1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules

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Karnataka 1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules

1st PUC Biology Biomolecules NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What are macromolecules? Give examples.
Answer:
Biomacromolecules are found in acid-insoluble fractions. They are polymeric compounds e.g., polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. They have a high molecular weight of more than 1000 Daltons.

Question 2.
Illustrate a glycosidic, peptide, and phosphodiester bond.
Answer:
Peptide bond: In a polypeptide or a protein, amino acids are linked by a peptide bond which is formed when the carboxyl (COOH) group of one amino acid reacts with the amino (NH2) group of the next amino acid with the removal of a water molecule.
Glycosidic bond: In a polysaccharide, the individual monosaccharides are linked by a glycosidic bond. This bond is also formed by dehydration. This bond is formed between two carbon atoms of two adjacent monosaccharides.

Phosphodiester bond: In a nucleic acid, a phosphate moiety links the 3’-carbon of one sugar of one nucleotide to the 5’-carbon of the sugar of the succeeding nucleotide. The bond between the phosphate and hydroxyl group of sugar is an ester bond. As there is one such ester bond on either side, it is called the phosphodiester bond.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
What is meant by the tertiary structure of proteins”
Answer:
In proteins, only right-handed helices are observed. Other regions of the protein thread are folded into other forms in what is called the secondary structure. In addition, the long protein chain is also folded upon itself like a hollow woolen ball, giving rise to the tertiary structure, (Fig 9.2 a, b.) This gives us a 3-dimensional view of a protein. Tertiary structure is absolutely necessary for the many biological activities of Proteins
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 1

Question 4.
Find and write down structures of 10 interesting small molecular weight biomolecules. Find if there is any industry that manufactures the compounds by Isolation. Find out who are the buyers.
Answer:
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 2
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 3
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 4

Ranboxy, Merck, etc. manufacture these macromolecules. Research institutes by these micromolecules

Question 5.
Proteins have a primary structure, if you are given a method to know which amino acid is at either of the two termini (ends) of a protein, can you connect this information to purity or homogeneity of a protein?
Answer:
In primary structure, proteins have a linear arrangement of aminoacids. Because proteins are made up of 20 different types of amino acids we can not make a statement of purity or homogeneity only by knowing the terminal amino acids.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Find out and make a list of proteins used as therapeutic agents. Find other applications of proteins (e.g., Cosmetics, etc.)
Answer:
Therapeutic Agents:
Contraceptive pills: As they are hormones so they are made up of protein.
Nutritional Supplements: Many brands are available as protein supplements.
Example: Protinex
Other use: Chicken cubes are used in making soups and dishes.

Question 7.
Explain the composition of triglyceride.
Answer:
Glycerol combines with three similar fatty acids to form triglyceride. Structure/Composition of triglyceride
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 5
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 6

Question 8.
Can you describe what happens when milk is converted into curd or yoghurt, from your understanding of proteins?
Answer:
When milk is converted into yoghurt or curd then coagulation of milk protein i.e., casein occurs. Casein is converted to paracaesin in the formation of curd.

Question 9.
Draw the structure of the amino acid, alanine.
Answer:
Structure of alanine
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 7

Question 10.
What are gums made of? Is Fevicol different?
Answer:
The gums are made of lignocellulose which is secreted in the form of resin from resin ducts of plant. It is an adhesive substance which is used in the artificial adhesion of different substances. It is capable of causing a large viscosity in the solution.

Fevicol is different from gums as it is an artificial substance. Fevicol is a synthetic glue. These adhesives are a mixture of ingredients (typically polymers) dissolved in a solvent. As the solvent evaporates, the adhesive hardens. Depending on the chemical composition of the adhesive, they will adhere to different materials to greater or lesser degrees. These adhesives are typically weak and are used for household applications.

Question 11.
Find out a qualitative test for proteins, fats and oils, amino acids and test any fruit juice, saliva, sweat, and urine for them.
Answer:
(a) Test for protein

  • Xanthoproteic test
  • Biuret’s test

(b) Test for Amino acid

  • Ninhydrin test

(c) Test for fats and oils

  • Sudan test
  • Spot test

Question 12.
Describe the important properties of enzymes.
Answer:
Properties of enzymes are as following:

  • Lowering the activation energy
  • Lowering the energy of the transition state
  • Providing an alternative pathway
  • Reducing the reaction entropy change
  • Increases in temperatures speed up reactions
  • Unique enzyme for unique substance
  • A small quantity is enough to facilitate a faster reaction.

1st PUC Biology Biomolecules Additional Questions and Answers

1st PUC Biology Biomolecules One Mark Questions

Question 1
What are biomolecules?
Answer:
Biomolecules or biological, molecules are the elements occurring in the molecular form, in the living systems.

Question2.
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
Answer:
Nucleotides.

Question 3.
What are 3 groups of Carbohydrates?
Answer:

  • Monosaccharides
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Polysaccharides.

Question 4.
What is a Glycosldlc bond?
Answer:
The bond formed between two monosaccharides is called a glycosidic bond.

Question 5.
Name the disaccharide present in milk.
Answer:
Lactose.

Question 6.
Which protein molecule does catalyse biochemical reactions?
Answer:
Enzymes.

Question 7.
What are Polysaccharides?
Answer:
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates and are the polymers of simple sugar molecules.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Name the Polysaccharide present in the plant cell wall. (U. Kannada 2008)
Answer:
Cellulose.

Question 9.
Name the Polysaccharide present in the human liver.
Answer:
Glycogen.

Question 10.
Define Protein.
Answer:
Proteins are microbiological molecules composed of monoacids.

Question 11.
What are the monomeric units of proteins?
Answer:
Aminoacids.

Question 12.
Name one phospholipid found in the cell membrane.
Answer:
Lecithin

Question 13.
Name the proteins of hairs and nails.
Answer:
Keratin.

Question 14.
Give an example of simple protein.
Answer:
Albumin.

Question 15.
What is a peptide bond? (Gulbarga 2004)
Answer:
It is a bond formed between two amino acids in a protein molecule. (CO-NH)

Question 16.
Give an example for Conjugated proteins.
Answer:
Glycoprotein (Bijapur. 2004, B.North. 04)

Question 17.
Give an example for derived proteins.
Answer:
Peptone.

Question 18.
Give an example for nonessential amino acids?
Answer:
Glutamic acid.

Question 19.
Define lipid.
Answer:
Lipids are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen as well as nitrogen and phosphorus. They are the esters of fatty acids and alcohol.

Question 20.
Give an example of simple lipid.
Answer:
Waxes.

Question 21.
Name two unsaturated fatty acids.
Answer:
Ole’s acid and Linoleic acid.

Question 22.
Name two saturated fatty acids.
Answer:
Butyric acid, Stearic acid.

Question 23.
Give an example of phospholipids.
Answer:
Lecithin.

Question 24.
What is an enzyme? (B’lore North 2004)
Answer:
Enzymes are biological catalysts produced by living cells.

Question 25.
What do you mean by the activation of enzymes?
Answer:
The conversion of the inactive form of an enzyme into an active form is known as the activation of enzymes.

Question 26.
What are Lyases?
Answer:
These are the enzymes that catalyze reactions involving the breaking of large molecules without the addition of water.

Question 27.
What are Hydrolases?
Answer:
These are enzymes capable of accelerating hydrolytic reactions.

Question 28.
What is an apoenzyme?
Answer:
The protein part of an enzyme is called ‘apoenzyme’.

Question 29.
What is a Coenzyme?
Answer:
The nonprotein part of an enzyme is called ‘coenzyme’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 30.
What Purines and Pyrimidines?
Answer:
These are nitrogenous bases.

Question 31.
What is a nucleoside?
Answer:
It is a combination of nitrogenous base and pentose sugar.

Question 32.
What Is a nucleotide? (Chikmagalur 2004)
Answer:
A nucleotide is a combination of nucleoside and phosphoric acid.

Question 33.
What is the bond present between the successive nucleotides of a single Poly-nucleotide strand?
Answer:
Phosphodiester.

Question 34.
What is the type of sugar present in RNA?
Answer:
Ribose sugar.

Question 35.
Give the name for animal starch.
Answer:
Glycogen. (Bijapur 2004)

Question 36.
Expand DNA. (Dharwar 2004)
Answer:
Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid.

Question 37.
Give an example for chromoproteins.
Answer:
Hemoglobin. (Gulbarga 2004)

Question 38.
What type of sugar is found in DNA?
Answer:
Deoxyribose (Belgaum 2004)

Question 39.
Give an example of the asteroid. (B. North 2005)
Answer:
Testosterone, Progesterone

Question 40.
Define enzyme. (Tumkur 2005)
Answer:
Enzymes are biological catalysts produced by living cells.

Question 41.
What are triglycerides? (Udupi 2005)
Answer:
These are the esters of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol.

Question 42.
Mention one use of gelatin. (B1 North 2005)
Answer:
Gelatin is used in the preparation of ice cream, medicinal capsules, films, and photographic papers, (anyone)

Question 43.
Find the odd member in the given group giving one reason. Sucrose, glucose, lactose, maltose. (Kolar 2005)
Answer:
Glucose because it is a monosaccharide, while all the others are disaccharides.

Question 44.
Give one example for Disaccharide.
Answer:
Sucrose, Lactose (D.Kannada 2007)

Question 45.
Name the catalytic proteins. (D.K. 2008)
Answer:
Pepsin, amylase esterases, polymerases.

Question 46.
Name the pyrimidine present only in DNA.
Answer:
Jhymne. (D. Kannada 2010)

Question 47.
What is meant by ash?
Answer:
Ash is the remnant of a living tissue that is denied and fully burnt till all the carbon compounds in it are oxidized to gaseous form and removed.

Question 48.
What are amino acids?
Answer:
Amino acids are organic compounds containing an amino group and an acidic group as substituents on the same carbon (a – carbon)

Question 49.
How many types of amino acids are found in proteins?
Answer:
Twenty types.

Question 50.
Name any two aromatic amino acids?
Answer:
Tyrosine, tryptophan.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 51.
Why do amino acids change their structure in varying pHs?
Answer:
Because of the ionizable nature of -NH2 and -COOH groups present in amino acids, the structure of amino acids changes in solutions of different pHs.

Question 52.
Give the zwitterionic form of amino acids.
Answer:
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 8

Question 53.
How many carbon atoms are present in each of the following:
(a) Palmitic acid
(b) Arachidonic acid?
Answer:
(a) 16 carbon atoms
(b) 20 carbon atoms.

Question 54.
Name the lipid that is tri-hydroxy propane.
Answer:
Glycerol.

Question 55.
Give examples of carbon compounds with heterocyclic rings?
Answer:
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, and thymine.

Question 56.
Name the nitrogen base present only in RNA?
Answer:
lilac

Question 57.
What is a polymer of amino acids called?
Answer:
Proteins.

Question 58.
Mention the function of GLUT – 4?
Answer:
It enables glucose transport into cells.

Question 59.
Give few examples of alkaloids.
Answer:
Morphine and Codeine.

Question 60.
Give examples of toxins.
Answer:
Ricin and Abrin.

Question 61.
What is the function of collagen?
Answer:
It forms the intercellular ground substance.

Question 62.
Give the name of proteins that fight infectious agents.
Answer:
Antibodies.

Question 63.
Name the protein that is most abundant in the animal world.
Answer:
Collagen.

Question 64.
Name the protein that is most abundant in the whole biosphere.
Answer:
Ribulose bisphosphate Carboxylase – Oxygenase (Ru Bis Co).

Question 65.
Mention the polymer of fructose.
Answer:
Inulin.

Question 66.
Why cannot cellulose hold l2 molecules?
Answer:
Cellulose does not contain complex helices and hence cannot hold l2 molecules.

Question 67.
Name the chemical present in the exoskeleton of arthropods.
Answer:
Chitin.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 68.
Give examples of heteropolysaccharides.
Answer:
Glucosamine, Chitin.

Question 69.
Name a few substituted purines.
Answer:
Adenine and guanine.

Question 70.
Name few substituted pyrimidines.
Answer:
Cytosine, Thymine, and Uraciltion of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and water.

Question 71.
How are the two strands of DNA held together?
Answer:
They are held by hydrogen fonds between the nitrogen bases.

Question 72.
How many hydrogen bonds exist between Guanine and Cytosine.
Answer:
Three.

Question 73.
How many hydrogen bonds exist between Adenine and Thymine?
Answer:
Two.

Question 74.
Define metabolism.
Answer:
Metabolism is all the chemical reactions that constantly occur in living organisms.

Question 75.
What is the dynamic state of the body constituents?
Answer:
The flow of metabolites at a definite rate; and direction in the living body is called the dynamic state of the body constituents.

Question 76.
What are enzymes chemically?
Answer:
Enzymes are chemically proteins.

Question 77.
Define the rate of chemical process and how is it expressed?
Answer:
The rate of a physical or chemical process refers to the amount of product formed per unit of time.
It is expressed as \(rate=\cfrac { \delta P }{ \delta T } \)

Question 78.
What is the rule of thumb in the variation of rate?
Answer:
Rate doubles or decreases by half in either direction for every 10°C change in temperature.

Question 79.
What is the active site of an enzyme?
Answer:
Active site of an enzyme is a service or pocket into which the substrate fits.

Question 80.
What is the function of carbonic anhydrase?
Answer:
Carhonic anhydrase catalyzes the formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and water

Question 81.
What is a substrate In an enzyme action?
Answer:
The chemical substance on which the enzyme acts is called the substrate.

Question 82.
Define activation energy of the reaction.
Answer:
The difference in the average energy content of the substrate form, from that of the transition state, is called activation energy.

Question 83.
What is an inhibitor of enzyme action?
Answer:
The chemical substance which decreases or shuts off enzyme activity is called an inhibitor.

Question 84.
What are the essential components of many coenzymes? Give examples.
Answer:
The essential components of many coenzymes are vitamins.
e.g.: coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NADP contain the vitamin niacin.

1st PUC Biology Biomolecules Two Marks Questions

Question 1.
Give a list of important monosaccharides.
Answer:
Glycerol, Ribose, Deoxyribose, Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose.

Question 2.
What are triglycerides?
Answer:
In a triglyceride three similar or different fatty acids are attached to three hydroxyl groups of glycerol by an ester bond.

Question 3.
What are Polysaccharides? Give examples. (Belgaum 2004)
Answer:
Polysaccharides are the polymers of simple sugar molecules. They contain more than 10 units of monosaccharides. Examples: Starch, Cellulose.

Question 4.
Write two functions of carbohydrates.
Answer:

  • They are the principal source of energy.
  • They form the structural components in living organisms.

Question 5.
In which form carbohydrate Is stored in plants and animals?
Answer:

  • plants – starch.
  • In animals – Glycogen.

Question 6.
What are homopolysaccharides? Give two examples.
Answer:
These are polysaccharides composed of only one type of monosaccharides.
Examples: Starch, Cellulose.

Question 7.
Where are the following found?
Glycosidic bonds, ester bonds, peptide bonds, energy-rich bonds, double bonds.
Answer:

  • Glycosidic bonds: Disaccharides.
  • Ester bond: Between glycerols and fatty acids.
  • Peptide bond: Proteins
  • Energy-rich bond: ATP
  • Double bond: Unsaturated fatty acids.

Question 8
List any two functions of proteins.
Answer:
Proteins act as biocatalysts as they form enzymes. Proteins like fibrinogens help in the clotting of blood.

Question 9.
What la an aminoacid sequence?
Answer:
It is a particular order in which amino acids are arranged to form a specific protein. The aminoacids sequence in a protein molecule is of paramount importance.

Question 10.
What are saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? Give examples.
Answer:

  • Saturated fatty acids do not possess double bonds in their hydrocarbon chain.
    Examples: butyric acid.
  • Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds in their hydrocarbon chain. Example: Oleic acid.

Question 11.
Write two functions of Lipids. (B. North 04)
Answer:
’They function as reserve food material in living organisms. They provide a rich source of energy.

Question 12.
What are enzymes? Mention any 2 groups of enzymes.
Answer:
Enzymes are the stable, specific protein molecules which act as biocatalysts.
Following are the 2 groups of enzymes:

  • Oxide – reductases
  • Isomerases.

Question 13.
What is competitive inhibition?
Answer:
Competitive Inhibition:
When in a biochemical reaction an inhibitor has a close structure with the substrate and it binds to the enzyme rather than the other substrate. This process of competition between the inhibitor substrate for the active site is called competitive inhibition.
e.g. in Kreb’s Cycle, malonale completes with Suecinate for the active site of succinate dehydrogenase.

Question 14.
State the components of DNA.
Answer:
DNA is composed of nitrogenous bases like adenine, guanine, cytosine and Thymine, pentose sugar deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.

Question 15.
Name the nitrogenous bases of RNA. (Shimoga 2006)
Answer:

  • Adenine
  • Guanine
  • Cytosine
  • Uracil

Question 16.
Write any two functions of DNA.
Answer:

  • It controls protein biosynthesis.
  • It is the genetic material in most organisms.

Question 17.
What is a nucleotide? List the nucleotides of RNA.
Answer:
A nucleotide is the combination of a nitrogenous base, sugar, and phosphoric acid. The following are the nucleotides of RNA.

  • adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
  • guanosine monophosphate (GMP)
  • cytidine monophosphate (CMP)
  • Uridine monophosphate (UMP)

Question 18.
What are the functions of RNA?
Answer:

  • It acts as genetic material in many viruses.
  • It helps in the process of protein synthesis.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 19.
List any two differences between DNA and RNA. (B. North., Gulbarga. 2004, D.K. 2006,2008)
Answer:

  • DNA is a double-stranded molecule. RNA is a single-stranded molecule.
  • DNA has deoxyribose sugar.
  • RNA has Ribose sugar.
  • DNA is genetic RNA is non-genetic
  • DNA has Adenine, cytosine, Gnanine & Thymine as Nitrogenous bases RNA has Adenine, cytosine, Guanine & uracil as nitrogenous bases

Question 20.
Give an example for the following
(a) Respiratory pigment
(b) Protein present In hair
(c) Protein present in muscle fiber
(d) Sugar in milk.
Answer:
(a) Respiratory pigment: Haemoglobin.
(b) A protein present in hair: Keratin
(c) Protein present in muscle fibre: Myosin
(d) Sugar in milk: Lactose.

Question 21.
With reference to DNA, mention the types of
(a) Pyrimidine bases
(b) Purine bases (Udupi 2005)
Answer:
(a) Pyrimidine bases – Cytosine & Thymine
(b) Purine bases – Adenine & Guanine

Question 22.
Write four properties of enzymes (D.Kannada 2005,2011)
Answer:

  • Enzymes are needed in a minute quantity for the acceleration of biochemical reactions.
  • Enzymes exhibit specificity in their reactions. Each enzyme can act on a particular substance/substrate only.
  • Enzymes act within a narrow range of pH and temperature. So they are referred to as thermolabile compounds.
  • Enzymes can act either way in a biochemical reaction because biochemical reactions are reversible.

Question 23.
Differentiate between a nucleoside and a nucleotide. (Bangalore North 2005)
Answer:
Nucleoside

  • Consists of sugar and a nitrogenous base.
  • The linkage present is called glycosidic.
  • Eg. is Adenosine, Deoxyadenosine.

Nucleotide

  • Consists of sugar, nitrogenous base & phosphoric acid.
  • The linkage present is termed phosphorites linkage.
  • Eg. is Adenylic acid, deoxy adenylic acid.

Question 24.
Give any two biological significances of amino acids. (Udupi 2005)
Answer:

  • Some proteins act as chemical messengers (hormones).
  • Muscle proteins like actin and myosin help in muscle contraction.

Question 25.
Name the monomer of nucleic acids and mention Its components. (M.Q.P, Kolar, Hassan, Shimoga, Belgaum, Bangalore Rural,Chikmagalur 2005)
Answer:
Nucleotide comprising sugar, a nitrogenous base, and phosphoric acid.

Question 26.
Give the biological significance of carbohydrates. (Bangalore Rural 2005)
Answer:

  • Carbohydrates are the major source of energy for the living world.
  • They form the reserve food material in both plants and animals.
  • They form the structural components in living organisms.
  • They are essential in the regulation of fat metabolism.

Question 27.
Write any five biological significance of lipids. (Bangalore South 2005)
Answer:

  • lipids form the main constituents of biological membranes.
  • Lipids provide protective coverings like cuticles on leaves, hairs & feathers in animals.
  • Lipids function as reserve food material in living organisms.
  • Lipids provide a rich source of energy.
  • Steroids regulate physiological activities.

Question 28.
Write the structural formula of:
(I) Galactose
(II) glucose
Answer:
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 9

Question 29.
What are fatty acids? Give two examples.
Answer:
Fatty acids are compounds which has a carboxyl group attached to an R group. The R group could be a methyl (-CH3), or ethyl (-C2Hs), or a higher number of -CH2 groups (1 carbon to 19 carbons). Eg; Palmitic acid, Arachidonic acid.

Question 30.
State the differences between oils and fats
Answer:

Oils Fats
(a)  Oils are liquids at temperature.
(b) Melting point is low
(c) They are unsaturated compounds
(d) They react easily
(a)  Fats are solids at room temperature.
(b) Melting point is high
(c) They are saturated
(d) They do not react easily.

Question 31.
Differentiate between essential and non-essential amino acids.
Answer:

Essential amino acids Non-essential amino acids
(a) These are the amino acids that are not synthesized in the body. (a) These are the amino acids that are synthesized in the body.
(b) Dietary proteins form the source of essential amino acids. (b) They need not be taken in the diet.

Question 32.
Differentiate between starch and cellulose.
Answer:

Starch Cellulose
(a)  It forms helical secondary structures
(b) Starch can hold l2 molecules
(c)  Starch is stained blue with iodine
(d) It is a storehouse of energy in plant tissues
(a)  It does not contain helical structures.
(b) It cannot hold l2 molecules
(c)  It cannot be stained blue with iodine
(d)  It is present in the cell wall

Question 33.
Write the structural formula of
(i) Adenylic acid
(ii) Uracil
Answer:
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 10

Question 34.
Describes the primary structure of proteins.
Answer:
The sequence of amino acids, i.e. the positional information of the amino acids in a protein is called the primary structure of a protein. A Protein is imagined as a line, the left end represented by the first amino acid and the right end represented by the last amino acid. The first amino acid is also called an N-terminal amino acid and the last amino acid is called the C-terminal amino acid.

Question 35.
Describe the quaternary structure of proteins and give example.
Answer:
Some proteins are an assembly of more than one polypeptide or subunits. The manner in which these individual folded polypeptides or subunits are arranged with respect to each other (e.g. linear string of spheres, spheres arranged one upon the other in the form of a cube or plate) is the architecture of a protein which is referred to as the quaternary structure of a protein. Eg: Adult human hemoglobin consists of 4 subunits. Two of these are identical to each other. Hence, two subunits of a -type and two subunits of p-type together constitute the human hemoglobin (Hb).

KSEEB Solutions

Question 36.
What are cofactors for enzymes? Name the types of cofactors.
Answer:
The non-protein constituents that are found in the enzyme to make it catalytically active are called co-factors. Types of co-factors are

  • prosthetic group
  • Co-enzymes
  • Metal ions.

1st PUC Biology Biomolecules Three Marks Questions

Question 1.
Explain the terms monoglyceride, diglycerides, and triglyceride.
Answer:

  • Monoglyceride: It is a lipid with one molecule of glycerol and one molecule of fatty acid.
  • Diglyceride: It is a lipid with one molecule of glycerol and two molecules of fatty acids.
  • Triglyceride: It is a lipid that has one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids.

Question 2.
What are nucleosides? Name the four of them which occur in RNA.
Answer:
Nucleosides are compounds having nitrogen bases attached to a sugar.
Nucleosides occurring in RNA are:

  • Adenosine
  • guanosine
  • cytidine
  • and uridine.

Question 3.
Mention the differences between primary and secondary metabolites. Give examples of each.
Answer:

Primary Metabolite Secondary Metabolites
(a) These are the metabolites which have identifiable functions and play a specific role in metabolism.
(b) These are important in human metabolic processes Eg: amino acids, sugars.
(a) These are the metabolites formed during metabolism whose exact function is not known.
(b) These are useful for human welfare Eg: Alkaloids, flavonoids antibiotics.

Question 4.
Name the two types of biomolecules present in the cells of living organisms. Mention the differences.
Answer:
Two types of biomolecules are

Biomacromolecules Biomacromolecules
(a) These molecules have their molecular weight of less than one thousand daltons.
(b) These are found in the acid-soluble fraction. Eg: amino acids, sugars, alkaloids, etc
(a) These biomolecules have a molecular weight in the range of ten thousand daltons and above.
(b) These are found in the acid-insoluble fraction. Eg: proteins, nucleic acids polysaccharides, etc.

Question 5.
(a) What is meant by complementary base pairing?
(b)What is the distance between two successive bases in a strand of DNA?
(c)How many base pairs are present in one turn of the helix of a DNA strand?
Answer:
(a) In a DNA, a purine always pairs with a pyrimidine i.e. adenine pairs with thymine
(A = T) and guanine with cytosine (G = C). This is called a complementary pairing.
(b) 3.4 A0
(c) 10 base pairs.

Question 6.
Describe the influence of temperature and pH on enzyme action with graphs.
Answer:
Enzymes generally function in a narrow range of temperature and pH. Each enzyme shows its highest activity at a particular temperature and pH called the optimum temperature and optimum pH. Activity declines both below and above the optimum value. Low temperature preserves the enzyme in a temporarily inactive state whereas high temperature destroys enzymatic activity because proteins are denatured by heat. Any change in pH alters the tertiary structure of the enzyme protein and thereby reduces the enzyme activity.
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 11
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 12

Question 7.
Describe competitive inhibition with an example.
Answer:
When the inhibitor closely resembles the substrate in its molecular structure and inhibits the activity of the enzyme, it is known as a competitive inhibitor and the process is called competitive inhibition. Due to its close structural similarity with the substrate, the inhibitor competes with the substrate for the substrate-binding site of the enzyme. Consequently, the substrate cannot bind and as a result, the enzyme action declines.
Eg:- Inhibition of succinic dehydrogenase by malonate which closely resembles the substrate succinate in structure.

Question 8.
Discuss the functions of polysaccharides.
Answer:
The functions of polysaccharides are as follows:

  • Starch and glycogen are the major storage foods of the organic world.
  • On hydrolysis storage carbohydrates provide both energy and carbon chains.
  • Chitin is the structural carbohydrates of fungal walls and the exoskeleton of arthropods.
  • Cellulose is the structural substance of cell walls in most plants.
  • Cellulose is economically important in the production of furniture, shelter, fuel, paper, textiles, ropes, rayon, cellophane, plastics, shatterproof glass, propellant explosives, emulsifier, and raw material for several fermentation products.

1st PUC Biology Biomolecules Five Marks Questions

Question 1.
Enumerate the properties of enzymes and ” its classification. (D. Kannada 2007)
Answer:
Properties of Enzymes:

  • Enzymes are needed in a minute quantity for the acceleration of biochemical reactions.
  • Enzymes exhibit specificity in their reactions. Each enzyme can act on a particular substance only.
  • Enzymes act within a narrow range of pH and temperature. So they are referred to as thermolabile compounds.
  • Enzymes can act either way in a biochemical reaction because biochemical reactions are reversible.
  • Enzymes can be destroyed or inactivated by a number of substances like cyanide, iodo acetic acid, malonic acid, etc. The substances capable of hampering enzymatic reactions are called enzyme inhibitors.
  • Enzymes work in teams, making cell metabolism a continuous process.

Classification of enzymes.
‘Enzymes are classified into six major groups based on type of functions.
They are –

  • Oxide-Reductases
  • Transferases
  • Hydrolases
  • Lyases
  • Isomerases
  • Ligases

(1) Oxide-Reductases:
These are enzymes catalyzing oxidation and reduction reactions. These oxidation and reduction reactions are generally referred to as redox reactions.

(2) Transferases:
These enzyme accelerate reactions involving transfer of functional groups from one compound to another compound.

(3) Hydrolases:
These are enzymes capable of accelerating hydrolytic reactions. Breaking down large molecules with the addition of water is called hydrolysis. Enzymes involved in a hydrolytic reaction are referred to as hydrolases.

(4) Lyases:
These enzymes catalyze reactions involving the breaking of large molecules without the addition of water.

(5) Isomerases:
These enzymes catalyse reactions involving rearrangement of molecule structure of the substrate to form an isomer. Hence they catalyse isomerization reactions they are termed isomerases.

(6) Ligases: These enzymes accelerate synthetic reactions like polymerization.

Question 2.
a. Expand DNA. (D. Kannada 2006)
Answer:
Deoxy ribonucleic acid

b. List the nucleotides of DNA
Answer:
d AMP (deoxy adenylic acid)
d GMP (deoxy guanylic acid)
d CMP (deoxy cytidylic acid)
d TMP (deoxy thymidylic acid)

c. Write 4 functions of DNA.
Answer:

  • Carries genetic information
  • Auto catalytic and heterocatalytic function (replication and protein synthesis)
  • Mutation
  • Repair

Question 3.
What will be the amino acid if the R-group is:
(i) hydrogen
(ii) methyl group
(iii) hydroxymethyl group write the respective structures
Answer:
(i) Glycine
(ii) Alanine
(iii) Serine
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 13

Question 4.
Mention any five secondary metabolites with two examples for each.
Answer:

  • Pigments – Carotenoids, Anthocyanins
  • Alkaloids – Morphine, Codeine, etc.
  • Essential oils – Lemongrass oil
  • Toxins – Abnn, Ricin
  • Drags – Vinblastin, curcumin
  • Polymeric substances – Rubber, gems
  • Terpenoids – Monoterpenes, Diterpenes.

Question 5
Mention any five proteins with their functions.
Answer:

  • Collagen – Intercellular ground substance
  • Trypsin – Enzyme
  • Insulin – Hormone
  • Antibody – Fights infectious agents
  • Receptor – Sensory reception like smell, taste, hormone etc.
  • GLUT- 4- Enables glucose transport into cells.

Question 6.
Describe the Watson and Crick model of DNA structure with a diagram.
Answer:
Watson and Crick’s model explain the secondary structure exhibited by DNA. This model says that the DA exists as a double helix. The two strands of polynucleotides are antiparallel Le. run in the opposite direction. The backbone is formed by the sugar-phosphate-sugar chain. The nitrogen bases are projected more or less perpendicular to this backbone but face inside.

‘A’ of one strand compulsorily base pairs with T on the other strand and ‘G’ of one strand pairs with ‘C’ on the other strand. Three are two hydrogen bonds between A and T and three hydrogen bonds between G and C. Each strand appears like a helical staircase. Each step of ascent is represented by a pair of bases. At each step
of ascent, the strand turns 360. One full turn of the helical strand would involve ten steps or ten base pairs. The pitch is 34A° and the rise per base pair is 3.4 A° The form of DNA with the above-mentioned salient features is called B-DNA.
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 14

Question 7.
How do enzymes accelerate biochemical reactions? Explain the nature of enzyme action, describing the steps In the catalytic cycle of enzyme action.
Answer:
Enzymes accelerate the reaction by reducing the activation energy of the process/reaction. Each enzyme (E) has a substrate (S) binding site in its molecule so that a highly reactive enzyme-substrate complex (ES) is produced. This complex is short-lived and dissociates into its products (P) and the unchanged enzyme with an intermediate formation of the enzyme-product complex (EP). The formation of the ES complex is essential for catalysis.

E + S □ ES → EP → E + P

The catalytic cycle of enzyme action can be described in the following steps:

  • The substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme, fitting into the active site.
  • The binding of the substrate induces the ‘ enzyme to alter its shape, fitting more tightly around the substrate.
  • The active site of the enzyme, now in close proximity of the substrate breaks the chemical bonds of the substrate and the new enzyme- product complex is formed.
  • The enzyme releases the products of the reaction and the free enzyme is ready to bind to another molecule of the substrate and run through the catalytic cycle once again.

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Question 8.
Explain how enzymes bring about high rates of chemical conversions using the concept of activation energy.
Answer:
Consider the following reaction in which the enzyme (E) that is a protein with an ‘active site’ converts a substrate (S) into a product (P)
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 15
Substrate ‘S’ binds the enzyme (E) at its active site within a given cleft or pocket to form an ‘ES’ complex. This complex formation is a transient phenomenon. During the state where the substrate is found to the enzyme active site, a new structure of the substrate called transition state structure is formed. After the bond breaking/making is completed, the product ‘P’ is released from the active site.

Here the structure of substrate gets transformed into the structure of products (S). The pathway of this transformation goes through transition state structure and many more ‘altered structural states’ between the stable substrate and the product. Stability is related to the energy status of the molecule.

If product ‘P’ is at a lower level than ‘S’ (Refer to the figure given below), the reaction is exothermic or spontaneous. However, whether it is an exothermic or endothermic (energy-requiring) reaction, the ‘S’ has to go through a much higher energy state or transition state. The difference in the average energy content of “S’ from that of this transition state is called activation energy. Enzymes bring down this energy barrier making the transition of ‘S’ to ‘P’ easier and quicker.

1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 16

Question 9.
Fill in the blanks.
(1) In a polysaccharide ……………is the reducing end and is the non-reducing end.
Answer:
Right end, left end

(2) Metabolic pathways that lead to complex from the simpler structure is called ………….. pathway.
Answer:
anabolic

(3) The most important form of energy in living systems is ……………….
Answer:
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

(4) In our skeletal muscle, under anaerobic conditions acid is formed and under aerobic conditions ………….. acid is formed.
Answer:
Lactic, Pyruvic

1st PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 11 International Business – I

Karnataka 1st PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 11 International Business – I

You can Download Chapter 11 International Business – I Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Business Studies Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Textual Questions and Answers

1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
In which of the following modes of entry, does the domestic manufacturer give the right to use intellectual property such as patent and trademark to a manufacturer in a foreign country for a fee
a. Licensing
b. Contract manufacturing
c. Joint venture
d. None of these
Answer:
a. Licensing

Question 2.
Outsourcing a part of or entire production and concentrating on marketing operations in international business is known as
a. Licensing
b. Franchising
c. Contract manufacturing
d. Joint venture
Answer:
c. Contract manufacturing

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Question 3.
When two or more firms come together to create a new business entity that is legally separate and extinct from its parents it is known as
a. Contract manufacturing
b. Franchising
c. Joint ventures
d. Licensing
Answer:
c. Joint ventures

Question 4.
Which of the following is not an advantage of exporting?
a. Easier way to enter into international markets
b. Comparatively lower risks.
c. Limited presence in foreign market
d. Less investment requirements
Answer:
c. Limited presence in foreign market

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Question 5.
Which one of the following modes of entry requires higher level of risks?
a. Licensing
b. Franchising
c. Contract manufacturing
d. Joint venture
Answer:
d. Joint venture

Question 6.
Which one of the following modes of entry permits greatest degree of control over overseas operations?
a. Licensing/franchising
b. Wholly owned subsidiary
c. Contract manufacturing
d. Joint venture
Answer:
b. Wholly owned subsidiary

Question 7.
Which one of the following modes of entry brings the firm closer to international markets?
a. Licensing
b. Franchising
c. Contract manufacturing
d. Joint venture
Answer:
d. Joint venture

Question 8.
Which one of the following is not, amongst India’s major export items?
a. Textiles and garments
b. Gems and jewellery
c. Oil and petroleum products
d. Basmati rice
Answer:
c. Oil and petroleum products

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Question 9.
Which one of the following is not amongst India’s major import items?
a. Ayurvedic medicines products
b. Oil and petroleum
c. Pearls and precious stones
d. Machinery
Answer:
a. Ayurvedic medicines products

Question 10.
Which one of the following is not amongst India’s major trading partners?
a. USA
b. UK
c. Germany
d. New Zealand
Answer:
d. New Zealand

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Differentiate between international trade and international business.
Answer:

SI. No. International Trade International Business
(i) International trade means movements of goods only. Business transaction that takes place between two or more countries is known as international business.
(ii) It involves only the movements of goods and international currency is used for dealing. It involves not only the international movements of goods and services but also capital, personnel, technology and intellectual property like trademarks, patents.
(iii) International trade is a narrow term. International business is much broader than international trade.

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Question 2.
Discuss any three advantages of international business.
Answer:
For Nations: Three advantages of international business to the nations are:

  1. International business helps a country to earn foreign exchange which it can later use for meeting its imports of capital goods, technology, petroleum products, etc.
  2. International trade allows a country to produce what a country can produce more efficiently, and trade the surplus production so generated with other countries to procure what they can produce more efficiently.
  3. International business helps the countries in improving their growth prospects and creates employment opportunities.

For Firms: Three advantages of international business to the firms are:

  1. International business can be more profitable than the domestic business, as business firms can earn more profits by selling their products in countries where prices are high.
  2. International business leads to fuller utilization of production capacity as a result these firms get benefits of large economies of scale and reduction in the cost of production.
  3. Companies get strategic and technical advantages by going international.

Question 3.
What is the major reason underlying trade between nations?
Answer:
The major reason behind international business is that the countries have unequal distribution of natural resources among them or have differences in their productivity levels because of which they cannot produce all that they need equally well or at equal ‘ costs. Trade between nations allows a country to produce what a country can produce more efficiently, and trade the surplus production so generated with other countries to procure what they can produce more efficiently.

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Question 4.
Discuss as to why nations trade.
Answer:
The countries have unequal distribution of natural resources among them or have differences in their productivity levels because of which they cannot produce all that they need equally well or at equal costs. Availability of various factors of production such as labour, capital and raw materials that are required for producing different goods and services differ among nations.

Moreover, labour productivity and production costs differ among nations due to. various socio-economic, geographical and political reasons. Due to these differences each country finds it advantageous to produce those select goods and services that it can produce more efficiently at home, and procuring the rest through trade with other countries which the other countries can produce at lower costs. This is precisely the reason as to why countries trade with others.

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Question 5.
Enumerate limitations of contract manufacturing.
Answer: Following are the limitations of contract manufacturing:

(i) Local firms might not adhere to production design and quality standards, thus causing serious product quality problems to the international firm.

(ii) Local manufacturers in the foreign country looses his control over the manufacturing process because goods are produced strictly as per the terms and specifications of the contract.

(iii) The profitability of local firms producing under contract manufacturing is low as it is not free to sell the contracted output as per its will. It has to sell the goods to the international company at prices agreed upon under the contract which may be lower than the open market prices.

Question 6.
Why is it said that licensing is an easier way to expand globally?
Answer:
Licensing is considered to be the easier way of expanding globally due to following advantages:

(i) Under the licensing system, it is the licensor who sets up the business unit and invests his/her own money in the business and the licensor has to virtually make no investments abroad. Licensing is, therefore, considered a less expensive mode of entering into international business.

(ii) Licensor is paid by the licensee by way of fees fixed in advance as a percentage of production or sales turnover and licensor does not bear risk of losses.

(iii) Since the business in the foreign country is managed by the licensee who is a local person, there are lower risks of business takeovers or government interventions.

(iv) Licensee being a local person has greater market knowledge and contacts which can prove quite helpful to the licensor in successfully conducting its marketing operations.

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Question 7.
Differentiate between contract manufacturing and setting up wholly owned production subsidiary abroad.
Answer:
Contract manufacturing refers to a type of international business where a firm enters into a contract with one or a few local manufacturers in foreign countries to get certain components or goods produced as per its specifications while in a wholly owned subsidiary the parent company acquires full control over the foreign company by making 100% investment in its equity capital.

Question 8.
Distinguish between licensing and franchising.
Answer:
(i) Licensing is an agreement between licensor and licensee whereas franchising is an agreement between franchisee and franchiser.

(ii) Licensing means permitting other party in a foreign country to produce and sell goods under trademark, patents whereas franchising means sell or distribute the branded products in a specific geographical area, e.g., through its franchising system Me Donald’s operates fast food restaurants in the whole world.

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Question 9.
List major items of India’s exports.
Answer:
Major items of India’s exports are:
(i) Primary Products.
(a) Agricultured and allied products.
(b) Ores and minerals
(ii) Manufactured Goods.
(a) Textiles including garments
(b) Gems and jewellery
(c) Engineering goods
(d) Chemicals and related products
(e) Leather

Question 10.
What are the major items that are exported from India?
Answer:
The major items that are exported from India include:
(i) Primary Products
(a) Agricultured products
(b) Ores and minerals

(ii) Manufactured Goods
(a) Textiles including garments
(b) Gems and jewellery
(c) Engineering goods
(d) Chemicals and related products
(e) Leather and manufactures

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Question 11.
List the major countries with whom India trades.
Answer:
Following are the major countries with whom India trades:

  1. USA
  2. UK
  3. Belgium
  4. Germany
  5. Japan
  6. Switzerland
  7. Hong Kong
  8. UAE
  9. China
  10. Singapore
  11. Malaysia

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is international business? How is it different from domestic business?
Answer:
Manufacturing and trade beyond the boundaries of one’s own country is known as international business. International business is defined as those business activities that take place across the national frontiers. It involves not only the international movements of goods and services, but also of capital, personnel, technology and intellectual property like patents, trademarks, know-how and copyrights. Domestic and international businesses differ from each other in the following aspects:

(i) Nationality of Buyers and Sellers
In the case of domestic business, both the buyers and sellers are from the same country but in international business buyers and sellers come from different countries and their languages, attitudes, social customs and business goals and practices are not identical as in case of domestic business. This makes relatively more difficult for them to interact with one another and finalize business transactions.

(ii) Nationality of Other Stakeholders
The other stakeholders such as employees, suppliers, shareholders/partners and general public associated with firms doing international business have different nationalities while in the case of domestic business all such factors belong to one country. Therefore, decision making in international business becomes much more complex due to wider set of values and aspirations of the stakeholders belonging to different nations.

(iii) Mobility of Factors of Production
The degree of mobility of factors like labour and capital is generally less between countries than within a country due to legal restrictions and variations in socio-cultural environments, geographic influences and economic conditions.

(iv) Customer Heterogeneity Across Markets
Since buyers in international markets hail from different countries, they differ in their socio-cultural background. Differences in their tastes, fashions, languages, beliefs and customs, attitudes and product preferences cause variations in not only their demand for different products and services, but also in variations in their communication patterns and purchase behaviors. Such variations greatly complicate the task of designing products and evolving strategies appropriate for customers in different countries.

(v) Differences in Business Systems and Practices
The differences in business systems and practices are considerably higher among countries than within a country as countries differ from one another in terms of their socio-economic development, availability, cost and efficiency of economic infrastructure and market support services, etc which make it necessary for firms interested in international business to adapt their production, finance, human resource and marketing plans as per. the conditions prevailing in the international markets.

(vi) Political System and Risks
Political factors such as the type of government, political party system, political ideology, political risks, etc, have an impact on business operations. International business firms need to monitor political changes in the concerned countries and devise strategies to deal with diverse political risks. These firms also face discrimination as nations tend to favor products and services originating in their own countries to those ’coming from other countries while this is not a problem for business firms operating domestically.

(vii) Differences in Business Regulations and Policies
Every country has its own set of business laws and regulations. These laws, regulation and economic policies are more or less uniformly applicable within a country but they differ widely among nations. Tariff and taxation policies, import quota system, subsidies and other controls adopted by a nation are not the same as in other countries and often discriminate against foreign products, services and capital.

(viii) Difference in Currency
International business involves the use of different currencies while in domestic business all transactions are done in the same currency. International business firms have to keep exchange rate fluctuations into consideration in fixing prices of their products and hedging against foreign exchange risks.

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Question 2.
“International business is more than international trade”. Comment.
Answer:
International trade comprises of exports and imports of goods and forms an important component of international business. But the scope of international business is substantially wider than that of international trade. International business includes international exchange of services such as international travel and tourism, transportation, communication, banking, warehousing, distribution and advertising.

It also covers foreign investments and overseas production of goods and services. Multinational companies have started making investments into foreign countries and undertaking production of goods and services in foreign countries to explore foreign markets and produce at lower costs. All these activities form part of international business. To conclude, we can say that international business is a much broader term and is comprised of both the trade and production of goods and services across frontiers.

International trade is done through exporting of goods while international business modes include licensing, franchising, contract manufacturing, joint ventures and establishment of wholly owned subsidiaries apart from exporting.

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Question 3.
What benefits do firms derive by entering into international business?
Answer:
Firms derive the following benefits by entering into international business:

(i) Prospects for Higher Profits
International business can be more profitable than the domestic business as business firms can earn more profits by selling their products in countries where price are high when the domestic prices are lower.

(ii) Increased Capacity Utilization
Firms can make use of their surplus production capacities and also improving the profitability of their operations by going for overseas expansion and procuring orders from foreign customers. Production on a larger scale often leads to economies of scale, which in turn lowers production cost and improves per unit profit margin.

(iii) Prospects for Growth.
Business firms can improve prospects of their growth by entering into overseas markets » when demand for their products starts getting saturated in the domestic market.

(iv) Way out from Intense Competition in Domestic Market Internationalization is the only way to achieve significant growth when competition in the domestic market is very intense. A highly competitive domestic market induces many companies to go international in search of markets for their products.

(v) Improved Business Vision.
The growth of international- business of many companies is essentially a part of their business policies or strategic management. The vision to become international comes from the urge to grow, the need to become more competitive, the need to diversify and to gain strategic advantages of internationalization.

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Question 4.
In what ways is exporting a better way of entering into international markets than setting up wholly owned subsidiaries abroad?
Answer:
Exporting is a better way of entering into international markets than setting up wholly owned subsidiaries abroad in the following ways:

  1. Exporting is the easiest way of gaining entry into international markets. It is less complex than setting up and managing joint ventures or wholly owned subsidiaries abroad.
  2. Exporting involves lesser time and effort as business firms are not required to invest that much time and money as it is needed when they set up manufacturing plants and facilities as wholly owned subsidiary in host countries.
  3. Since exporting does not require much of investment in foreign countries, exposure to foreign investment risks is nil or much lower than that in establishing wholly owned subsidiary.

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Question 5.
Discuss briefly the factors that govern the choice of mode of entry into international business.
Answer:
The following factors govern the choice of mode of entry into international business:

(i) Ease of Entry
Some modes of entry into international business like exporting involve lesser formalities than others such as going for joint ventures, franchising or wholly owned subsidiaries. Thus, initially exporting is the mode generally adopted for the entry in to international markets.

(ii) Associated Risk .
Risk of international exposure is higher in joint ventures and wholly owned subsidiaries more investment is involved and socio-economic conditions of the host country along with political and regulatory concerns become more important. Therefore, some other mode like licensing or contract manufacturing might be chosen to reduce risk.

(iii) Efforts Involved
Time and effort one-needs to put in’ is another factor which determines the mode international business. Mode like exporting, licensing and franchising involve lesser effort than joint venture or wholly owned subsidiary.

(iv) Degree of Control
If a firm wants to exercise full control over the operations in foreign countries; it goes for wholly owned subsidiary. Similarly, degree of control is higher in franchising as compared to licensing and so on.

(v) Nature of Business
If the business requires the firm to be in close contact with the customers in the foreign markets, wholly, owned subsidiary or joint venture’ is more suitable while if the products can be supplied from a distance, modes like exporting can suffice. The nature of products being manufactured and availability of raw material also determine the mode of entry into international business.

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Question 6.
Discuss the major trends in India’s foreign trade. Also list the major products that India trades with other countries.
Answer:
India’s share in world trade in 2003 was very low i.e., just 0.8% as compared to those of other developing countries such as China (5.9%), Hong Kong (3.0%), South Korea (2.6%), Malaysia (1.3%), Singapore (1.9%), and Thailand (1.1%). India’s share in world merchandise exports started rising fast since 2004, reached 1.3% in 2009 and 1.5% in 2010. It increased to 1.9% in the first half of 2011, mainly due to the relatively higher Indian export growth of 55% compared to the 23.1% export growth of the world.

Trends in India’s Foreign Trade in Goods Volume of Trade Share of foreign trade in the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has considerably increased from 14.6% in 1990-91 to 24,1% in 2003-04. India’s total merchandise exports were Rs. 606 crore in 1950-51 which increased to Rs. 293367 corers in 2003-04, representing an increase of over 480 times over the last five decades.

During the last decade, India’s exports and imports registered a five to seven fold increase from US $ 44.6billion and US $ 50.5 billion respectively in 2000- 01 to US $ 251.1 billion and US $ 369.8 billion in 2010-11 respectively. While the Compound Annual Growth Rates (CAGR) of India’s exports and imports (in US dollar terms) were 8.2% and 8.4% respectively in the 1990s, they increased to 19.5% and 25.1% during 2000-01 to 2008- 09. Total imports.

which stood at Rs. 608 crore in 1950-51 increased to Rs. 359108 corers in 2003-04, thus registering a growth of about 590 times during the same period. Composition of Trade Composition wise, textiles and garments, gems and jewellery, engineering, products and chemicals and related products and agricultural and allied products are India’s major items of India’s exports. Great changes in the sectoral composition of India’s export basket were seen in the 2000s decade.

The share of petroleum crude and products increased by 11.8 percentage points during the 10-year period from 2000-1 to 2009-10, and further increased by 4.8 percentage points from 2009-10 to the first half of 2011-12. The share of the other two sectors, i. e., manufactures aildirrinidiy products fell -abnest-proportionately by 11.6 and 1.1 percentage points respectively during 2000-1 to 2009-10.

Although in overall terms India accounts for just above 1% of world exports, in many individual product items such as tea, pearls, precious and semi-precious stones, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, rice, spices, iron ore and concentrates, leather and leather manufactures, textile yarns fabrics, garments , and tobacco, its share is much higher and ranges between 3% to 13%.

India even holds the distinct position of being the largest exporter in the world in select commodities such as basmati rice, tea, and ayurvedic products. As far as imports are concerned, products like crude oil and petroleum products, capital goods (i.e., machinery), electronic goods, pearl, precious and semi-precious stones, gold, silver and chemicals constitute major items of India’s imports. India’s trade in services has also grown manifold over the years.

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Question 7.
What is invisible trade? Discuss salient aspects of India’s trade in services.
Answer:
Invisible trade refers to trade in services. Service exports and imports involve trade in intangibles because of which trade in services is also known as invisible trade. Trade in services includes trade in tourism and travel, boarding and lodging, entertainment and recreation, transportation, professional services, communication, construction and engineering, marketing, educational and financial services.

India’s trade in services has increased substantially over the years. Both the exports and imports of services relating to foreign travel, transportation and insurance have increased at a high rate during the last four decades. Software and other miscellaneous services (including professional technical and business services) have emerged as the- main categories of India’s exports of services. While the relative share of travel and transportation has declined from 64.3% in 1995-96 to 29.6%. In 2003-2004, the share of software exports has gone up from 10.2% to around 49% in the corresponding

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Additional Questions And Answers

1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which trade theory holds that nations can increase their economic well-being by specializing in the production of goods they produce more efficiently than anyone else?
a. The factor endowment theory.
b. The theory of absolute advantage.
c. The theory of comparative advantage.
d. The international product life cycle theory.
Answer:
b. The theory of absolute advantage.

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Question 2.
Which theory holds that nations should produce those goods for which it has the greatest relative advantage?
a. The factor endowment theory.
b. The theory of relative advantage,
c. The theory of absolute advantage.
d. None of the above.
Answer:
d. None of the above.

Question 3.
Which of the following holds that a government can improve the economic well-being of a country by encouraging exports and discouraging imports without a reliance on previous metals?
a. Neo-mercantilism.
b. The Leontief paradox.
c. Quotas.
d. Mercantilism.
Answer:
a. Neo-mercantilism.

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Question 4.
In country A, it takes 10 labor hours to produce cloth and 20 labor hours to produce grain. In country B, it takes 20 labor hours to produce cloth and 10 labor hours to produce grain. Which country should produce grain?
a. No country should produce grain.
b. Both A and B should produce grain.
c. A
d. B.
Answer:
d. B.

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Question 5.
In North, it takes 50 labor hours to produce cloth and 100 hours to produce grain. In South, it takes 200 labor hours to produce cloth and 200 hours to produce grain. Which of the following statements is true?
a. South has an absolute advantage in the production of grain.
b. North has a comparative advantage in the production of cloth.
c. South has an absolute advantage in the production of both cloth and grain.
d. North should produce grain.
Answer:
b. North has a comparative advantage in the production of cloth.

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Question 6.
In country X, it takes 50 labor hours to produce cloth and 100 hours to produce grain. In country Y, it takes 200 labor hours to produce cloth and 200 hours to produce grain. At what price would X start to be willing to trade with Y?
a. More than half a unit of grain per unit of cloth.
b. More than half a unit of cloth per unit of grain.
c. More than a quarter unit of grain per unit of cloth.
d. More than a quarter unit of cloth per unit of grain.
Answer:
a. More than half a unit of grain per unit of cloth.

Question 7.
Which of the following theories holds that countries will produce and export products that use large amounts of production factors that they have in abundance?
a. Mercantilism.
b. The theory of absolute advantage.
c. The factor endowment theory.
d. None of the above.
Answer:
c. The factor endowment theory.

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Question 8.
Vernon’s international product life cycle theory :
a. helps explain the movement from absolute advantage to comparative advantage.
b. shows why the United States, surprisingly, exports relatively more labor-intensive goods and imports capital-intensive goods.
c. extends the concept of comparative advantage by bringing into consideration the endowment and cost of factors of production.
d. helps explain why a product that begins as a nation export often ends up becoming an import.
Answer:
d. helps explain why a product that begins as a nation export often ends up becoming an import.

Question 9.
Which of the following products have moved through the IPLC and are now in the standardized product stage?
a. Computer memory cards.
b. Televisions.
c. DVD players.
d. All of the above.
Answer:
d. All of the above.

Question 10.
Which of the following factors influence trade?
a. The stage of development of a product.
b. Government.
c. The relative price of factors of productions.
d. All of the above.
Answer:
d. All of the above.

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Question 11.
If the price of the Japanese Yen declines considerably against the British Pound:
a. British goods are relatively cheaper for Japanese consumers.
b. it is always because of British government interference.
c. Japanese goods are relatively cheaper for British consumers.
d. it is always because of Japanese government interference.
Answer:
c. Japanese goods are relatively cheaper for British consumers.

Question 12.
If a Japanese firm sold $10 billion of machinery in US and the US dollar declined against the Japanese currency:
a. the Japanese company will make sure that the difference is paid back to its affiliate.
b. the Japanese company will move funds to the home country.
c. the Japanese firm will report more revenue (in terms of Yen) than if the US dollar had remained stable.
d. the Japanese firm will report less revenue (in terms of Yen) than if the US dollar had remained stable.
Answer:
d. the Japanese firm will report less revenue (in terms of Yen) than if the US dollar had remained stable.

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Question 13.
Which of the following is not a reason to erect trade barriers?
a. Protect local jobs.
b. Encourage local production.
c. Promote import activity.
d. Reduce reliance on foreign suppliers.
Answer:
c. Promote import activity.

Question 14.
Which of the following countries is not a member of OPEC?
a. Iran.
b. Venezuela.
c. Iraq.
d. Afghanistan.
Answer:
d. Afghanistan.

Question 15.
A company of the US has excess products that it does not want to sell into the US market because it will bring down the domestic price and instead sells it at another country at below the cost of production. What is this called?
a. Countervailing.
b. Dumping,
c. International trade
d. None of the above.
Answer:
a. Countervailing.

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is international business?
Answer:
International business refers to business that takes place across the national boundaries, i. e., between countries. It includes business activities like manufacturing, trade and services beyond the geographical boundaries of a country.

Question 2.
What is the basis for international business?
Answer:
International business arises because of geographical specialization among countries. Different countries of the world are endowed with different natural resources due to geographical factors like physical features, climatic conditions, socials, etc.

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Question 3.
What is contract manufacturing?
Answer:
Contract manufacturing is a mode of entry into international business under which a business firm in a country enters into a contract with local manufacturer in the foreign country to get certain goods produced or services rendered as per its specification. However, the firm retains with itself the responsibility of marketing the goods.

Question 4.
What is licensing?
Answer:
Licensing is a contract arrangement in which a firm in a country allows a firm in a foreign country to use its patent or. trademarks or technology for a consideration known as royalty.

Question 5.
What is franchising?
Answer:
Franchising is very much similar to licensing. The patent company which gives the franchise for a fee is called the franchiser, and the other company is called the franchisee. Franchising covers the business of restaurant, hotel, travel agency, wholesale trade, retail trade, etc.

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Question 6.
What is joint venture?
Answer:
Joint venture is a business jointly owned by two or more firms located in two different countries.

Question 7.
State one difference between international trade and international business.
Answer:
The one difference between international trade and international business: International trades produces the goods cheaply, but international business cannot produce the goods cheaply.

Question 8.
State one difference between licensing and franchising.
Answer:
The one difference between licensing and franchising.
Licensing is used in connection with marketing of products, whereas franchising is used in connection with marketing of services.

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Question 9.
Distinguish between domestic business and international business.
Answer:
The two differences between domestic and international business are:

Basis of difference Domestic Business International business
1. Territorial limits Domestic business takes place between the geographical boundaries of a nation. In other words, domestic business takes place between buyers and sellers of the same nation. International business takes place between different nations. In other words, the buyers and sellers in international business belong to different nations.
2. Homogeneity or heterogeneity of markets Domestic markets are relatively more homogeneous in nature. International markets are heterogeneous in nature.

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Question 10.
Explain the scope of international business.
Answer:
The scope of international business is quite wide. It includes not only exports and, imports of goods abut also exports and imports of services. It includes even licensing franchising and foreign.investment.

The various activities which constitute the scope of international business are:

  1. Exports and imports of merchandise
  2. Exports and imports of services
  3. Licensing and franchising
  4. Foreign investments.

Question 11.
State the advantages and disadvantages of contract manufacturing.
Answer:
Advantage of contract manufacturing:

  • There is no investment risk in this strategy, as there is no investment in production facilities in the foreign country.

Disadvantage of contract manufacturing:

  • This mode is not suitable in cases involving high tech products and technical secrets.

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Question 12.
State the advantages and disadvantages of licensing and franchising.
Answer:

Advantage of licensing and franchising:

  • There is lesser risk of Government interference on the turnover of business in licensing or franchising, because the business in managed by local persons.

Disadvantage of licensing and franchising:

  • There is danger that the licensee or franchisee may star an identical business, slightly different from the one licensed or franchised.

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Question 13.
State the advantages and disadvantages of joint venture.
Answer:
Advantage of Joint Venture:

  • Joint venture facilitates easy entry into international business.

Disadvantage of Joint Venture:

  • There is the risk of leakage of technology and trade secrets in case of joint venture.

Question 14.
State the advantages and disadvantages wholly-owned subsidiary.
Answer:
Advantage of wholly-owned subsidiary:

  • Under this strategy, the parent company enjoys full control over its operations in the foreign country.

Disadvantage wholly-owned subsidiary:

  • The parent company, being the sole owner, has to bear all the losses of the subsidiary company.

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the various modes of entry into international business.
Answer:
There are various ways of entering into international business. They are:

1. Exporting and Importing: Exporting means selling or sending goods and services form the home county to foreign country.
Importing means purchasing goods and services from a foreign country or bringing them to the home county.

2. Contract Manufacturing: Contract manufacturing is a mode of entry into ‘ international business under which a business firm in a country enters into a contract with local manufacturer in the foreign country to get certain goods produced or services rendered as per its specification! However, the firm retains with itself the responsibility of marketing the goods.

3. Licensing and Franchising: Licensing is a contract arrangement in which a firm in a country allows a firm in a foreign country to use its patent or trademarks or technology for a consideration known as royalty. Franchising is very much similar to licensing. The patent company which gives the franchise for a fed is called the franchiser, and the other company is called the franchisee. Franchising covers the business of restaurant, hotel, travel agency, wholesale trade, retail trade, etc.

1. Joint venture: Joint venture is a business jointly owned by two or more firms located in two different countries.

2. Wholly-owned Subsidiary: A wholly-owned subsidiary is subsidiary company which is owned by a parent company or holding company. In other words, a wholly-owned subsidiary is a subsidiary company in whose equity capital, 100% investment is made by the parent or holding company.

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Question 2.
Explain the benefits of international business.
Answer:
The advantages or benefits of international business can be classified into:

  1. Advantages or benefits to the trading nations.
  2. Advantages or benefits to the participating firms.

Advantages Or Benefits To The Trading Nations

1. Regional Specialisation: International business contributes to territorial or regional specialisation or division of labour.

2. Fuller and More Efficient Utilisation of Available Resources: By enabling a country to concentrate on the production of those goods for which its resources are best suited, international business facilitated fuller and better utilization of the available resources.

3. Expansion of Domestic Industries: By widening the markets for goods, international business contributes to the expansion of domestic industries of a country.

Advantages Or Benefits To The Participating Firms

  1. Growth of Business: International business contributes to the growth of business of participating firms by encouraging large-scale production and large-scale international business.
  2. Improved business Vision: International business helps business firms to have improved business vision and become increased export business.
  3. Higher Profits to Participating Firms: International business offer better prospects for higher profits to firms participating in international business through wider markets and better prices.

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Question 3.
Explain the demerits of international business!
Answer:
The dements of international business are:

1. Excessive Dependence on other countries: International business, by making a country concentrate on the production of only those goods for which it is best suited, makes a county depend on other-countries even for essential products. Such dependence creates serious difficulties for a country, especially in times of war when international business becomes impossible.

2. Foreign competition: International business gives rise to foreign competition to a country. Foreign competition may ruin domestic industries, especially small and cottage industries which are unable to face such competition.

3. One-side development: International business may lead to one-sided development of a nation’s economy. Because of the specialisation resulting from international business, a country may develop a certain sector of her economy, neglecting other sectors. This dependence on one sector is not good for the overall growth of a country.

4. Balance of Payment Problem: International business may cause serious balance of payment problem. The balance payment problem may force a country to borrow from international sources. Huge foreign debt may impair a country’s capacity to import goods.

5. Import of Luxury and Other Unwanted Goods: International business may encourage the import of luxury and other unwanted goods which are not necessary for the masses. Such imports may ruin the economy of country.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 4 Planning

You can Download Chapter 4 Planning Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 4 Planning

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Text Book Exercises

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Short Answer Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
What are the main points in the definition of planning?
Answer:
The main points in the definition of planning are as follows

  1. Planning is deciding in advance what to do and how to do.
  2. It is one of the basic managerial function.
  3. Planning involves setting objectives and developing an appropriate course of action to achieve these objectives.
  4. It bridges the gap between where we are and where we want to reach.

Question 2.
How does planning provide direction?
Answer:
Planning provides direction for action by deciding in advance what has to be done, how to do, when to do and who will do. When we try to seek answers to the above questions, which are well planned, then directions are automatically highlighted.

Question 3.
Do you think planning can work in a changing environment?
Answer:
Planning may not work in a changing environment. The environment consists of a number of dimensions, economic, political, social, legal and technological dimensions. The organisation has to constantly adapt itself to changes. It becomes difficult to accurately assess future trends in the environment. Planning cannot foresee everything and thus, there may be obstacles to effective planning.

Question 4.
If planning involves working out details for the future, why does it not ensure success?
Answer:
Planning does not guarantee success. The success of an enterprise is possible only when . plans are properly drawn up and implemented. A plan needs to be translated into action or it becomes meaningless. Managers have a tendency to rely on previously tried and tested successful plans. It is not always true that just because a plan had worked before it will work again. This kind of false sense of security may actually lead to failure instead of success

Question 5.
Why are rules considered to be plans?
Answer:
Rules are specific statements that inform what is to be done. They do not allow for any flexibility or discretion. It reflects a managerial decision that a certain action must or must not be taken. They are usually the simplest type of plans because there is no compromise or change unless a policy decision is taken.

Question 6.
What kind of strategic decisions are taken by business organisations?
Answer:
Major strategic decisions include whether the organisation will continue to be in the same line of business or combine new lines of activity with the existing business or seek to acquire a dominant position in the same market.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Long Answer Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Why is it that organisations are not always able to accomplish all their objectives?
Answer:
Organisations are not always able to accomplish all their objectives due to the following reasons.
1. Planning leads to Rigidity: In an organisation, a well defined plan is drawn up with specific goals to be achieved, within a specific time frame. These plans then decide how the work will progress in the future and managers may not be in a position to change it. This creates a problem as flexibility is very important. Adhering to the plan may not always give us the desired results.

2. Planning may not work in a Dynamic Environment: The business environment is dynamic, nothing is constant. The business environment is a totality of external forces, wherein some changes or the other keep on taking place. Plans decide in advance, what has to be done in future. Planning cannot foresee everything and thus there may be obstacles to effective planning.

3. Planning reduces creativity: Planning is generally done by top management. Usually the rest of the members just implement these plans. As a consequence, middle management and other decision makers are neither allowed to deviate from plans nor are permitted to act on their own. Thus, planning in a way reduces creativity since people tend to think along the same lines as others, there is nothing new or innovative.

4. Planning involves huge cost: Planning involves huge cost in their formulation. These may be in terms of time and money. The costs incurred sometimes may not justify the benefits derived from plans.

5. Planning is a time consuming process: Sometimes plans so drawn take up so much of time, that there is not much time left for their implementation and the objectives to be achieved.

6. Planning does not guarantee success: Any plan needs to translated into action or it becomes meaningless. Managers have a tendency to rely on previously tried and tested successful plans. It not always true just because a plan has worked before, it will work again.

Question 2.
What are the main features to be considered by management while planning?
Answer:
The main features to be considered by the management while planning are as follows :
1. It focuses on achieving objectives : Planning is purposeful. Planning has no meaning unless it contributes to the achievement predetermined organisational goals.

2. It is the Primary Function: Planning lays down the base for other functions of management. All other managerial functions are performed within the framework of the plans drawn. Thus, planning precedes other functions.

3. Planning is pervasive: Planning is required at all levels of management as well as in all departments of the organisations. The top management undertakes planning for the organisation as a whole. Middle management does the departmental planning. At the lowest level, day-to-day operational planning is done by supervisors.

4. Planning is continuous: Plans are prepared for a specific period of time, may be for a month, a quarter or a year. At the end of that period, there is need for a new plan to be drawn on the basis of new requirements and future conditions. Hence, planning is a continuous process.

5. Planning is futuristic: The purpose of planning is to meet future events effectively to the best advantage of an organisation. It implies peeping into the future, analysing it and predicting it.

6. Planning involves decision making: Planning essentially involves choice from among various alternatives and activities. If there is only one possible goal then there is no need for planning. The need only arises when alternatives are available. Planning thus, involves

7. Planning is a mental exercise: Planning is basically an intellectual activity of thinking rather than doing, because planning determines the action to be taken. Planning requires logical and systematic thinking rather than guesswork or wishful thinking.

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Question 3.
What are the steps taken by management in the planning process?
Answer:
Planning is concerned with determination of the objectives of the organization and formulating strategies, policies, rules and programmes to accomplish the objectives.
Steps in planning:
(a) Setting objectives: This is a first function in the process of planning. Objectives are the goals which determine what the organization wants to achieve. They must be specific, realistic and measurable.

(b) Developing premises: Planning premises are the assumptions about the future conditions and events like trends in population, changes in political and economic environment, variation in production cost and prices etc. plans should be framed within the framework of the planning premises.

(c) Identification of alternative course of action: Once the objectives are set and assumptions are made then alternative course of action should be identified. The management should know all the alternative course of action to achieve the objectives.

(d) Evaluating alternative courses: The next step is to analyze the strengths and weakness of each alternative. There is a need to evaluate each and every course of action in the light of objectives to be achieved.

(e) Selecting an alternative: After examining each and every possible course of action, the best is to be selected which is feasible, profitable for attainment of the objectives of the organization.

(f) Implementing the plan: This step is concerned with putting the plan into action to achieve the objectives. Implementation requires the formulation of policies, procedures, Budgets and programmes. It requires delegation of authority and responsibility to the subordinates.

(g) Follow up action: To see whether plans are being implemented are also a part of planning process. Monitoring the plan is equally important to ensure that objectives are achieved

Question 4.
Is planning actually worth the huge costs involved? Explain.
Answer:
Planning involves huge cost, when plans are drawn up, huge costs are involved in their formulation. These are in terms of time, money, effort etc. Detailed plans require scientific calculations to ascertain facts and figures. The costs incurred sometimes may not justify’ the benefits derived from the plans There are a number of incidental costs as well (which are indirect) like expenditures on organising a meeting, consultation fees given to professional experts, market survey etc. But despite the high cost no firm can work without proper planning if used properly.

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Case Problems

An auto company C Ltd is facing a problem of declining market share due to increased competition from other new and existing players in the maket. Its competitiors are introducing lower priced models for mass consumers who are price sensitive. For quality conscious consumers, the company is introducing new models with added features and new technological advancements.

Question 1.
Prepare a model business plan for C Ltd to meet the existing challenge. You need to be very specific about quantitative parameters. You may specify which type of plan you are preparing.
Answer:
In such a situation, formulating a strategy would be advisable.
A strategy is a Single use plan It is normally made to fight competition in the market. The model business plan, i.e., strategy will be the following:

  1. It is objective and its purpose is that how much sales it wants to increase over a specified time.
  2. The company should then list down its strengths and weakness. This brings in light as to what will be easy and what will be difficult.
  3. Aggressive, advertising and sales promotion techniques to be adopted.

Question 2.
Identify the limitations of such plans.
Answer:
Limitations of the above strategy can be the following :

  1. Shortage of funds.
  2. Shortage of technical professionals.
  3. Top level may not be competent enough to develop a suitable strategy.
  4. The company may not be successful in assessing the future plans of the competitors as compared to its own strategy.

Question 3.
How will you seek to remove these limitations?
Answer:
The above limitations can be overcome by these actions.

  1. Arranging funds in advance.
  2. Effective methods of recruitment should be adopted to ensure availability of effective staff in all manageent.
  3. Middle level should be encouraged to propose plans in the form of suggestions. After considering all these, a strategy should be planned.
  4. The company should be able to assess the moves of the competitors.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Additional Questions

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is planning?
Answer:
Planning is concerned with deciding in advance the future course of action.

Question 2.
State a benefit of Planning.
Answer:
Planning provides direction is a benefit of planning

Question 3.
State a limitation of planning.
Answer:
Planning leads to rigidity is a limitation of Planning.

Question 4.
State the function of management which determines the objectives of an organization.
Answer:
Planning is the function which determines the objective of an organization.

Question 5.
Mention the first step of planning process.
Answer:
Setting objectives is the first step in planning process.

Question 6.
State a type of plan.
Answer:
Standing plan or repeated use plan is a type of plan.

Question 7.
What is a method under planning.
Answer:
The prescribed way of doing planned task for achieving objectives is known as method under plan.

Question 8.
What is programme under planning.
Answer:
A programme is a precise plan laying down the operations to be carried out to complete a given task within a specified period of time.

Question 9.
Give an example for budget.
Answer:
Sales budget is an example for budget.

Question 10.
What is planning?
Answer:
Planning is deciding in advance what to do, when to do, how to do, when to do it and who is to do it.

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Question 11.
What are objectives?
Answer:
Objectives are the goals, aims or purpose that organization wish to achieve by its operations over a period of time.

Question 12.
Give one example for procedures.
Answer:
Procedure for the admission of student in the college

Question 13.
Give one example for rule.
Answer:
No smoking

Question 14.
Give one example for strategy.
Answer:
Divide and rule

Question 15.
Give one example for methods.
Answer:
Remunerating sales personnel under commission method

Question 16.
What are methods under planning?
Answer:
The prescribed way or manner of doing each planned task for accomplishing the objectives is known as method

Question 17.
Give one example for programmes.
Answer:
Programme for sale of 300 cars in the month of December.

Question 18.
What is programme under planning?
Answer:
A programme is a precise plan which lays down the operations to be carried out to accomplish a given task within a specified period of time.

Question 19.
State the functions of management that determines the objectives of an organisation.
Answer:
Planning

Question 20.
Give one example for policies.
Answer:
Pricing Policy

Question 21.
State any one Importance of Planning.
Answer:
Planning acts as a guide.

Question 22.
State any one features of planning.
Answer:
Planning is a Goal – oriented.

Question 23.
What is rule under Planning.
Answer:
Rules are the established principles for carrying out the activities in a systematic manner.

Question 24.
Give the meaning of policy.
Answer:
They are the general statements which serve as guideline in the decision making process.

Question 25.
Give the meaning of Budget.
Answer:
Budget is a statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define planning?
Answer:
According to Koontz and O’Donnell “Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do, when to do it and who should do it. Planning bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to go”
OR
According to Louis Allen “Planning involves a development of forecast, objectives, polices, programs procedures, schedules and budgets.

Question 2.
State the first two steps in planning process.
Answer:

  • Setting objectives or goals, the organization wants to achieve.
  • Developing planning premises which are the assumption of the future conditions of the business.

Question 3.
What are Objectives?
Answer:
Objectives are the ends towards which the activities of an organization are directed. Objectives are usually set by the management. They decide future state of affairs which the organization strives to realize. Objectives lay down the guidelines for activities and bench mark for measuring the performance of the organization.

Question 4.
Give the meaning of strategy.
Answer:
They are specific programs of action for achieving the objectives of an organization by using resources efficiently and economically. Strategies are formulated by the top management. Examples: Divide & Rule, Strike while iron is hot, Time is a great healer.

Question 5.
What are policies?
Answer:
Policies are the general statements which serve as a guideline to the decision making in the organization. It is a frame work with in which the decision makers are expected to act while making decisions.

Question 6.
What is planning premises?
Answer:
Plans are formulated with certain assumptions about the future condition and events like changes in political and economic environment, government and legal regulations, variation in prices etc. these assumptions are known as planning premises.

Question 7.
What is decision making under planning?
Answer:
Decision making in planning refers to selecting best alternative course of action for accomoplishment of the objectives of an organisation.

Question 8.
Give the meaning of budget
Answer:
A budget is a statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms, it is a plan which quantifies future facts and figures.

Question 9.
What are rules?
Answer:
Rules are the specific statement which prescribes code of behaviour to the people of and organization and specifies what is to be done and what is not to be done.

Question 10.
What are procedures?
Answer:
Procedures are plan prescribing the exact chronological sequence of specific task. It provides details about series of steps to be followed in a regular order for accomplishing any work.

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Question 11.
Mention any two types of plan.
Answer:
a.Objectives
b. Strategy

Question 12.
Mention any two limitations of planning
Answer:
a. Planning leads to rigidity
b. Planning does not guarantee success

Question 13.
How rule is different from policy?
Answer:
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 4 Planning - 1

Question 14.
What is Single-use Plan?
Answer:
A single-use plan is developed for a one-time event or project. Such a course of action is not likely to be repeated in future, i.e., they are for non-recurririg situations. These plans include budgets, programmes and projects. It is also called adhoc plan.

Question 15.
What is Standing Plan?
Answer:
A standing plan is used for activities that occur regularly over a period of time. It is designed to ensure internal operations of an organisation run smoothly. Standing plans include policies, procedures, methods and rules.

Question 16.
Give the meaning of procedure under planning.
Answer:
They are the plans prescribing the exact time sequence for the work to be done. Procedures are the guidelines to action and they are suited to the works which are repetitive in nature.
Examples: Procedure for execution of the customer’s order for supply of goods, Procedure for the admission of students in a college.

Question 17.
What is follow up action under planning?
Answer:
Follow up action refers to see whether plans are being implemented it is also a part of planning process. Monitoring the plan is equally important to ensure that objectives are achieved.

Question 18.
What is Adhoc Plan?
Answer:
Adhoc plan are also called as single use plan. Adhoc plan are non repetitive in nature. They are designed for a specific situation and for short duration.

Question 19.
What do you mean by standing plan?
Answer:
Standing plan are also called as repeated use plAnswer: These types of plan are used in organizations again & again. They are long term in nature & act as a ready guide for action.

Question 20.
What is method under planning?
Answer:
The prescribed way or the manner of doing each planned task to achieve the goals is known as method. It tells how each step of the procedure should be performed. Selection of proper method saves time, money and effort and increases the efficiency.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Four Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the importance of planning.
Answer:
Importance or advantages of planning:
1. Planning provides direction: It provides direction for action by stating in advance how a work is to be done. It ensures that the goals and objectives are clearly stated so that the workers are aware of what they must do to achieve the goals.

2. Planning reduces the risk of uncertainty: A business organization has to work in an environment which is uncertain and ever changing. Planning helps to assess the future uncertainties and helps the organizations to face it.

3. Planning reduces wastages: Planning serves as the basis for coordinating the activities . and the efforts of the different individuals and departments of the organization. It helps to detect the inefficiency and to take corrective measures to minimize the wasteful activities.

4. Planning provides innovative ideas: Planning is basically the thinking function of management. It encourages the managers for innovative creative thinking. Many ideas come to the minds of the managers when they are planning.

5. Planning facilitates decision making: Decision making is a process of selecting the best course of action from various available alternatives after evaluating each one of them. Planning provides guidelines for evaluation of the alternatives in taking rational decisions.

6. Planning establishes standards for controlling: Planning helps in controlling. It determines goals and standards for every individuals and departments of the organization and makes it easy to compare the actual performance of the individuals and departments with the standards fixed.

Question 2.
Explain any five limitations of planning.
Answer:
Limitations of planning are:
1. Rigidity: In organizations a well-defined plan is drawn up with specific goals to be achieved with a time limit. This leads to rigidity in the activities of the managers which restricts the individual freedom, creativity and initiative.

2. Environmental constraints: The business environment is dynamic in nature, nothing is constant. Planning do not take into consideration the possible changes in economic, political, legal and social dimensions.

3. Lack of creativity: Planning is done by top management and the subordinates just implement the plAnswer: As a result the middle management are not allowed to deviate the plans and also not permitted to act on their own. Thus, their creativity is reduced.

4. Expensive: It is a costly process. Collection and analysis of information, evaluation of best course of action involves huge expenses.

5. Time consuming: Planning process is time consuming. Collection of facts and figures, selection courses of action involves much time.

Question 3.
What is planning? Explain any two types of plAnswer:
Answer:
Planning is concerned with determination of the objectives of the organization and formulating strategies, policies, rules and programmes to accomplish the objectives.

Repeated use plans or standing plans: It is a type of plan which is used in the organization again and again. It is long term in nature. They act as a ready guide for actions.

Standing plans are of different types as follows:
1. Objectives- Objectives are the end towards which the activities of an organization are directed. They are set up by the top management. They lay down guidelines for the activities and serves as a bench mark for measuring the performance of the organization. Usually the objectives are put in the form of written statement.

2. Strategies- Strategies are the specific programmes of action for achieving the objectives of the organization by employing the resources efficiently and economically. It is formulated by the top management for successful accomplishment of the objectives in the organization. Formulation of strategy involves three aspects:

  1. Determination of the long term objectives
  2. Adopting a course of action to achieve the objectives
  3. Allocating resources necessary to achieve the objectives.

Examples of strategies: Strike iron while it is hot Divide and rule Time is a great healer.

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Question 4.
Explain any five characteristics of planning?
Answer:
Planning is the basic function of management. It’s important features or characteristics are:
a.Goal Oriented
b. Universal function
c. Continuous process
d.Flexible
e. Future oriented

Goal Oriented: Planning start with the setting of objectives and then developing policies, procedures & strategies to achieve the goal. It gives directions to the activities.

Universal Function: Planning is done at all the levels of management. The scope of management differs from one level to another level.

Continuous Process: Planning is an ongoing and never ending process. Planning should be flexible enough to changes according to the changing circumstances.

Flexible: Planning is a dynamic function. It is should be adaptable both the external & internal changing environment.

Future Oriented: Planning is concerned with looking forward. It is always future oriented as it involves forecasting & making provision to tackle future events.

2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Eight Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the importance and limitations of planning.
Answer:
Importance or advantages of planning are:
1. Planning provides direction: It provides direction for action by stating in advance how a work is to be done. It ensures that the goals and objectives are clearly stated so that the workers are aware of what they must do to achieve the goals.

2. Planning reduces the risk of uncertainty: A business organization has to work in an environment which is uncertain and ever changing. Planning helps to assess the future uncertainties and helps the organizations to face it.

3. Planning reduces wastages: Planning serves as the basis for coordinating the activities and the efforts of the different individuals and departments of the organization.
It helps to detect the inefficiency and to take corrective measures to minimize the wasteful activities.

4. Planning provides innovative ideas: Planning is basically the thinking function of management. It encourages the managers for innovative creative thinking. Many ideas come to the minds of the managers when they are planning.

5. Planning facilitates decision making: Decision making is a process of selecting the best course of action from various available alternatives after evaluating each one of them. Planning provides guidelines for evaluation of the alternatives in taking rational decisions.

6. Planning establishes standards for controlling: Planning helps in controlling. It determines goals and standards for every individuals and departments of the organization and makes it easy to compare the actual performance of the individuals and departments with the standards fixed.

Limitations of planning:
1. Rigidity: In organizations a well-defined plan is drawn up with specific goals to be achieved with a time limit. This leads to rigidity in the activities of the managers which restricts the individual freedom, creativity and initiative.

2. Environmental constraints: The business environment is dynamic in nature, nothing is constant. Planning do not take into consideration the possible changes in economic, political, legal and social dimensions.

3. Lack of creativity: Planning is done by top management and the subordinates just implement the plans As a result the middle management are not allowed to deviate the plans and also not permitted to act on their own. Thus, their creativity is reduced.

4. Expensive: It is a costly process. Collection and analysis of information, evaluation of best course of action involves huge expenses.

5. Time consuming: Planning process is time consuming. Collection of facts and figures, selection courses of action involves much time.

6. Success not guaranteed: The success of an enterprise us possible only when the plans. are properly drawn up and implemented. Managers have a tendency to depend upon the previously tested and successful plans which may not be a success again.

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Question 2.
Explain any five types of plan.
Answer:
Repeated use plans or standing plans: It is a type of plan which is used in the organization again and again. It is long term in nature. They act as a ready guide for actions.
Standing plansare of different types as follows:
1. Objectives- Objectives are the end towards which the activities of an organization are directed. They are set up by the top management. They lay down guidelines for the activities and serves as a bench mark for measuring the performance of the organization. Usually the objectives are put in the form of written statement.

2. Strategies- Strategies are the specific programmes of action for achieving the objectives of the organization by employing the resources efficiently and economically. It is formulated by the top management for successful accomplishment of the objectives in the organization. Formulation of strategy involves three aspects:

3. Determination of the long term objectives

4. Adopting a course of action to achieve the objectives

5. Allocating resources necessary to achieve the objectives.
Examples of strategies: Strike iron while it is hot, Divide and rule Time is a great healer.

(k) Policies: They are the general statements which serve as guideline in the decision making process. It helps the organization to deal with a particular situation in a systematic manner. An established policy helps to resolve the problems and issues easily.

(l) Procedures: They are the plans prescribing the exact time sequence for the work to be done. Procedures are the guidelines to action and they are suited to the works which are repetitive in nature.
Examples: Procedure for execution of the customer’s order for supply of goods Procedure for the admission of students in a college.

(m) Methods: The prescribed way or the manner of doing each planned task to achieve the goals is known as method. It tells how each step of the procedure should be performed. Selection of proper method saves time, money and effort and increases the efficiency.
Examples: Training employees under, on job training method.
Remunerating sales personnel under commission method.

(n) Rules: Every organization likes to operate in an orderly way. Rules are the established principles for carrying out the activities in a systematic manner. Rules are rigid and do not permit any deviations.
Examples: Wear identity cards compulsorily at work place
No Smoking
No admission without permission.

Question 3.
Explain the features of planning.
Answer:
1. Planning focuses on achieving objectives: Organisations are set up with a general purpose in view. Specific goals are set out in the plans along with the activities to be undertaken to achieve the goals. Thus, planning is purposeful. Planning has no meaning unless it contributes to the achievement of predetermined organisational goals.

2. Planning is a primary’ function of management: Planning lays down the base for other functions of management. All other managerial functions are performed within the framework of the plans drawn. Thus, planning precedes other functions. This is also referred to as the primacy of planning.

3. Planning is pervasive: Planning is required at all levels of management as well as in all departments of the organisation. It is not an exclusive function of top management nor of any particular department. But the scope of planning differs at different levels and among different departments.

4. Planning is continuous: Plans are prepared for a specific period of time, may be for a month, a quarter, or a year. At the end of that period there is need for a new plan to be drawn on the basis of new requirements and future conditions. Hence, planning is a continuous process.

5. Planning is futuristic: Planning essentially involves looking ahead and preparing for the future. The purpose of planning is to meet future events effectively to the best advantage of an organisation. It implies peeping into the future, analysing it and predicting it. Plan¬ning is, therefore, regarded as a forward looking function based on forecasting.

6. Planning involves decision making: Planning essentially involves choice from among various alternatives and activities. If there is only one possible goal or a possible course of action, there is no need for planning because there is no choice. The need for planning arises only when alternatives are available.

7. Planning is a mental exercise: Planning requires application of the mind involving foresight, in judgement. It is basically an intellectual activity of thinking rather than doing, because planning determines the action to be taken. However, planning requires logical and systematic thinking rather than guess work or wishful thinking.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Planning Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Bring out the steps involved in planning while establishing a new business unit.
Answer:
The following are the steps involved in planning while establishing a new business unit:

  • Setting objectives
  • Developing premises
  • Identification of alternative course of action
  • Evaluating alternative courses
  • Selecting an alternative
  • Implementing the plan
  • Follow up action

2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Human Settlements

You can Download Chapter 5 Human Settlements Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Human Settlements

2nd PUC Geography Human Settlements One Mark Questions with Answers

Question 1.
What is Settlement?
Answer:
Settlement means the places inhabited by people permanently in village, a town or a city is called Settlement.

Question 2.
What is rural settlement?
Answer:
All settlement not Qualifying for an URBAN Status are called rural settlement. They are engaged mainly in Primary activities.

Question 3.
What are wet point settlement?
Answer:
Normally rural settlements are located near water points like rivers, lakes and springs where water can obtain easily. These settlement are aslo known as ‘Wet point settlements’.

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Question 4.
What are Hamlets?
Answer:
These are smaller than villages and lacking of public utilities.

Question 5.
Which is the first million city of the world?
Answer:
London by around 1810.

Question 6.
What is a city?
Answer:
A densely populated area of considerable size is a city which is larger than a town. An urban center with 1 lakh and more Population is called a city.

Question 7.
Define the meaning of Megalopolies?
Answer:
Megalopolies is a Greek word which means “Great city ” consisting of several sites merging with the suburbs of one or more cities.

Question 8.
What is Mega city?
Answer:
Mega city is a metropolitan area with total Population of more than 10 million people.

Question 9.
Which is the largest mega city in the world?
Answer:
Newyork is the largest mega city in the world.

Question 10.
Define the term ‘conurbation’?
Answer:
The term Conurbation applies to a large area of urban development that resulted from the merging of several towns of cities.

Question 11.
What is Random Pattern.
Answer:
It is a type of settlement in this neither very closer to each other nor highly dispersed.

Question 12.
What is Linear Pattern.
Answer:
In such settlements, houses are located along a road, railway line, river, and canal.

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Question 13.
What is Double Village.
Answer:
These settlements extend on both sides of a river where there is a bridge.

Question 14.
How many million cities are there in the world.
Answer:
Approximately 180 cities.

Question 15.
What is Break points.
Answer:
The point of changing transport modes like sea route to land route can be called as “Break points”.

Question 16.
What is Star shaped pattern.
Answer:
Where several roads meets, Star shaped settlements develop as the houses are built along the roads.

Question 17.
What is town.
Answer:
A town is one in a rural community, having much smaller in size of population than a city.

Question 18.
What is Economic problems.
Answer:
Increasing population in the urban centers causes unemployment. It is called economic problems.

Question 19.
Which are the areas that are suitable for the Tourist centres.
Answer:
The place where it has specific natural scenery, a good landscape a beach or greenery may become the tourist centres.

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Question 20.
What is environmental problems?
Answer:
Urbanization causes deterioration of environment quality by pollutions and disposal of waste.

2nd PUC Geography Human Settlements Two Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Define rural and urban settlements?
Answer:
Rural settlements: are the settlements whose occupants are engaged mainly on Primary activity like Agriculture & animal Husbandary etc.
Urban Settlements : The word urban means town or a city it is larger then the villages. These are dominated by Secondary and Tertiary occupations.

Question 2.
Mention the important pattern of rural settlements?
Answer:
There are 5 important pattern of rural settlements.

  1. Uniform Pattern
  2. Clustered Patttem
  3. RANDOM Pattern
  4. Dispersed Pattern
  5. Hamlets Pattern.

Question 3.
Define city & million city?
Answer:
City : The urban center with 1 lakh and more population is called a city.
Million city : Total Population of 1 million and above the urban area is known as million city.

Question 4.
Give two examples of Educational towns?
Answer:

  1. Mysore
  2. Dharwad.

Question 5.
Mention any two cultural & religious towns?
Answer:

  1. Mecca
  2. Rome
  3. Puri
  4. Varanasi
  5. Madurai.

Question 6.
List out the trading & commercial towns of the world?
Answer:

  1. Mumbai
  2. Lahore
  3. Baghdad
  4. Pittsburg and Jamshedpur.

Question 7.
Give two examples of administration towns.
Answer:

  1. New Delhi
  2. Canberra
  3. Beijing.

Question 8.
Distinguish between Uniform Pattern and Clustered Pattern of Settlements.
Answer:
The distribution of houses which indicate the equal distribution of resources can be called as ‘Uniform Pattern”.
A cluster pattern refers to the settlements which are very closer to each other. These are located near the rivers, fertile lands, mining points etc.

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Question 9.
Distinguish between Rectangular Pattern and Circular Pattern of rural settlements.
Answer:
The roads are’rectangular and cut each other at right angles along which houses are built is known as rectangular pattern.
Circular village develop around Lakes, tanks. The Central part remains open and is used for keeping the animals to protect them from wild animals.

Question 10.
Define “Pull and Push factors” of Urbanization.
Answer:
The facilities of the cities attract people from the rural areas which are called “‘pull factors”. In contract rural areas have many problems which force people to migrate outwards, are called push factors.

Question 11.
What is occupational structure of urban settlements?
Answer:
The Economic activities is an important criteria for designing occupational structure of urban settlements interms of population size & their occupation. The secondary & tertian occupations are predominant in the urban areas.

Question 5.
Write the important problems of slums.
Answer:

  1. Poverty
  2. Housing problems
  3. Sanitation problems &
  4. Scarcity of water facilities.

Question 6.
Write about the ‘dry point settlements’.
Answer:
The houses are built on stilts to protect from floods, as well as from the wild animals, those are called ‘dry point settlements’.

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2nd PUC Geography Human Settlements Five Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Explain the patterns of rural settlement.
Answer:
The term ‘settlement pattern’ refers to the spatial arrangement of houses.
The rural settlement pattern may be mainly classified into following types.

  1. Uniform pattern : A Unifonn pattern of settlement is the distribution of houses which indicate the equal distribution of resources.
  2. Clustered pattern : A Cluster pattern refers to the settlements which are very closer to each other. These patterns are located near the rivers, fertile lands, mining points etc.
  3. Random pattern : In this type of settlements neither they are clustering not highly dispersed.
  4. Dispersed settlements : In this, the settlements, the houses are located away from each other individually for Ex: farm houses. This kind of settlement is also called scattered settlements.
  5. Hamlets : Thses are smaller than villages lacking of Public utilities.

Question 2.
Explain the shapes-of rural settlements.
Answer:
The rural settlements are of different shapes such as:-

  1. LINEAR PATTERN – In such settlements, houses are located along a road railway line, river and canal, edge of a valley.
  2. RECTANGULAR PATTERN – Such patterns of rural settlements are found in plain areas or wide inter mountain valleys. The roads are rectangular and cut each other at right angles along which house are built.
  3. CIRCULAR PATTERN – Circular villages developed around lakes, tanks and sometimes the villages is planned in such a way that the Central part remains open to protect the domestic animal from wild life.
  4. STAR SHAPED PATTERN – Where the several roads meets, star shaped settlements develop as the houses built along the roads.
  5. T, X, Y AND T SHAPED SETTLEMENTS – These settlements develop at tri¬junctions of the roads.
  6. DOUBLE VILLAGE – These settlements extend on both sides of a river where there is a bridge.
  7. TRIANGULAR PATTERN – This shape of settlements set by the confluence of two rivers and also the junction point of two railway lines are often triangular.

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Question 3.
Discuss the problems of rural settlements.
Answer:
Some of the most important common problems of rural settlements are –

  • Supply of water is most inadequate. People in the rural areas particularly in mountain and desert region walks for long distances to Fetch drinking water.
  • The Water borne disease such as cholera, jaundice etc, are the common problems.
  • Many rural areas are facing the problems of natural diasters which occur frequently such as floods and droughts.
  • Agriculture areas are severely affected due to lacking of irrigation.
  • Being dominated by agriculture the effects of droughts are severe and have effects which strech for many years.
  • The ruraljiouses are lacking toilet and disposal facilities of solid waster/garbages which cause health related problems.
  • The houses are made up of mud, wood and thatch which are damaged by heavy rains & floods. They require proper maintainance every year.
  • Most of the houses do not have proper ventilation and the design of the houses also includes animal shed with fodder storage.
  • The rural settlements are lacking roads and other modem communications.

Question 4.
Describe the types of Urban settlements.
Answer:
The types of Urban settlements are designated as towns, cities, million cities etc. It is based on their size of population.

  • Town – A town is one in a rural community, having much smaller in size of a population than a city.
  • City – A densely populated area of considerable size is a city which is larger than a town. An urban center with 1 lakh and more population is called a city.
  • Conurbation – The term conurbation applies to a large area of urban development that resulted from the merging of several towns of cities eg: Greater London. Greater Mumbai etc.
  • Megalopolis – Megalopolis are the extended urban or metropoliton area, typically consisting of several sites merging with the suburbs of one or more cities.
  • Million City – Total population of 1 million and above, the urban area is known as million cities.
    The total number of million cities was 160 in 1975, 438 in 2005 & 468 in 2013.
  • Mega city – A megacity is a general term for cities together with their suburbs with population of more than 10 million people or megacity is defined as a metropolitan area with total population in excess of 10 million people.

Newyork was the first to attain the status of a megacity by 1950 with population of 12.5 million.

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Question 5.
Explain the Urban settlements based on occupation and functions.
Answer:
The Urban settlements based on occupation and functions are as follows.

1. Occupational structure – The Economic activities such as secondary and tertiary- occupations are predominant in Urban area.

2. Functions – All urban settlements have some common functions. The following are the important urban functions.

  • Administration towns – Some urban centers are engaged in administrative function which may be termed as the good administrative centres. Eg. NewDelhi, Canberra, Beijing Addis Abada, Washington D C and London,
  • Trading and Commercial towns – Now a days many towns are turned into trading and commercial functions such as market centers like Mumbai.
    • Additional functions which the cities are performing like industrial are Pittsburg and Jamshedpur, Mumbai, Manchester, Shangai, Tokyo.
    • Mining and quarrying – Dhanbad, Johannesburg.
  • Cultural and religious towns – The places of pilagrimage and worship like Jerusalem, Mecca, Rome, Puri Jagannath, Varanasi, Mathura, Madhurai.are the important cultural and religious towns.
  • Educational towns – Some urban centres are well known for education with good institutions, such as schools, colleges and univerisities. Eg. Aligarh, Mysore, Oxford, Dharwad. Cambridge etc.
  • Tourist centres – The place where it has specific natural scenery, a good landscape a beach or greenery may become the tourist centres.

Question 6.
Discuss the problems of urban settlements.
Answer:
Large scale urbanizations results with many problems.

  • Economic problems – Increasing population in the urban centres causes unemployment.
  • Socio-cultural problems
    • Increasing the population results in lacking of social sendees as they cannot reach to everyone.
    • Insufficient financial resources fail to create adequate social infrastructure and scarcity ‘ to the basic needs of huge population.
  • Environment problems – Urbanization also causes deterioration of environment quality by pollutions and disposal of waste.,
  • Problems of slums
    • Slums are the most important and severe problem of urban settlements.
    • Poverty, housing, sanitation, water facilities are the problems.
    • Now-a-days the slums are occupying a large space of the urban centres and are still expanding.
    • Ex: Dharavi of Central Mumbai is the fastest grown and the largest slum of Asia.

Question 7.
Explain the factors affecting the location of rural settlements.
Answer:

  • Water supply : Normalv rural settlements are located near water points like rivers, Lakes and springs where water can be obtianed easily.
  • Land : Most of the people settle near the fertile land for agriculture purposes.
  • Upland location : In the flood plains and marshy lands people have built settlements on highter areas for the sake of protection.
  • Building materials : Rural settlements are constructed with available building materials like mud, wood and stone etc.
  • Defence : Due to political instability and hostility villages were built on hills and islands. In india most of the forts are located on higher grounds or hills.

Question 8.
Write a brief note on Urban Settlements.
Answer:
Urbanization is the most modem trend of the world. More than 51 percent of the world population is living in the urban areas. They are involved in the functions such as administration, education, industrial as well a’s socio-cultural activities,

  • The word urban is generally used to mean a city or a town, which in larger than villages and engaged in secondary & tertiary occupations.
    Acording to census of India, the urban refers to a settlement which fulfil the following criteria.
  • All places with a municipality, corporation, contonment board or notified town area committee etc and all other places which satisfied the following criteria:-
    • A minimum population of5,000;
    • At least 75 percent of the male working population engaged in non-agricultural
    • A density of population of a least 400 persons per, sq.km area.
  • On account of all facilities urban centers are growing rapidly with large influx of population.
  • Approximately 180 cities on the world have emerged as Million cities.
  • Industrial development and commercialization have also boosted rapid urbanization.

Thus in the year 1900 the urban population of the world was only 14 percent under the total world population and it has increased to 51 percent in 2013.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 3 Business Environment

Karnataka 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 3 Business Environment

You can Download Chapter 3 Business Environment Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Text Book Exercises

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Multiple Choice Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Which of the following does not characterise the business environment?
(a) Uncertainty
(b) Employees
(c) Relativity
(d) Complexity
Answer:
(b) Employees does not characterise the business environment

Question 2.
Which of the following best indicates the importance of business environment?
(a) Identification
(b) Improvement in performance
(c) Coping with rapid changes
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) Identification, Improvement In performance, coping with rapid changes all are the indicators of importance of business environment.

Question 3.
Which of the following is an example of social environment?
(a) Money supply in the economy
(b) Consumer Protection Act
(c) The Constitution of the country
(d) Composition of family
Answer:
(d) Social environment includes social forces thus, composition of families is the example of social environment

Question 4.
Liberalisation means
(a) integrating among economies
(b) reduced Government controls and restrictions.
(c) policy of planned disinvestments
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(b) Liberalisation means end of license, quota and reduction of government controls and restrictions

Question 5.
Which of the following does not explain the impact of Government policy changes on business and industry?
(a) More demanding customers.
(b) Increasing competition
(c) Change in agricultural prices
(d) Market orientation
Answer:
(c) Change in agricultural prices does not explain the impact of Government policy changes on business and industry.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Short Answer Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
What do you understand by business environment?
Answer:
The term ‘Business environment’ means the sum total of all Individuals, institutions and other forces that are outside the control of a business enterprise but that may affect its performance. The economic, social political, technological and other forces which operate outside the business enterprise are part of its environment.

Question 2.
Why it is important for business enterprises to understand their environment? Explain briefly.
Answer:
It is important for business organisations to understand their environment because of the following reasons
1. It enables the Firm to identify opportunities and getting the first Mover advantage: Environment provides numerous opportunities for business. Early identification of opportunities helps an enterprise to use it before instead of losing them to competitors.

2. It helps the Firm to identify threats and early Warning Signals. Environmental awareness can help managers to identify various threats on time and serve as an early warning signals.

3. It helps in tapping useful Resources Environment is a source for the various resources for running a business. To engage in any type of activity, a business enterprise assembles various resources called inputs. This can be done better by understanding what the environment has to offer.

4. It helps in coping with rapid changes. All types of enterprises are facing increasingly dynamic environment. In order to effectively cope with these significant changes, managers must understand and examine the environment and develop suitable courses of action.

5. It helps in assisting in Planning and Policy formulation. Since environment is the source of opportunities and threats, it’s understanding and analysis becomes the base for various policies to be framed and strategies to be made.

6. It helps in improving performance The enterprises that continuously monitor their environment and adopt suitable business practices are the ones which not only improve their present performance but also continue to succeed in the market for a longer period.

Question 3.
Mention the various dimensions of business environment.
Answer:

  • Economic Environment
  • Social Environment
  • Technological Environment
  • Political Environment.

Question 4.
Briefly explain the following
(a) Liberalisation
(b) Privatisation
(c) Globalisation
Answer:
The three important features of New Economic Policy, 1991.
(a) Liberalisation: Under the new economic policy of 1991, the economic reforms that were introduced aimed at liberalising the Indian business and industry’ from all unnecessary controls and restrictions. They signalled the end of the licence-permit quota Raj.

(b) Privatisation: The new set of economic reforms that aim at giving greater role to the private sector in the nation building process and a reduced role to the public sector.

(c) Globalisation: Globalisation means the integration of the various economies of the world leading towards the emergence of a cohesive global economy. Till 1991, Indiahad a policy which strictly regulated imports in value and volume terms. After 1991, the reforms aimed at Import liberalisation.

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Question 5.
Briefly discuss the impact of Government policy changes on business and industry.
Answer:
Impact of Government policy changes on business and Industry
1. Increasing Competition : As a result of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation the number of players increased in all sectors and increased the competition for eveiyone.

2. More demanding Customers: Increased competition in the market gives the customer wider choices in purchasing better quality of goods and services, which makes them more demanding.

3. Rapidly changing Technological Environment: New technologies help to improve machines, process products and services. The rapidly changing technological environment creates tough challenges for the smaller firms.

4. Necessity for Change: After 1991, the market forces have become turbulent as a result of which the enterprises have to continuously modify their operations.

5. Need for developing Human Resource: The new market conditions require people with higher competence and greater commitment: Hence, the need for developing human resources has emerged.

6. Market Orientation: Earlier, production was taken up first and then selling was done. Now, due to increasing competition and more demanding customers, firms have to study and analyse the market first and produce goods accordingly.

7. Loss of Budgetary Support to the Public Sector: Public sector have less of budgetary support from the Central Government. Now, they have to generate their own resources and be more efficient in order to survive and grow.

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Long Answer Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
How would you characterise business environment? Explain with examples, the difference between general and specific environment.
Answer:
Features of business environment:
1. Totality of External Forces: Business environment is aggregative in nature as it is the sum total of all things external to business firms.

2. Inter-relatedness: Different elements of business environment are closely related to each other, e.g., increased awareness of health care have increased the demand for many health products.

3. Dynamic Nature: The business environment is highly dynamic. It keeps on changing. Sometimes there is a change in technology, tastes and preference of consumer etc

4. Uncertainty: The environment cannot be predicted. It is highly uncertain and unpredictable.

5. Complexity: Since there are many elements of Business Environment and they are inter-related and dynamic in nature, it becomes very difficult to understand them as a whole.

Difference between Specific and General Environment There are two types of forces operating in Business Environment, Specific and General Specific forces affect the individual enterprises directly and immediately, e.g., customers, suppliers. General forces affect the firms and only indirectly e g, social conditions or political conditions.

Question 2.
How would you argue that the success of a business enterprise is significantly influenced by its environment?
Answer:
Importance of business environment
1. It enables the firm to identify opportunities and getting the first mover advantage Environment provides numerous opportunities for business success. Early identification of opportunities helps an enterprise to be the first to exploit them instead of losing them to competitors, e g., Eureka Forbes introduced Aquaguard and took away the cream of demand.

2. It helps the Firm to identify threats and early Wamirng Signals . Environment happens to be the source of many threats. Environmental awareness can help managers to identity various threats’ in time and serve as an early warning signals e.g.-Lakme took serious steps to improve the quality and types of products as foreign multinational cosmetics companies started coming to India after 1991.

3. It helps in tapping useful resources : Environment offers various resources for running a business. In return, the business enterprise supplies the environment with its outputs such as goods and services for customers and taxes for Government. In order to arrange for the best possible resources, better understanding of the environment becomes important.

4. It helps in coping with rapid changes. It is not the fact of change itself that is so important as the pace of change. There are many changes taking place in the environment and at a fast speed. In order to effectively cope with these changes, managers must understand and examine the environment and develop suitable courses of action

5. It helps in assisting in Planning and Policy Formulation : Since environment is a source of both opportunities and threats, it’s understanding and analysis only helps in formulating the best possible policies to handle the future properly.

6. It helps in improving performance. Continuous monitoring and adopting changes in an enterprise will help in improving not only their present performance, but also continue to succeed in the market in long run.

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Question 3.
Explain with examples, the various dimensions of business environment.
Answer:
Dimensions of business environment
1. Economic Environment: It includes the changes in the system due to economic policies made by the Government. Reserve Bank of India is the key regulator of county’s economic environment since it
(a) influences the Interest rates
(b) controls the flow of money in the economy
(c) regulates the working of banks
Example: When the banks reduce the interest rates on long term loans, automobiles and construction industries get a boost to the business as more spending is made on the purchase of homes and cars through loans.

2. Social Environment: The social environment of business includes the social forces like customs and traditions, values social trends, society’s expectations from business etc. In business terms, these values translate into freedom of choice in the market. Major elements of social environment are
(a) life expectancy
(b) shifts in the presence of women in the workforce
(c) consumer habits
Example: Due to the shift in the presence of women in the workforce the demand for readymade ladies formal wear, cosmetics, packed/processed food and electronic gadgets have gone up.

3. Technological Environment: Technological environment includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.
Example: Because of technological advancement, it has become possible to book railway tickets through internet from home, office etc.

4. Political Environment: Political environment includes political conditions such as general stability and peace in the country and specific attitudes that elected government representatives hold towards business. It is only of use when a business enterprise can predict its business activities under stable political conditions. Major elements of political environment are
(a) The constitution of the country
(b) The nature and profile of political leadership and thinking of political personalities (cj Political ideology and practices of the ruling party.
Example: After the NEP of 1991, due to globalisation the foreign companies started coming to India, but due to the bureaucratic red tape, it became difficult for them to cut through it to do business here. As a result, these companies were discouraged in our country regarding investments. The situation has improved over time.

5. Legal Environment: Legal environment includes various legislations passed by the Government, administrative orders issued by government authorities, court judgements as well as the decisions rendered by various commissions and agencies. It is imperative for the management of every enterprise to obey the law of the land. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of rules and regulations framed by the government is a pre- requisite for better business performance.
Example: There is a government regulation to protect consumer’s interest e.g.. the advertisements of alcoholic beverages is prohibited.

Question 4.
What economic changes were initiated by the Government under the Industrial Policy, 1991? What impact have these changes made on business and industry?
Answer:
Economic changes initiated by the government under the Industrial Policy. 1991

  • The government reduced the number of industries under compulsory licensing to six.
  • The role of public sector was reduced. It was now limited only to four industries of strategic importance.
  • Disinvestment was carried out in case of many public sector industrial enterprises.
  • Foreign Direct Investment was permitted.
  • Automatic permission was now granted for technology agreements with foreign companies.
  • Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) was set up to promote and channelise foreign investment in India.

The Indian corporate sector has come face-to-face with several challenges due to government policy changes. Some of them are as given below.

1. Increasing competition: The competition has increased due to entry of new players (privatisation and globalisation).

2. More demanding Customers: Customers today have become more demanding because they are well-informed. Increased competition in the market gives the customers wider choice in purchasing better quality goods and services.

3. Rapid Changes in Technological Environment: The rapidly changing technological environment creates tough challenges before smaller firms.

4. Necessity for Change: After 1991, the market forces have become turbulent as a result of which the enterprises have to continuously modify their operations.

5. Need for Developing Human Resources: Earlier. Indian enterprises worked with inadequately trained personnel. The new market conditions require people with higher competence and greater commitment. Hence, the need for developing human resources.

6. Market Orientation: Before 1991, all firms worked with production oriented marketing operations. In a fast changing world, there was a shift to market orientation. The firms had to study and analyse the market first and then produce goods accordingly.

7. Loss of Budgetary support to the Public Sector: The public sector undertakings have realised that in order to survive and grow, they will have to be more efficient and generate their own resources for the purpose.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
What are the essential features of
(a) Liberalisation
(b) Privatisation and
(c) Globalisation
Answer:
Essential features of
(a) Liberalisation

  • Abolishing licensing requirements in most of the industries a short list, except
  • No restriction on expansion or contraction of business.
  • Free movement of goods and services
  • Freedom in fixing the prices of goods and services.
  • Reduction in tax rates.
  • Simplifying procedures for imports and exports.
  • Making it easier to attract foreign capital and technology to India.

(b) Privatisation

  • The Government redefined the role of public sector.
  • Policy of planned disinvestments of the public sector
  • Refining of sick enterprises to the Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction.

(c) Globalisation

  • Import liberalisation
  • Export promotion
  • Foreign exchange reforms.

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Case Problems

Lately many companies have planned for significant investment in organised retailing in India. Several factors have prompted their decision in this regard.

Customers income is rising. People have developed a taste for better quality products even though they may have to pay more. The aspiration levels have increased. The government has also liberalised its economic policies in this regard and permitted even cent percent foreign direct investment in some sectors of retailing.

Question 1.
Identify changes in business environment under different heads – economic, social, technological, political and legal that have facilitated the companies decisions to plan significant investments in organised retailing.
Answer:
Changes which have taken place in the following areas are as follows
1. Economic: Availability of more money because of employment opportunities increasing.

2. Social: Tastes of customers are changing. As they are getting more exposure to the outside world, their tastes are changing.

3. Technological: Technological advancements have led to advanced ways of counting, checking, coding, billing and discounts which are convenient for the customer and also retailer.

4. Political: Government policies are encouraging developers to go for mass construction in real estate. As MNCs are coming to India, they have to be provided an Internationally based infrastructure to operate from.

5. Legal: As the Government is providing more rights to the consumers, organised retailing outlets would be more particular in taking care as compared to a small retailer.

Question 2.
What has been the impact of these changes with regard to globalistion and privatistion?
Answer:
Due to globalisation and privation, more retailers from India and abroad are encouraged to make investment in organised retailing. The competition has increased, the consumers are more demanding and experts working force is required in order to cope up with the changes, which have taken place and are further changing.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Additional Questions

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define Business Environment.
Answer:
The term ‘business environment’ means the sum total of all individuals, institutions and other forces that are outside the control of a business enterprise but that may affect its performance.

Question 2.
Mention the external forces of Business Environment.
Answer:
The economic, social, political, technological and other forces which operate outside a business enterprise are part of its environment.

Question 3.
What do you understand by business environment?
Answer:
The term ‘Business environment’ means the sum total of all Individuals, institutions and other forces that are outside the control of a business enterprise but that may affect its performance. The economic, social political, technological and other forces which operate outside the business enterprise are part of its environment.

Question 4.
What has been the impact of these changes with regard to globalisation and privatisation?
Answer:
Due to globalisation and privatisation, more retailers from India and abroad are encouraged to make investments in organised retailing The competition has increased, the consumers are more demanding and expert working force is required in order to cope up with the changes, which have taken place and are further changing.

Question 5.
Mention any two features of Business Environment.
Answer:

  1. Totality of external forces
  2. Inter-relatedness

Question 6.
Mention any two important of Business Environment.
Answer:

  1. It enables the firm to identify opportunities and getting the first mover advantage
  2. It helps the firm to identify threats and early warning signals.

Question 7.
What do you mean by liberalization?
Answer:

  • Liberalization refers to laws or rules being liberalized, or relaxed by a government.
  • The removal or loosening of restrictions on something, typically an economic polictical system.

Question 8.
What do you mean by privatisation?
Answer:
Privatisation is the process of transferring an enterprise or industry from the public sector to the private sector.

Question 9.
What do you mean by globalisation?
Answer:
Globalisation implies the opening of local and nationalistic perspectives to a broader outlook of an interconnected and interdepended world with free transfer of capital, goods and services across national frontiers.

Question 10.
List out any two Indian industrial policy features.
Answer:
(a) The Government reduced the number of industries under compulsory licensing to six.
(b) Disinvestment was carried out in case of many public sector industrial enterprises.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Four Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the features of Business Environment.
Answer:
Business environment, has the following features:
1. Totality of external forces: Business environment is the sum total of all things external to business firms and, as such, is aggregative in nature.

2. Specific and general forces: Business environment includes both specific and general forces. Specific forces (such as investors, customers, competitors and suppliers) affect individual enterprises directly and immediately in their day-to-day working. General forces (such as social, political, legal and technological conditions) have impact on all business enterprises and thus may affect an individual firm only indirvectly.

3. Inter-relatedness: Different elements or parts of business environment are closely inter-related.

4. Dynamic nature: Business environment is dynamic in that it keeps on changing whether in terms of technological improvement, shifts in consumer preferences or entry of new competition in the market.

5. Uncertainty: Business environment is largely uncertain as it is very difficult to predict future happenings.

6. Complexity: Since business environment consists of numerous interrelated and dynamic conditions or forces which arise from different sources, it becomes difficult to comprehend at once what exactly constitutes a given environment.

7. Relativity: Business environment is a relative concept since it differs from country to country and even region to region. Political conditions.

Question 2.
Explain the importance of Business Environment.
Answer:
Importance of Business Environment
A good understanding of environment by business managers enables them not only to identify and evaluate, but also to react to the forces external to their firms. The importance of business environment and its understanding.
1. It enables the firm to identify opportunities and getting the first mover advantage: Opportunities refer to the positive external trends or changes that will help a firm to improve its performance. Environment provides numerous opportunities for business success. Early identification of opportunities helps an enterprise to be the first to exploit them instead of losing them to competitors.

2. It helps the firm to identify threats and early warning signals: Threats refer to the external environment trends and changes that will hinder a firm’s performance. awareness can help managers to identify various threats on time and serve as an early warning signal.

3. It helps in tapping useful resources: Environment is a source of various resources for running a business. To engage in any type of activity, a business enterprise assembles various resources called inputs like finance, machines, raw materials, power and water, labour, etc., from its environment including financiers, government and suppliers.

4. It helps in coping with rapid changes: Today’s business environment is getting \ increasingly dynamic where changes are taking place at a fast pace.

5. It helps in assisting in planning and policy formulation: Since environment is a source of both opportunities and threats for a business enterprise, its understanding and analysis can be the basis for deciding the future course of action (planning) or training guidelines for decision making (policy).

6. It helps in improving performance: The final reason for understanding business environment relates to whether or not it really makes a difference in the performance of an enterprise.

Question 3.
Write a note on Economic Environment in India.
Answer:
Economic Environment in India.
The economic environment in India consists of various macro-level factors related to the means of production and distribution of wealth which have an impact on business and industry.
These include:
(a) Stage of economic development of the country.
(b) The economic structure in the form of mixed economy which recognises the role of both public and private sectors.
(c) Economic policies of the Government, including industrial, monetary and fiscal policies.
(d) Economic planning, including five year plans, annual budgets, and so on.
(e) Economic indices, like national income, distribution of income, rate and growth of GNP, per capita income, disposal personal income, rate of savings and investments, value of exports and imports, balance of payments, and so on.
(f) Infrastructural factors, such as, financial institutions, banks, modes of transportation communication facilities, and so on.

Question 4.
Mention of the objectives of Economic Environment towards India’s development.
Answer:
The main objectives of India’s development plans were:
(a) Initiate rapid economic growth to raise the standard of living, reduce unemployment and poverty;
(b) Become self-reliant and set up a strong industrial base with emphasis on heavy and basic industries;
(c) Reduce inequalities of income and wealth;
(d) Adopt a socialist pattern of development based on equality and prevent exploitation of man by man.

Question 5.
List out the features of new Indsutrial Policy of 1991.
Answer:
As a part of economic reforms, the Government of India announced a new industrial policy in July 1991.
The broad features of this policy were as follows:
(a) The Government reduced the number of industries under compulsory licensing to six.
(b) Many of the industries reserved for the public sector under the earlier policy, were dereserved. The role of the public sector was limited only to four industries of strategic importance.
(c) Disinvestment was carried out in case of many public sector industrial enterprises.
(d) Policy towards foreign capital was liberalised. The share of foreign equity participation was increased and in many activities 100 per cent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) was permitted.
(e) Automatic permission was now granted for technology agreements with foreign companies.
(f) Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) was set up to promote and channelise foreign investment in India.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Hightlights the impact of liberalisation for the economic reforms in India.
Answer:
Liberalisation: The economic reforms that were introduced were aimed at liberalising the Indian business and industry from all unnecessary’ controls and restrictions. They signalled the end of the licence-pemit-quota raj. Liberalisation of the Indian industry lias taken place with respect to:

  • abolishing licensing requirement in most of the industries except a short list,
  • freedom in deciding the scale of business activities i.e., no restrictions on expansion or contraction of business activities
  • removal of restrictions on the movement of goods and services,
  • freedom in fixing the prices of goods services
  • reduction in tax rates and lifting of unnecessary controls over the economy,
  • simplifying procedures for imports and experts, and
  • making it easier to attract foreign capital and technology to India.

Question 7.
Hightlights the impact of Privatisation for the economic reforms in India.
Answer:
Privatisation: The new set of economic reforms aimed at giving greater role to the private sector in the nation building process and a reduced role to the public sector. This was a reversal of the development strategy pursued so far by Indian planners. To achieve this, the government redefined the role of the public sector in the New Industrial Policy of 1991, adopted the policy of planned disinvestments of the public sector and decided to refer the loss making and sick enterprises to the Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction.

The term disinvestments used here means transfer in the public sector enterprises to the private sector. It results in dilution of stake of the Government in the public enterprise. If there is dilution of Government ownership beyond 51 percent, it would result in transfer of ownership and management of the enterprise to the private sector.

Question 8.
Hightlights the regulations of industeral policy of 1991 towards Globalisation.
Answer:
Globalisation: Globalisation means the integration of the various economies of the world leading towards the emergence of a cohesive global economy. Till 1991, the Government of India had followed a policy of strictly regulating imports in value and volume terms. These regulations were with respect to (a) licensing of imports, (b) tariff restrictions and (c) quantitative restrictions. The new economic reforms aimed at trade liberalisation were directed towards import liberalisation, export promotion through rationalisation of the tariff structure and reforms with respect to foreign exchange so that the country does not remain isolated from the rest of the world.

Globalisation involves an increased level of interaction and interdependence among the various nations of the global economy. Physical geographical gap or political boundaries no longer remain barriers for a business enterprise to serve a customer in a distant geographical market.

Question 9.
Explain the various dimensions of business environment.
Answer:
1. Economic Environment: Interest rates, Inflation rates value of rupee and many more are the economic factors that can affect management practices in a business enterprise.

2. Social Environment: The social environment of business includes the social forces like customs and traditions, values, social trends etc.

3. Technological Environment: This includes forces relating to scientific improvements and Innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.

4. Political Environment: This includes political conditions such as general stability and peace in the country and specific attitudes that elected government representatives hold towards business.

5. Legal Environment: This includes various legislations passed by Government authorities and Court Judgements It is important for the management of every enterprise to obey the law of land and for this, enough of knowledge of rules and regulations framed by the Government is a pre-requisite for better performance.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Business Studies Business Environment Eight Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the impact of Government Policy Changes on Business and Industry.
Answer:
Impact of Government Policy Changes on Business and Industry
The policy of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation of the Government has made a significant impact on the working of enterprises in business and industry. The Indian corporate sector has come face-to-face with several challenges due to government policy changes.

These challenges can be explained as follows:
1. Increasing competition: As a result of changes in the rules of industrial licensing and entry of foreign firms, competition for Indian firms has increased especially in service industries like telecommunications, airlines, banking, insurance, etc. which were earlier in the public sector.

2. More demanding customers: Customers today have become more demanding because they are well-informed.

3. Rapidly changing technological environment: Increased competition forces the firms to develop new ways to survive and grow in the market. New technologies make it possible to improve machines, process, products and services.

4. Necessity for change: In a regulated environment of pre-1991 era, the firms could have relatively stable policies and practices.

5. Need for developing human resource: Indian enterprises have suffered for long with inadequately trained personnel. The new market conditions require people with higher competence and greater commitment.

6. Market orientation: Earlier firms used to produce first and go to the market for sale later. In other words, they had production oriented marketing operations. the firms have to study and analyse the market first and produce goods accordingly.

7.) Loss of budgetary support to the public sector: The central government’s budgetary support for financing the public sector outlays has declined over the years. The public sector undertakings have realised that, in order to survive and grow, they will have to be more efficient and generate their own resources for the purpose.

On the whole, the impact of Government policy changes particularly in respect of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation has been positive as the Indian business and industry has shown great resilience in dealing with the new economic order.

Question 2.
Explain the different Dimensions of Business Environment.
Answer:
Dimensions of Business Environment
Dimensions of, or the factors constituting the business environment include economic, social, technological, political and legal conditions which are considered relevant for decision-making and improving the performance of an enterprise.

However, management of every enterprise can benefit from being aware of these dimensions instead of being disinterested in them.
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank With Answers Chapter 3 Principles of Management 1
The various factors constituting the general environment of business is given below:
1. Economic Environment: The economic environment includes interest rates, inflation rates, changes in disposable income of people,

2. Social Environment: The social environment of business include the social forces like customs and traditions, values, social trends, society’s expectations from business, etc. Values refer to concepts that a society holds in high esteem. Social trends present various opportunities and threats to business enterprises.

3. Technological Environment: It includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business.

4. Political Environment: Political environment includes political conditions such as general stability and peace in the country and specific attitudes that elected government representatives hold towards business. The significance of political conditions in business success lies in the predictability of business activities under stable political conditions. Political stability, thus, builds up confidence among business people to invest in the long term projects for the growth of the economy.

5. Legal Environment: Legal environment includes various legislations passed by the Government administrative orders issued by government authorities, court judgments as well as the decisions rendered by various commissions and agencies at every level of the government centre, state or local.

an adequate knowledge of rules and regulations framed by the Government is a pre-requisite for better business performance. Non-compliance of laws can land the business enterprise into legal problems.

2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 4 Transport and Communication

You can Download Chapter 4 Transport and Communication Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 4 Transport and Communication

2nd PUC Geography Transport and Communication One Mark Questions with Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each:

Question 1.
What is Transportation?
Answer:
Transport is the means of carrying Goods & Passangers from one place to other by Human. Animals and different kinds of vehicles.

Question 2.
When was the First Railway Started?
Answer:
1825 between Stockton and Darlington in northern England.

Question 3.
Which continent has the highest density of rail network in the world?
Answer:
Europe is the highest density of Rail network in the world.

Question 4.
What is Ocean transport?
Answer:
Water transport is the means of carrying the goods and passangers through the boats, ships, steamers etc on the water from place to place.

Question 5.
What is Ocean transport?
Answer:
Carrying of heavy goods and Passangers through to the steamers and ships on the ocean from one country to another is called Ocean transport.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
What are the inland waterways?
Answer:
The Movement of Goods, Passengers, through rivers canals, lakes is know as inland water¬ways.

Question 7.
What is Pipeline Transport?
Answer:
Pipeline is the means of carrying the liquid, slary and Gases through the pipes from one place to another.

Question 8.
What is Communication?
Answer:
Communication refers to Exchange of ideas and Information. From one person to another person.

Question 9.
What is Internet?
Answer:
An Inter connected system of networks that connects computers around the world.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
What is cyberspace?
Answer:
The electronic medium of computer Networks, in which on line communication takes place.

Question 11.
Which is the Busiest canal in the world?
Answer:
The Suez canal is the Busiest canal in the world.

Question 12.
Expand ISRO?
Answer:
ISRO : INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION. .

Question 13.
Which is the largest news agency in the world?
Answer:
The larget news Ageny in the world is Reuter. It is the first News Paper in the world.

Question 15.
What is Satellite Communication?
Answer:
An Artificial body in orbit around the Earth or another planet in order to collect and distribute information one place to another.

Question 16.
What is Road transportation?
Answer:
The means of carrying Goods and Passengers by road from one place to another place.

Question 17.
What is Rail transportation?
Answer:
The means of carrying heavy goods and large number of passengers for long distance through the Trains.

Question 18.
Who invented steam engine for the first time & when?
Answer:
Steam engine was invented by James Watt in 1781.

Question 19.
What is the total motorable road length of the word.
Answer:
15 Million kms.

Question 20.
When the Romans have constructed roads for the first time.
Answer:
In 400 BC.

Question 21.
When the Indians were built the road for the first time.
Answer:
During the period of Emperor Ashoka.

Question 22.
Which continent has the highest road density of the World.
Answer:
North America.

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Question 23.
Name the pass which connects between canton to Ticino.
Answer:
The Gottard Pass located in Switzerland.

Question 24.
Name the highway of India which connects from Kanyakumari to Varanasi.
Answer:
NH – 7.

Question 25.
Name the longest road of the World.
Answer:
Pan American highway which connects Alaska – Canada – United States – Mexico.

Question 26.
Mention the total length of railways on the World.
Answer:
13,70,782 kms.

Question 27.
Which country has highest Length of railways for every l00sq km area.
Answer:
USA – 278.3/100 sq km area.

Question 28.
Name the railway proposal linking between Istanbul to Bangkok.
Answer:
Trans Asiatic railway.

Question 29.
Which is the busiest sea route in the World.
Answer:
North Atlantic sea route it is called “The Big trunk route”.

Question 30.
Which is the oldest sea route of the world.
Answer:
The Cape of Good Hope. ,.

Question 31.
Who discovered cape of Good hope & when.
Answer:
Vasco-Da-Gama in 1498.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 32.
Who was the first European reached the pacific for the construction of Panama canal.
Answer:
Vasounez-De-Balboa in 1517 A.D.

Question 33.
Who invented Aero plane for the first time.
Answer:
American wright brothers in 1903.

Question 34.
When was the first commercial aviation started in the world.
Answer:
1926 in USA.

Question 35.
Mention the places a flight reaches just 45 minutes.
Answer:
From Mumbai to Newyork.

Question 36.
Name the country which supplies milk through the pipelines from forms to Factories.
Answer:
NewZealand.

Question 37.
Who invented Telegraph.
Answer:
Samuel morse in 1844.

Question 38.
Who invented Telephone.
Answer:
Alexender Graham bell in 1875.

Question 39.
Who invented Radio.
Answer:
Marconi in 1888.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 40.
Who invented Television.
Answer:
LogiBlaird.

Question 41.
Who invented colour Television.
Answer:
Peter Mark USA in 1940.

Question 42.
Which is first newspaper in the world.
Answer:
Relation Alter Fumemmen in 1605 in German Language.

Question 43.
Name the cyclone which hists the Eastern coast of India in 2013.
Answer:
Phailyn Cyclone.

Question 44.
Name the first artificial satellite launched by India.
Answer:
Aryabhata-On 19 April 1975.

Question 45.
Name the satellite which helps the weather forecast.
Answer:
“Metsat Satellite”.

Question 46.
What is E-Commerce?
Answer:
Purchasing, selling and exchanging of goods and services over computer network.

Question 47.
What is E-Learning?
Answer:
It refers to using electronic application and processes to learn.

2nd PUC Geography Transport and Communication Two Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
State the different types of Transportation?
Answer:
The Different Types of Transportation are:

  1. Land Transport
  2. Water Transport
  3. Air Transport
  4. Pipeline Transport.

Question 2.
Name any two different highways of North America?
Answer:
The Highways of North America are:

  1. The Trans-Canadian Highway.
  2. The Alaskan Highway.

Answer:3.
Name any two important Trans-continental Railways of Canada?
Answer:
The trans-Canadian Railways are as follows:

  1. Halifax in the East to Vancouver on the Pacific coast.
  2. Quebec – montreal industrial region.

Question 4.
Name the two shipping canals of the world?
Answer:
The shipping canals of the world are:

  1. The Suez
  2. The Panama canal.

Question 5.
Name nay two major International Airports of South America?
Answer:
International Airport of South America are:

  1. Rio-de-Janeiro and
  2. Brasilia.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Mention any two Inland Waterways in the world.
Answer:
The Waterways in the world is:

  1. The Rhine waterways
  2. The Danude waterways.

Question 7.
Mention any two means of modern communication?
Answer:
The means of modem communication is:

(a) Television
(b) Satellites
(c) Computer networking
(d) Internet, Email.

Question 8.
Expand GIS and GPS.
Answer:
GIS = Geography Information system.
GPS = Global Positioning system.

Question 9.
Name any two different highway of Australia.
Answer:
(a) The trans – continental stuart highway – connects Darwin to Melbourne.
(b) The southern highway passes through Kalgoorlie and Koolgardie.

Question 10.
Which is first continental under water railway line when it was opened.
Answer:
Marmary under water railway line. It was opened – In-2013 between Asia & Europe.

Question 11.
Who inaugurated Trans-Siberian railway & when it was opened for Transport.
Answer:
The Czar Nicolson-1891 and opened for transport in 1904.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 12.
Name any two important Trans-Siberian railway in Russia.
Answer:

  1. Moscow to the Atlantic coast in the West. ’
  2. Vladivostok along the pacific coast in the East.

Question 13.
Distinguish between Liners and Cargoes.
Answer:
Liners – are ships used for the transportation of passengers.
Cargoes – are the ships carrying only the goods. ’

Question 14.
Distinguish between Tankers and Refrigerators.
Answer:
Tankers – are ships used for the transportation of Petroleum products.
Refrigerators – Ships are used for the transportation of perishable products.

Question 15.
Write the important sea route connects of American side and Asian side.
Answer:

  • American side: The north-pacific sea-route connects the ports are Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, sanfrancis co-losangeles.
  • Asian.side: Yakohama, Koba, shanghai, Honking, Manila, Singpore.

Question 16.
Write the two canal linkages of Volga waterway.
Answer:

  1. The Volga – Mascow eanal.
  2. The Volga – Don canal with the block sea. –

Question 17.
Write the Pecularities of world wide Air routes.
Answer:

  • Planes leave from Rome Airport of every 3 minus
  • London’s Heathrow Airport is the busiest in the world interms of mail and fright.
  • The British Airways is one of the most important which connects the entire world.

Question 18.
What is World Wide Web?
Answer:
It is the Electronic digital World for communicating or accessing information over computer networks.

Question 19.
What is E-mail?
Answer:
A system for sending and receiving messages electronic all over a computer network, as between personal computers.

Question 20.
What is E-Governance?
Answer:
The employment of internet and the World-Wide-Web for delivering government information and services to the citizens.

Question 21.
What is GI.S?
Answer:
Geographical information system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and .present all types of geographical data.

Question 22.
What is GP.S?
Answer:
Global Positioning system is a space based satellite navigation system that provides local and time information in all weather conditions anywhere on the Earth.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Geography Transport and Communication Five Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Write about the World Road Transport.
Answer:
The Means of carrying Goods & Passengers from One place to another place by Road is called Road Transport.

World Distribution of Road:

  • In North America highway density is about 0.65 kms/km, as every place is within 20kms just away from highway.
  • The highest road density & the highest number of vehicles are in North America which accounts 33% of the total length of the roads in the world.
  • Europe has the good density of road network which connects the entire Western and Central European countries.
  • Russia, a vast country developed a dense highway Network in the industrial region West of urals with Vladivostok in the east.
  • Asia has a good Networks of roads. A great highway connects from Turkey in the west to Malaysia in the east through India. In India N.H-7 connecting Varanasi from the north to Kanyakumari in the south is the longest road way.
  • The Longest Road in the World is Pan American highway which connects Alaska- Canada-United States-Mexico.
  • Africa has a few number of good quality roads which connects Algiers in the North to Guinea.
  • In South America, Brazil has parallel Road along the Eastern coast.
  • In Australia 90% of the road network is found along the Coastal Region.

Question 2.
Write a note on the World Water Transport.
Answer:
Water Transportation is ideal for the movements of bulky heavy large quantities of commodities as well as perishable products. As such the oceans are considered as the natural high ways of the world. Some of the important ocean routes are:

  • The Northern Atlantic Sea Route: It connects North Eastern USA & North Western Europe, the two industrially developed regions of the World. The North Atlantic Sea Route is the busiest Route in the world and called “The Big Trunk Route”.
  • The Mediterreanean Sea Route: This Route passes through the heart of the old world and serves more countries.
  • The Cape of Good Hope Sea Route: The Cape of Good Hope Sea Route is the oldest route of the World, Discovered by Vasco-Da-Gama in 1948. Many Ships follow this route to avoid Heavy Taxation at the Suez canal.
  • The North-Pacific Sea Route: The North-Pacific sea route connects the ports are Vnconver, Seattle, Postland, Sanfrancisco, Losangles on American side and Yakohoma, Kobe, Shangai, Hanking, Manila, Singapore on the Asia side.
  • The South Atlantic Sea Route: The Eastern Coast of South America with Western Coast of South America with Western Coast of Africa and Europe. This route is not well developed. ‘
  • Shipping Canals: The shipping canals are most important and plays a crucial role in the World transport pattern. The Major shipping canals in the world are – The Suez and the Panama Canals.

Question 3.
Write the World distribution of railways
Answer:
Europe has the highest density of rail. Network in the world. It has about 4,40,000 kms of railway track.

  • Marmary is the first continental under water railway line. It is between Asia and Europe. It is about 13Kms through Bosporus strait (sea of Marama) & was opened in 2013.
  • Railways are more in Russia. From Moscow major lines radiating to different parts of the Country.
  • North America has one of the most extensive rail Networks accounting for nearly 40% of the World’s total.
  • Chile rail route connects the coastal centres, mining centres as well as interior. Peru, Bolivia, Eurador, Colombia, Venezuela.
  • In Asia rail Network is the most dense in Japan, China & India. Japan has 20,035 kms of rail routes.
  • Africa has 82,000 kms of Railway route in which 18000 kms lies in South Africa alone due to the concentration of gold, diamond and copper mines. Africa has many major railway route which connects Benguela, Katanga, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe.
  • The Tranzam-great Churn railway is connecting the Copper mines of Zambia with the port of Dar-es-Salam of Tanzania.
  • The Benguela railway links the Copper mines of Zaire with the Atlantic coast ports via Angola.
  • The Blue train run for from Cape Town to Pretoria in the republic of South Africa.
  • The Algeria, Senegal, Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia railway lines connects the port cities to interior centres.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Write a note on the Mediterranean Sea route.
Answer:
The Mediterraneas sea route: It passes through the heart of the old world and serves more countries. It passes through the Suez Canal, South of Asia and connects South East and East Asia on one hand and also Australia and NewZealand on the otherhand. A variety of products are transported through the route, in this the crudeoil is the most important, west bound product from the Middle east region.

The Suez Canal: It was first visualised by Napolean Bonaparte, but it was constructed by British in Egypt between Port said in the north and Port Suez in the South which connects the Mediterranean and Red Sea. It is.narrpw with 190 kms long & 19 meters deep. It is the gateway to the Indian Ocean and reduces the distance compared to the Cape of Good Hope.

Question 5.
Write about the Trans-Siberian & Trans-Canadian railways.
Answer:
1. The Trans-Siberian Railway system : It lies in Russia. It is the longest in the world. It connects Asia & Europe continents, Moscow with Vladivostok.

  • It connects St. Petersberg, Moscow, Yekaterinbug, Tgumen, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Chita & Vladivostok. The total length of this railway is 9,289 kms.
  • The Trans-Siberian Railway was Inaugurated by Czar Nicolson in 1891 & opened for transport in 1904. The Most important train Russio which runs in the Trans-Siberian Railway. It takes 6days and 10 hours to complete the. Journey.

2. Trans-Canadian railway –

  • This railway has the length of2,500kms which runs from Halifax in the east to Vancouver on the Pacific coast passing Through Montreal, Ottawa, Winnipeg and Calgary. It was constructed in 1886.
  • The Quebec-montreal industrial region & the wheat belt of Prairie region with the coniferous forest region in the North.
  • This railway line is the economic artery of Canada through which wheat and meat are exported.

Question 6.
Write a note on the inland waterways of the world.
Answer:
Inland Waterways – The movement of goods, passengers, through rivers, canals, lakes known as Inland Waterways.
The Main Inland Waterways are:

  • The Rhine Waterways – The Rhine River flows through Germany & Netherland which is navigable for 700 kms from Rotterdam of Netherlands to Basel in Switzerland.
  • The Danube Waterways – This important inland waterway serves Eastern Europe. The river Danube rises in the black forest of Germany flows through many countries.
  • The Volga Waterways – The Volga waterway in Russia provides a navigable waterway of 1200 kms and drains into the Caspian Sea. It has two Canal linkages. They are:
    • The Volga-Moscow – Canal connects with the Moscow region.
    • The Volga-Don – Canal with Black sea.
  • The Great Lakes – St Lawrance Seaway. A Unique commercial waterway in the North Eastern Part of America. This waterway has Duluth and Buffalo ports.
  • The Missipssipi Waterway – The Mississipi Ohio water way connects interior part of USA with the Gulf of Mexico in the south.

Question 7.
Write a note on the World air routes.
Answer:

  • The North America – The Greatest air traffic is found in USA with internal and international flights. It has the top airports like Attanta, Chicago, Losangeles, Dallas.
  • South America – It has far air routes.
    The Major international airports are:
    Rio-de-Janeiro, Brasilia, Saopaulo, Santiago and Buenos Aires.
  • Africa – It is served by 2 international Airlines.
    • The East African air route through London, Rome, Cairo, Nairobi and Johannesbrug.
    • SriLanka and South East Asia and the Central air route connects Paris, Capetown, logos.
  • Australia – It is a well developed internal and external air services. Sydney is an important international airport.
  • Asia – China has external links with other countries of the world. Its enroute location is between Europe, Asia, Australia and Africa.
  • The Russian International Air Routes: Russia and other countries of former Soviet Union are well connected by air service. All Countries of the World connects each other through airlines of different comers.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Describe the Importance of Pipelines.
Answer:

  • Pipelines have become more popular for transporting certain products for lpng distances.
  • USA has a large network of pipelines. They are transporting natural gas, petroleum and refined products.
  • BIGINCH is the famous pipelines which carries pertroleum from Gulf of Mexico to the north-east states.
  • About 17% of all commodities is carried through pipelines in USA.
  • In Europe pipeline system was laid to distribute refined products from sea ports to inland markets.
  • In Africa, Pipe lines are found in Nigeria and other countries to carry crude oil and natural gas production.
  • In NewZealand Milk is being supplied through Pipelines from farms to factories.
  • China has one of the most impressive networks of pipelines.
  • India has good network of pipelines connecting oil ports and gas fields, refineries and markets.
  • Turkmenistan in Central Asia. Asia has extended pipelines to Iran and also parts of china. ‘

Question 9.
Explain the importance of Mass communication.
Answer:

  • Communication plays a significant role in the Modem World. They create awareness about the policies, programme of developments, learning.
  • Adopt new technological innovations in agriculture and industry as well as transportation.
  • People can acquire information of day’s affairs of the world.
  • It brings out the unity, integrity and stability of the country.
  • It helps in the development of cultural, political and social aspects as well as trade and commerce. ‘
  • They have laid a base for modem business. Thus, communication plays a vital role in the development of a nation.
  • Speed with messages could be sent across the world with in a second.
  • The Telephone or Radio are linked the people Worldwide and they can speak each other directly.
  • Even today newspaper touch every part of the country as it coves international, national and local news as well as entertainments with other information.
  • The radio has its own name by broadcasting news and information which will reach all comers of country and abroad.
  • Television allows the audio and video facilities to gain information for public.
  • It has a profound role to play in the forecasting of weather, the direction of aircraft, shipping and warning of usual events such as Hirricanes, snow fall and rainfalls as well as floods.
  • Rapid communication have great political implication for leaders can speak to people all over the country.

Question 10.
Explain the significance of transportation.

  • Transport is a service to facilitate the movements of goods and persons from one place to other by humans, animals and different, kinds of vehicles.
  • Transport network is essential for economic development and commerce it helps agriculture, industry, forestry, mining, fishing, animal husbandary etc.
  • To carry the raw materials from their source to the industries and the finished goods from industry’ to market.
  • It also helps in the promotion of trade. Economic development of a nation.
  • Requires the quick and efficient transportation.
  • It is also required to establish tourism, conservation of culture and tradition as well as integration of a country.
  • Thus “The Agriculture and Industry are the body and bones of the nation, transport and communication are the nervous system. Transport also help in unifying the scattered people of the globe.

Question 11.
Explain Internet, Remote sensing, E-mail and Satellite communication.
Answer:

  • Internet: An Interconnected system of networks that connects computers around the world.
  • E-Mail : A system for sending and receiving messages electronically over a computer network, in between personal computers.
  • Remote Sensing: Remote sensing is the scanning of the earth by Satellite or aircraft to abtain information about it. It is also the gathering and recording of information through aerial Photographs and Satellite images.
  • Satellite Communication: An artificial body placed in orbit round the earth or another planet in order to collect information for communication with other purposes.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 12.
Explain the Evolution of transportation in detail.
Answer:
In the primitive days transportation depended largely on animals and human beings the industrial revolution has opened a new era of transportation.

  • New machines were invented which have revolutionized the transportation.
  • Road and railway tracks were constructed.
  • The introduction of air transport reduced the jomey time and the people were brought closer to each other as the wide world has become a global village.

2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 4 Transport and Communication - 1

  • International Movement of goods is largely handled by Ocean freighters.
  • Road transport is cheaper and faster over short distances. ,
  • Railways are most suited for large volumes of bulky materials over long distances.
  • High valued, light and perishable products are moved by airways.
  • Recently Pipelines have become an important means to carry crude oil, natural gas, water and ores.

Question 13.
Explain the Longest Trans-continental railways of the world (The Railway lines moves from east to west or north to south).
Answer:

  • The trans-Siberian raiway : It lies in Russia it is Longest in the World. It connects Asia & Europe continents, moscow with Vladivostok its length is 9,289.
  • Trans-canadian railway : It has the length of 22,500 kms which runs Halifax in the East to Vancouver on the pacific coast.
  • The union and pacific railway: It connects New york on the Atlantic coast to Sanfrancisco on the pacific coast.
  • The Chile-Argentina railway: it is the longest railway line in South America. It connects the Buenos-Aires on Atlantic coast and Valparaiso a- major port on the coast of pacific.
  • The Australian trans-continental railway : It locates in the southern part of Australia as . the Large interior part of desert. It connects perth & Sydney. ‘
  • Northern trans-continental railway : It connects Seattle to Newyork in USA.
  • The southern trans-continental railway : It connects Losangles to Newyork.
  • The Canadian National railway : Iy connects saint John to Vancouver.
  • Trans caucasioan railway : This railway line connects Batum to Kursk.
  • Cape-Cairo railway : It connects Cape Town to cairo in Africa.

Question 14.
Describe the important Ocean routes of the World.
Answer:
Ships follows paricular paths are called

  • The Nothem Atlantic sea route – It connects north eastern USA and north western Europe. The two industrially developed regions of the world and it is busiest route of the world.
  • The Mediterranean sea route – It passes through the heart of old world like Suez canal, South of Asia and connects South cost & East Asia.
  • The cape of Good hope sea route – It is Oldest sea route. It begins from western Europe countries along the West coast of Africa around cape of Good hope to connect Australia and Newzealand. –
  • The north – pacific sea route – It links the ports on the west coast of North America. It is not well developed.
  • The south pacific sea route – This sea route connects western europe and north America with Australia, New-zealand and the scattered pacific.islands.
  • The south Atlantic sea route – It connects the Eastern coast of south America with Western coast of Africa and Europe. It is also not well developed.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Explain the role of Satellite in the communication in detail.
Answer:
Communication through satellites emerged as a new Era in communication technologes.

  • Artificial satellites now are successfully even the remote areas of the globe.
  • In India ISRO (Indian Space Reasearch Organisation) at Bangalore is responsible for . ‘ satellite building and launching.
  • Satellites helps to have STD. ISD, Telegraph, Telephone. Telex, E-Mail, Computer networking, Radio, Television, Internet, GIS, GPS and Remote sensing.
  • India has launched INSAT, METSAT and EDUSAT Satellites for different purposes.
  • Insat Satellites helps Television.
  • Metsat Satellites helps the Meterological Department and Weather forecast.
  • Edusat – Satellites helps the education field.
  • Billions of people are using the internet : cyber space will expand the Economic and social space of Humans through email – commerce, E – learning & E – governance.
  • Development of Telecommunication and Satellite communication has made the world into a samll global village.

KSEEB Solutions

1st PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Vaibhav Chapter 10 रिहर्सल

You can Download Chapter 10 रिहर्सल Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary, 1st PUC Hindi Textbook Answers, Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 1st PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Vaibhav Chapter 10 रिहर्सल

रिहर्सल Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

I. एक शब्द या वाक्यांश या वाक्य में उत्तर लिखिए:

प्रश्न 1.
वैद्य परमानन्द बीमार स्त्री को कितने दिन तक खाना न खाने के लिए कहते हैं?
उत्तरः
‘वैद्य परमानन्द बीमार स्त्री को पंद्रह दिन तक खाना न खाने की सलाह देते हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
किसान किसकी बीमारी के इलाज के लिए बैद्य परमानन्द के पास पहुंचता है?
उत्तरः
किसान गाय की बीमारी के इलाज के लिए वैद्य परमानन्द के पास पहुँचता है।

प्रश्न 3.
वैद्य परमानन्द हर बीमारी के लिए कौन-सी दवा देते हैं?
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानन्द हर बीमारी के लिए अमर भास्कर चूर्ण देते हैं।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 4.
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग बीमार स्त्री को कमजोरी दूर करने का क्या उपाय बताते हैं?
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग बीमार स्त्री से कहते हैं कि वह हिम्मत से आँखें बंद करके शेर से लड़ें, पहाड़ों पर चढ़ें, तूफान में समुद्र में कूदकर अपनी कमजोरी दूर कर सकती हैं।

प्रश्न 5.
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग किसान को किसकी फोटो लाने के लिए कहते हैं?
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग किसान को गाय की फोटो लाने के लिए कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 6.
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग किसे यमराज का सगा भाई कहते हैं?
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग वैद्य परमानंद को यमराज का सगा भाई कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 7.
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग लड़के को होश में लाने के लिए कैसी कहानियाँ सुनाने की सलाह देते हैं?
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग लड़के को होश में लाने के लिए ऐसी कहानियाँ सुनाने की सलाह देते हैं कि बेहोश व्यक्तियों के होश में आने का वर्णन हो।

प्रश्न 8.
वैद्य परमानंद के अनुसार लड़के को क्या हुआ है?
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानंद के अनुसार लड़के को सन्निपात हुआ है।

प्रश्न 9.
बेहोशी का अभिनय किसने किया?
उत्तरः
बेहोशी का अभिनय लड़के रमेश ने किया।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 10.
बेहोशी का अभिनय करने वाले लड़के का नाम लिखिए।
उत्तरः
बेहोशी का अभिनय करनेवाला रमेश था।

अतिरिक्त प्रश्नः

प्रश्न 11.
सदा घबराहट महसूस करना किसकी निशानी है?
उत्तरः
सदा घबराहट महसूस करना मौत की निशानी है।

प्रश्न 12.
वैद्य परमानंद बीमार स्त्री को कहाँ चंदन का लेप करने के लिए कहा?
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानंद ने बीमार स्त्री को हृदय के भीतरी भाग पर चंदन का लेप करने के लिए कहा।

प्रश्न 13.
वैद्य परमानंद बेहोश बालक को कौन-सा रोग निश्चित करते हैं?
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानंद बेहोश बालक को सन्निपात रोग निश्चित करते हैं।

प्रश्न 14.
‘रिहर्सल’ एकांकी के लेखक कौन हैं?
उत्तरः
‘रिहर्सल’ एकांकी के लेखक ओमप्रकाश ‘आदित्य’ हैं।

II. निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखिए:

प्रश्न 1.
वैद्य परमानन्द बीमार स्त्री का इलाज किस प्रकार करते हैं?
उत्तरः
‘बीमार स्त्री इलाज के लिए जब वैद्य परमानंद के पास जाती है तो वे उसे उसका बचना मुशकिल है कहकर खूब डराते है। बाद में उससे अजीब से प्रश्न पूछते है जिसका बीमारी से संबंध ही नहीं। उसके हृदय पर चंदन का लेप लगाने के लिए कहते है। उसके हाथ में अमर भास्कर चूर्ण देकर उसे इस तरह खाने को कहते है वह सिधे पेट में न जाकर हृदय में जाए। फिर उसे पंद्रह दिन तक खाना न खाने की सलाह देते हैं।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 2.
वैद्य परमानंद गाय की बीमारी दूर करने का क्या उपाय बताते हैं?
उत्तरः
परमानंद ने किसान से कहा – तुम बीमार हो या तुम्हारी गाय, मेरे लिए एक ही बात है। लाओ, नब्ज दिखाओं। किसान बोला – जी, नब्ज मैं दिखाऊँ? परमानंद – और कौन दिखाएगा? गाय तुम्हारी बीमार है या किसी और की? नब्ज देखते हुए कहा – गाय की हालत चिंताजनक है। उसे शीघ्र चारा खिलाओ, नहीं तो मरे बिना नहीं मानेगी। उसे उसी का दूध निकालकर पिलाओ। यह अमर भास्कर चूर्ण ले जाओ, गरम पानी के साथ खा लेना। “मैं खाऊँ या गाय को खिलाऊँ?” “तुम भी खा लो, गाय को भी खिला दो। दोनों को लाभ पहुंचेगा।’

प्रश्न 3.
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग बीमार स्त्री का इलाज किस ढंग से करते हैं?
उत्तरः
जब स्त्री प्रोफेसर साहब के पास पहुँचकर बोली – बीमार हूँ प्रोफेसर साहब! मेरा हृदय धड़कता है, घबराहट बहुत रहती है, कमजोरी कैसे दूर हो सकती है?, प्रोफेसर ने कहा – आपको भ्रम हो गया है, हृदय तो मेरा भी.धड़कता है, दिल की कमजोरी है, बीमारी नहीं है। हिम्मत रखिए, आँखें मूंद लीजिए, अब आप बीहड़ जंगल में हैं, हाथियों की चिंघाड़, शेरों की दहाड़, शेर आपकी ओर बढ़ रहा है, घबराइए मत, लड़िए उससे, अब इसे घूसे से मार दीजिए। उसके दाँत तोड़ दीजिए। स्त्री आँखें खोलती है। पांडुरंग जी! मैं चलती हूँ, नमस्ते। जाइए, महसूस कीजिए कि आप लक्ष्मीबाई की तरह तलवार चलाती बढ़ रही हैं। इस प्रकार प्रोफेसर बीमार स्त्री का इलाज करते है।

प्रश्न 4.
वैद्य और प्रोफेसर के आमने-सामने आने के बाद का दृश्य प्रस्तुत कीजिए।
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानंद और प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग आमने-सामने आने के बाद एक-दूसरे पर व्यंग्य करते हैं। प्रोफेसर परमानंद को ‘यमराज का सगा भाई’ कहते हैं तो परमानंद प्रोफेसर को ‘वात-पित्त-कफ’ कहता है। प्रत्युत्तर व्यंग्य करते हुए वह कहता है कि तुम यदि किसी की नब्ज भी पकड़ लेते हो, तो उसकी जान चली जाती है। इस प्रकार आपस में हँसी-मजाक भी होती है और ताने भी दिए जाते हैं।

प्रश्न 5.
रमेश ने बेहोशी का अभिनय क्यों किया?
उत्तरः
रमेश अपने घर में बेहोश हो जाता है। उसके चिंतित पिता वैद्य परमानंद और प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग को बुला लाते है। परमानंद के अनुसार लड़के को सन्निपात है तथा प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग के अनुसार उसे स्नायुरोग है। यह सब सुनकर लड़का घबडा जाता है और चादर फेंककर उठते हुए कहता है कि वह पूरी तरह होश में है। न उसे भ्रम है और न उसे कुछ महसूस करने की जरूरत है। स्कूल में होने वाले नाटक जिसमें उसे दो घंटे बेहोशी का अभिनय करना है, वह उसीकी रिहर्सल कर रहा था।

प्रश्न 6.
वैद्य परमानंद का चरित्र-चित्रण कीजिए।
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानंद का आयु लगभग 50 वर्ष है। आँखों पर चश्मा, लम्बी दाढ़ी, झुर्सदार मूंछे हैं। परमानंद स्वयं समझते हैं कि उनके रोगी उनके पास दुबारा नहीं लौटते। हर प्रकार के रोग के लिए उनके पास एक ही दवा है और वह है ‘अमर भास्कर चूर्ण’। उन्हें इस बात की परवाह नहीं कि उनकी दवा से कोई रोगी ठीक होगा या नहीं, उन्हें तो बस सभी को खिलाना है ‘अमर भास्कर चूर्ण’। यहाँ तक कि गाय को भी वही चूर्ण खिलाने को कहते हैं।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 7.
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग का चरित्र-चित्रण कीजिए।
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग की उम्र बयालीस वर्ष है। उनकी दाढ़ी फ्रेंचकट है, मूंछे साफ, आँखों पर मोटे फ्रेम का चश्मा लगाते हैं। सूट पहनते हैं और टाई लगाते हैं। बीमारियों का इलाज करते हैं। बीमार स्त्री को आँखें बंद करके जंगल में होने का महसूस करने को कहते हैं और शेर को घूसे से मारने को कहते हैं। किसान की बीमार गाय के इलाज के लिए उसका फोटो लाने को कहते हैं।

अतिरिक्त प्रश्नः

प्रश्न 8.
प्रोफेसर पांडूरंग किसान को क्या हिदायतें देता हैं?
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग के सामने एक किसान अपनी गाय की बीमारी की समस्या लेकर आता है। तब प्रोफेसर किसान को कहते हैं- अपनी गाय का चेहरा लेकर आना। गाय का चेहरा देखे बिना मैं बीमारी का निदान नहीं कर सकता। चेहरा न ला सको तो उसका एक फोटो खिंचवाकर ही ले आना।

III. निम्नलिखित वाक्य किसने किससे कहे?

प्रश्न 1.
परहेज ही तो असली इलाज है।
उत्तरः
यह वाक्य वैद्य परमानन्द ने बीमार स्त्री से कहा।

प्रश्न 2.
तुम भी खा लेना, गाय को भी खिला देना।
उत्तरः
यह वाक्य वैद्य परमानन्द ने किसान से कहा।

प्रश्न 3.
नहीं, कई बेटे अपने बाप से भी बड़े हो जाते हैं।
उत्तरः
यह वाक्य वैद्य परमानन्द ने अध्यापक से कहा।

प्रश्न 4.
ठीक तो हो जायेगा, पर होश में नहीं आयेगा।
उत्तरः
यह वाक्य वैद्य परमानन्द ने रमेश की माँ से कहा।

प्रश्न 5.
तुझे क्या हो गया था मेरे लाड़ले।
उत्तरः
यह वाक्य माँ ने अपने पुत्र रमेश से कहा।

अतिरिक्त प्रश्नः

प्रश्न 6.
“यही तो मौत की निशानी है।”
उत्तरः
इस वाक्य को वैद्य परमानंद ने स्त्री से कहा।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 7.
“आप गिर नहीं रहे हैं। आप महसूस कीजिए कि नहीं गिर रहे हैं।”
उत्तरः
इस वाक्य को प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग ने वैद्य परमानन्द से कहा।

प्रश्न 8.
“आपको भ्रम हो गया है, आप बीमार नहीं है।”
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग बीमार स्त्री से कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 9.
“घबराइए मत। आँखें मत खोलिए, आप शेर से लडिए।”
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग बीमार स्त्री से कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 10.
“इसकी नब्ज़ बता रही है कि यह बेहोश है।”
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानन्द ने पिता से कहा।

प्रश्न 11.
“इसका चेहरा कह रहा है कि यह होश में है।”
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग ने वैद्य परमानंद से कहा।

IV. ससंदर्भ स्पष्टीकरण कीजिएः

प्रश्न 1.
मरना तो कोई नहीं चाहता, लेकिन मैंने अपने रोगियों को अक्सर मरते देखा है।
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : बीमार स्त्री जब वैद्य परमानंद के पास इलाज के लिए आती है तब स्त्री की नब्ज पकड़ते हुए परमानंद यह वाक्य कहते हैं।
स्पष्टीकरण : वैद्य परमानन्द के पास एक अधेड़ उम्र की स्त्री आती है और आकर बेंच पर बैठती है। वह बीमार है। स्त्री वैद्य परमानन्द को बतलाती है कि उसका दिल धड़कता है, नीन्द नहीं आती, आदि-आदि। यह सुनकर वैद्य जी उस स्त्री से कहते हैं कि उसका बचना मुश्किल हैं। स्त्री मरना नहीं चाहती। वैद्य से प्रार्थना करती है कि उसे बचाले। तब वैद्य परमानंद उक्त वाक्य को स्त्री से कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
हृदय का गुण ही धड़कना है।
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : प्रोफेसर पाण्डुरंग के पास बीमार स्त्री जब इलाज के लिए फिर आती है तब पाण्डुरंग कहते हैं कि उसे भ्रम हो गया है। स्त्री बतलाती है कि उसका हृदय धड़कता है।
स्पष्टीकरण : जब बीमार स्त्री ने कहा कि उसका हृदय धड़कता है तो प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग ने उससे कहा – हृदय तो मेरा भी धड़कता हैं, दुनिया में हर आदमी का धड़कता है। इसमें नयी बात क्या है? हृदय का काम ही धड़कना है। आप को दिल की कमजोरी है, बीमारी नहीं है जिसे धैर्य और कल्पना के सहारे ठीक किया जा सकता है।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 3.
मुझे डर है कि कहीं यहाँ बैठे-बैठे मेरा दिल धड़कना बंद न कर दे।
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं। – संदर्भ : प्रोफेसर के इलाज के दौरान स्त्री झटके के साथ उठकर तेजी से बाहर जाते हुए यह वाक्य कहती है।
स्पष्टीकरण : जब प्रोफेसर ने कहा – आपका दिल लोहे की तरह मजबूत हो जाएगा, तब स्त्री ने कहा – पांडुरंग जी! मुझे डर है कि कहीं यहाँ बैठे-बैठे मेरा दिल धड़कना बन्द न कर दे। मैं चलती हूँ, नमस्ते।

प्रश्न 4.
इसे भ्रम हो गया है कि यह बेहोश है।
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : माँ कहती है कि यह बेहोश है और आपको कहानियाँ सूझ रही है प्रोफेसर परमानन्द तब कहते हैं कि इसे भ्रम हुआ है कि यह बेहोश है। .
स्पष्टीकरण : जब माँ कहती है – यह बेहोश है, आपको कहानियों की सूझ रही है। प्रोफेसर ने कहा – यह बेहोश नहीं है। परमानंद ने कहा – तो क्या है? तब प्रोफेसर ने कहा – इसे भ्रम हो गया है कि यह बेहोश है। असल में यह होश में ही है।

प्रश्न 5.
सन्निपात है वैद्य परमानंद को और स्नायुरोग है प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग को।
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : जब लड़का बेहोश हो जाता है तभी दोनों आपस में एक दूसरे से कहते हैं कि इसे स्नायु रोग है तो दूसरा इसे सन्निपात रोग कहता है।
स्पष्टीकरण : जब माँ ने कहा – हाय राम! ये तो रोग पर रोग बढ़ाये जा रहे हैं, तब लड़का कहता है – सन्निपात है वैद्य परमानंद को और स्नायुरोग है प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग को। मैं पूरी तरह होश में हूँ। न मुझे भ्रम है और न कुछ महसूस करने की जरूरत।

अतिरिक्त प्रश्नः

प्रश्न 6.
“अरे, आग लगे तेरी रिहर्सल को। तू बीस-तीस मिनट और ऐसे ही रहता तो मेरी रिहर्सल हो जाती
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है। इसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : माँ अपने लड़के रमेश को डाँटते हुए कहती है।
स्पष्टीकरण : रमेश अचानक होश में आ जाता है। तब रमेश की माँ उसे अंक में भरकर पूछती है – तुझे क्या हो गया था मेरे लाडले। तब रमेश कहता है – मैं तो स्कूल में होने जा रहे नाटक में बेहोशी के अभिनय के लिए रिहर्सल कर रहा था। तब माँ गुस्से में कहती है, अरे, आग लगे तेरी रिहर्सल को। तू बीस-तीस मिनट और ऐसे ही रहता तो मेरी रिहर्सल हो जाती।

प्रश्न 7.
“कौन? वैद्य परमानंद! यमराज का सगा भाई।”
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : प्रोफेसर, अध्यापक के घर अचानक वैद्य परमानंद को देखकर कहते हैं।
स्पष्टीकरण : वैद्य परमानन्द बारह वर्षीय अचेत लड़के का ईलाज कर रहे हैं। घरवाले सभी चिन्तित है। तभी लड़के की बहन प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग को भी बुला लाती है। प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग वहाँ वैद्य को देखकर कहते हैं – कौन? वैद्य परमानंद! यमराज का सगा भाई! वे इसलिए ऐसा कहते हैं कि परमानंद के द्वारा इलाज किया गया व्यक्ति जिन्दा नहीं बचता है। वे साक्षात यमराज हैं।

प्रश्न 8.
“गाय बीमार है तो तुम किसलिए आए हो? गाय का इलाज क्या तुम्हारी शक्ल देखकर करूँ?”
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : गाय की बीमारी लेकर आये किसान को प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग यह वाक्य कहते हैं।
स्पष्टीकरण : एक किसान प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग को राम-राम करता है। तब प्रोफेसर उसकी शक्ल देखकर कहते हैं – तुम्हे किसी तरह की कोई बीमारी नहीं है। किसान कहता हैं मैं आज तक बीमार नहीं हुआ। पिछले दस दिनों से मेरी गाय बीमार है। तब प्रोफेसर कहते हैं – गाय बीमार है तो तुम किसलिए आए हो? गाय का इलाज क्या तुम्हारी शक्ल देखकर करूँ?

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 9.
“अच्छा। उसे उसी का दूध निकालकर पिलाओ।”
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : वैद्य परमानंद बीमार गाय की समस्या लेकर आए किसान से यह वाक्य कहते हैं।
स्पष्टीकरण : किसान वैद्य परमानंद जी से कहता है – वैद्य जी, मेरी गाय बीमार है। दस दिन से न चारा खाती है न दूध देती है। वैद्य जी किसान कि नब्ज देखने लगते है – गाय को शीघ्र चारा खिलाओं नहीं तो मरे बिना नहीं रह सकती। किसान कहता है उसे चारा नहीं खाने का ही . तो रोग है। तब वैद्य परमानंद कहते हैं – उसे उसी का दूध निकालकर पिलाओं।

प्रश्न 10.
“हृदय के भीतरी भाग पर चंदन का लेप कीजिए।’
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : वैद्य परमानंद दिल की बीमारी से पीड़ित स्त्री को कहते हैं।
स्पष्टीकरण : एक स्त्री वैद्य परमानंद के पास दिल की धड़कन की बीमारी बताती हैं। तब वैद्य जी उसे अजीब सलाह देते हैं। वे नब्ज देखकर कहते हैं – हृदय के भीतरी भाग पर चंदन का लेप कीजिए। स्त्री पूछती है भीतरी भाग पर? तब वे उसे अमर भास्कर का चूर्ण देते हुए कहते हैं – इसे इस तरह खाइये कि पेट में न जाकर सीधा हृदय में जाये।

V. अन्य लिंग रूप लिखिए:

प्रश्न 1.
हाथी, शेर, लड़का, गाय, पिता, अध्यापक, भगवान।
उत्तरः

  • हाथी – हथिनी
  • शेर – शेरनी
  • लड़का – लड़की
  • गाय – बैल
  • पिता – माता
  • अध्यापक – अध्यापिका
  • भगवान – भगवती।

VI. अन्य वचन रूप लिखिए:

प्रश्न 1.
दुकान, घंटा, किताब, मूंछ, मुद्रा, सपना।
उत्तरः

  • दुकान – दुकानें
  • घंटा – घंटे
  • किताब – किताबें
  • मूंछ – मूंछे
  • मुद्रा – मुद्राएँ
  • सपना – सपने।

VII. विलोम शब्द लिखिए:

प्रश्न 1.
बेहोश, मोटा, मौत, शीघ्र, छोटा।
उत्तरः

  • बेहोश × होश
  • मोटा × पतला
  • मौत × बेमौत (जिंदगी)
  • शीघ्र × विलम्ब
  • छोटा × बड़ा।

रिहर्सल लेखक परिचयः

हिन्दी साहित्य जगत के प्रसिद्ध हास्य-व्यग्य रचनाकार ओमप्रकाश ‘आदित्य’ का जन्म ‘ 5 नवंबर 1936 को रणसीका, गुड़गाँव (हरियाणा) में हुआ। आपने दिल्ली विश्वविद्यालय से एम.ए. (हिन्दी) की उपाधि प्राप्त की। गंभीर कविताओं से प्रारंभ करके हास्य-व्यंग्य के क्षेत्र में अवतरित होनेवाले ‘आदित्य’ जी ने आज कवि के रूप में हिन्दी मंच को और निबंधकार के रूप में पाठक वर्ग को पूरी तरह जकड़ लिया है। हास्य-एकांकी लेखन के क्षेत्र में भी आपने अपने जौहर दिखाए हैं। आपकी मृत्यु 8 जून 2009 को भोपाल के नजदीक कार दुर्घटना में हुई।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रमुख कृतियाँ: ‘थर्ड डिवीज़न’, ‘इधर भी गधे हैं, उधर भी गधे हैं’, ‘तोता एंड मैना’, ‘उल्लू का इंटरव्यू’, ‘माडर्न शादी’, ‘घट-घट व्यापी भ्रष्टाचार’, ‘गौरी बैठी छत पर’ आदि सम्मिलित हैं। प्रस्तुत एकांकी ‘श्रेष्ट हास्य-व्यंग्य एकांकी – काका हाथरसी’ डा. गिरिराज शरण अग्रवाल से संकलित की गई है। इस एकांकी में वैद्य परमानन्द तथा प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग अनोखे ढंग से मरीजों का इलाज करते हैं। रमेश के बेहोशी के अभिनय ने एकांकी को न सिर्फ हास्य-व्यंग्य से सराबोर किया है बल्कि वैद्य और प्रोफेसर की सच्चाई को भी भलीभाँति उजागर किया है।

रिहर्सल Summary in Hindi

पात्रवर्गः

  1. एक बीमार स्त्री
  2. वैद्य परमानन्द
  3. किसान
  4. अध्यापक
  5. प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग
  6. एक बालक (रमेश)
  7. बालक के पिता, माता आदि।

श्री ओमप्रकाश ‘आदित्य’ हिन्दी में एक सफल एकांकीकार हैं। इन्होंने ‘रिहर्सल’ एकांकी में दो वैद्यों के अशास्त्रीय चिकित्सा-विधान का मजाक उड़ाया है। लेखक ने अपने हास्य-चातुर्य से वातावरण को आल्हादकारी बनाया है। लेखक का संकेत है कि ऐसे अयोग्य वैद्यों से दूर रहना चाहिए।

परमानंद एक आयुर्वेद वैद्य हैं। वे हर रोग की रामबाण औषधि ‘अमर भास्कर चूर्ण’ मानते हैं। हर किसी रोगी को, हर किसी बीमारी के लिए परमानंद उन्हें यही दवा देते हैं। एक बार एक किसान अपनी गाय लेकर वैद्य परमानंद के पास आया। तुरंत वैद्य ने ‘अमर भास्कर चूर्ण’ उसके हाथ में रख दिया। किसान ने चकित होकर कहा कि वैद्यजी! बीमारी मुझे नहीं, मेरी गाय को है। तब वैद्यजी ने तड़ाक से जवाब दिया कि बीमारी उसे है या उसकी गाय को, कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ता। यही दवा गाय को पिलाओ। गाय ठीक हो जाएगी। किसान अवाक् रह गया।

प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग अजीब, ढंग के वैद्य हैं। जब कोई मरीज उसके पास आता है, वह रोगी से कई उलटे-सीधे सवाल करके उसकी जान खाता है। मरीज की शिकायत सुने बिना प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग दवा देता है। एक बीमार स्त्री दिल की धड़कन की शिकायत लेकर प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग के पास आई।

प्रोफेसर ने उससे कहा कि दिल की धड़कन तो होगी है। वह तो उसका गुण धर्म है। आँधी-तूफान में, शेर-बाघ के सामने उसे धैर्य से खड़े होना चाहिए। यह दिल कुछ नहीं कर सकता। हर स्त्री को दिलेर बनने की सलाह देता है। वह स्त्री अपना सिर पीटते हुए चली जाती है।

रमेश नामक बारह साल का लड़का बेहोश हो गया था। वैद्य परमानंद उस लड़के की जाँच करने उसके घर आता है। वह लड़के की जाँच करके ऊट-पटांग बातें करने लगता है। इतने में लड़के की बहन प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग को बुला लाती है। दोनों वैद्य आपस में छींटाकशी करने लगते हैं। आपस में वे दोनों झगड़ने लगते हैं। इधर लड़के के माँ-बाप परेशान होते हैं। मगर वैद्यों का झगड़ा खत्म नहीं होता। इतने में बेहोश लड़का उठ बैठता है। यह देखकर सब लोग दंग रह जाते हैं। तब लड़का रमेश कहता है कि अगले दिन स्कूल के वार्षिकोत्सव नाटक में बेहोशी का अभिनय करना था। ‘रिहर्सल’ के तौर पर उसने बेहोश होने का नाटक किया।

KSEEB Solutions

यह सुनकर वैद्य परमानंद जी सचमुच बेहोश होने लगते हैं और प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग उसे उठाने लगते है|

रिहर्सल Summary in Kannada

रिहर्सल Summary in Kannada 1
रिहर्सल Summary in Kannada 2
रिहर्सल Summary in Kannada 3
रिहर्सल Summary in Kannada 4

रिहर्सल Summary in English

Characters:

  1. A sick woman
  2. Doctor Paramanand
  3. Farmer
  4. Teacher
  5. Professor Pandurang
  6. A boy (Ramesh)
  7. The boy’s parents

Shri Omprakash ‘Aditya’ is a successful Hindi playwright. This play, ‘Rehearsal is a satire on the unscientific medical practices of two doctors. With his brilliant comic timing, the playwright has created an atmosphere of chivalry and light humour. The play gives us the message that we must be wary of such untrained or unskilled doctors.

Paramanand is an ayurvedic doctor. He considers ‘Amar Bhaskar Churna’ to be the miraculous remedy for every disease. Whatever be the disease and whoever be the patient, Paramanand would always recommend the same medicine to everyone. Once a farmer came to Paramanand with his sick cow. Immediately, Paramanand put ‘Amar Bhaskar Churna’ in the farmer’s hand. The farmer was taken aback and he told Paramanand that he was not the one who was ill, but it was rather his cow that was ill. Paramanand replied immediately that it did not matter whether the illness plagued the farmer or his cow. He told the farmer to give the medicine to the cow, and that the cow would get well. The farmer was left speechless.

Professor Pandurang is a strange kind of doctor. Whenever a patient visits him, he asks ridiculous questions and harasses his patients. He prescribes medicines without listening to the complaints of the patient. Once, a woman patient visited Professor Pandurang with a complaint. about her heartbeat. Professor Pandurang told the woman that the heart would always beat – it was the heart’s basic characteristic. According to him, during a storm, or when confronted by a lion or tiger, the heart should stand its ground with courage. He told her that the heart cannot do anything as such and he advised her that all women must try to be courageous. The woman left, beating her own forehead for visiting such a doctor.

KSEEB Solutions

Once, a twelve-year-old boy, Ramesh, fainted. Doctor Paramanand arrived at the boy’s house in order to check up on the boy. Just then, the boy’s sister arrived, having brought along Professor Pandurang to treat her brother. Both the doctors then began to bicker between themselves. Soon, they began to argue about the disease the boy was suffering from. The boy’s parents began to get worried. But, the doctors did not stop fighting. Just then, the boy, Ramesh, got up. This surprised everyone and they were all stunned. Then, Ramesh explained that he had to enact a fainting scene in the Annual school play which was to be held the following day. He explained that he wanted to rehearse, and therefore he acted as he had fainted.
Hearing this,Vaidya Paramanand fainted. Professor Pandurang tried to wake him up.

कठिन शब्दार्थः

  • नब्ज – नाड़ी, रक्त वाहिनी शिराएँ;
  • परहेज – हानिकारक एवं अहितकर वस्तुओं का सेवन न करना;
  • बीहड़ – विषम, घना, ऊबड़-खाबड़;
  • पैताने – वह दिशा जिधर पैर फैलाकर सोया जाए;
  • अंक में भरना – गले लगाना, लिपटाना।

2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 3 Human Economic Activities

You can Download Chapter 3 Human Economic Activities Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 3 Human Economic Activities

2nd PUC Geography Human Economic Activities One Mark Questions with Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each:

Question 1.
What do you mean by Economic Activities?
Answer:
The activities pursued by Human beings perform to satisfy their needs of food, clothing, shelter and other are known are ‘Economic Activities’.

Question 2.
What are Primary Activities?
Answer:
Primary Activities such as food gathering, hunting, lumbering, animal rearing, fishing, agriculture & mining etc.

Question 3.
What are Secondary Activities?
Answer:
The activities of the man which converts the raw materials into finished goods. All industrial activities are secondary activities.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
What is Lumbering?
Answer:
Lumbering is an art of Gathering forest products for livelihood by Man.

Question 5.
What is Hunting?
Answer:
Hunting Was the practice of killing wild animal for Food, Skin, Recreation & Trade.

Question 6.
What is Agriculture?
Answer:
Agriculture is an art of tilling the soil for the purpose of raising crops to provide food for the man & fodder for the animals.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
What is meant by Animal Rearing?
Answer:
Domestication of Animals for a specific purpose such as milk, meat, bones, skins, hair & wool is known as Animal rearing.

Question 8.
What is an Industry
Answer:
The activities which are related to manufacturing are called Industry.

Question 9.
What is Minning?
Answer:
Minning refers to the Extraction of the minerals from the Earth such as Iron ore, Manganese, Gold, Coal, Diamond and Petroleum.

Question 10.
What are the tertiary occupations?
Answer::
It includes all kinds of services, retail, entertainment, banking, education, healthcare, transportation & communication.

Question 11.
What is Fishing.
Answer:
The term fishing refers to the large scale catching of fishes, crabs, sharks etc in the seas and rivers.

Question 12.
What is Jhumming or Shifting Cultivation?
Answer:
Changing of agricultural regions again & again due less soil fertility is known as Jhumming or Shifting cultivation.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
What is meaning of Sedentary forming.
Answer:
Growing of crops in a given region permanently without changing the place with the help of family members and by using domestic animals.

Question 14.
Mention the name of shifting cultivation in Central America and Mexico.
Answer:
Milpa.

Question 15.
Write the name of shifting cultivation in Indonesia and Malaysia.
Answer:
Ladang.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 16.
What are Agro based industries?
Answer:
The group of industries which are depending on Agriculture for the raw material purposes for ex: Cotton, Jute & Sugarcane industries etc.

Question 17.
What are Forest based Industries?
Answer:
The group of industries which are depending on Forest for the raw material purpose For ex: Paper, Rubber industries etc.

Question 18.
What are’Mineral based industries?
Answer:
The group of industries which are depends on mineral for ores can be called as Mineral based industries for ex: Iron ore, Bauxite etc.

2nd PUC Geography Human Economic Activities Two Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Differentiate between Secondary and Tertiary Activities?
Answer:
The processing and conversion of raw materials into useful products are concidard as Secondary activities.
Where as Tertiary sector is basically the part of the Economy that helps both the sectors of Primary and Secondary it includes all kinds of services.

Question 2.
Mention the different technique of Mining?
Answer:
The different technique of Mining are:

  • Open Cast mining
  • Underground mining
  • Shaft mining.

Question 3.
Bring out the importance of Secondary occupation? ,
Answer:
The importance of Secondary occupation are:

  • (a) They provide employment to the people.
    (b) They help to modernize the Agricultural sector by providing Tractors, Fertilises, Manures
  • and Scientific Technology.

Question 4.
What are the different types of Fishing?
Answer:
The different types of Fishing are:
(a) Fresh water fishing (b) Coastal fishing and
(c) Open sea fishing.

Question 5.
Why lumburing has developed in cold temperate regions of the world?
Answer:
Coniferous forest region is ideal for the gathering forest products for livelihood by man. Which is found in cold temperate region. So it encrages largely on this part of the World.

Question 6.
Write a short note on Food Gathering.
Answer:
Gathering of products from nature to fulfill their basic needs like food, clothing and shelter. In some parts of the world, the people lead a simple life depanding upon the nature for thier livelihood like collect the wild fruits roots, nuts, leaves for the food, bark of trees, leaves and grass for clothing, branches of trees, bamboo, leaves for making their homes for example few nomadic tribes in the world.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
What are the basic requirements of the human being.
Answer:
(a) food
(b) clothing
(c) shelter and
(d) others.

Question 8.
Mention the factors which influences the Economic activities of the man.
Answer:
(a) Geographical factors.
(b) Economic factors.
(c) Socio-cultural factors etc.

Question 9.
Name any four important Hunting region of the world.
Answer:
(a) The Indians of Amazon Basin
(b) The Pigmies of the Congo basin (Zaire)
(c) The semangs of Malaysia &
(d) The Bushman of Kalahari desert.

Question 10.
Write the four important reasons configerous forestes is mpst suitable for the Lumbering activities.
Answer:
(a) Single variety of trees are distributed in a large area.
(b) Wood is utilized for the manufacturing of Wood pulp, Paper and building materials.
(c) Modem scientific technology has help in cutting the trees easily.
(d) Adequate transport facilities are available.

Question 11.
What are uses of Animal rearing.
Answer:
(a) Source of employment for the formers.
(b) Source of income for the former & revenue to the Government.
(c) For animal products like milk, meat, bones, skins, hair and wool etc.
(d) Source of natural manure for the agriculture.

2nd PUC Geography Human Economic Activities Five Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Explain animal rearings in the world? ‘
Answer:
Domestication of animals for the purpose of animal products like milk, meat, bones, hair & wool is known as animal rearing.

Regions of animal rearing in the world :
Animal rearing is carried on two methods

  1. Traditional methods
  2. Modem method.

1. Traditional methods:
(a) Under this method the Fulani of Nigeria and the Masai of East Africa are the cattle herders in the tropical grasslands. Where the grass is short sheep and goats are reared. The animals provides milk, meat & wool to the Masai people.
(b) The Bedouins of Sahara migrate with their cattle and goat in search of pasture. The Kirghiz of Central Asia in the past, had large flocks of sheep. Now it reduced because they are leading a settled life.

2. Modern method:

  • Commercial grazing use scientific methods rearing animals which doesnot depend entirely on natural Grasslands. Fodder crops like com & grasses like alfalfa are cultivated over extensive areas and the animals are fed.
  • It is practiced in temperate grass lands namely, Praires of North America, Pampas of South America, steppers of Asia, downs of Australia. In USA and Argentina beef cattle are reared on large scale.

Question 2.
Explain Agriculture in detail.
Answer:
Agriculture is an art of tilling the soil for the purpose of raising the crops to provide food for
the man and fodder for the animal.

Methods of Agriculture:

  • Subsistence farming: Through people needed a regular supply of food they started growing of crops only to fulfill their family not for the sale.
  • Shifting cultivation: The tribal people move from one place to another clearing the forests for growing crops. When soil fertility’ is exhausted new patches of forest land is cleared again for the Cultivation. It is called shifting cultivation or jhumming.
  • Sedentary farming: Growing of crops in same region again and again by using domestic animals for Ploughing, Manures, Chemical fertilizers etc. there was no need to migrate.
  • Commercial farming: Growing of crops with Scientific technology. Plantation agriculture was introduced with huge investments.

Percentage of people involved in agriculture is declining. It is only 4% in UK. It is 60% in India, 80% Kenya. Agriculture is mechanized in the developed countries.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
What is Mining? Explain the types, advantages and disadvantages of mining.
Answer:
Mining refers to the extraction of the minerals from the earth such as Iron ore, Manganese, Gold, Coal, Diamond and Petroleum. ‘

Types of the Mining:

  1. Open cast mining: Extracting the mineral ore is by removing the soil for example: Coal &„ Iron ore.
  2. Under ground mining: The method of extracting mineral ore’s from the greater depth through drilling and pumping for example: Petroleum & Natural gas.
  3. Shaft mining: It is a method obtain minerals that are located at greater depth for example: Coal, lead, Iron ore etc.

Advantages:

  • It’s the source of employment.
  • Which supplies valuable minerals ore’s to the mankind.
  • It provides raw materials to the mineral based industries.
  • It develops secondary and tertiary activities of the human beings.

Disadvantages:

  • Depletion of the environment for ex: iron ore mining in Bellary has creates environmental degradation in Karnataka.
  • Minerals are exhaustible in its nature.
  • Water resource are affected and polluted.
  • Both flora and fauna are affected by mining.

Question 4.
Explain Fishing in detail.
Answer:
The term fishing refers to the catching of fishes, crabs, sharks and collection of sea-shells from, the seas and freshwater.

Types of Ashing:
Based on fishing grounds, fishing has been divided into 3 categories:

  1. Fresh water Ashing: Carried out in ponds, tanks, rivers and lakes (mainly Inland)
  2. Coastal fishing: Carried out along the sea coast.
  3. Open sea Ashing: Carried out in open the sea coast on a large scale.

The developing countries are following primitive methods like Bows, Arrows, Bare-Hands, Small nets or Small Boats. Whereas in the developed countries of the world modem techniques of catching fish are used modem fishing vessels, open sea fishing day and night. The large ships as floating factories that completes the process of catching and packing into tins. Fishing has developed in Japan, USA, Baltic states, UK and Norway on a commercial scale.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Differentiate between tertiary and quaternary activities.
Answer:
Tertiary activities:

  • Tertiary services occur at different stages some are confined to industry, some to people & few to both industry and people.
  • Transport services are also provided to the individual consumers.
  • Different services rendered by the teachers, musicians, physicians and lawyers.

In developed countries of world about 75% of people are engaged in services compared to the developing countries. The trend of employment in the tertiary sector is increasing.

Quaternary activities:

  • It refers to the economic activities that deals with the handling and processing of knowledge and information like software, sports, recrations etc.
  • The quaternary occupation along with the tertiary occupations have replaced most of the Primary and Secondary employment for the economic growth of a nation.
  • They are not tied to resources, but localized by market.

Question 6.
Explain the Secondary occupations?
Answer:
Industries are concerned with processing and conversion of raw metrials into finished goods these are called as Secondary occupations.

  • The manufacturing industries play an important role in the Economic Development of a country.
  • Advancement of modem technology, huge capital, skilled labour etc these are created employment opportunities and improved the standard of the people.
  • They helps in earning good foreign exchange in the developed countries like Western, Europe, Russia, USA and Japan more people engaged in secondary than the primary occupations.

Importance of Secondary occupation:

  • They provide employment to the people.
  • They help to modernize the agriculture sector by providing tractor, tillers, fertilizers, manures and scientific technology.
  • They reduces the pressure on agriculture sector by employing more labour in Industries.
  • The industrial hubs can develop trade, education, transport and communication, banking etc.

Question 7.
What is the meaning of Hunting? Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Hunting.
Answer:
It is the practice of killing the wild animal for food, skin, recreation and trade.

Advantages of the Hunting:

  • For food: Animals like deer, duck, squirrels etc were hunted for the sake of food.
  • Hunting also provides clothing and shelter to the tribal people. ‘
  • Fur and hide were used to make clothes.

Disadvantages:

  •  We are hunting the entire animal community for ex: Wolves whales, Tigers Lions are decreasing in its number because we are killing them to the maximum extent.
  • Hunting of marine life (aquatic animals and plants) is leading to the imbalance of oxygen in seas, oceans etc.
  • This creates ecological imbalance it results of environmental pollutions etc.

Question 8.
Explain the classification of the Industries.
Answer:
The industrial sector has been classified into following groups based on the source of raw materials.

  1. Agro based Industries.
  2. Forest based Industries.
  3. Mineral based Industries.

1. Agro based Industries: The group of industries which are depending on agriculture for the raw materials for ex: Cotton for cotten textile Industries, Jute for Jute industries, Sugarcane for Sugar industry & Sericulture for silk Industry.

2. Forest based Industries: The group of industries which are depending on forest for the raw materials for ex: Bamboo for Paper industry, Rubber for Rubber industry etc.

3. Mineral based Industries: The group of Industries which are depending on minerals for ores for ex: Iron ore for Iron and steel industry, Bauxite for Aluminium Industry.

Thus secondary occupation are concerned with manufacturing and constructions therefore primary and secondary economic activities are interdependant & co-related.

KSEEB Solutions

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