1st PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 3 with Answers

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Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 3 with Answers

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following in one sentences each: ( 1 × 10 = 10 )

Question 1.
What are the two parts of sociology according to August Comte?
Answer:

  1. Social Statics
  2. Social Dynamic.

Question 2.
Write any one concept introduced by M.N. Sinivas.
Answer:
Analyzing the process of social change in India He introduced the concept of “Sanskritisation”, “Westernization” and “Dominate Caste”.

Question 3.
What is social groups?
Answer:
According to Marshall Jones opinion that a social group is two or more people between whom there is an established patter of interaction”.

Question 4.
What is law?
Answer:
According to J.S. Roucek “Laws are a farm of social rule emanating from political agencies”.

Question 5.
Mention any one form of Co-operation.
Answer:
Direct co-operation and Indirect Co-operation.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
What is assimilation?
Answer:
Assimilation is one of the types of interaction.

Question 7.
What is Electra complex?
Answer:
If a girl develops the “Electra complex” that is a feeling of Jealous towards her another and love towards her father.

Question 8.
Give a definition of family.
Answer:
According to Eliot and Merrill family is the biolgical social unit composed of husband, wife and childeren.

Question 9.
What is a Questionnaire?
Answer:
According to Goods and Hatt: “questionnaire as a device for securing answers to question using a form which the respondent fills in himself’.

Question 10.
Who introduced the concept of social control?
Answer:
E.A. Rorss introduced the concept of social control.

II. Answer any ten of the following in two sentences each: ( 2 × 10 = 20 )

Question 11.
Name the two books of August Comte.
Answer:
Positive Philosophy, Positive Polity.

Question 12.
Which are the concepts in introduced by M. N. Srinivasa?
Answer:
Sanskritization and Westernization.

Question 13.
Define social groups.
Answer:
According to Marshall Jones opinion that a social group is two or more people between whom there is an established patter of interaction”.

Question 14.
What is social processes?
Answer:
Social interaction is the foundation of society. It is the very essential of social life.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Write any two Indian sociologists.
Answer:

  1. De. G. S. Ghurye
  2. Dr. M. N. Srinivas
  3. Dr. Iravati Karve.
  4. A. R. Desai

Question 16.
What do you mean by principles of likeness?
Answer:
The principle of ‘Likeness” is essential for society it exists among the people have similarities with regards to their needs, works, aims, ideals, values and so on.

Question 17.
What is urban community?
Answer:
Urban community consist of people living in towns and cities and depending mainly on non- agricultural occupations. This is heterogeneous in nature, relatively bigger in size and has a dominance of non- intimate or secondary relations.

Question 18.
Explain any one distinctive feature of family.
Answer:
The features of family are:

  1. Family is a universal
  2. Biological basis of the family
  3. Limited size
  4. Functions of family.

Question 19.
State two merits of questionnaire.
Answer:

  1. It is economical and covers large number of people spread over a large area.
  2. It is time saving because a large extent of respondents can be reached through mailed questionnaire.

Question 20.
What is Acid rain?
Answer:
Factories and vesicles excrete sulphuric, nitrogen oxide. These remain the environment for long time. By chemical and photochemical reactions, sulphuric acid and nitric acid are formed and combines with water vapors in the environment. This is called ‘Acid Rain’.

Question 21.
State two types of observation.
Answer:
The types of questionnaire are:

  • Structured: in this form of interview, there are definite, concrete and predetmined questions are framed.
  • Unstructured: it includes a set of questions which are not structured in advances and which may be adjusted according to need during the question period.

Question 22.
Explain any one feature of culture.
Answer:
State any features of Culture:

  1. Culture is learnt
  2. Culture is social
  3. Culture is shared
  4. Culture is Pransmissive

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III. Answer any four questions in fifteen sentences each: ( 5 × 4 = 20 )

Question 23.
What is society? Explain?
Answer:
The term society is the most fundamental Concept in sociology. Society is established as a separate science to study human society scientifically. Human life and society are two faces of the same coin. Man cannot live alone. He lives everywhere in groups in society. Society has became an essential condition for all round development of personality. Hence “Aristotle” recognized that “Man is a social animal” man has created his own society because of his intellectual capacity. Sociology only deals with human society.

In simple term, society is very loosely used in their daily life, examples – the agricultural society, women’s society, rural society, the weaver’s society, Cooperative Society, etc, But in sociology the term society has a specific meaning.
The term Society is derived from Latin word ‘ Socius’ which means “companionship or friendship’ According to Maclver and page: “Society is “the web of social relationships”.

Question 24.
Explain the characteristics of accommodation?
Answer:
According to Ogbum and Nimkoff: “Accommodation is a term used by the sociologists to describe the adjustment of hostile individuals or groups”.
Maclver says that “the term Accommodation refers particularly to the process in which man attains a sense of harmony with his environment.

Characteristics of Accommodation:

1. Accommodation is the natural result of Conflict: Since conflicts cannot take place continuously they involved in conflict do not relish the sense of conflict they sit down for it settlement. Such settlements temporary or permanent may be called “Accommodation” . in the absence of conflict the question of arriving at accommodation does not arise.

2. Accommodation may be a conscious or an unconscious: Man’s adjustment with the social environment is mostly unconscious. From birth to death man to be behave in conformity with the normative order. The new born individual leams to accommodate himself with the social order which is dedicated by various norms such as customs, morals, traditions etc. Thus, unconsciously the new born individual accommodation himself with his family, caste or race, neighborhood. Life is full of such unconscious accommodative activities.

3. Accommodation is Universal: Accommodation as a ‘condition’ and as a ‘process’ is universal. Human society is composed to antagonistic elements and hence conflicts are inevitable. Since no society becomes necessary. Thus accommodation is found in all societies and in all fields of social life.

4. Accommodation is continuous: The process of accommodation is not confined to any particular stage in the life of an individual It is not limited to any fixed social situation also. On the contrary, throughout the life one has to accommodate oneself with various situations, further, as and when conflicts take place sooner or later accommodation would follow not only the individuals but also the groups within the society are obliged to accommodate among themselves.

5. The effects of accommodation may vary with the circumstances: It may act to reduce the conflict between persons or groups as an initial step towards assimilation. It may serve to postpone outright conflict for a specific period of time, as in a treaty between nations or labor.

Management agreement. It may permit groups marked by sharp social-psychological distance to get along together. It may prove to be beneficial for the parties involved in it. Sometimes it may help the superior or more powerful party to party to impose it on the weaker party.

Question 25.
Discuss the family as an agent of socialization.
Answer:
The family: Family is the first agency of socialization of the child. Physical nearness, close relationship, passiveness of the child, authority of parents over the child, etc., all have greater influence in moulding the personality Of the child.

In family, parental influence, particularly of the mother, is very great. From the parents the child leams language. It is taught number of civic virtues. The child gets his first lessons in cooperation, tolerance self-sacrifice, love and affection, etc., in the family.

The earliest and the closet ties of an individual are with his parents and siblings. There have authority over the child. Possessiveness of the child and its emotional attachment with parents and siblings make socialization an easy and smooth process. Cultural heritage is passed from one generation to the other in family.

Question 26.
Define Religion.
Answer:
Religion: Religion is an individual as well as group phenomenon. It consists a body of believes, a set of practices, a range of moral prescriptions .covers the entire spear of human life from birth to death. It helps in spelling out the goals of life and for their realization, exercise powerful influence on the processes of socialization and social control, the sociology of religion studies the social contexts of religion; and the role of religion in shaping and reshaping the social order.

According to Durkheim in his book The elementary forms of Religious life defines Religion as a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things that is to say, things set apart and forbidden”

James G: Frazer considered Religion as a belief in power superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and Human life.

Singer: in his book “Religion, Society, and the Individual” Religion, involves a group of people and a shared system of believers and practices. Every religion emphasizes the need for collective worship, festival and rituals are occasions which bring people together.

Durkheim a pioneering sociologist equates god with society, so much so that when you worship God you are worshipping your own society. According to Durkheim God is a human creation and a social at that god is, in fact, born in the collective experience of coming together, leading to rituals.

Question 27.
Discuss the sources of secondary data.
Answer:
Secondary data is collected by the researcher from different documents. According to Roberta on and Wright, Secondary data are those already recorded for some other purpose but used in research project “it includes personal documents, public documents, books periodicals, abstracts, bibliographies and indexes, office Statistics, year Book, Encyclopedia, Directories and others.

Question 28.
What is primary data? Discuss its sources of data?
Answer:
Primary Data is the information related to research collected by the researcher for the first time. This data is drawn from field study or from laborites. According for the specific purpose of solving a particular research problem”.

Primary data is original data collected by the researcher from field study. Primary or secondary data are collected through various tools or means. The major sources of primary data are: Observation., Interview; Questionnaire, Schedule and Social Survey.

IV. Answer any four questions in fifteen sentences each: ( 5 × 4 = 20 )

Question 29.
Explain the characteristics of law.
Answer:
Law is the most powerful formal means of social control in the modern society. It is an indispensable part of the modern social life. Laws appear only in societies where a political organization called “Government” is found. According to J.S. Roucek “Laws are a farm of social rule emanating from political agencies”

Characteristics:

  • Laws are the general condition of human activity prescribed by the state for its members.
  • Law is called law, only if enacted by a proper law making authority. Hence it is a product of conscious thought deliberate attempts and careful planning.
  • Law is written definite, clear, precise and unambiguous.
  • Law applies equally to all without exception in identical circumstances.
  • Violation of law is followed by penalties and punishments determined by the authority of – the state.
  • Laws are always written down and recorded.
  • Laws are not the result of voluntary consent of persons against whom they are directed.
  • Laws a dynamic and subject to change. Law is not a static body of rules handed down from generation to generation. Rather, it reflects continually changing standards of what is right and wrong of how violations are to be determined, and of what sanctions are to be applied.
  • Laws differ from country to country. Though the outward pattern of the legal system to be same every where the content of laws often differ significantly.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 30.
Explain any two features of culture.
Answer:
According to Malinowski: “culture is the handiwork of man and the medium through which he achieves his ends”
Characteristics of culture are:

1. Culture is learntm: Culture is often understood as learned ways of behaviors. Culture is not an inborn tendency. It is acquired or learnt. It includes those learned patterns for thinking, feeling and acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next. Therefore what is learned through socialization and are acquired in group life are what is called culture.

2. Culture is Social: Culture is not the property of any individual. It is the social heritage of man. It is a way of group life. It originates in and develops through social interaction. It consists of a number of behavior patterns that are common to a group of people. It is the inclusive of all expectation of the members of the groups. Thus culture is a social products shared by most of the members of the group.

3. Culture is Shared: Culture is a social property. It belongs to the group. The elements of culture such as customs beliefs, idea, folkways, mores, and language are all belonged to the people of a group. These are commonly shared by the members of a group. So culture is the product of groups life. Culture cannot be hidden and used by one individual. According to Robert Bierstadt. “Culture is something adopted, used believed, practiced or possessed by more than one person”.

4. Culture is Transmissive: Culture is the total social heritage. It is linked with the past. The past continues because it lives in culture. Culture is something that can be transmitted from one generation to the next. Culture is passed through language. Language is the chief vehicles of culture. Culture is also passed from one generation to another through traditions and customs. It is a product of human experience.

Question 31.
Explain the role of cultural factors in Social change.
Answer:
Cultural factor
Man is a social human being. Also man is a cultural being, the term society itself express that it is a cultural phenomenon. Without culture it is difficult to understand social life.

Mainly three Process can be observed which bring change:

  • Discovery: discovery is the perception which unfold a reality that already exists, for eg. Vasco- D-Gama discovered way to India by sea.
  • Invention: invention is use of existing knowledge to produce something that did not exist before
  • Diffusion: diffusion is the spread of cultural elements from one culture to another. For egg. Western culture is spreading in east. Buddhism and its culture spread in China and SriLanka.

Question 32.
Discuss the peer group as an agent of socialization.
Answer:
The next most important agency of socialization is the peer group. The peer group consists of his age mates, payments, status mates, those who form the inner circle of friends, class mates, workmates etc., who share almost the status with the child. They serve an important function in defining appropriate behavior, acquiring appropriate roles, setting standards of conduct, arriving at a level of personal independence and inculcating goals.

The child acquires something from his friends and playmates which he cannot acquires cooperative morality and some of – the informal aspects of culture like fashions, fads, crazes, modes of gratification etc. the peer group also provides opportunities to explore tabooed topics. For instance, most of the sex knowledge in early stage, rightly or wrongly, comes from one’s peer group.

Question 33.
Describe the importance of Observation method in data collection.
Answer:
The importance of Observation method in data collection are:

  • It is possible to observe the natural behavior of the group because the observer is not stranger.
  • It is possible to gather quantitatively more and quantitatively better information.
  • It is possible to get better insights into the phenomena because the observer is an insider.
  • It is possible to observe secrete behavior.
  • It is possible to retain a high level of objectivity.
  • A non-participant observer is able to collect considerable information because of his open role as an observer and his eagerness to learn
  • It is possible to record behavior as it occurs, without any distortions. This gives highly qualitative data.
  • Observation is a flexible method of data collection
  • It is independent of people’s willingness to report.

Question 34.
Write a note on types of pollution.
Answer:
The types of environment pollution are: –
Air Pollution: Air pollution is caused by unwanted and rejected things in the atmosphere around us. According to Oxford dictionary air pollution means “The compounds that get mixed with the atmosphere causes dangerous effects on useful plants, animals and human begins.

Water Pollution: Water is essential for all living things 2/3 portion on the earth is covered by water, 97.2% of water on earth is mixed with solids and rest 2.8% only is left for drinking purpose. Water pollution occurs in three different forms.

  • Inland pollution.
  • Underground pollution
  • Sea pollution.

Noise Pollution: Intolerable sound is considered as sound pollution, because intense sound result in physical and mental stress and also irritation. Sound pollution is also result due to  various activities of human begins. Intensity of sound is measured in decibels while talking usual intensity of sound is 60 decibels.

Soil Pollution: The upper most layer of the earth is consisted of “soil” this soil layer is formed by the natural processes from millions of years. This layer supplies the necessary nutrients essential for the growth of the plants^ The soil which feeds the plants is the reason for the existence of all biological system.

The decrease in the quality of the soil and changes in it due to various activities of the humans is called as soil pollution. Soil pollution lessens the productivity nature of the soil and destroys the living begins in it and also its rejuvinable process.

KSEEB Solutions

V. Answer any two of the following in twenty-five sentences each: ( 10 × 2 = 20 )

Question 35.
What is society? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
The term society is the most fundamental concept in sociology. Sociology is established as a separate science to study human society scientifically. Human life and society are two faces of the same coin. Man cannot live alone. He everywhere in groups in society, society has became an essential condition for all round development of personality. Hence “ARISTOTLE” recognized that “man is a social animal” man has creator his own society because of his intellectual capacity. Sociology only delay with human society.

Characteristics of Society

(a) Society- The group of groups : People collets together to form groups. Such groups combine together to give rise to society, each society has family, neighbor, village, city, labor association, religious gathering, Political Parties etc, H.M.Johnson – has thus remarked that “society is the group of groups”, but it is not just like a crowd. It is a system. It is a system. It consists of innumerable groups which fulfill the various needs of the people.

(b) Society is a web of social relations: Social relation means -’’The reciprocal contact between two or more persons. Social relationships have a wide range, for example Teacher – student, parent-children, patient-doctor, husband-wife and so on. One individual enters in to several social relationships at the same time. Maclver and page- point out that “society exists only where social beings behave towards one another in ways determined by their recognisation of one another, thus society is a web of social relations.

(c) Similarity or Likeness: The principal of ‘likeness’ is essential for society. It exists among the people have similarities with regards to their needs, work, aims, ideals, values and so on. these similarities inspire the people to interact and like each other and live to gather. Hence mutual intimacy, Co-operation, love and affection, sympathy, sacrifice and feeling of oneness among people develops. Similarly the people of same nature and behavior live together in society.

(d) Differences in Society: Likeness and differences are two faces of the same coin. Therefore we see natural differences among people in their interest, ability, talent, attitude, intelligence and so on. thus we find farmers, labors. Teachers, soldiers, business, advocates, doctors, engineers and other working in different capacities, Maclver and page – Said that “primary likeness and Secondary differences are the chief features of human society.

(e) Co-operation and division of labor: Human Society is essentially based on ‘co-operation and division of labor.
Due to the feeling of Co-operation people share their joys and sorrows. The division of labor depends on peoples interest, ability, sex, and age etc. Due to division of labor in various fields task are performed more efficiently. In modem society, skilled and specialized persons have more importance, thus co-operative and division of labor are reciprocal.

(f) Interdependence: Interdependence is another characteristic of society, an individual seeks the satisfaction of his wants and the fulfillment of his goals with the co-operation of others. For example “family is a primary institution is based on interdependence of members, with the growth of civilization and industrialization the need of interdependence has increased, today not only individuals are interdependent but even communities are also interdependent.

(g) Society is Dynamic: Society keeps on changing forever. No society can ever remain constant for a long period. New associations, institutions and groups may come into being and old ones may die a natural death. Changes may take place slowly or suddenly at a rapid pace. For example-in the rural society changes may occur at a slower pace, where as in an urban society changes will occur at a faster pace.

Question 36.
Define Socialization? Explain the role of culture in socialization.
Answer:
Socialization is an important matter for society. It doesn’t occur accidently. But should be controlled through cultural directions. Social nature is very much influenced by the culture of an individual, it is a known fact that man is bom as a biological animal. He becomes social animal only through the process of socialization. Culture is the content that is length in the process of socialization. Though culture varies from society, every society has its own distinct culture.

The role of culture in socialization can be explained in the followings:

  • Culture provides the base to the socialization process is making the individual a normal social being.
  • Culture provides the guidance to the individual to control his various activities.
  • Which he learns through the process of socialization.
  • Culture assists socialization in teaching the culture qualities like morality, good behaviors, positive attitude, ideals and values.
  • Culture through the process of socialization helps the individual to decide his career.
  • Culture through the socialization also provide guidance to the individual to maintain their behavior patterns according to social situation.
  • Culture through the socialization process helps an individual to become an important contributor to society.
  • Culture through the process of socialization helps to work for social welfare and develop a positive attitude towards all.

Question 37.
What are the causes for environmental pollution?
Answer:
The word Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means all that surrounds us.

Air Pollution:Air pollution is caused by unwanted and rejected things in the atmosphere around us. According to Oxford dictionary air pollution means “The compounds that get mixed with the atmosphere causes dangerous effects on useful plants, animals and human begins

Causes for Air pollution: Man’s activities in the name of the modernization have damaged the living species. Man’s activities are also responsible for polluting air, causing dirt, dust and smoke. The Natural disasters like volcanic eruption, forest fire and bacteria also cause air pollution. Man has created industries, vehicles, atomic energy, excessive use of Petrol and other source of energy like Coal, and different types of mining also cause air pollution

Water Pollution: Water is essential for all living things 2/3 portion on the earth is covered by water, 97.2% of water on earth is mixed with solids and rest 2.8% only is left for drinking purpose. Water pollution occurs in three different forms.

  • Inland pollution.
  • Underground pollution
  • Sea pollution.

Causes for water pollution:
Water pollution is due to many factors. Factory wastes, Houses hold wastes and water from agricultural land, all these contributions to water pollution. Biological contamination like gutter water, food processing factories, skin and hide processing factories, insecticides, drugs, various chemical colours contributes to water pollution.

Noise Pollution intolerable sound is considered as sound pollution, because intense sound result in physical and mental stress and also irritation. Sound pollution is also result due to various activities of human begins. Intensity of sound is measured in decibels while talking usual intensity of sound is 60 decibels.

Soil Pollution :The upper most layer of the earth is consisted of “soil” This soil layer is formed by the natural processes from millions of years. This layer supplies the necessary nutrients essential for the growth of the plants. The soil which feeds the plants is the reason for the existence of all biological system.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 38.
Discuss the sources of data.
Answer:
In the process of conducting research, data collection is important stage. In general, collecting information related to the problem under research is called data collection. According to William Scott “information collected from observation or measurement from which attemptis made to develop generation or conclusion is called “Data are divided into two types: 1. Primary and 2. Secondary Data.

Primary Data is the information related to research collected by the researcher for the first time. This data is drawn from field study or from laborities. According for the specific purpose of solving a particular research problem”.

Primary data is original data collected by the researcher from field study. Primary or secondary data are collected through various tools or means. The major sources of primary data are :Observation., Interview, Questionnaire, Schedule and Social Survey.

Secondary data is collected by the researcher from different documents. According to Roberta on and Wright, “ Secondary data are those already recorded for some other purpose but used in research project “It includes Personal Documents, Public Documents, Books Periodicals, Abstracts, Bibliographies and Indexes, Office Statistics, Year Book, Encyclopedia, Directories and others.

VI. Answer any two of the following in fifteen sentences each: ( 5 × 2 = 10 )

Question 39.
What is mores? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
According to Maclver and Page “When the folkways have added to them conceptions of groups welfare, standards of right and wrong they are converted into mores”.

Characteristics of Mores are:

1. More are the regulators of social life: Mores represent the living character of the group or community. They are always considered right by the people who share them.
They are morally right and their violation morally wrong. Hence they are more compulsive
in nature. They put restrictions on our behavior.

2. Mores are relatively more persistent: More are relatively long lasting than ordinary folkways. In fact, they even become conservative elements in society. They also put up resistance to change.

3. Mores vary from group to group or time to time: What is prescribed in one group is prohibited in another Eskimos for example: often practice female infanticide, whereas such a practice is strictly forbidden in the modern societies. Mores not only differ with culture but also with time. What is right at one time may be wrong at another and vice versa. Ex; the practice of “Salt” was “moral” then, but today it is illegal and immoral.

4. Mores are often backed by values and religion: More normally receive the sanction and backing of values and religion. When this occurs they become still more powerful and binding. Mores backed by religious sanctions are strongly justified people.

Question 40.
Explain the role of Technology brought social change.
Answer:
Use of machines and technological tools are common in modem society. Scientific development and approach towards making life more convenient, help the growth of society Ogbum and Nimkoff remark that the Most novel phenomena in society is not capitalism but Mechanization. The role of technology can be discovered in the following ways:

1. Transport and communication:After 18th century, we see big changes in society due to industrialization, communication and transportation. Such development took place only because of growth in technology. As a result now modern technology has changed the joint family system and its relationships. Communication skills, transportation methods changed to such extent that today human world is called as “Global Village”.

2. Growth of classes: Industrialization leads to growth of urbanization. Industrialization brought opportunities for new professions. Youths are provided new jobs. Along with it new “Class” system developed in society. Society is classified as upper middle and lower class.

3. Agriculture: Changes in the agricultural technology directly influenced rural community invention of new agricultural tools and techniques’ chemical manures brought increase in agricultural production which influenced standard of living in village.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 41.
Define association explain it is charaeteristics.
Answer:
In day to day life, associations and institutions are used very commonly. Sometimes these words are used inter changeably to mean one and the same. But in Sociology these words have specific meaning

Definition of Association: According to E.S. Bogardus “Association is usually working together of people to achieve some common purpose”.
According to William P. Scott “An Association refer to a formal group organised for a specialised and specifically stated pupose”.

Characteristics of Association:
(a) Association – A Human Group: An association is formed by people. It is basically a social group. Without people there can be no association. However all groups are not associations. Because an association is basically an organized group. An unorganized ‘ group like a crowd or a mob cannot be an association.

(b) Specific Interest or Interests: An association is not only collection of individuals. But also consists of those individuals who have more or less the same interests. According those who have political interests may join political parties and those who have sports interest may join sports association and so on.

(c) Co-operative Spirit: An association is based on the co-operative spirit of its members. People work together to achieve common purpose. For example: Workers to work together on a co-operative basis in order to fulfill their objective of getting good working conditions.

(d) Organized Group: Association is not just a collection of individuals. It is an organized collections for some specific ends. Organization gives stability and proper shape to an association, organization refers to the way in which the status and roles are distributed among its members.

(e) Regulation of Relations: Every association has its own rules and regulation applicable to its members. These are called associational norms. Organization depends, on this elements of regulation. Association resorts to formal or informal means to regulate the relations of its members. For Example: Family through the institution of marriage controls the sexual behavior of its members, professional organization have formal norms to control members.

(f) Element of Stability : An association may be permanent or temporary. There are some long standing association like the political parties, trade union etc. Some associations may be purely temporary in nature, Example :Association that are established to felicitate some great writers, scientists and religious leaders.

Oxford dictionary air pollution means “The compounds that get mixed with the atmosphere causes dangerous effects on useful plants, animals and human begin

Causes for Air pollution: Man’s activities in the name of the modernization have damaged the living species. Man’s activities are also responsible for polluting air, causing dirt, dust and smoke. The Natural disasters like volcanic eruption, forest fire and bacteria also cause air pollution. Man has created industries, vehicles, atomic energy, excessive use of Petrol and other source of energy like Coal, and different types of mining also cause air pollution.

Water Pollution: Water is essential for all living things 2/3 portion on the earth is covered by water, 97.2% of water on earth is mixed with solids and rest 2.8% only is left for drinking purpose. Water pollution occurs in three different forms.

  1. Inland pollution.
  2. Underground pollution
  3. Sea pollution.

Causes for water pollution: Water pollution is due to many factors. Factory wastes, Houses hold wastes and water from agricultural land, all these contributions to water pollution. Biological contamination like gutter water, food processing factories, skin and hide processing factories, insecticides, drugs, various chemical colours contributes to water pollution.

Noise Pollution: Intolerable sound is considered as sound pollution, because intense sound result in physical and mental stress and also irritation. Sound pollution is also result due to various activities of human begins. Intensity of sound is measured in decibels while talking usual intensity of sound is 60 decibels.

Soil Pollution: The upper most layer of the earth is consisted of “soil” This soil layer is formed by the natural processes from millions of years. This layer supplies the necessary nutrients essential for the growth of the plants. The soil which feeds the plants is the reason for the existence of all biological system.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 42.
Examine the role played by different agents in socialization.
Answer:
Formal agencies
1. The School: School is also another important agent of socialization. Teachers in school play a decisive role in molding child’s personality. Since the family in itself is not fully equipped to prepare the child for adult roles, school has an important role to play. In the school the child gets his education which moulds his ideas and attitudes, school transmits not only required and knowledge but also important values such as cooperation, discipline, patriotism, friendship etc. it helps further development of intellectual, emotional and social development already begun in the family. It is a formal agency socializing the child authoritatively.

2. The Mass Media: The print and audio-visual means of communication have a great role to play in child’s socialization. Newspaper, magazine, text books, television etc., play a lucid role in transmitting culture from one generation to the other. The state may also use them deliberately to educate the mass. They may be used purposively to change the value system.

In tradition and simple societies the agencies of socialization are limited and harmonious in influencing the personality of the individual. In complex societies, however, they are many and diverse agencies, at time working at cross purposes.

3. State: The state plays an important role in socialization. It is an authoritarian agency. State makes laws for the people and lays down the modes of conduct expected of them. The people have to compulsorily obey these laws. The state has immense power at its command which helps the development of personality of an individual. This will help the individual to adjust with social situation. State makes arrangement to socialize people through the media and other means of communication. State teaches citizens to follow the rules of law and values. State motivates its citizens by rewarding for their achievements.

4. Informal agencies: The family is the first agency of socialization of the child. Physical hearness, close relationship, passivenass of the child authority of parents over the child etc., all have greather influence in moulding the personality of the child. In family parental influence, particularly of the mother is very great. From the parents the child learns language, the child gets his first lessons in cooperation tolerance, self-sacrifice, love and affection, etc., in the family

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