2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 11 Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye

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Karnataka 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 11 Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye

Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Comprehension I

Question 1.
‘Exquisitely well-mannered people’ refers to
a. Indians
b. Japanese
c. Americans.
Answer:
(b) Japanese.

Question 2.
What behaviour substitutes privacy in Japan?
Answer:
The respect for one another’s privacy and showing courtesy are the substitutes for privacy in Japan.

Question 3.
The reference to public telephone suggests:
a. how overcrowded Japan is
b. how the Japanese respect privacy
c. how busy the Japanese are.
Answer:
(b) how the Japanese respect privacy.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Hierarchy in bowing demands
a. youngsters bow to their elders.
b. wife bow to her husband.
c. sisters bow to their brothers.
Answer:
(b) and (c) wife bow to her husband/ sisters bow to their brothers.

Question 5.
How does one show appreciation while eating soup in Japan?
OR
What is the sign of appreciation when eating soup in Japan?
OR
Why do the Japanese make a fearful noise while eating soup?
Answer:
When a person is eating soup offered by a host or hostess, he must make a fearful noise so as to show his sign of appreciation; otherwise, the host or hostess will think that the guest is ill-mannered.

Question 6.
How are the pavements in Brazil decorated? What does it tell us about the people there?
OR
Why do Brazilians decorate the pavements they walk on?
Answer:
The grey pavements in Brazil are often decorated with beautiful black mosaics, a unique type of decoration. From this, we can infer that these people are alive to beauty in their surroundings. Secondly, they walk very slowly and meditatively and have a lot of time for contemplation.

Question 7.
What happens when leisurely people in Brazil get a steering wheel in their hands?
Answer:
When leisurely people get a steering wheel in their hands, they drive their vehicles so fast that you would be inclined to believe that gaining a tenth of a second is a matter of grave importance for them all the time.

Question 8.
Who do the Brazilian drivers look out for when they are driving? Why?
Answer:
The drivers are supposed to look out for pedestrians. But in Brazil, they do not care for people walking on the roads or people trying to cross the roads. The deliberately accelerate and laugh at pedestrians who run to survive. The drivers in Brazil treat pedestrians as fair prey to hunt and mow down.

Question 9.
What remarkable attitude is seen in the war between drivers?
Answer:
The war between the drivers is murderous but good-tempered. They cut in, overtake on both sides and force the other person to break violently and commit all the most heinous crimes. But they smile at the other person without any anger, hostility, or mad hooting.

Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Comprehension II

Question 1.
Why is bowing in Japan a complicated process?
Answer:
‘Bowing’ in Japan is complicated because they follow a complicated hierarchy in bowing which they have to follow as sacrosanct. The Japanese know very clearly who should bow to whom, how deeply, and for how long. For example, they follow certain basic rules inside the family. They are: “the wife bows to her husband, the child bows to his father, younger brothers to elder brothers, and the sister bows to all brothers”. The Japanese reflect the smallest difference in rank, standing, age, social position in their bowing style in that split second.

Question 2.
Why does bowing, a natural practice in Japanese culture, look so quaint’ and puzzling to the author?
Answer:
‘Bowing’, a natural practice in Japanese culture, looks so ‘quaint’ and puzzling to the author because when the Japanese bow, they bow neither too deeply nor not deeply enough and bow to the right person at the right time. They know who should bow to whom, how deeply, and for how long. They manage it without difficulty and subtly reflect even the smallest difference in rank, standing, age, and social position. Secondly, they bow with the ceremonious serenity of a courtier yet with a great deal of natural and inimitable grace.

Question 3.
Do you think the author is finding fault with/making fun of the culture of bowing in Japanese and speeding cars in Brazil?
Answer:
No. This article is a piece of travel writing. Travel writing is no longer viewed as a product of some innocent curiosity. It is also not an attempt to understand an alien culture objectively. Rather, this narrative should be read as the author’s perspective on Japanese culture. The author is certainly not finding fault with the Japanese way of eating soup or their habit of bowing.

KSEEB Solutions

The author is only expressing his surprise when he looks at their cultural habits as an outsider. The language might sometimes appear to be used for a humorous effect. But, in a piece of creative writing, such liberties in their style must be accepted as natural. If the writer simply described objectively whatever he saw, the article will lose its human interest.

Similarly, the author is expressing his surprise at the way the drivers of four-wheelers move on the road in Brazil and the size of the fast-moving traffic. The author is also expressing his appreciation for the beautiful black mosaics seen on the pavements. He is also expressing his annoyance for the sluggishness of the leisurely walking pedestrians.

Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Comprehension III

Question 1.
‘Bowing in Japan is quainter; more formal, more oriental.’ Do you agree?
OR
How does George Mikes describe bowing to be a quainter and infectious trait of Japanese people?
Answer:
Yes. In this article, the author introduces the reader to one of the most fascinating and conspicuous cultural habits of the Japanese people. He tells the reader that as soon as you land in Japan, you perceive immediately that the Japanese are exquisitely well-mannered. Very soon, you will also discover that the Japanese are very courteous and ensure that they do not violate a speaker’s privacy while talking to someone over the phone. Then you come to be a witness to people bowing to each other almost everywhere as if it is an obsession with them.

However, the author records his appreciation for their skill and style of bowing. He says that people bow to each other with the ceremonious solemnity of a courtier and yet with a great deal of natural and inimitable grace. Then he remarks that bowing is neither less nor more silly than shaking hands or kissing the cheek, but it is quainter, more formal, more oriental, and also infectious.

He says so because, while anyone can learn the art of shaking hands or kissing the cheek perfectly well, it is extremely difficult for a European to learn to do ‘bowing’ the way Japanese do because, in a split second, the Japanese manage to subtly reflect all the nuances one needs to follow while bowing. They successfully exhibit the smallest difference in rank, standing, age, and social position. On the other hand, if European attempts to bow to someone, he or she will bow too deeply or not deeply enough; they bow to the wrong man at the wrong time or they do not clasp their hands in front of them which is bad or they do in a wrong way which is considered even worse.

Question 2.
Describe how traffic in Brazil leads to humorous observations.
OR
Give an account of the crawling traffic in Brazil as mentioned by George Mikes.
OR
Write a note on traffic in Brazil.
Answer:
George Mikes makes humorous comments on the ‘traffic’ in Copacabana and Avenida Presidente Vargas in particular and Brazil in general. He opines that Brazilians are easy-going and leisurely characters. But the very same people, the moment they get a steering wheel in their hands, no speed „ is fast for them. They drive with such speed that one would be inclined to believe that gaining a tenth of a second is a matter of grave importance for all of them, all the time. The writer talks about the increasing number of vehicles in Brazil and says that the increase in the number of vehicles is making the pedestrian’s life more hazardous every day. He then narrates an interesting anecdote to give a clear idea of the number of vehicles moving on the road at any given time in Avenida Presidente Vargas.

He asks the reader to imagine that he is standing on one side of the road trying to cross the road. He will spend hours on end contemplating a fascinating problem: How can crawling traffic proceed at such a terrifying speed? He strengthens the same idea by another example. He asks the reader to imagine that a man on his side of the road suddenly catches sight of a friend of his on the other side of the road and starts waving to him. Then he shouts at him asking “How on earth did you get over there?” The other person will yell back at him, “How? I was born on this side!” The author leaves it to the readers to draw their own inferences.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
What aspects of our social life, do you think, would appear quaint and odd to a foreign tourist?
Answer:
India is a multi-ethnic, pluricultural, and multilingual country. People of different cultural practices, customs, and traditions are spread throughout the length and breadth of the country, thus making the population heterogeneous in character.
But, foreign tourists who visit India, most often come from countries where the population is homogeneous in character. Naturally, the foreign tourists find quite a few aspects of our social life, quaint and odd.

One of the commonest habits that might appear quaint to them is the way our womenfolk create patterns on the floor in front of their houses or gates, with chalk piece, coloured powder, or flower petals, called Rangoli.

Similarly, the buntings of mango leaves and plantain tree stem that we decorate our houses with special pooja days, auspicious occasions and festivals, and lighting lamps during Deepavali appear odd to them. Secondly, Indians’ love and respect for the holy cow and monkeys as a symbol of god also appear quaint to them.

Another aspect that may appear quaint is the ritual of worshipping vehicles which are commonly seen during Ayudha Pooja. Apart from these, there are several habits which might make us bow our heads in shame. They are urinating in public, spitting chewed betel nut residues on the walls and roads,’ sneaking loudly over mobile phones in public places, jumping at railway and bus ticket counters and at bus stops, crossing roads where there are no pedestrian crossings, honking unnecessarily, parking vehicles on the footpath, disobeying signal lights, men staring at women walking on the street till she moves out of sight, putting up pandals for private functions on the road and blocking it for pedestrians and motorists, shoving garbage on the road, pedestrians jaywalking on the road, etc. Talking to strangers on trains and buses, enquiring them about their jobs and salaries, etc., are also some of the social aspects of Indians which appear quaint to foreigners.

Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in a word, a phrase, or a sentence each:

Question 1.
What does Mikes call, ‘A man’s castle’ in Japan?
Answer:
A man’s telephone receiver.

Question 2.
How long does it take in Japan to be convinced that you are among exquisitely well-mannered people?
Answer:
Only a quarter of an hour.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Whom do the Japanese stores employ to welcome customers?
Answer:
Bowing girls.

Question 4.
Whatis the duty of the bowing girls in Japanese stores?
Answer:
The bowing girls have to bow deeply and deferentially to all and sundry that visit the Japanese stores.

Question 5.
Which places does the Tokaido Line connect?
Answer:
Tokyo and Osaka.

Question 6.
Where did the writer Mikes meetadeerin Japan?
Answer:
The writer met a deer in one of the parts of Nara, which is a wild deer park in Japan.

Question 7.
What are the pavements in the streets of Copacabana decorated with?
Answer:
With beautiful black mosaics.

Question 8.
What kind of people would take the trouble to decorate the pavements they walk on?
OR
Who, according to the writer, would take the trouble to decorate the pavements they walk on?
Answer:
Only a people alive to beauty in their surroundings and who have plenty of time for contemplation during their meditative walking would take the trouble to decorate the pavements they walk on.

Question 9.
Why are motor cars expensive in Brazil?
OR
What is extremely expensive in Brazil?
Answer:
Motor cars are extremely expensive in Brazil because import duties are crippling and murderous.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Why is the pedestrian’s life in Brazil becoming more hazardous every day?
Answer:
The pedestrian’s life in Brazil is becoming more hazardous every day because the number of motor vehicles is growing by leaps and bounds.

Question 11.
Which place in Brazil does the writer consider as the worst for pedestrians?
Answer:
The author considers Avenida Presidente Vargas as the worst place in Brazil for pedestrians.

Question 12.
Which habit of the Japanese is referred to as mania by George Mikes?
OR
What does the Japanese mania refer to, according to Mikes?
Answer:
George Mikes refers to the Japanese habit of bowing’ as mania.

Question 13.
Which place in Brazil is the worst with regard to traffic, according to George Mikes?
Answer:
Avenida Presidente Vargas, known for its terrifying speed of traffic on the road, is the worst place of all in Brazil.

Question 14.
Whose life is becoming more hazardous in Brazil every day, according to George Mikes?
Answer:
According to George Mikes, the pedestrian’s life is becoming more hazardous in Brazil every day.

Question 15.
What, according to George Mikes, do the driver and pedestrian finally do after the chase in Brazil?
Answer:
According to George Mikes, the pedestrian does not resent being chased by the driver. Both of them smile amicably at each other.

Question 16.
What does the speaker compare Japanese bowing to?
Answer:
The speaker compares Japanese bowing to the ceremonious solemnity of a courtier.

Question 17.
Who are the drivers in Brazil on the lookout for?
Answer:
The drivers in Brazil are on the lookout for any pedestrians stepping off the pavement, who they regard as a fair game.

Question 18.
Which animal created the impression that it bowed to George Mikes in Japan?
OR
Which animal bowed to the author at Nara?
Answer:
At Nara in Japan, a deer created the impression that it bowed to the author.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 19.
What did the deer do after bowing to Mikes at Nara?
Answer:
After bowing to the author at Nara, the deer jumped at him and snatched the little food-bag from his hand.

Question 20.
Mikes describes Japan as being
(a) overconfident
(b) overcrowded
(c) overjoyed.
Answer:
(b) overcrowded.

Question 21.
An hour in Japan convinced Mikes that he was among
(a) leisurely characters
(b) ill-mannered louts
(c) well-mannered people.
Answer:
(c) well-mannered people.

Question 22.
What do the people of Japan highly respect, according to Mikes?
Answer:
According to Mikes, the people of Japan highly respect one another’s privacy.

Question 23.
As Mikes says, after a few hours in Japan, one starts _______
(a) thanking
(b) bowing
(c) kissing
Answer:
(b) bowing.

Question 24.
Who bows to all brothers in a Japanese family, according to Mikes?
Answer:
According to Mikes, the sister bows to all brothers in a Japanese family.

Question 25.
What do mothers in Japan carry their babies in, according to Mikes?
Answer:
According to Mikes, mothers carry their babies in little saddles.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 26.
The Japanese stores employ ______ to greet customers.
(a) singing girls
(b) dancing girls
(c) bowing girls
Answer:
(c) bowing girls.

Question 27.
Who enters the carriage in a slightly theatrical scene as noticed by Mikes in Japan?
Answer:
According to Mikes, two conductors enter the carriage in a slightly theatrical scene.

Question 28.
Which animal bowed to Mikes in Japan?
Answer:
A deer bowed to Mikes in Japan.

Question 29.
Who is transformed into savages as soon as a bus arrives in Japan?
Answer:
As soon as a bus arrives in Japan, the bowing gentlemen are transformed into savages.

Question 30.
George Mikes compares the act of two Japanese bowing to
(a) an early American traffic law
(b) page-boys turning revolving doors
(c) Tokaido line that connects Tokyo and Osaka.
Answer:
(a) an early American traffic law.

Question 31.
What did the deer snatch from Mikes’hand in Japan?
Answer:
The deer snatched the little food-bag from Mikes’ hand.

Question 32.
In Japan, as soon as the bus arrives, the bowing gentlemen are transformed into
(a) savages
(b) slaves
(c) servants.
Answer:
(a) savages.

Question 33.
What must one do while eating soup in Japan, according to Mikes?
Answer:
According to Mikes, while eating soup one must make a fearful noise.

Question 34.
In Japan, eating soup by making a fearful noise is a sign of
(a) depreciation
(b) appreciation
(c) disregard.
Answer:
(b) appreciation.

Question 35.
Who enters the carriage on the Tokaido line in a slightly theatrical scene in Japan?
Answer:
Two conductors enter the carriage on the Tokaido line, in a slightly theatrical scene.

Question 36.
According to Mikes, bowing girls in Japan are equal to
(a) page-boys
(b) maidservants
(c) security guards.
Answer:
(a) page-boys.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 37.
The pavements in the streets of Copacabana in Brazil are often decorated with
(a) pink granite slabs
(b) grey cobblestones
(c) beautiful black mosaics.
Answer:
(c) beautiful black mosaics.

Question 38.
As soon as a driver notices a pedestrian step off the pavement in Brazil, he
(a) regards him as a fair game.
(b) greets him and smiles.
(c) ignores him and moves on.
Answer:
(a) regards him as a fair game.

Question 39.
‘The Avenida Presidents Vargas’ in Brazil is described by Mikes as
(a) a wonderful place.
(b) an auspicious place.
(c) the worst place.
Answer:
(c) the worst place.

Question 40.
When do the drivers of the motor cars in Brazil aim and accelerate?
Answer:
The moment a motor car driver in Brazil notices a pedestrian stepping off the pavement, he regards the pedestrian as fair game, takes aim, and accelerates his car.

II. Answer the following questions in a paragraph of 80 – 100 words each:

Question 1.
What makes Mikes feel that the drivers in Brazil are on the lookout for pedestrians
Answer:
George Mikes feels that the drivers in Brazil are on the lookout for pedestrians because as soon as a driver notices a pedestrian step off the pavement, he appears to regard him as a fair game and so he takes aim and accelerates his vehicle. The pedestrian has to jump, leap, and run for his/her dear life.

Question 2.
‘People respect each other’s privacy’. Explain with reference to Japan in Mikes’ travel writing.
OR
Explain how the people of Japan respect each other’s privacy, according to George Mikes.
Answer:
The people of Japan live on a hopelessly overcrowded island where they have no privacy. However, the people are so well-mannered that they are courteous enough not to overhear a conversation when they find anyone talking to someone else over the telephone. The speaker can consider the telephone receiver as his castle and conduct his most confidential business transactions and intimate love-quarrels in public, yet in perfect privacy without becoming apprehensive about anyone overhearing his conversation.

Question 3.
How does the writer explain the complicated hierarchy in bowing?
OR
Why is bowing in Japan a complicated process?
OR
“The Japanese follow a complicated hierarchy in bowing.” Explain with reference to ‘Japanese Manners’.
Answer:
The writer George Mikes remarks that for the Japanese people ‘bowing’ has become a mania. However, he also speaks in an appreciative tone and says that the people bow to each other with the solemnity of a courtier yet with a great deal of natural and inimitable grace. Besides, he also says that the Japanese follow a complicated hierarchy in bowing. This system decides who bows to whom, how deeply, and for how long. Though it is a little complicated to us, the Japanese manage it without difficulty and subtly and reflect in their bowing even the smallest difference in rank, standing, age, and social position in a split second.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
How, according to George Mikes, do the bowing gentlemen turn into savages in Japan?
Answer:
The author George Mikes, having described in detail how ‘bowing’ is followed so ritualistically in Japan, towards the end of the article narrates an incident that happened in one of the parts in Nara, a deer park in Japan. The author bought a pack of food for a deer. On seeing the pack of food, the deer went up to him, looked into his eyes, and bowed to him deeply. Then, almost immediately, it jumped at him and snatched the little food-bag from his hand.

Using this incident as an analogy, George Mikes makes fun of the Japanese people, for their ugly behaviour while boarding a bus. He tells the reader in a sarcastic tone that we can often see the Japanese bowing to each other with ceremonious serenity even at bus-stops. Then he says, “as soon as the bus arrives, the bowing gentlemen are transformed into savages, they push each other aside, tread on each other’s toes and shove their elbows into each other’s stomachs”. The reader, who had all along been encouraged to develop a kind of admiration for the Japanese habit of respectful bowing, is shocked or stunned by this revelation.

Question 5.
Give an account of the Japanese mania for bowing as described by George Mikes.
OR
What is unique about bowing in Japan?
OR
What are the views of George Mikes about Japanese ‘mannerism of bowing’?
Answer:
According to George Mikes, as soon as we land in Japan, the first thing we notice is bowing is so ubiquitous in Japan. The writer comments that it is the mania of the Japanese. He remarks that everyone keeps bowing to everybody else with the ceremonious solemnity of a courtier yet with a great deal of natural and inimitable grace. If two Japanese bow, as a rule, neither is to straighten up before the other stands erect in front of him. He states that bowing is quainter, more formal, and more oriental and also infectious.

Besides, he also says that the Japanese follow a complicated hierarchy in bowing. This system decides who bows to whom, how deeply, and for how long. Though it is a little complicated to us, the Japanese manage it without difficulty and subtly and reflect in their bowing even the smallest difference in rank, standing, age, and social position in a split second.

Apart from saying that the Japanese follow a complicated hierarchy in their bowing, the author says that the Japanese follow certain basic rules inside the family. They are the wife bows to her husband, the child bows to his father, younger brothers to elder brothers, and the sister bows to all brothers of whatever age.

In Japanese stores, bowing girls stand at the top of escalators and their only duty is to bow deeply and deferentially to all and sundry.

The ticket checking conductors on the fast Tokaido Line, march to the middle of the coach and bow ceremoniously in both directions before checking the tickets.

At Nara, a deer created the impression that it bowed to the author.

Question 6.
According to George Mikes, the people of Brazil are both leisurely and speed-loving. Explain.
Answer:
According to George Mikes, the people of Brazil are both leisurely and speed-loving. He remarks that however close by or far off their destination may be, Brazilians do not seem to bother about the time it might take for them to reach their destination. They do not hurry at all; they do not mind even if they reach their destination either an hour too soon or a day late or may not reach at all. But the very same leisurely people, as soon as they get a steering wheel in their hands, no speed is fast enough for them. If one looks at their driving speed, one would be inclined to believe that gaining a tenth of a second is a matter of grave importance for all of them all the time.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Why does George Mikes say that eating soup has more dangers for a European?
Answer:
The author George Mikes concludes his observations with his comments on the Japanese way of eating soup. He remarks that eating soup has more dangers than almost anything else. He opines so because eating soup in a Japanese house puts an outsider in a dilemmatic situation. The Japanese host expects the ‘guest’ to make a fearful noise to Show his sign of appreciation while eating soup. If the guest is a European and if he or she does not make a fearful noise, then the host will think that their guest is an ill-mannered lout. But, having knowledge of this custom, if a European visitor makes a fearful noise while eating soup to express his appreciation, then the host will think that he must be an ill-mannered lout because the Japanese know that no reasonably well brought up European makes such disgusting noises when eating soup.

Question 8.
Bring out the culture of the Japanese as explained by George Mikes.
Answer:
In his travelogue, George Mikes narrates four anecdotes which will help any foreign visitor to understand the cultural traits of the Japanese people. The author first highlights how people’s courtesy serves a double function in Japan. He assertively states that a couple, with perfect confidence, can carry on even their intimate love quarrels in public, in perfect privacy, without being apprehensive of any passerby overhearing them. Next, he talks about the bowing mania of the Japanese people and how the Japanese manage to show even the slightest differences in their hierarchy with a great deal of natural and inimitable grace.

Then, he narrates how, the very same people who, a few minutes ago had bowed to each other with such ceremonious solemnity would behave like savages, push each other aside, tread on each other’s toes and elbow their way into the bus. Finally, he talks about soup-eating in Japan. He says that, according to the Japanese, when eating soup one must make a fearful noise so as to express his appreciation, otherwise the guest will be considered an ill-mannered lout.

Question 9.
Why is a pedestrian’s life hazardous in Brazil, according to George Mikes?
OR
Elaborate on the plight of a pedestrian in Brazil.
Answer:
According to George Mikes, the people of Brazil are both leisurely and speed-loving. Then he says that the people love driving their cars at such speed that as soon as the drivers get a steering wheel in their hands, no speed is fast enough for them. They seem to believe that gaining a tenth of a second is a matter of grave importance for them all the time. The drivers usually lookout for pedestrians who step off the pavement and regard such pedestrians as a fair game. They take aim and accelerate their vehicle. The pedestrians have to jump, leap, and run for their dear life. Naturally, on account of such speed-loving people, a pedestrian’s life is hazardous in Brazil.

Question 10.
Explain how drivers in Brazil care about pedestrians, as mentioned by George Mikes.
Answer:
According to George Mikes, the people of Brazil are both leisurely and speed-loving. Then he says that the people love driving their cars at such speed that as soon as the drivers get a steering wheel in their hands, no speed is fast enough for them. They seem to believe that gaining a tenth of a second is a matter of grave importance for them all the time. The drivers usually lookout for pedestrians who step off the pavement and regard such pedestrians as a fair game. They take aim and accelerate their vehicle. The pedestrians have to jump, leap, and run for their dear life. Naturally, on account of such speed-loving people, a pedestrian’s life is hazardous in Brazil.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
How do Mikes portray a view of Japanese culture through their act of bowing?
Answer:
According to George Mikes, as soon as we land in Japan, the first thing we notice is the mania of bowing, which is so ubiquitous in Japan. The writer comments that it is the mania of the Japanese. He remarks that everyone keeps bowing to everybody else with the ceremonious solemnity of a courtier yet with a great deal of natural and inimitable grace. If two Japanese bow, as a rule neither is to straighten up before the other stands erect in front of him. He states that bowing is quainter, more formal, and more oriental and also infectious.

Further, he says that the Japanese follow a complicated hierarchy in bowing. This system decides who bows to whom, how deeply, and for how long. Though it is a little complicated to us, the Japanese manage it without difficulty and subtly and reflect in their bowing even the smallest difference in rank, standing, age, and social position in a split second. Apart from saying that the Japanese follow a complicated hierarchy in their bowing, the author says that the Japanese follow certain basic rules inside the family. They are the wife bows to her husband, the child bows to his father, younger brothers to elder brothers, and the sister bows to all brothers of whatever age.

Question 12.
Why does George Mikes say that nobody hurries in Brazil? What instances does he give to illustrate this?
Answer:
While recording his observations about the paradoxical behaviour of the people in time management, George Mikes says that nobody hurries in Brazil and does not seem to be worried whether they reach their destination an hour too soon, a day late, or not at all. Though his statement appears to be an exaggeration, George Mikes then tells us the reason. His inference seems to be based on his imaginative assessment of the probable time a pedestrian in Copacabana takes to move from one end of a street to the next while walking on the pavement, enjoying the beauty of the black mosaics on the pavements. George Mikes says that the natives seem to relish such beautiful decorations on the pavements and do not mind spending time meditating on the beautiful mosaics while walking on the pavements.

He then cites another instance which highlights the incredible size of the crawling traffic in Avenida Presidente Vargas. Imagining that a pedestrian standing on one side of the street, asks his friend on the other side, how he got there, his friend would reply that he was born on that side and he did not go there crossing the street. This imaginary incident would tell the reader about the size of the moving traffic in Brazil.

III. Answer the following questions in about 200 words each:

Question 1.
How does the writer bring out the dilemma of crossing the road in Avenida Presidente Vargas?
OR
How does the writer bring out the humour in crossing the road in Avenida Presidente
Vargas?
OR
Why is it difficult to cross a road in Brazil? How is this brought out in ‘Traffic in Brazil’?
OR
Describe the situation, one witness, while trying to cross the road in Brazil, as mentioned by George Mikes.
Answer:
While recording his observations about the traffic in Brazil, the author comments about the reckless driving style of the Brazilian people. Then he expresses his surprise over the growing number of motor cars in Brazil, despite the fact that import duties charged by the government for importing cars are crippling and murderous, then he gives the reader an anecdote to help him visualize to himself the number of vehicles that are there and the way they move on the roads.

KSEEB Solutions

He tells the reader that one witness the worst traffic problems in Avenida Presidente Vargas. If a pedestrian were to stand on one side of the road, trying to cross the road and contemplating the truly fascinating problem, ‘How can crawling traffic proceed at such terrifying speed?’, he will be spending hour after hour without a ray of hope of an auspicious crossing. Then he rounds up his anecdote telling us that, the pedestrian will witness a scene in which a man standing beside you, on your side of the Avenida Vargas, suddenly catches sight of a friend of his on the other side and starts waving to him. Then he will ask him, “How did you get there?” The other fellow being surprised by this naive question will yell back, “How? I was born on this side!” One can easily infer the author’s intention in giving us this anecdote.

Question 2.
How does George Mikes bring out the humour in the Japanese mannerism of bowing?
OR
Bowing in Japan is so infectious that it leads to a few comic situations. How does Mikes bring this out?
Answer:
George Mikes narrates two very unique habits of the people noticed by every tourist in Japan. One of them is their mannerism of bowing. However, the author’s description is quite packed with humour as well as admiration. He calls the bowing habit of the Japanese a ‘mania’ and says “everybody keeps bowing to everyone else, with the ceremonious solemnity of a courtier yet with a great deal of natural and inimitable grace”. Interspersed in his description of their bowing, there are certain statements which make the description sound humorous in a subtle way. They are:

  • After a few hours you start bowing yourself; you bow to the wrong man at the wrong time; you do not clasp your hands in front of you which is bad, or you do which is worse.
  • If two Japanese bow, neither is to straighten up before the other stands erect in front of him.
  • saw babies carried in Japanese style on their mothers’ backs in clever little saddles, and whenever the mother bowed, the baby bowed too, somewhat condescendingly, from his majestic height.
  • Bowing girls in Japanese stores stand at the top of escalators and their only duty is to bow deeply and deferentially to all and sundry.
  • The ticket checking conductors on the fast Tokaido Line, march to the middle of the coach and bow ceremoniously in both directions before checking the tickets.
  • About the deer in ‘Nara’, the author comments, “it is something genetic and is in the blood of Japanese deer”.
  • At the bus-stop, “the bowing gentlemen are transformed into savages” as soon as a bus arrives.

Question 3.
Bowing in Japan is quainter, formal, and oriental. Why does George Mikes say so? Discuss.
Answer:
According to George Mikes, bowing is so ubiquitous in Japan, it is the mania of the Japanese.
Everyone keeps bowing to everybody else with the ceremonious solemnity of a courtier yet with a great deal of natural and inimitable grace. If two Japanese bow, as a rule, neither is to straighten up before the other stands erect in front of him. He states that bowing is quainter, more formal, and more oriental and also infectious.

Besides, he also says that the Japanese follow a complicated hierarchy in bowing. This system decides who bows to whom, how deeply, and for how long. Though it is a little complicated to us, the Japanese manage it without difficulty and subtly and reflect in their bowing even the smallest difference in rank, standing, age, and social position in a split second.

Apart from saying that the Japanese follow a complicated hierarchy in their bowing, the author says that the Japanese follow certain basic rules inside the family. They are the wife bows to her husband, the child bows to his father, younger brothers to elder brother stand the sister bows to all brothers of whatever age.

Question 4.
A natural behaviour looks peculiar when seen from an outsider% eyes. How does Mikes prove this with reference to Japanese bowing?
Answer:
The excerpt titled ‘Japanese Manners’ is a good specimen of travel writing, by George Mikes, a Hungarian-born British travel writer. In this excerpt, the author shares his experience of travelling in Japan and tries to draw the readers’ attention to what is most striking about the Japanese people as seen by a touring journalist.

Though bowing to their fellowmen in Japanese society is a normal trait of Japanese behaviour, to an outsider like George Mikes, ‘bowing’ appears to be an obsession with the Japanese. That is why George Mikes chooses to comment about the bowing patterns of the Japanese in this piece of travel writing.

KSEEB Solutions

According to George Mikes, as soon as we land in Japan, the first thing we notice is bowing is so ubiquitous in Japan. The writer comments that it is the mania of the Japanese. He remarks that everyone keeps bowing to everybody else with the ceremonious solemnity of a courtier yet with a great deal of natural and inimitable grace. If two Japanese bow, as a rule, neither is to straighten up before the other stands erect in front of him. He states that bowing is quainter, more formal, and more oriental and also infectious.

Besides, he also says that the Japanese follow a complicated hierarchy in bowing. This system decides who bows to whom, how deeply, and for how long. Though it is a little complicated to us, the Japanese manage it without difficulty and subtly and reflect in their bowing even the smallest difference in rank, standing, age, and social position in a split second.

Apart from saying that the Japanese follow a complicated hierarchy in their bowing, the author says that the Japanese follow certain basic rules inside the family. They are the wife bows to her husband, the child bows to his father, younger brothers to elder brothers, and the sister bows to all brothers of whatever age.

Question 5.
George Mikes brings out the contrast between leisurely characters and dangerous drivers in Brazil. Explain.
Answer:
George Mikes is a keen observer of people’s behaviour, customs, and traditions. In the excerpt titled Traffic in Brazil’, Mikes says very casually that nobody hurries in Brazil and remarks that it does not really matter whether you reach your destination an hour too soon, a day late, or not at all. Next, probably with the intention of finding a suitable explanation for the leisurely attitude of the people, he tells the readers about the ‘grey pavements’ in the streets of Copacabana, which are decorated with beautiful mosaics. Then he adds that ‘only a people alive to beauty in their surroundings and who have plenty of time for contemplations during their meditative, ambulatory exercises would take the trouble to decorate the pavements they walk on. Though Mikes is appreciating the people for their aesthetic sensibility, he is also satirizing the lethargic walking style and attitude of the people.

However, in the very next sentence, he makes fun of dangerous drivers in Copacabana. Mikes remarks that the very same leisurely characters, when they get behind a steering wheel, drive very fast and are reckless. Having made a comment about their time consciousness, now, he says, “gaining a tenth of a second is a matter of grave importance for all of them all the time”. Thus, by juxtaposing two different traits of these people, George Mikes brings out the contrast between leisurely characters and dangerous drivers in Brazil.

Question 6.
People display contrasting patterns of behaviour. Substantiate in the light of’Japan and Brazil Through A Traveller’s Eye’.
Answer:
In this lesson, there are two excerpts titled ‘Japanese Manners’ and ‘Traffic in Brazil’ chosen from George Mikes’ book titled ‘The Land of the Rising Yen’ and ‘How to Tango’ respectively.

In the first excerpt, the writer gives his comments about the Japanese habit of ‘bowing’ and how they manage to respect each others’ privacy even though they are living in an overcrowded island.

In the second excerpt, the author tells us in a humorous vein about their time consciousness and their craze for driving cars recklessly.

However, he makes his travelogue memorable by highlighting the contrasting patterns of behaviour of the people of Japan as well as the people of Copacabana in Brazil.

KSEEB Solutions

While describing the Japanese, George Mikes tells the reader that within fifteen minutes after a tourist has landed in Japan, he or she will come to the conclusion that the people of Japan are an exquisitely well-mannered people, who live on a hopelessly overcrowded island. Then, he justifies his opinion by telling the reader how the people respect each others’ privacy by being courteous enough not to overhear a telephone conversation even though they happen to pass by a telephone booth or a counter. Next, he describes the ‘bowing’ mania of the Japanese people. Though he describes their bowing patterns in an appreciative tone, he concludes his write up highlighting a contrasting behavioural trait of the Japanese.

In a humorous tone, he tells the reader that the Japanese people who bow with such ceremonious serenity even at bus-stops, exhibit flippant behaviour almost immediately. He tells the reader that as soon as a bus arrives, the bowing gentlemen become savage-like, push each other aside, tread on each other’s toes and shove their elbows into each other’s stomachs to get into the bus.

Similarly, in his travel write up titled ‘Traffic in Brazil’, while narrating his experiences as a tourist walking through the streets of Copacabana, he comments about the time consciousness of the local people. He says very casually, “Nobody hurries in Brazil”, then he adds “it does not really matter whether you reach your destination an hour too soon, a day late, or not at all”. Then he narrates how the people decorate the grey pavements in the streets with beautiful black mosaics. Then referring to their walking style he says, ‘Only a people alive to beauty in their surroundings and who have plenty of time for contemplation during their meditative, ambulatory exercises would take the trouble to decorate the pavements they walk on.

We should note that though he appears to be appreciating the aesthetic sense of the people, there is also a tone of satirising the sluggish walking style, or the lethargic attitude of the people.

Almost immediately he juxtaposes a contrasting pattern of their behaviour. He tells the reader that the very same leisurely characters when they get behind a steering wheel, drive very fast, and are reckless. He says, “gaining a tenth of a second is a matter of grave importance for all of them all the time”. The reader cannot but infer that the people of Copacabana are very lethargic only while walking but are reckless while driving a motor car. Thus, in both the essays we find George Mikes highlighting contrasting patterns of behaviour of the people.

Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Vocabulary

Synonyms are words with the same or similar meanings.
Provide Synonyms for the following words from the lesson. You may consult a dictionary:

  1. Intimate – personal, private
  2. Quaint – strange, unusual, odd
  3. Majestic – royal, kingly, princely
  4. Deferential – respectful
  5. Solemn – courtly, majestic, stately, dignified
  6. Amicably – courteously, cordially
  7. Mystify – puzzle
  8. Murderous – brutal, fierce, cruel, inhuman
  9. Auspicious – favourable
  10. Hostility – bitterness, grudge
  11. Expensive – costly, dear
  12. Savages – uncivilized, barbarous
  13. Accelerate – speed up, quicken
  14. Import – bring in, ship in
  15. Complicated – complex.

Question 1.
Note the use of the following expressions in the travelogue.

  1. all and sundry
  2. cut in
  3. by leaps and bounds
  4. listen in
  5. fair game
  6. get into
  7. lookout
  8. for dear life
  9. be one’s castle
  10. clear cut
  11. easygoing.

The meaning of each expression is given below. Match the expression with its meaning of looking at the context in which it is used
(a) definite to see or identify
(b) relaxed and happy to accept things
(c) everyone
(d) to move suddenly in front of another vehicle
(e) a place where one can be private and safe
(f) very quickly; in large amounts
(g) as hard or as fast as possible
(h) to listen to a conversation that you are not supposed to hear
(i) to develop a particular habit
(j) someone or something that should be allowed to be criticized
(k) to keep trying to find something or meet somebody.
Answer:
a – 10, b – 11, c – 1, d – 2, e – 9, f – 3, g – 8, h – 4, i – 6, j – 5, k – 7.

Additional Exercises

A. Passive Voice:

Question 1.
Privacy had a double function in Japan. Mikes ______ (surprise) to notice the Japanese attitude towards privacy. Though telephones ______ (situate) in the open, confidential business transactions ______ (conduct) with ease.
Answer:
was surprised; were situated; were conducted.

Question 2.
Bowing in Japan was closely observed by Mikes. Bowing ______ (do) in an oriental and formal manner. One’s social rank and status ______ (reflect) when two persons bowed to each other. In many cases, there were clearcut rules and they _____ (observe) without difficulty.
Answer:
was done; were reflected; were observed.

Question 3.
Mikes visited a Japanese house. He _____ (offer) a bowl of soup. While eating soup it ______ (expect) that he should make a fearful noise. He knew that if Europeans made sounds, they _____ (considered) to be ill-mannered louts.
Answer:
was offered; was expected; were considered.

Question 4.
Drivers in Brazil were very dangerous. Once they ______ (seat) behind the steering wheel, no speed was fast enough for them. If a pedestrian stepping off the pavement ______ (notice), he _______ (regard) as fair game.
Answer:
were seated; was noticed; was regarded.

B. Fill in the blanks by choosing the appropriate expressions given in brackets:

Question 1.
In Brazil, the number of motor vehicles is growing by _______, almost as if cars were distributed free of charge to ______. (all and sundry, turn a deaf ear, leaps, and bounds)
Answer:
leaps and bounds; all and sundry.

Question 2.
In Brazil, the pedestrians are, in fact, on the _____ for drivers. As soon as a driver notices a pedestrian step off the pavement, he regards him as ______. (fair game, to get into, lookout)
Answer:
lookout; fair game.

Question 3.
The deer looked into Mikes’s eyes and bowed deeply. It was no ______. He thought that if they see people bowing all the time, they _______ the habit too. (get into, come up, chance gesture)
Answer:
chance gesture; get into.

Question 4.
The war between drivers is murderous but good-tempered. They ________, overtake on both sides and force you to brake violently. Therefore a pedestrian, while crossing a road, has to jump, leap and run for ______. (dear life, fair game, cut in)
Answer:
cut in; dear life.

C. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linkers:

Question 1.
Japanese who live on a hopelessly overcrowded island have to respect one another’s privacy _____ rather, would have to _____ they had any privacy. _____ they don’t. ______ courtesy has a double function in Japan. (but, if, or, so)
Answer:
or; if; But; So.

Question 2.
Japanese are said to be well-mannered ______ they respect each other’s privacy. You can conduct your most confidential business transactions and love-quarrels in public ______ in perfect privacy. Anybody could listen in _______ nobody does. _____ a telephone-receiver is a man’s castle in Japan. (yet, therefore, but, because)
Answer:
because; yet; but; Therefore.

Question 3.
Nobody hurries in Brazil. The people of Brazil are leisurely ______ they seem to have all the time in the world ______ decorate the pavements they walk on. ______, the drivers in Brazil drive so fast _______ every tenth of a second is of grave importance. (in order to, and, however, as though)
Answer:
and; in order to; However; as though.

Question 4.
Bowing in Japan is not only quainter but infectious. ______ spending some time in Japan, one starts bowing ______ he or she has been there forever. ______ when a person bows, it is too deep or not too deep enough _____ the outsider is not familiar with the complexities of bowing. (as though, after, however, because)
Answer:
After; as though; However; because.

Question 5.
Motor cars are extremely expensive in Brazil ______ of crippling and murderous import duties. ______ almost everyone owns a car here. ______ the roads in Brazil have heavy traffic. ______ the pedestrian’s life is becoming more hazardous every day. (thus, hence, yet, because)
Answer:
because; Yet; Thus; Hence.

Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye by George Mikes About the Writer:

George Mikes (1912 – 1987) was a Hungarian-born British artist, author, publisher, illustrator, and journalist. He studied Law and received his doctorate at Budapest University. He is best known for his humorous commentaries on various countries.

His early books included ‘We Were There To Escape’ and ‘How to be an Alien’. Subsequent books dealt with (among others) Japan (‘The Land of the Rising Yen’), Israel (‘Milk and Honey, The Prophet Motive’), the U.S. (‘How to Scrape Skies’), and the United Nations (‘How to Unite Nations’), Australia (‘Boomerang’), the British again (‘How to be Inimitable, How to be Decadent’), and South America (‘How to Tango’). Other subjects include God (‘How to be God’), his cat (‘Tsi-Tsa’), wealth (‘How to be Poor’), or philosophy (‘How to be a Guru’). His autobiography was called ‘How to be Seventy’.

In this lesson, there are two excerpts titled ‘Japanese Manners’ and ‘Traffic in Brazil’, chosen from George Mikes’ book titled ‘The Land of the Rising Yen’ and ‘How to Tango’, respectively. They are two specimens of ‘Travel writing’. The writer is a travel journalist, who presents his observations about the people of Japan and Brazil in these two articles.

In the first excerpt titled ‘Japanese Manners,’ the writer gives his comments about the Japanese habit of ‘bowing’ and how they manage to respect each others’ privacy even though they are living in an overcrowded island. The author shares his experience of travelling in Japan and tries to draw the readers’ attention to what is most striking about the Japanese people as seen by a touring journalist.

Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Summary in English

Japanese Manners

Within fifteen minutes after you have landed in Japan, you will learn that the people of Japan are an exquisitely well-mannered people, who live on a hopelessly overcrowded island. Consequently, their living space is very limited and so they do not have any privacy, yet the people respect people’s privacy in a different way. Their ‘courtesy’ serves a double function. They exhibit such polite behaviour that their ‘courtesy’ itself serves as a substitute for privacy. The writer supports his opinion-with as an example.

For example, he says, one finds red telephones in the streets, shops, halls of hotels, etc., and the instrument is placed on a table or a counter. They do not have space to spare for telephone booths. But, any person can conduct his most confidential business transactions, even intimate love quarrels in public and in perfect privacy, without being apprehensive about any passerby overhearing you. The author emphatically says that the person’s telephone receiver is his castle.

The writer then gives his observations about the Japanese obsession with ‘Bowing’. He calls it a ‘mania’ because everybody keeps bowing to everybody else. He remarks that the people bow to each other with the solemnity of a courtier with a great deal of natural and inimitable grace. He comments that though ‘bowing’ is like shaking hands or kissing the cheek, it is quainter, more formal, and more oriental but also infectious. Then he states that bowing is so commonly seen everywhere that even the onlookers start bowing though not the right way as the Japanese do. We bow too deeply or not deeply enough or we bow to the wrong man at the wrong time. Secondly, we do not clasp our hands in front of us, which is considered a bad way, or we may clasp the hands in a bad way which is considered even worse.

Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Summary in Kannada 1

Next, the writer tells us that the Japanese have a complicated hierarchy in bowing: who bows to whom, how deeply, and for how long. Then the author cites an incident that happened in America. He tells us that in one of the American states, there was a traffic law which laid down that if two cars met at an intersection, neither was to move before the other had gone. The author uses this incident to tell us that, similarly in Japan, if two Japanese bows, neither are to straighten up before the other stands erect in front of him. Though it sounds a little complicated to us, the Japanese manage it without difficulty and even the smallest difference in rank, standing, age, social position will be subtly reflected in that split second; one man’s bow will be shorter than the others’. In many cases, there are clear-cut differences in position and no difficulties.

According to the Japanese culture, the wife bows to her husband, the child bows to his father, younger brother to elder brothers, the sister bows to all brothers of whatever age. The author then recollects a sight he had seen in Japan, that of Japanese mothers carrying their babies on their backs in little saddles and whenever their mother bowed, the babies bowed too. Then there are the bowing girls in Japanese stores standing at the top of escalators, bowing deeply and deferentially to everyone. Next, the writer narrates his experience on a fast train (Tokaido Line), between Tokyo and Osaka. He tells us that two conductors enter the carriage in a theatrical style, march to the middle of the coach, bow ceremoniously in both directions, and then start checking the tickets.

Later, he narrates how even an animal like the deer do ‘bowing’. He tells the reader that in one of the parts of ‘Nara’ (Nara Park is a vast wildlife park located in the city of Nara, Japan, at the foot of Mount Wakakusa, where wild deer roam about freely), he bought a pack of food for deer. The deer came up to him, looked into his eyes, and bowed deeply. The author states that it was not a chance gesture but it was a proper and courteous bow.

The author conjectures that the deer are more imitative, and having seen the people bowing all the time, probably they also get into the habit. Then he says it may be something genetic and is in the blood of Japanese deer. Finally, he ends the incident, saying that the deer, after bowing to him, jumped at him and snatched the little food-bag from his hand.

In a humorous tone, he tells the reader that the Japanese people who bow with such ceremonious serenity even at bus-stops, exhibit flippant behaviour almost immediately. He tells the reader that as soon as a bus arrives, the bowing gentlemen become savage-like, push each other aside, tread on each other’s toes and shove their elbows into each other’s stomachs to get into the bus.

He ends his travelogue on Japan with his humorous observations about ‘soup eating’ in Japan. According to the Japanese, when eating soup you must make a fearful noise; only then will one be appreciated. If the soup eater does not make a noise, his hostess will think that the guest is an ill-mannered lout. On the other hand, if the guest makes some noise while eating soup, she will think that he is not a reasonably well brought up European because no reasonably well brought up European makes such disgusting noises when eating up the soup. The author tells jokingly that the hostess will conclude that he must be an ill-mannered lout.

Traffic in Brazil

This excerpt is taken from ‘How to Tango’, a humorous commentary on South America, by George Mikes. The author tells us in a humorous vein how the people of Brazil drive their motor vehicles. He also records his appreciation of the people’s talent for decorating their grey pavements.

The author narrates his experiences while walking as a tourist through the streets of Copacabana. The very first sentence is a comment about their time consciousness. He says very casually, “Nobody hurries in Brazil”; then he sarcastically adds, “it does not really matter whether you reach your destination an hour soon, a day late, or not at all”.

Then he turns his attention towards the grey pavements in Copacabana. He states that the grey pavements in the streets are often decorated with beautiful black mosaics which he calls ‘a unique type of decoration’. Then he gives the people of Brazil his compliments for their talent for doing such decorations. He remarks, “Only a people alive to beauty in their surroundings and who have plenty of time for contemplation during their meditative, ambulatory exercises would take the trouble to decorate the pavements they walk on”. He uses a pompous term ‘ambulatory exercises’ to refer to their walking style.

One should also note that though here he is appreciating the people for their aesthetic sense, he is also satirizing their sluggish walking style or the lethargic attitude of the people. In the very next sentence, he makes fun of their ‘driving style’. He tells the reader that the very same leisurely characters when they get behind a steering wheel, they drive very fast and are reckless. Having made a comment about their time consciousness, now he says, “gaining a tenth of a second is a matter of grave importance for all of them all the time”. The reader cannot but infer that the people of Copacabana are very lethargic only while walking and are reckless while driving vehicles.

The writer remarks that buying a motor car in Brazil is an extremely expensive event because import duty for importing cars from other countries is very high. In this context, he also compares Brazil with other countries in South America and says, “Only a few other, poorer South American states are in a worse position in this respect.” Then he remarks that “complaints are universal; hardly anyone can afford a car.” Having said this he proceeds to say that yet you find an unimaginably large number of motor cars here. Then he makes a satirical comment on the craze of the people for buying cars.

He says, “the number of motor vehicles is growing by leaps and bounds as if they were distributed free of charge to all and sundry.”The reader should be careful to note here that the author is also expressing his doubt or surprise at the capacity of the people to pay such huge import duties to buy a car.

Then he explains how reckless the people who drive motor vehicles are. He remarks that “itis, not that drivers do not care about pedestrians”; the trouble is “they are, in fact, on the lookout for them. As soon as a driver notices a pedestrian step off the pavement, the driver considers him as ‘fair game’, he takes aim and accelerates.” The pedestrian has to jump, leap, and run for dear life. In these lines, the author is trying to tell the reader how reckless the drivers are and how they chase people as hunters do while hunting an animal.

However, in the next line, he compliments the people for their sweet and sensible temperament. He tells the reader that the pedestrian does not resent being targeted by the driver. He says, “driver and pedestrian – hunter and prey smile amicably at each other, and they appear to be saying “I win today you will tomorrow”.

In the next paragraph, the author talks about the rivalry between two drivers. Though the war between two drivers appears to be murderous, yet they are good-tempered. He describes the style of their driving – they cut in, overtake on both sides, force you to brake violently and commit all the most heinous crimes on the road twenty times an hour”. Despite exhibiting such recklessness in their driving, they smile at you and do not show any anger, no hostility, and no mad hooting.

In the next paragraph, he recalls an incident he had probably witnessed in a place called Avenida Presidente Vargas. He says it is the worst place in Brazil known for its crowded and slow-moving’ traffic. His statement is paradoxical. He says, on the one hand, that driver’s drive recklessly; and here he calls the traffic ‘crawling traffic’. He says even the onlookers will be contemplating the truly fascinating problem “how can crawling traffic proceed at such terrifying speed”. One can imagine the number of vehicles moving at such terrific speed and probably it is the number of vehicles moving at a time together which makes the reader call it ‘crawling traffic’. He comments about the helplessness of the pedestrian who wishes to cross the road waiting for hours on end.

Then, he concludes narrating a jovial anecdote. He tells the reader that he might witness a situation in which a man standing beside you on your side of the road, suddenly discovers a friend of his on the other side and starts waving to him. He asks him, “How on earth did you ever get there?” The other fellow yells back, “How? I was born on this side”. The author narrates this anecdote probably to convince the reader how difficult it is to cross a busy road in Avenida Vargas.

Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Summary in Kannada

Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Summary in Kannada 2
Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Summary in Kannada 3
Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Summary in Kannada 4
Japan and Brazil through a Traveller’s Eye Summary in Kannada 5

Glossary:

  • Mania: obsession, a craze
  • Condescend: stoop, humiliate
  • Genetic: hereditary, inherited
  • Subtly: delicate, cunning, elusive
  • Tokaido, Osaka, and Tokyo: places in Japan
  • Serenity: peacefulness, calmness
  • Heinous: hateful, wicked
  • Copacabana, Avenida, Presidente Vargas: places in Brazil

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