive and reflective. How does Tammanna’s narrative in The Gardener” prove this?
Answer:
Yes. “Rivalry can make one both aggressive and reflective”.
In ‘The Gardener*, Tammanna is both the protagonist as well as the narrator. He narrates the story of the rivalry between two farmers Tammanna and Basavaiah. From his narration, one can easily infer how aggressively he has fought with Basavaiah for saving his self-esteem.

In the beginning, he did not even imagine that he had a rival. But he becomes aware of the rivalry between himself and Basavaiah when the latter takes his land forcibly and he is made to feel helpless. He becomes alert and starts planning strategies to out beat Basavaiah’s moves. He composes and sings ballads and publicizes Basavaiah’s meanness and cruelty. Very soon Tammanna gains popularity and Basavaiah is made to feel that he has been defeated in his own game. Soon after that, when Tammanna falls ill, Basavaiah is pleased with the news. But their rivalry does not end there. Tammanna’s next move shows how aggressive and vengeful he can be. He gives up everything and goes away to Chennarayapatna so as to spread the news that Tammanna is dead.

KSEEB Solutions

Later, Basavaiah dies a natural death. Though there is no cause-effect relationship between the rumour of Tammanna’s death and Basavaiah’s real death, Tammanna is shaken out of his senses. He becomes reflective. He understands that with the death of Basavaiah, he had lost his identity and had become a non-entity. Finally, he realizes that both he and Basavaiah had indulged in rivalry only to satisfy their ego.

The Gardener Vocabulary

An antonym is a word opposite in meaning to a given word.

Note the use of antonyms for the following words found in the lesson:

  1. Impoverish – enrich
  2. Elaborate – concise
  3. Petty – grand
  4. Suffused – removed
  5. Lethargic – active
  6. Annihilate – preserve
  7. Vengeful – benevolent
  8. Agony – ecstasy
  9. Flourish – languish
  10. Wealth – poverty
  11. Famous – obscure
  12. Cruelty – kindness
  13. Best – worst
  14. Enemy – friend
  15. Stiff – flexible

Question 1.
What do the following expressions from the lesson mean?

  1. in a flash
  2. flesh and blood
  3. out of hand
  4. vanish into thin air

Answer:

  1. very suddenly or quickly.
  2. the human body or nature.
  3. out of control.
  4. go away suddenly, unexpectedly and without a trace.

Additional Exercises

A. Passive Voice:

Question 1.
Tammanna came to the plantation after walking hundreds of miles. He _____ (appoint) to look after the garden. The workers were happy as their problems _____ (solve). The income improved dramatically but a change in the owner’s lifestyle _____ (notice) by his wife.
Answer:
was appointed; had been solved; was noticed.

Question 2.
Basavaiah had 200 acres less land than Tammanna. So Tammanna _____ (ask) to sell his 200 acres to Basavaiah. This _____ (reject) by Tammanna. Instead, a demand _____ (place) that Tammanna was ready to buy all his land.
Answer:
was asked; was rejected; was placed.

Question 3.
Basavaiah tried to outshine Tammanna in his own way. A palatial house _____ (build) by him. A number of persons ____ (appoint) just to praise him. Scholars, poets and musicians _____ (invite) to his place.
Answer:
was built; were appointed; were invited.

B. Fill in the blanks by choosing the appropriate expressions given in brackets:

Question 1.
The quarrel between Tammanna and Basavaiah rose to such a pitch that it started to ______ all their supporters. When Basavaiah forcibly acquired Tammanna’s land, Tammanna was advised by his supporters to ______ to the police. (take recourse, push in, suck in)
Answer:
suck in; take recourse.

Question 2.
Tammanna ______ everything and went to a far off place. Basavaiah was left with no reason to live. After some time Basavaiah ______. (gave up, chance upon, passed away)
Answer:
gave up; passed away.

Question 3.
‘Tammanna was ______ in agriculture. As a result, the owner of the garden started to _____ from hard work. (shy away, well versed, better at)
Answer:
well versed; shy away.

Question 4.
The narrator says he conceived the story The Gardener’ ______. The old man he met in a coconut grove had come to the garden seeking work. The owner needed a man exactly like him and asked the old man to ______. (in a flash, stay on, vanish into thin air)
Answer:
in a flash; stay on.

Question 5.
Tammanna thought of yet another method of punishing Basavaiah. He wanted to separate his songs from his own _____. He wanted his fame to ______. Therefore he gave up everything and became a non-entity. (flesh and blood, vanish into thin air, out of hand)
Answer:
flesh and blood; vanish into thin air.

C. Fill in the blanks with appropriate linkers:

Question 1.
The gardener started narrating the story of Tammanna and Basavaiah to the owner’s wife. ______ proceeding with the story, he started fumbling for words ______ he had made a mistake. The owner’s wife was not interested in the story. She felt like going away ______ stayed back ______ she did not want to hurt the old man. (but, after, as though, as)
Answer:
After; as though; but; as.

Question 2.
The rivalry between Tammanna and Basavaiah looked like healthy competition in the beginning. _____ it rose to such a pitch _____ they started competing in buying each acre of land in the village. _____ no land in the village was left for buying. Even then Basavaiah was not happy ______ he had 200 acres less than Tammanna. (because, finally, gradually, that)
Answer:
Gradually; that; Finally; because.

Question 3.
Basavaiah sent word that he was prepared to buy Tammanna’s 200 acres of land. This made Tammanna furious. _____ he said he was prepared to buy all the land ______ belonged to Basavaiah. _______ Basavaiah forcibly acquired 200 acres of Tammanna’s land. ________ the enmity between them became fierce and sucked in all their supporters. (as a result, in turn, which, instead)
Answer:
In turn; which; Instead; As a result.

The Gardener by P. Lankesh About the Writer:

P. Lankesh [1935-2000) is an Indian writer and journalist who wrote in Kannada. After graduating with an honours degree in English from Central College at Bangalore, he completed his Master of Arts degree in English from Maharaja College, Mysore. P. Lankesh’s first work was ‘Kereya Neeranu Kerege Chelli’, a collection of short stories published in 1963. This was followed by several collections of short stories and poetry, three novels, critical essays, translations (including Charles Baudelaire’s ‘Les Fleurs du Mai’, ‘Oedipus Rex’, and Sophocles’ ‘Antigone’), as well as several plays and films. His 1976 film ’Pallavi’ – a cinematic narration, told from the female protagonist’s point of view and based on his novel ‘Biruku’ – won India’s national award for best direction.

The Gardener Summary in English

[This short story is the translated English version of ’Thotadavanu’, taken from ‘When Stone Melts and Other Stories’, a collection of short stories published by Sahitya Academi. It is translated into English by H.S. Raghavendra Rao.]

It is said that in these short stories Lankesh shows his preoccupation with human meanness and attempts to explore the evolution of a post-Emergency political and cultural scenario. The title ‘When Stone Melts’ refers to the mystery at the heart of every transformation, the invisible and inescapable play of history and location that engender the process of change.

The narrator addresses the reader directly in the first person asking for an apology for being brief. He says that the story was conceived in a flash and hence if he elaborates it, the story will lose its vitality. There are only four characters, besides the narrator: Tammanna, Basavaiah or Sangoji, and the owner of the coconut grove and his wife.

There are two stories in this story. The first story is narrated by the author in the first person and the second story is narrated by Tammanna who is also the protagonist in the first story. In the second story, the narrator/protagonist tells his own story to the lady distancing himself from the main story.

The narrator says that this story originated in his chance encounter with an old man who was standing in a coconut grove near Chennarayapatna. The old man (who had been employed in the coconut grove), was a labourer, overseer and philosopher, all rolled into one.

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 7 The Gardener image - 1

One day the old man came to the coconut garden after walking hundreds of miles. Since the owner of that plantation needed a person of his qualifications, he hired him immediately after talking to him for a few minutes. Thus the old man became an employee in the coconut grove and stayed on. The old man did useful work. He was so well-versed in agriculture that he easily understood the problems of workers. The petty thefts in the garden came to an end, and naturally, the income from the garden improved dramatically. Consequently, the increase in income brought a perceptible change in the lifestyle of the owner. The plantation expanded, but the owner became lazy and shied away from hard work.

The owner’s wife found the owner’s behaviour strange and puzzling. She found it hard to decide whether the old man’s arrival was for the better or for the worse. Her husband’s wealth and social prestige had risen higher, and he had acquired a great number of friends in his own village and in the next town as well. Even though he did not do any useful work, his life became crowded with colourful events. On account of his newly acquired clout, he cultivated umpteen other vices including adultery. Though their farm was initially merely ten acres, it had grown beyond their imagination.

Therefore, the owner’s wife realized that financially they had been doing well but her only source of worry was that along with financial improvement, their life was also gradually getting out of hand. Thus, one day when she was in a fix like this, the old man met her. He smiled at her, brought down an offering offender coconuts from a nearby tree, and sat on the embankment of the well. She had no alternative and so she sat next to him. The old man now begins his narrative and takes the action or plot to its climax.

The old man says that, in a far off place, once there lived a man called Tammanna. He had everything: ten acres of land, a comfortable house, and people too ready to carry out his orders or instructions. Besides these possessions, he also had a rival and his name was Sangoji. However, soon after uttering the name Sangoji, the old man started fumbling for words as if he had committed a mistake. The coconut grove owner’s wife, who was listening, felt that it was none of her concern and felt like going away immediately. But, not wishing to hurt the old man, she continued to sit there quietly.

The old man continued his story. He corrected himself once, saying his name was not Sangoji but Basavaiah. [At this moment in the story, the narrator gives a hint to the reader that the old man is telling a true account of his own experience disguising it in the form of a story].

Both Tammanna and Basavaiah were rivals. If Tammanna bought four more acres adjacent to his land, Basavaiah would also do the same. If one of them had ten friends, the other would acquire ‘ fifteen admirers. Though initially, all this looked like healthy competition, it took a nasty turn later.

Their rivalry rose to such a pitch that there was no land left in the village for them to buy. All land belonged to either Tammanna or Basavaiah. Tammanna had one thousand acres and Basavaiah eight hundred. Basavaiah could not tolerate this. His men asked Tammanna to sell two hundred acres but Tammanna refused to do so. On the other hand, Tammanna offered to buy all the land that belonged to Basavaiah. Basavaiah became furious. He went along with his people and acquired two hundred acres of Tammanna’s land forcibly, and got it fenced up all around. Tammanna could not put up with this invasion.

Tammanna’s advisers told him that there were three ways by which Tammanna could get back his land. He could go to the court of law or he could also take recourse to the police. If he did not like to do, either way, he could also use muscle power to get his land back. There was any number of persons ready to attack Basavaiah and wrest his land from him. But Tammanna was in search of a method that could destroy Basavaiah completely. Tammanna got all his experiences composed in the form of ballads and sang them in public. Their rivalry moved away from the visible to the invisible.

Basavaiah could not do the same way. He tried to show his rivalry in doing agricultural tasks more diligently, but that was also in vain. Meanwhile, Tammanna’s reputation started spreading all around. His songs started making mention of Basavaiah’s cruelty and his meanness. Scholars and critics went after his songs and earned their share of fame. Basavaiah became desperate and angry and retaliated by encroaching on more and more of Tammanna’s land. But Tammanna was ignorant of all this and blissfully enjoyed his singing. Art had become the raison d’etre of his life. He was even felicitated as the best poet of his times.

Basavaiah felt humiliated, which he tried to hide by acquiring all kinds of luxuries. He got a palatial mansion built for himself; appointed a number of people to praise him and bedecked himself with gold, diamonds, and other precious stones. But his house looked dull and empty because Tammanna’s books were not there. He attempted to fill the lacuna by inviting scholars, poets, and musicians to his place. This way, he tried to invest his home with meaning.

One day, Basavaiah came to know that Tammanna was ill. The news made him happy. At that point, Basavaiah found the means of surpassing Tammanna. Health is wealth. Tammanna’s disease was Basavaiah’s health. But Tammanna thought differently. He had thought of yet another method of punishing Basavaiah. Tammanna contemplated ‘death’. As long as he continued his rivalry at the level of the body, Basavaiah would go on offering stiff competition. But, if he died, Basavaiah could do nothing to defeat him. The old man ends his storytelling the coconut garden owner’s wife that wishing to destroy Basavaiah completely, Tammanna gave up everything and ran off from his village.

As long as Tammanna was there, Basavaiah had a reason to be alive, but once Tammanna left the place Basavaiah passed away. The old man tells the lady that Basavaiah died because he had no reason to live. Then he confesses to her that he is Tammanna himself. After Basavaiah’s death, Tammanna tells the lady that he forgot all his songs and ballads, lost his fame, and became a non-entity. He concludes telling her that, that way he avenged himself.

Tammanna tells the woman that the experiences of his life had made him realize that human nature is very strange. He sums up his experiences in one sentence. He tells her that though man works to fulfill his many needs like wealth, education, art, and many more things, yet those things do not give him the right, compelling reasons to live. All through his life man lives for some kind of unbearable vengefulness. It is in this vengefulness that he finds a reason for his existence.

Finally, using his autobiographical account as an example, the old man. tries to covertly give her a message. He tells her that her husband was flourishing as a rich man and was not amenable to any advice. Man is so complicated that till the day of his death, he goes on living for some revenge or the other, confronting one challenge or the other. He wants her to understand that she had better try to understand why her husband is living like that.

Finally, he asks her to take the whole story as a dream and hot to take his words seriously. We can infer here that he is saddened by the coconut grove owner’s lifestyle and wants to put an end to it by cautioning the lady about her husband and do something to find out why her husband was doing so. As soon as the old man finishes his story, the first narrator reappears and tells the reader that he had seen all this in a dream and hence he is unable to elaborate.

The Gardener Summary in Kannada

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 7 The Gardener image - 2
2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 7 The Gardener image - 3
2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 7 The Gardener image - 4
2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 7 The Gardener image - 5

Glossary:

  • Perceptible: visible, noticeable
  • Lethargic: lazy, sluggish
  • Diligent: hard-working
  • Raison d’etre (n) (French): reason, the reason for existence
  • Annihilate: destroy

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