KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Students can download Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development Important Questions, KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Social Science Important Questions and Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka SSLC Class 10 Social Science Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 1.
What is meant by development?
Answer:
The process of enhancing a society’s capacity to satisfy needs on a larger scale is referred to as development.

Question 2.
What is economic development?
Answer:
Economic development refers to increase in a country’s capacity to serve the economic interests of its citizens and overcoming economic problems such as poverty, unemployment, inequality, inflation, etc.

Question 3.
Define economic development.
Answer:
Economic development is “a process that extends over a long period, that which helps in reducing poverty and thereby helping a country to achieve self-sustained growth in income”.

Question 4.
Give Meier and Baldwin’s definition of economic development.
Answer:
According to Prof. Meier and Baldwin, “economic development is a process whereby an economy’s real national income increases over a long period of time”.

Question 5.
Which are the three elements of economic development?
Answer:
Economic development as defined by Prof. Meier and Baldwin, has three elements. They are:

  • economic development as a process
  • an increase in real national income, and
  • long period.

Question 6.
Explain economic development as a process.
Answer:
Economic development as a process refers to the operation of the forces that bring about changes in supply of factors of production and in the structure of demand for the products, leading to an increase in national income.

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 7.
Why do changes take place in factors of production?
(OR)
What are the reasons for changes in factor supply?
Answer:
Changes in factor supply take place due to discovery of additional resources, education, skill development, capital accumulation, population growth, adoption of better techniques of production, etc.

Question 8.
Why do changes take place in the demand for products?
(OR)
What are the reasons for changes in demand for products?
Answer:
Demand for products changes due to change in size and composition of population, level and distribution of income, tastes, etc.

Question 9.
What is national income?
Answer:
National income is the total value of all goods and services produced in a country during a year.

Question 10.
What is the relation between national income and economic development?
Answer:
National income is an important measure of development. Higher the national income, higher is the economic development and vice versa.

Question 11.
What does the word ‘real’ in real national income refer to?
Answer:
The word ‘real’ in real national income refers to the purchasing power of money.

Question 12.
What is the importance of maintaining price stability in promoting development?
Answer:
Prices have a tendency to rise over time. When we estimate the income based on the increased prices, the values or incomes are inflated. We should remove that increased price effect to arrive at the ‘real’ increase in income. This price-adjusted income reflects the true purchasing power of income. This emphasises the importance of maintaining price stability in promoting development.

Question 13.
What is the importance of long period in economic development?
Answer:
Increase in real national income should be sustained over a long period. Short-term spurts in income are not considered development. The changes in factors of production and demand for goods and services should be continuous in order to bring about sustained increase in incomes over a longer period.

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 14.
Define economic development in terms of economic welfare.
(OR)
State Colin Clark’s definition of economic development
Answer:
Prof. Colin Clark defines economic development as “an improvement in economic welfare”.

Question 15.
What is inclusive development?
Answer:
Ensuring that every person is benefitted from the process of development is inclusive development.

Question 16.
What is meant by sustainable development?
Answer:
Preserving the natural resources and the environment for the benefit of future generations is called sustainable development.

Question 17.
What are the objectives of economic development?
Answer:
The objectives of economic development are: increasing income; attaining equality; reducing poverty, unemployment and inequality; conserving natural resources and the environment; and enhancing the welfare of all.

Question 18.
List some of the developed countries of the world.
Answer:
U.S.A., Canada, Japan, Germany, England, Australia, Singapore, Hong Kong are some of the developed countries of the world.

Question 19.
What is meant by underdevelopment?
Answer:
The term ‘underdevelopment’ denotes a backward and stagnant situation where levels of living of people are low due to low per capital income and low productivity, apart from high population growth.

Question 20.
What are the causes of underdevelopment?
Answer:
The causes of underdevelopment are low per capita income, low productivity, and high population growth.

Question 21.
What is an underdeveloped country, according to the United Nations?
Answer:
According to the United Nations, an underdeveloped country is one whose real per capita income is lower than that of U.S.A., Canada, Australia and countries of Western Europe.

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 22.
Give the meaning of developing countries.
Answer:
Underdeveloped countries which are capable of development and are making serious efforts to overcome their problems of low income and poverty, are called developing countries.

Question 23.
How does the World Bank classify the countries of the world?
Answer:
The World Bank in its ‘World Development Report’ classifies the countries of the world on the basis of per capita income into high income, medium income and low income countries.

Question 24.
What are developing countries, according to the World Bank?
Answer:
According to the World Bank, all countries with middle and low income can be considered as developing countries.

Question 25.
National income is not a correct indicator of development. Why?
(OR)
It is not appropriate to measure the development of a country based on its national income. Why?
Answer:
National income is the total income of all the people residing in a country. Higher the national income, higher is the economic development of that country. However, economic progress will be slower if the population increases along with the increase in national income. Therefore, comparison of economic development of countries with different levels of population will not be a correct and true indicator of development.

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 26.
What is per capital income?
Answer:
Per capital income is the average income of each individual in a country. Per capital income is got by dividing the national income by the total population in a given year.

Question 27.
Why is per capital income being used instead of national income as a measure of economic development?
Answer:
Though higher the national income, higher is the economic development of that country, economic progress will be slower if the population increases along with the increase in national income. Therefore, comparison of economic development of countries with different levels of population will not be a correct and true indicator of development. Hence per capita income is being used instead of national income as a measure of economic development.

Question 28.
What is the per capital income of India?
Answer:
The per capital income of India was Rs. 1,21,603 in 2016.

Question 29.
What is India’s position in the world in terms of national income and per capital income?
Answer:
India is the 7th largest country in the world in terms of national income, but 143rd in terms of per capital income.

Question 30.
Why are alternative indicators to per capital income used to measure development?
(OR)
Per capital income, cannot be a true indicator of development. Why?
Answer:
Though per capital income is the average income of the people of a country, it does not indicate the distribution of income among the people as well as the availability of basic amenities such as food, shelter, education, health or other social factors. If the income is not distributed equally, there will be no improvement in the standard of living of the people with merely an increase in the per capital income. Hence attempts have been made to adopt alternative indicators for measuring economic development.

Question 31.
What are alternative indicators of development?
Answer:
The parameters other than national income and per capital income that are used to measure economic development are called alternative indicators of development.

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 32.
Give an example of an alternative indicator of development.
Answer:
Human development index is an example of an alternative indicator of development.

Question 33.
The formulation of Human Development Index was essential to measure economic development. Explain.
Answer:
The use of national income and per capital income as measures of economic development had several drawbacks. If the population increased along with the increase in national income, it would not give a true picture of economic development. Similarly, per capital income did not indicate the distribution of income among the people as well as the availability of basic amenities such as food, shelter, education, health or other social factors. Hence the formulation of Human Development Index was essential to measure economic development.

Question 34.
What is the primary purpose of all economic progress?
Answer:
The primary purpose of all economic progress is enhancement of human welfare.

Question 35.
How can human welfare be enhanced?
Answer:
Human welfare can be enhanced by helping people to enjoy a decent quality of life, ensuring adequate basic minimum amenities like food, shelter, clothing, education, health, social security, clean water, pure air and an unpolluted environment.

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 36.
What is human development, according to the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq?
(OR)
What are the important requirements to enjoy a decent standard of living, according to Mahbub ul Haq?
Answer:
According to the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, the important requirements to enjoy a decent standard of living are: ability to lead a healthy and long life, being literate and having income to purchase the minimum amenities. He called this human development.

Question 37.
How does Amartya Sen define human development?
Answer:
Amartya Sen defined human development as expansion of capabilities of people.

Question 38.
What are the core capabilities of people?
Answer:
The core capabilities of people are health, education and purchasing power.

Question 39.
How are the core capabilities of people measured in the human development index?
Answer:
The core capabilities of people are measured in the human development index as follows: Health is measured in terms of life expectancy, education is measured in terms of literacy attainment and standard of living or purchasing power is measured in terms of per capital income.

Question 40.
What is human development index?
Answer:
Human development index is the criterion formulated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to measure the quality of human life.

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 41.
What are the indicators of human development?
Answer:
The three indicators of human development are life expectancy, educational achievement and standard of living.

Question 42.
What is life expectancy?
Answer:
The age till which the people of a country can expect to live is called life expectancy.

Question 43.
What are the factors represented in life expectancy?
Answer:
Availability of nutritious food, good health and hygiene facilities, clean environment, etc., are the factors represented in life expectancy.

Question 44.
How is the educational achievement of a country measured?
Answer:
The educational achievement of a country is measured on the basis of two factors:

  • The average period of schooling completed by individuals above 25 years, and
  • the expected period of school education that children of five years might receive in their lifetime.

Question 45.
How is the standard of living measured?
Answer:
The standard of living is measured with the help of per capital income.

Question 46.
How is the human development index calculated?
Answer:
The human development index is the average of the three indicators, viz., life expectancy, educational achievement and standard of living.

Question 47.
Distinguish between human development indicators and human development index.
Answer:
Human development indicators indicate the state or level of development in life expectancy, educational achievement and standard of living. Human development index is a measure of economic development and economic welfare. It is the composite of the three human development indicators viz., life expectancy, educational achievement and income levels.

Question 48.
How are the countries of the world classified in terms of HDI?
Answer:
On the basis of human development index, the UNDP has classified the countries of the world into three categories: Countries which have high human development, countries which have middle level human development and countries which have low human development.

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 49.
What is India’s HDI? What is India’s position in the world in terms of HDI?
Answer:
India’s HDI was calculated at 0.586 in 2014. India is ranked at 135 out of 187 countries.

Question 50.
To which category does India belong as per HDI?
Answer:
As per HDI, India belongs to the middle level human development group.

Question 51.
Examine the causes why India is ranked low in the HDI.
Answer:
The causes why India is ranked low in the HDI are:

  • Gender disparity is prevalent in all the sectors of health, education and economy as well. This is because of the low and secondary status attributed to women in our society.
  • Rising inequalities in sharing of fruits of development across regions, rural-urban settings, caste and class.
  • Poor public health spending.
  • Poor social infrastructure – which includes health and education sector.
  • Poor quality primary and secondary education level.
  • Decrease in the living standard in the country.

Question 52.
Why is the role of women in the development process significant?
Answer:
The role of women in the development process is significant because they not only form half of the population but also have the capability to work in any field in the economic system.

Question 53.
Why is it necessary to provide equality to women in the development process?
Answer:
The role of women in the development process is significant. Women not only form half of the population but also have the capability to work in any field in the economic system. Therefore, it is the duty of civilized society to provide social, economic, educational and political equality to women so that they do not remain secondary partners in economic growth.

Question 54.
How can you say that women have not yet been given equality in all the spheres?
Answer:
Though the Constitution has assured equality of opportunities to both men and women, discrimination can still be seen and violence against women is frequently reported. This shows that women have not yet been given equality in all the spheres.

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 55.
What is sex ratio?
Answer:
Sex ratio is the number of females for every 1000 males.

Question 56.
What is the sex ratio in India as per the 2011 census?
Answer:
As per the 2011 census, the sex ratio in India is 945.

Question 57.
What is the female literacy rate as per the 2011 census?
Answer:
The female literacy rate as per the 2011 census is 65.46%.

Question 58.
What is the male literacy rate as per the 2011 census?
Answer:
The male literacy rate as per the 2011 census is 82.14%.

Question 59.
Write a note on the position of women in India today.
Answer:
Though women constitute half of the population of India, they have not been given equality in all the spheres, making them secondary partners in economic growth. Gender discrimination can be seen in various dimensions in Indian society, economy and polity. Violence against women is frequently reported. Because of discrimination and preference for male child, the sex ratio is very low. The female literacy rate is also very low compared to that of men because even today some people think that women do not need education.

Women mostly work in the unorganized sector like agriculture, construction, small-scale industries, etc., and at lower wages. With low education, not many women can be seen in better and highly paid positions. Women are malnourished and susceptible to many illnesses. Despite low nutrition she is compelled to do heavy work. Representation and participation of women in political bodies is also inadequate.

Question 60.
What is the reason for declining sex ratio in India?
Answer:
Foeticide or the evil practice of removal of the foetus if it is of a female child is the main reason for declining sex ratio in India.

Question 61.
Discrimination has not come down even though the Indian Constitution has assured equality of freedom and opportunities to both men and women. Why?
(OR)
Give examples to show that women are discriminated against.
Answer:
Though the Indian Constitution has assured equality of freedom and opportunities to both men and women, discrimination has not come down. Gender discrimination can be seen in various dimensions in Indian society, economy and polity. The sex ratio in India is very low because of discrimination against women and preference for male child. Even today some people think that women do not need education. The literacy rate among women is just 65.46% as compared to 82.12% among men.

There is discrimination even at the workplace, where women work mostly in the unorganized sector and are paid less than men. They are discriminated against even in households where women are expected to eat last which makes them malnourished and susceptible to illnesses. Representation of women in political bodies is limited to the reserved strength. Even in sessions and meetings their presence is not felt.

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 62.
What are self-help groups (SHGs)?
(OR)
Write a note on self-help groups.
(OR)
How are SHGs helpful to women?
(OR)
“Women self-help groups are supportive of women empowerment” Justify.
Answer:
Self-help groups are groups of women who come together to share their meager resources, obtain external support, undertake business jointly and earn income. They are trained in managing accounts, handling bank transactions and skills to fake up remunerative income-generating activities. SHGS have been instrumental in helping women to earn, save and spend at their will. Their dignity and freedom have increased.

Question 63.
What is empowerment?
Answer:
Empowerment is the expansion,in people’s ability to make strategic life choices in a context where this ability was previously denied to them. It is a process that infuses people with power, i.e., access to resources and expands individual’s capacity and power of decision-making, i.e., autonomy.

Question 64.
What is women empowerment?
Answer:
Providing equal opportunities to women to work in all fields and encouraging them to take social, economic and political decisions like men do is called women empowerment.

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 65.
How can gender equality be achieved?
(OR)
What are the steps taken to improve the status of women in India?
(OR)
What are the measures taken to improve gender-related development?
Answer:

  • In order to promote participation of women in economic activities and thereby achieve economic empowerment, self-help groups have been formed in all villages and cities.These groups have been instrumental in helping women to earn, save and spend at their will.
  • Laws have been enacted to curb violence against women at home and at the workplace, to guarantee equal wages, to reserve seats in local bodies, etc. All these measures will help in bringing women to the mainstream of development.

Question 66.
What is the index used to calculate gender equality at the international level?
Answer:
The index used to calculate gender equality at the international level is Gender Inequality Index.

Question 67.
What is Gender Inequality Index?
Answer:
Gender Inequality Index is an index to calculate gender equality at the international level. The value of the index ranges from 0 to 1, with 0 indicating complete equality and 1 indicating complete inequality.

Question 68.
What is India’s Gender Inequality Index? What is India’s position in the world in terms of gender equality?
Answer:
India’s Gender Inequality Index was 0.563 in 2015. India stood in the 130th place in the list of 188 countries.

Question 69.
India’s Gender Inequality Index is 0.563. What does this mean?
Answer:
The value of the Gender Inequality Index ranges from 0 to 1.with 0 indicating complete equality and 1 indicating complete inequality. India’s Gender Inequality Index of 0.563 means that the gender inequality is very high and India fares poorly in terms of women development.

Multiple-choice Questions:

Question 1.
The total value of all goods and services produced in one year in a country is called its –
(A) national income
(B) per capital income
(C) net income
(D) personal income
Answer:
(A) national income

Question 2.
The average income of each individual in one year in the country is called –
(A) national income
(B) gross domestic product
(C) per capital income
(D) personal income.
Answer:
(C) per capital income

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 3.
In order to measure the quality of human life, the United Nations Development Programme has formed a criterion known as –
(A) Human Development Index
(B) National Income Distribution Index
(C) Per capital income
(D) Resource index
Answer:
(A) Human Development Index

Question 4.
Which of the following is not an indicator of Human Development Index?
(A) Life expectancy
(B) Educational attainment
(C) Per capital income
(D) National income
Answer:
(D) National income

Question 5.
India is at the place in Gender Inequality Index.
A) 25th
B) 68th
C) 97th
D) 130th
Answer:
D) 130th

Question 6.
According to the 2011 census, the sex ratio of India is –
A) 959
B) 933
C) 940
D) 914
Answer:
C) 940

KSEEB Class 10 Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Development

Question 7.
In 2011, the Human Development Index of India was –
(A) 0.929
(B) 0.504
(C) 0.586
(D) 0.687
Answer:
(C) 0.586

Question 8.
The definition of economic development by Meier and Baldwin does not include which of the following elements?
(A) Long period
(B) Real national income
(C) Sustainable development
(D) Economic development as a process
Answer:
(C) Sustainable development

Question 9.
An alternative indicator of development among the following is –
(A) Per capital income
(B) Human Development Index
(C) National income
(D) Gross national product
Answer:
(B) Human Development Index

Fill in the blanks:

  1. Economic development is a process
  2. The value of goods and services produced in a year is called national income
  3. In an underdeveloped country, basically the per capital income is lower.
  4. Human development indicates expansion of capabilities of people.
  5. The UNDP is responsible for publishing global Human Development Reports.
  6. India ranked 136th in HDI in 2014.
  7. Sex ratio was 945 in 2011 in India.

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