2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 7 Social Movements

Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 7 Social Movements

You can Download Chapter 7 Social Movements Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

2nd PUC Sociology Social Movements One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Mention any one major components of social movement.
Answer:
Organization.

Question 2.
Which social organization was found in 1873?
Answer:
Satya Shodak Samaj.

Question 3.
Which association launched the Non-Brahmin movement in Madras?
Answer:
Justice Party.

Question 4.
Who founded the Bheemasena?
Answer:
Shyama Sundar.

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Question 5.
Who founded the Sathya Shodaka Samaja?
Answer:
Jyothy Rao Phule

Question 6.
Expand SNDP.
Answer:
Sri Narayana Guru Dharma Paripalana Yogam.

Question 7.
Expand DSS
Answer:
Dalita Sangharsha Samithi.

Question 8.
Expand KRRS
Answer:
Karnataka Rajya Ryotha Sangha

Question 9.
Give an example of an exclusive moment.
Answer:
Gorkhaland Movement.

Question 10.
Who edited “social movements in India”.
Answer:
MSA Rao.

Question 11.
In which year malaprabha farmers movement started?
Answer:
1980.

Question 12.
In which year Karnataka Rajya Ryota Sangha was started?
Answer:
1980.

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Question 13.
Who launched self respect movement?
Answer:
E.V. Ramaswamy Naikar.

Question 14.
Which social movement launched on one cast, one religion one god?
Answer:
SNDP.

Question 15.
Which year DSS came into existence?
Answer:
1977.

2nd PUC Sociology Social Movements Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is a restorative rebellion?
Answer:
This type of movement is aimed at the restoration of old systems in place of the current systems. The Santal tribal agitation against the British is one example of this type of movement.

Question 2.
What is a social Banditry?
Answer:
Looting the rich landlords of villages and distributing the loot among the poor is termed as Social banditry. This arises as an expression of anger against feudal landlords, and the bandits become heroes in the eyes of the villagers.

Question 3.
What is a mass Insurrections?
Answer:
This type of movement is spontaneous in nature. They are often triggered by dissatisfaction over long pending issues. Initially, dissent is expressed through strikes, non-cooperation, shouting slogans, boycott etc.

Question 4.
Define an inclusivist movement
Answer:
The inclusivist movements actively articulate generally universalised, non-violent and mostly, pan-humanist values. These movements find their manifestations in the collective struggles for identity, equality, dignity and social justice.

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Question 5.
Define an exclusivist movement.
Answer:
The exclusivist movements generally develop the conception of the ‘other’ and hold them responsible for their miseries. These movements instead of integrating the members of the community in socially cohesive ‘whole’ split the population in ‘we’ and ‘they’.

Question 6.
What is Terrorist vengeance?
Answer:
Revenge is the sole motive of such movements. Such movements involve elimination of individuals who are thought to be enemies. Feudal lords, corrupt government officials are often victims of such homicidal acts.

Question 7.
What do you mean by social movement?
Answer:
Social movements have broadly been perceived as ‘organized’ or ‘collective effort’ to bring about changes in the thought, beliefs, values, attitudes, relationships and major institutions in society or to resist any change in the above societal arrangements.

Question 8.
Give any one definition for social movement.
Answer:
M.S.A. Rao defines as “Social movement is an organized attempt on the part of a section of society to bring about either partial or total changes in society through collective mobilization on an ideology”.

Question 9.
Mention any two social movements.
Answer:
Reform movements and Revolutionary Movements.

Question 10.
Mention any two factors responsible for Malprabha Agitation.
Answer:

  1. The issue of price stability
  2. The very Issue

Question 11.
Mention the three phases of the pre-independent Dalit Movements in Karnataka.
Answer:
In Karnataka, Dalit movement may be studied under two phases; the pre-independent and the post independent. Further, the pre-independent movement is subdivided into three phases.
They are,

  1. Basaveshvara and the Dalit movement
  2. Dalit movement in the old Mysore region
  3. Dalit movement in the Mumbai – Karnataka region

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Question 12.
Mention any two women’s organizations in India.
Answer:
Vimochana and Shree Shakti Sangatana.

Question 13.
Mention the components of social movements according to MSA Rao.
Answer:
Ideology

  • Collective mobilization
  • Leadership and organization
  • Change Orientation

Question 14.
Mention the components of new social movements.
Answer:

  • New Ideals
  • Collective Identities
  • Resources

Question 15.
Mention the principles of Dalit Movement.
Answer:
Education, Agitation and organization.

Question 16.
State the Ideological background of women movement.
Answer:
The well prepared “ideological” base laid in the earlier phases of the Indian Women’s Movement by thinkers like Jyothi Rao Phule, Gandhi, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Ram Manohar Lohia and Jayprakash Narayan who drew women into active participation and induced them to introduce radical changes in their lives have together made it easier for women to participate and for parties and organisers to encourage them to do so.

Question 17.
Mention the components of social movements according to Bortaux.
Answer:
In the context of the emergence of new social movements the issues of values, culture, subjectivity, idealism, morality, identity, empowerment, etc., have got new coinage. Thus Bertaux adds the view that ‘subjectivity’ and ‘idealism’ are essential elements of social movement. These are closely attached to the process of collective mobilization and new identity formation. Change in the form of these components brings tremendous change in the character of the social movements, and accordingly social movements may also be categorized.

Question 18.
Mention the types of farmers movement according to Katheleen Gough.
Answer:
Kathleen Gough presented a five-fold typology of peasant movements in India. They are:

  1. Restorative rebellions
  2. Religious movements
  3. Social banditry
  4. Terrorist vengeance
  5. Mass insurrections

Question 19.
State any two farmers movement of Karnataka.
Answer:
Kagodu Agitation and Malaprabha Agitation.

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Question 20.
Mention any two reasons for Kagodu Sathyagraha.
Answer:
To claim rights over Land and to fix the tenancy.

Question 21.
State the two objectives of SNDP.
Answer:
Encouraging education by starting educational institutions; to uplift the Ezhavas, a depressed caste group of Kerala,

Question 22.
What was the slogan of Kagodu Sathyagraha?
Answer:
Land to the Tiller or Land to the landless.

Question 23.
State the Bipinchandras Analysis of freedom movement.
Answer:
While examining the issues of transformation of social movements in India, the observation made by Bipin Chandra in the context of the Indian National Movement is worth mentioning. He highlights the freedom movement ‘derived’ its entire force. from the militancy and spirit of self-sacrifice of the masses, including a large section of the peasantry and small landlords. This movement followed the strategy of truce-struggle-truce, in which phases of extra-legal mass movements alternate with more passive phases carried on within the confines of legal space.

Question 24.
State the Anthonio Gramsis Analysis of freedom movement.
Answer:
Antonio Gramsci saw India’s political struggle against English as containing three forms of war: war of movement, war of position and underground warfare. Gandhi’s passive resistance was a war of position, which in certain movements becomes war of movement and in others, underground warfare. Boycotts are a form of war of position, strikes are war of movement, the secret preparation of weapons and combat troops belong to underground warfare.

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2nd PUC Sociology Social Movements Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 25.
Briefly explain the major components of social movement.
Answer:
M.S.A. Rao in his edited volume on Social Movements in India has highlighted the significance of ideology, collective mobilization, organization and leadership in social movements.

(1) Ideology provides a broad frame of action and collective mobilisation in the social of movement. It also provides legitimacy to the process of interest articulation and organized collective action.

(2) Collective Mobilization The nature and direction of a social movement is widely shaped by the nature of collective mobilisation. Collective mobilisation may be radical, non- institutionalized, spontaneous, large scale or it may be non-violent, institutionalized, sporadic and restricted.

(3) Leadership and Organization are closely linked to the process of collective mobilization. A leader can be charismatic figure or a democratically elected one.

Question 26.
Discuss briefly the new components of social movement.
Answer:
In the context of new social movements the issues of leadership, organization ideology and collective mobilization have acquired new dimensions. In the context of the emergence of new social movements the issues of values, culture, subjectivity, idealism, morality, identity, empowerment, etc., have got new coinage. Thus Bertaux adds the view that ‘subjectivity’ and ‘idealism’ are essential elements of a social movement.

These are closely attached to the process of collective mobilization and new identity formation. Change in the form of these components brings tremendous change in the character of the social movements, and accordingly social movements may also be categorized.

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Question 27.
Explain the factors which led to agrarian movements according to Kathaleen Gough.
Answer:
Factors Facilitating Peasant Movement in India: Kathleen Gough lists a number of factors
that affected Indian peasantry leading to various agrarian movements are as follows:

  1. The collection of heavy revenue.
  2. Removal of Agrarian Surplus from farmers.
  3. Land was made as a private property.
  4. Since the British period increasing encroachment on Tribal land.
  5. Due to import and export policy of the British and patronage extended to certain Industries left craftsmen deprived of their livelihood.
  6. The British plundered India through export of capital to Britain under various pretexts as repatriation of profits, salary, debt service for colonial war, public works, etc.
  7. Peasants were encouraged and also compelled to grow commercial crops for export.
  8. The growth of Absentee landlord and cultivation for private profit exposed the tenants and labourers to alienating and exploitation.
  9. Population increase has over-burdened villages.
  10. Nationalist movement and the introduction of means of transport and communication brought a degree of unity between peasants and urban workers.
  11. The most brutal feature of the British period was the famines have widened inequality of income among farmers.
  12. Agricultural revolution tended to further polarize agricultural income and poor peasants’ condition remained unchanged.

Question 28.
Write a short note on Backward Classes Movement.
Answer:
The concept of “Backward Castes/Classes Movement “ refers to the movement launched by the backward castes/classes which consist of non-Brahmin caste. The movement aims at removing or lessening the caste inequalities, promoting the economic advancement of the poor, the deprived and the lower castes, and to obtain for them equal educational facilities and political opportunities. The movement also signifies a great social awakening that took place in the lower castes and determined efforts on their part to seek avenues of social mobility.

The Course of the Movement: Jyothirao Phule of Poona was one of the first to have revolted against the tyranny of upper caste in domination. He started social refonn movement called the Satya Shodak Samaj was founded on 1873. Its aim was to challenge upper caste supremacy to redeem the Sudras and untouchables from the influence of Hindu scriptures to teach them human rights, liberate them from mental and religious slavery.

Satya Shodak Samaj movement and the cause of backward class were further carried by Sri Sahu Maharaj of Kolhapur. Sri Sahu felt that unless the weaker sections of the society were ‘made conscious of their democratic rights, of their rightful place in society’, India would not be in a position to work on democratic principles. He started schools and hostels for exclusively backward classes students.

The backward class Movements came to be systematically organised in the Madras Presidency in the second decade of the 20th century. The South Indian Liberal Federation, popularly called Justice Party, was formed in 1916.

Backward class leaders in Madras became conscious and started organising themselves. Dr. T.M. Nair, Sir P.T. Chettiar and T.E. Mudaliar, Joined together to start ‘South Indian People’s Association’, a joint stock company in 1916 with a sole aim of publishing newspapers. This association: advocating the cause of the non-Brahmins, started dailies-in English ‘Justice’, in Tamil the ‘Dravidian’ and in Telugu ‘Andhra Prakashika’.

The Self-Respect Movement or the Dravidian Phase starts with the entry of Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker. Periyar rejected caste as the one and only criterion of personal worth. He championed new system of values in which all people could enjoy self-respect. Formulation of the Dravidian ideology, as opposed to Aryan ideology, is the basis of self-respect movement. Highlighting the superiority of Tamil Dravidian culture over Sanskrit Aryan culture.

The non-Brahmin movement of Karnataka enter the princely state of Mysore. Okkaligas, Eingayats and Muslims of Mysore had realised their position of relative deprivation as against the Brahmins. By 1917 the different groups formed an alliance called the ‘Praja Mitra Mandali’. In 1918, . this Mandali pleaded Maharaj of Mysore for communal representation in legislature, reservation of posts in public services and educational institutions.

Miller Committee was appointed by the Maharaj of Mysore to look into the demands of Mandali. This committee recommended the acceptance of all the demands. Since then Backward classes have availed benefits in the fields of education, employment and politics. The orientation of non-brahmin movement in Kerala differs from those in Maharastra, Madras and Karnataka. It lacked the general anti-Brahmin ideology. Sri Narayana Guru Dharma Paripalana Yogam (SNDP)

It was meant to be a casteless organisation open to all people. It had two important programmes; Encouraging education by starting educational institutions; first important programme was to uplift the Ezhavas, a depressed caste group of Kerala, As an important part of the organizational activity, Narayana Guru started a number of schools and colleges throughout Kerala to spread education on a massive scale among the lower caste.

Sri Narayana Guru built a number of temples, simplified the rituals regarding worship, marriage and funerals. With this he wanted to help the people of his community in secular and also spiritual matters. He led a quite significant social revolution and gave the watchwords “one caste, one religion, one god for all men”.

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Question 29.
Write a note on one Dalit Movement.
Answer:
The Dalit movement mobilises Dalits to fight against social, economic, religious and political inequalities. Dalits or the oppressed classes are seeking solutions for their problems like oppression and exploitation through organised efforts. Achieving self respect and self reliance are the main objectives of the Dalit movement. In Karnataka, Dalit movement may be studied under two phases; the pre-independent and the post independent. Further, the pre-independent movement is subdivided into three phases. They are,

  1. Basaveshvara and the Dalit movement
  2. Dalit movement in the old Mysore region
  3. Dalit movement in the Mumbai – Karnataka region

1. Basaveshvara and the Dalit Movement: Basaveshvara’s religious reform movement in the 12th century may be seen as an inspiration to the dalits and the oppressed classes. Basaveshvara was against dogmatic religious practices and caste hierarchy; and involved people belonging to the lower classes in his reformist movement. Such involvement was a morale booster to the oppressed classes.

Madivala Machayya, Ambigara Chowdayya, Medar Kakayya, Madara Channayya, Samagara Haralayya – all from the lower classes, were actively involved in the reformist movement and this may be seen as the beginning of new era in the lives of the dalits. Likewise, this movement saw the active participation of women from the lower castes. Kottanada Somavva, amuge Rayamma, Aaydakki Lakkamma are some of them.

2. Dalit Movement in the Old Mysore Region: In the old Mysore region, the dalit movement did not happen as an independent movement, but, it had the inspiration of the Mysore Maharaja and Praja Mithra mandati and miller committee.

3. Dalit Movement in the Mumbai Karnataka: The social, economic, educational and political conditions of Dalits of the Mumbai Karnataka region were no different from those of other parts of India. Majority of them were very poor and were unable to educate their children. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, spent a considerable time in organising and reforming dalits in order to improve their social, economic and educational conditions.

Two major dalit movements emerged in Karnataka in the post-independent period.
They are;

2. Dalit Sangharsha samiti (DSS):

1. Bhimasena: In the year 1970, B. Shamsundar started an organization called Bhimsena in the Hyderabad Karnataka region. Bhimsena had an Ideology to fight against untouchability and oppression in a radical way. Dalits were trained to defend themselves against oppression. The then government banned activities of Bhimsena in order to avoid caste conflicts. After the demise of Shamsundar in the year 1975, due to the lack of leadership, activities of the Bhimsena movement came to a standstill.

B. Basavalingappa was one of the prominent Dalit politician. In a program, he stated that, Kannada literature is like fodder (boost) because; Kannada writers are not sympathetic to the woes of dalits and thus are dishonest in their writings. This statement sparked controversy and led to violent protests throughout the state. In the year 1975, a state-wide meeting of the members of various Dalit organizations was called and a committee was formed to frame manifesto for the organization.

In the year 1977, a state-level meeting of all Dalit organizations was held and a unified ‘Karnataka Dalita Sangharsha Samiti was born’. The first convention of the DSS was held in Bhadravati and Prof. B Krishnappa was chosen as the State convenor of DSS.

2. Karnataka Dalit Sangharsha Samiti: Since it’s inception, it was not interested in affiliation to any political party and maintained distance from politicians. The organization grew strong, some of the leaders began to establish relationships with politicians But, Devanoor Mahadeva, a prominent leader of DSS expressed support to Janata Party when he was the State convenor of DSS, meanwhile Prof. Siddalingaiah, a think tank of DSS was nominated to Karnataka legislative council. Interestingly, at a later stage, Prof. Krishnappa himself contested Kolar Loksabha election through DSS and lost in 1991.

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Question 30.
Consider freedom movement as a social movement.
Answer:
While examining the issues of transformation of social movements in India, the observation made by Bipin Chandra in the context of the Indian National Movement is worth mentioning. He highlights the freedom movement ‘derived’ its entire force from the militancy and spirit of self-sacrifice of the masses, including a large section of the peasantry and small landlords, This movement followed the strategy of truce-struggle-truce, in which phases of extra-legal mass movements alternate with more passive phases carried on within the confines of legal space.

Antonio Gramsci saw India’s political struggle against English as containing three forms of war: war of movement, war of position and underground warfare. Gandhi’s passive resistance was a war of position, which in certain movements becomes war of movement and in others, underground warfare. Boycotts are a form of war of position, strikes are war of movement, the secret preparation of weapons and combat troops belong to underground warfare.

Question 31.
Explain the inclusivist and exclusivist movement.
Answer:
Social Movements are also divided into
(1) Inclusivist Movements, and (2) Exclusivist

(1) The Inclusivist Movements: The inclusivist movements actively articulate generally universalised, non-violent and mostly, pan-humanist values. These movements find their manifestations in the collective struggles for identity, equality, dignity and social justice. It may note that most of the collective protest and mobilisations of women and the Dalits in India belong to this type of inclusivist movements.

Farmer’s movements fighting the state for fair price of their agricultural produce, cheaper rate of the cost of chemical manure and more reasonable cost of electrical power deal also belong to this type of movement. Most of the NSMs struggle for social reconstruction of society ensures equality and social justice for all. They also aim at resolving the social structural anomalies of society – such as discrimination of the human on the basis of caste, region and race. These movements are non-radical, non-separatist and non-autonomist.

(2) The Exclusivist Movements: The exclusivist movements generally develop the conception of the ’other’ and hold them responsible for their miseries. These movements instead of integrating the members of the community in socially cohesive ‘whole’ split the population in ‘we’ and ‘they’ ‘The son of the soil’ paradigm of sub-nationalist and semi- autonomist movements belong to exclusivist type of movements.

Most of the exclusivist movements generally give a call to the community to rise in defense of their social, economic and cultural identity. The mobilizing slogan is that the ‘purity’’ and the symbol of their cultural essence and heritage are in danger; requires sacrifice in terms of money, efforts, and struggles. For example the sub-nationalist mobilization in the state of Assam with a slogan that, ‘Assam is for the Assamese’. In the recent past, the call for Gorkhaland in West Bengal and Uttarakhand in Uttar Pradesh illustrates the character of exclusivist movements.

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Question 32.
Explain the types of peasant movements according to Kathleen Gough.
Answer:
Kathleen Gough presented a five-fold typology of peasant movements in India. They are:

  1. Restorative rebellions
  2. Religious movements
  3. Social banditry
  4. Terrorist vengeance
  5. Mass insurrections

(1) Restorative Rebellions: This type of movement is aimed at the restoration of old systems in place of the current systems. The Santal tribal agitation against the British is one example of this type of movement.

(2) Religious Movements: This type of movement is based on the belief that their consolidated efforts would bring about a golden period and a charismatic leader will free them of their misery. Such movements are therefore called as ‘Millennium movements’ or ‘Messianic movements’. Stephen Fuchs, however, states that more than 50% of the peasant movements in India are religious movements. An example is the Kerala’s Mapillai agitations from 1836 to 1921.

(3) Social Banditry: Looting the rich landlords of villages and distributing the loot among the poor is termed as Social banditry. This arises as an expression of anger against feudal landlords, and the bandits become heroes in the eyes of the villagers. Dacoity by thugs between the 17th and 18th century in the Central India, and dacoity by Narasimha Reddy and his team in Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, during 1946-47 are some examples for this type of movement.

(4) Terrorist Vengeance: Revenge is the sole motive of such movements. Such movements involve elimination of individuals who are thought to be enemies. Feudal lords, corrupt government officials are often victims of such homicidal acts.

(5) Mass Insurrections: This type of movement is spontaneous in nature. They are often triggered by dissatisfaction over long pending issues. Initially, dissent is expressed through strikes, non-cooperation, shouting slogans, boycott etc. They turn violent when the authority attempts to control them by the use of force. Such movements are often not backed by ideologies or charismatic leaders. For example, in recent years in Delhi, a movement against corruption and violence against women.

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Question 33.
Analyse the importance of Kagodu Sathyagraha.
Answer:
Kagodu movement is the movement of people who fought to claim their rights over land. It was first of its kind in the post-independent India. Kagodu movement, or Kagodu Satyagraha as it is popularly called, took place in the Kagodu and neighbouring village of Sagar taluk in the district of Shomoga.

In Kagodu, feudal system was prevalent during the time of the then British rule. Jodidars, Inamdaars, Jahagirdars and the Desais were the local landlords. Tenant had to pay the land lords a fixed measure of the agricultural produce. Although this measure was fixed as sixty measures (60 KOLAGA. A Kolaga is a trational weighing scale) in other places, the landlords of Kagodu had fixed the measure at sixty three counts.

During 1950-1951, the Tenant agitated against feudal lords to claim their rights over the land, and also to protest against fixing of excess of agricultural produce to be given by them to the land lords. This agitation began in the surrounding villages of Kagodu and was aimed at a single slogan ‘land to the tiller’. Villagers of sooraguppe, yalakundli, chikkanellooru, maasooru, kaanle, Tadegalale, keladi joined the agitation under the leadership of H. Ganapatiyappa, Shantaveri Gopalagowda, Sadashivaraya and many others.

This agitation had the support of the great thinker and socialist Dr. Rammanohar Lohia. With his entry, the movement took a new turn. The ‘Kagodu Satyagraha’, which began immediately after independence, had drawn the attention of entire nation. The Tenants involved themselves in the movement so deeply that, then government . was forced to announce its decision to allot the land to the tiller. About two and a half decades later, ‘Land to the tiller’ was legalized and was introduced in the 20 point programme of the Government. The seeds of such move were sown in the ‘Kagodu Satyagraha’.

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Question 34.
Explain the factors facilitating Malaprabha Agitation.
Answer:
A dam was to construct over Malaprabha in 1960 at an estimated cost of Rs. 30 crores. But, it had consumed 162 crores up to 1980 and yet was incomplete. The project which was considered to be a boon for the three districts of Belgavi, Vijayapur and Dharwad. The catchment area under Malaprabha project had been a part of the chronically draught-prone region. Into this traditional agriculture’, irrigation was introduced in 1973-74 under Malaprabha project lead to salinity and water-logging. Factors Facilitating Malaprabha Agitation. We may analyse the factors responsible for Malaprabha agitation as follows:

(1) The Issue of Price Stability: Farmers were encouraged to grow Varalaxmi cotton and hybrid varieties of jowar. The market price of these crops was appealing and hence farmers did not mind purchasing costly seeds, manure, pesticides etc. Despite the poor quality of seeds, new techniques of cultivation which they were unaware of, etc., their hopes soared high. In 1978-79 the price of Varalaxmi cotton came down form Rs. 1000 to Rs. 350 per quintal. As if fuelling to this situation there was a steep hike in the prices of fertilizers. ‘

(2) The Levy Issue: Other causes of Malaprabha agitation is imposition of betterment levy with retrospective effect on the basis of increase in land value following irrigation. It varies from Rs. 500 to Rs. 1,500 per acre, to be paid in 20 years. What caused resentment was the peasants were asked to pay levy on all their land in the catchment area without considering whether or not the whole area was under cultivated or irrigated, etc. Apart from this inadequate channel management created the problems of water-logging and salinity.

(3) The Role of Local Bureaucracy: The most important factors to be noticed are – corruption, apathy of the Bureaucrats, Redtapism, forced Recoveries and failure of political leadership.

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Question 35.
Briefly discuss the Issues of Karnataka Rajya Royta Sanga.
Answer:
(1) Loan Recovery Issue and Banning Corrupt Officials and Politicians into Villages: KRRS took up this issue and led the farmers’ movement. Boards were put up banning officials and corrupt politicians from entering villages without prior permission. They also launched a counter-seizure of property of those officers who they thought were corrupt, in addition to their own properties attached for non-payment of loans.

(2) Environmental Issue: Farmers have agitated over issues related to environment. KRRS saw some commercial interest in expanding the area under eucalyptus for use by the paper and pulp industiy and hence, has opposed it. KRRS demanded promotion of trees which are of relevance to farmers and other rural sections.

(3) Mining Issue: KRRS has also taken up granite quarrying issue. Granite was extracted and exported with no benefit to the villagers. KRRS opposed this and made them pay royalties for village betterment in addition to clearing of government dues. In due course, sand, timber, etc., were also included in their list. They demanded nationalization of these resources and exploitation in a rational way so as to preserve the environment and bring benefits to rural people

(4) Opposing KFC and MNCs: Very recently, KRRS has taken up the issue of patenting of seeds. It has opposed the entry of multi-nationals and patenting of seeds. It laid siege to Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) and MNC seed companies in Bangalore.

(5) Neera Movement: During 1990’s, the coconut farming belt of Karnataka was affected by pests and no amount of pesticide or conventional methods could save the trees. The pest affected coconut trees were unable to produce coconuts. The Neera Movement demanded assistance from the government by allowing Neera tapping and producing neera by-products such as jaggery, chocolates etc. Famers opined that, the government must lend helping hand to coconut farmers just like Srilanka, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia.

Farmers believed that the liquor lobby is obstructing the government in favouring the farmers. As the agitation intensified, it turned violent, and the conflict between the agitators and the police led to golibar which claimed two lives in Vithalenahalli of Channapatna. At a later stage, the pest epidemic was controlled and yield from coconut trees improved considerably. With this development, the heat of the neera agitation was lost.

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Question 36.
Listout the problems of women
Answer:
Despite a long history of protest by the women’s movement, women in India continue to be the most backward — illiteracy and maternal mortality rate is extremely high and sex ratio is adverse. Marginalization in public life, negligible representation of women in politics.

This powerlessness of women through the entry of various hi-tech cost-effective systems of production and marketing into their traditional economic spheres and thus making their skills ineffective. The present new economic policies and their impact on women, the growth of consumerism has increasingly devalued women as sex objects are the major problems.

2nd PUC Sociology Social Movements Ten Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the types of social movements.
Answer:
Though it is very difficult to classify social movements we can study the types and social movements in the following ways;
M.S.A. Rao classified social movements into three types, namely, Reform Movements, bring about partial changes in the value-paradigm of society. Revolutionary Movements bring about radical changes in the totality of social and cultural systems of society characterised by conflict and violence. Transformative Movements aim at affecting middle level structured changes, wish to bring about changes in the distribution of power, privilege, rights and resources.

Social Movements are also divided into
(1) Inclusivist Movements, and (2) Exclusivist Movements.

(1) The Inclusivist Movements: The inclusivist movements actively articulate generally universalised, non-violent and mostly, pan-humanist values. These movements find their manifestations in the collective struggles for identity, equality, dignity and social justice. It may note that most of the collective protest and mobilisations of women and the Dalits in India belong to this type of inclusivist movements.

Farmer’s movements fighting the state for fair price of their agricultural produce, cheaper rate of the cost of chemical manure and more reasonable cost of electrical power deal also belong to this type of movement. Most of the NSMs struggle for social reconstruction of society ensures equality and social justice for all. They also aim at resolving the social structural anomalies of society – such as discrimination of the human on the basis of caste, region and race. These movements are non-radical, non-separatist and non-autonomist.

(2) The Exclusivist Movements: The exclusivist movements generally develop the conception of the ‘other’ and hold them responsible for their miseries. These movements instead of integrating the members of the community in socially cohesive ‘whole’ split the population in ‘we’ and ‘they’. ‘The son of the soil’ paradigm of sub-nationalist and semi¬autonomist movements belong to exclusivist type of movements.

Most of the exclusivist movements generally give a call to the community to rise in defence of their social, economic and Cultural identity. The mobilising slogan is that the ‘purity’ and the symbol of their cultural essence and heritage are in danger; requires sacrifice in terms of money, efforts and struggles. For example the sub-nationalist mobilisation in the state of Assam with a slogan that, ‘Assam is for the Assamese’. In the recent past, the call for Gorkhaland in West Bengal and Uttarakhand in Uttar Pradesh illustrates the character of exclusivist ‘ movements.

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Question 2.
Explain the farmer’s movement in Karnataka.
Answer:
Kagodu movement is the movement of people who fought to claim their rights over land. It was first of its kind in the post-independent India. Kagodu movement, or Kagodu Satyagraha as it is popularly called, took place in the Kagodu and neighbouring village of Sagar taluk in the district of Shomoga.

In Kagodu, feudal system was prevalent during the time of the then British rule. Jodidars, Inamdaars, Jahagirdars and the Desais were the local landlords. Tenant had to pay the land lords a fixed measure of the agricultural produce. Although this measure was fixed as sixty measures (60 KOLAGA. A Kolaga is a trational weighing scale) in other places, the landlords of Kagodu had fixed the measure at sixty three counts.

During 1950-1951, the Tenant agitated against feudal lords to claim their rights over the land, and also to protest against fixing of excess of agricultural produce to be given by them to the land lords. This agitation began in the surrounding villages of Kagodu and was aimed at a single slogan ‘land to the tiller’. Villagers of sooraguppe, yalakundli, chikkanellooru, maasooru, kaanle, Tadegalale, keladi joined the agitation under the leadership of H. Ganapatiyappa, Shantaveri Gopalagowda, Sadashivaraya and many others.

This agitation had the support of the great thinker and socialist Dr. Rammanohar Lohia. With his entry, the movement took a new turn. The ‘Kagodu Satyagraha’, which began immediately after independence, had drawn the attention of entire nation. The Tenants involved themselves in the movement so deeply that, then government was forced to announce its decision to allot the land to the tiller.

About two and a half decades later, ‘Land to the tiller’ was legalized and was introduced in the 20 point programme of the Government. The seeds of such move were sown in the ‘Kagodu Satyagraha’. After Kodagu movement, Malaprabha agitation is a land mark in the history of peasant struggle of Karnataka.

It all started with the coming up of “MalaprabhaNeeravari Pradesh Ryota Samanvaya Samiti” in March 1980 on a non-party basis in Navalgunda. In the beginning it was confined to Navalgunda taluk and later extended to include five taluks of Malaprabha area; Naragunda, Navalgunda, Rona, Savadatti and Ramdurga.

The Navalgunda Samiti submitted a memorandum to the chief minister Gundu Rao in April 1980 demanding a more rational and systematic management of irrigation, feeder channel, proper drainage, free land levelling for small farmers, crop insurance, fixing minimum price for cotton. Nationalization of textile, jute, sugar, etc. In support ofNargunda farmers, the Samiti gave a call for bandh on 21st July in all five taluks which turned out to be the climax of the agitation.

Navalgunda and Nargunda Incidents: On July 21,1980 farmers had a massive participation in all the three places – Saundatti, Navalgunda and Nargunda. Sensing the mood of the rally, the Tahshildar of Saundatti agreed to close his office for the day. This averted untoward incidents in Saundatti. But in two other places, it was a different story.

Navalgunda Tahshildar allowed the farmers to conduct a meeting in front of his office. While the meeting was in progress some miscreants had damaged the tractors that brought farmers. On hearing this farmers rushed there and went on rampage.

Navalgunda-Nargunda incidents left far reaching consequences. It led to agitations all over Karnataka. These agitations spread to Gadag, Betageri, Davangere, Mandya, Kanakapura, Shimoga, Chitradurga, Ankola, Kumta, S irsi, Raichur and other places in Karnataka. Meetings, rallies, bandhs, etc., were organized, which sometimes took violent turn leading to police firing. About 20 lives were reported to have been lost in the course of violence in this period.

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Question 3.
List out any farmers demands as presented by Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha.
Answer:
Rudrappa, Sundaresh and Nanjundaswamy presented the farmers’ demands to the Chief Minister Gundu Rao on October 17, 1980. They were as follows:

  1. Release unconditionally all farmers arrested in various movements and withdraw cases against them;
  2. Waive loans owed by farmers so far to the government; Give fresh loans at simple interest; without mediation of banks and co-operatives;
  3. The scale of loans should keep pace with the rising expenses of cultivation;
  4. Return all property attached and auctioned for non-payment of loans;
  5. Abolish land revenue and betterment levy; reduce water rates; abolish water rate for tank water and seepage water, and for lands which are not supplied with water; abolish agricultural income tax.
  6. Remove taxes and other restrictions on the use of tractors, trailors of farmers;
  7. Abolish purchase tax on sugarcane with effect from 1979-80
  8. Reduce electricity charges to 61/2 paise per unit.
  9. Fix agricultural prices scientifically, based on man-hours spent, meanwhile the government should buy at the agricultural produce to a reasonable rate.
  10. The principle for price fixation is that price should be real in the sense that they should have parity with the prices of inputs and man-hours spent.
  11. Declare agriculture as an industry, and extend all facilities enjoyed by industrial labour to agriculturists also;
  12. Provide crop insurance throughout the state, without demanding premium from farmers.
  13. Every farmer and farm labour should get old age pension;
  14. Agricultural labourers should be given wages and other facilities as in the case of industrial workers; not only right price to farmers, but also right wage to labourers should be fixed from time to time;
  15. To reduce pressure on land, give governmental land to landless labour and help them in cultivating it under government supervision;
  16. Give lands to tenants without occupancy price and give lump sum compensation to land owners;
  17. Allocate 80% of plan expenditure on village development;
  18. Provide-travel-worthy roads in country side
  19. Reserve 50% of seats in educational institutions and employment for farmers’ children.

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Question 4.
Describe Women’s Movement in India.
Answer:
Indian Women’s Movement (IWM) emerged as a part of the social reform movement in British rule. Initially men and later women-reformers devotedly bore social ridicule, religious excommunication and loneliness to fight against some of the injustices perpetrated on women, especially widows, who were so ill-treated as Sati, prostitution, child marriage and etc.

After a prolonged campaign and much dithering on the part of the British, a law banning sati was passed in 1829. Women remained confined, by purdah and feudal custom, to household chores. The first mahila mandals organised by the Arya Samaj and the Brahmo Samaj, the reformist organisations, provided a space for reformation.

By the early 1900s, women’s organisations based on language, religion or welfare services proliferated, mainly in urban centres. For example a Brahmin Women’s Home was built by Subbalaxmi Amal in Madras, the Mahila Seva Samaj in Mysore, the Bhagini Samaj in Pune, the Chamanbai Maternity and Child Welfare Board in Baroda etc.

The All India Women’s Conference (AIWC), which had been established in 1924, and grown to become the single largest voice of the divergent groups infused all its old and new demands with an equal rights perspective. They demand for co-education, while the reform law included marriage, divorce and inheritance; economic equality included a right to one’s husband’s income and pension for widows; and surprisingly the right to abortion was also included.

Independence brought many promises and dreams for women too—the dream of an egalitarian, democratic society in which both men and women would have a voice. After Independence, the dust and din of women’s activism gave way to the development of institutions and organisations.

Many middle class women found a place in the expanding service and educational sectors, government structures or the professions. This – numerically small but conspicuous entry into formerly prohibited areas gave rise to an image of the ‘new’ emancipated Indian woman.

By the 1960s it was clear that many of the promises of independence were unfulfilled. Thus that the 1960s and 1970s saw a spate of movements in which women took part in campaigns against rising prices, movements for land rights, peasant movements etc. Women from different parts of the country came together to form groups both inside and outside political parties.

Towards the beginning of the 1980s, in Bombay the Stree Mukti Sanghatana, The Socialist Women’s Group organised study circles and the first women activists’ meeting. The Stree Shakti Sanghatana in Hyderabad influenced the formation of the Purogami Sanghatana in Pune. The Stree Sangarsh, and the Mahila Dakshata in Delhi, Pennurimai lyyakam in Madras, Vimochana in Banglore were a few of the new well known organisations.

Rallying around specific instances of violence against women, the feminists sought to create public awareness through protest marches, sit-in strikes and media publicity. Women’s organisations established in the post-independence days have consistently attacked the anti-women bias in society, provided support to women in distress and remained vigilant against sexist bias in national policies and implementations. These include: invasive reproduction and family planning technologies; discriminatory practises in education and employment; and laws that countervail gender equality.

The women’s movement in India has, over the years, seen different splits and alliances, organisations and platforms, and responded to different issues with different answers and actions. The leadership of the women’s movement has remained predominantly middle class. The women’s movement in India has chosen to influence and pressurize the State and its organs rather than oppose, fight and seize State power.

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